Joseph Vogel was born in New York, New York, on 9 November 1914, son of Julius and Rose (Fishman) Vogel. He was graduated from Dewitt Clinton High School in New York City, West Virginia University (Bachelor of Arts degree), and Laval University, Quebec Province, Canada, from which he received the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Doctor of Medicine. Prior to his Naval Service, he completed fourteen months of training at Lincoln Hospital, Department of Health, New York City.
Commissioned Lieutenant (junior grade) in the Medical Corps of the US Naval Reserve on 3 August 1942, he transferred to the Medical Corps of the US Navy in 1943, and was promoted as follows: Lieutenant, 1 May 1943; Lieutenant Commander, 3 October 1945; Commander, to date from 5 November 1945; and Captain, from 1 May 1956.
Reporting for active duty in August 1942, he served for a month as Junior Medical Officer at the Naval Training Station, Newport, Rhode Island, then joined USS Anne Arundel (APA-76) as Junior Medical Officer. In that transport attack vessel, he participated in the Invasion of North Africa (Algeria-Morocco landings) from 8 November to 11 November 1942. Upon his return to the United States in February 1943, he was ordered to the Naval Medical School, Bethesda, Maryland, where for two months he was a student. This was followed by instruction at the Deep Sea Diving School, Navy Yard, Washington, DC, from May through July 1943.
From September until her commissioning on 2 December 1943, he assisted in fitting out USS Euryale (AS-22), then served as Division Medical Officer and Squadron Medical Officer, attached to that submarine tender until August 1945, while she operated in Pacific Australian waters, repairing and refitting submarines of the Pacific Fleet, and establishing bases and rest camps, the latter at Manus and Guam Islands. After the war he was assigned to Surgical Service at the Naval Hospital, Brooklyn, New York, and remained there until September 1947.
He was next ordered to the Dispensary, Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor, T. H., where, until June 1949 he served as Division Officer; and as Medical Officer, Escape Training Tank, and Squadron Medical Officer. Transferring to the Atlantic, he had fourteen months’ duty as Squadron Medical Officer on the Staff of Commander Submarine Squadrons 2 and 8, of Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet. He reported in October 1950 to the Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, Station Hospital, to serve as Executive Officer and the Surgical Service, until June 1951, when he was again ordered to the Pacific.
For two years he was Squadron Medical Officer on the Staff of Commander Submarine Squadron 3, Pacific Fleet, with collateral duty as Flotilla ONE Medical Officer, and returning to the Atlantic Fleet, reported in August 1953 as Squadron Medical Officer on the Staff of Commander Submarine Squadron 10. From May 1956 through August 1956, Captain Vogel was Force Medical Officer on the staff of Commander Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet. On 21 September 1956, he was transferred to the Submarine Base, New London, for duty as Officer in Charge, Naval Medical Research Laboratory. In November 1956, he was certified in Occupational Medicine by the American Board of Preventive Medicine.
Captain Vogel had the American Campaign Medal; the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign medal, with operation star; the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal; the World War II Victory Medal; and the National Defense Service Medal.