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US Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1981-1990)

Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents

Peter M. Swartz with Karin Duggan

Image - various publication covers in a collage (Maritime Strategy Presentation, The Maritime Strategy, The Amphibious Warfare Strategy and Proceedings)

MISC D0026415.A1/Final
December 2011



CNA is a not-for-profit organization whose professional staff of over 700 provides in-depth analysis and results-oriented solutions to help government leaders choose the best courses of action. Founded in 1942, CNA operates the Institute for Public Research and the Center for Naval Analyses, the federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps.

CNA Strategic Studies (CSS), created in 2000, conducts high-quality research on and analysis of issues of strategic, regional, and policy importance. CSS' analyses are based on objective, rigorous examination and do not simply echo conventional wisdom. CSS provides analytic support to U.S. Government organizations and the governments of partner countries. CSS also maintains notable foundation-sponsored and self-initiated research programs. CSS includes a Strategic Initiatives Group, an International Affairs Group, and a Center for Stability and Development.

The Strategic Initiatives Group (SIG) looks at issues of U.S. national security, and military strategy, policy and operations, with a particular focus on maritime and naval aspects. SIG employs experts in historical analyses, futures planning, and long-term trend analysis based on scenario planning, to help key decision makers plan for the future. SIG specialties also include issues related to regional and global proliferation, deterrence theory, threat mitigation, and strategic planning for combating threats from weapons of mass destruction.

The Strategic Studies Division is led by Vice President and Director Dr. Eric V. Thompson, who is available at 703-824-2243 and on e-mail at The executive assistant to the Vice President and Director is Ms. Rebecca Martin, at 703-824-2604.

The principal author of this study thanks especially Karin Duggan for graphic assistance; Loretta Ebner for administrative assistance; Gregory Kaminski, Laurie Ann Lakatosh, and Rhea Stone for library assistance; and Dana Smith and Anwar Fry for production assistance. A full listing of substantive contributors can be found in Peter M. Swartz and Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts: Introduction and Background: Volume I, (D0026421.A1, December 2011). A full listing of all volumes in the CNA Navy Strategy series can be found on the inside back cover of this document.

Approved for distribution: December 2011

This document represents the best opinion of the author at the time of issue. It does not necessarily represent the opinion of the Department of the Navy.

Approved for public release. Distribution unlimited.

Copies of this document can be obtained through the Defense Technical Information Center at or contact CNA Document Control and Distribution Section at 703-824-2123.

Copyright 2012 CNA

This work was created in the performance of Federal Government Contract Number N00014-11-D-0323. Any copyright in this work is subject to the Government's Unlimited Rights license as defined in DFARS 252.227-7013 and/or DFARS 252.227-7014. The reproduction of this work for commercial purposes is strictly prohibited. Nongovernmental users may copy and distribute this document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this copyright notice is reproduced in all copies. Nongovernmental users may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies they make or distribute. Nongovernmental users may not accept compensation of any manner in exchange for copies. All other rights reserved.

Image - signature

Dr. W. Eugene Cobble, Jr.
Director, Strategic Initiatives Group


CNO ADM James Watkins (1982-1984) 2
CNO ADM Carlisle Trost (1986-1990) 3
The Maritime Strategy 5
The Maritime Strategy (SECRET brief)  
The Maritime Strategy (SECRET pub)  
The Amphibious Warfare Strategy (SECRET pub)  
The Maritime Strategy (SECRET pub revision)  
The Maritime Strategy (UNCLAS booklet)  
"Looking Beyond the Maritime Strategy" (UNCLAS article)  
The Maritime Strategy (SECRET pub revision)  
"Maritime Strategy for the 1990s" (UNCLAS article)  
Companion reference on USN 1980s documents 47

The Maritime Strategy (1982-90)

Signed by:
      CNO ADM James D. Watkins
      CNO ADM Carlisle A. H. Trost

Amphibious Warfare Strategy signed by:
      CNO ADM James D. Watkins
      CMC Gen Paul X. Kelley

"600-ship Navy" companion piece signed by:
      SECNAV John F. Lehman, Jr.

Image - signers


ADM James D. Watkins (CNO Jun 1982-Jun 1986)

Nov 1982 The Maritime Strategy (SECRET brief) (Unsigned)

May 1984 The Maritime Strategy (SECRET pub)

Jun 1985 The Amphibious Warfare Strategy (SECRET pub)

Nov 1985 The Maritime Strategy (SECRET pub rev.)

Jan 1986 The Maritime Strategy (UNCLAS US Naval Institute Proceedings insert)

Image - Admiral James D. Watkins addressing officers

1st Submariner CNO since ADM Nimitz (1945-7)

Served under President Reagan, SECDEF Weinberger, SECNAV Lehman

Had been CNO ADM Hayward's VCNO

The Maritime Strategy
      Developed by his flag officers & staff, in 1st 2 years in office
      During last 2 years, he embraced and used it, himself
      By end of his term, he considered it his chief legacy


Signature programs:
      Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
            Influential advocate at national policy level
      Navy OPTEMPO & PERSTEMPO rules

Became Bush administration Secretary of Energy (1989-93)

Biography: Frederick Hartmann, Naval Renaissance: The U.S. Navy in the 1980s (1990)

ADM Carlisle A. H. Trost (CNO Jul 1986-Jun 1990)

Jan 1987 "Looking Beyond the Maritime Strategy" (UNCLAS USNI Proceedings article)

Feb 1989 The Maritime Strategy (SECRET pub revised)

May 1990 "Maritime Strategy for the 1990s" (UNCLAS USNI Proceedings article)

Image - Admiral Trost and officers



Had been Olmsted Scholar (U of Freiburg)

Provided continuity; served during transitions:

Signature policy as CNO:
      Mobilizing & maintaining tough US government resistance to Soviet diplomatic offensive to impose limitations on USN through new naval arms control measures

Visited Soviet Union (Oct 1989)

Significant Navy program oversight and analysis experience (OP-96; OP-090)

Had participated in development of The Maritime Strategy as VADM (OP-090)

As CNO, endorsed staff & fleet initiatives to promulgate & test The Maritime Strategy

Sought at times to "bring the debate indoors"

Periodically tasked and signed out updated concepts, within original Maritime Strategy framework, including "the last word" in 1990


The Maritime Strategy (1982-90)


Signed by CNOs ADMs Watkins & Trost

Coordinated with SECNAVs & CMCs

Primary targets: Numerous, esp. USN officers, Soviets

Billed as a "strategy"

Drafted in OPNAV Strategic Concepts Branch (OP-603)

8+ SECRET, UNCLAS, & "higher classification" versions. Multi-media. Long documents & short articles.

Key idea: The U.S. Navy makes a strategic difference
      Across the Peace-Crisis-War spectrum
      In 3-phase global forward offensive campaign vs. Soviet Union, allies & clients, as part of joint, allied global war

Laid out uncertainties

Highly influential

What it was (I)

Billed as a "Strategy"
      US Naval Institute styled 1st UNCLAS version a "White Paper"

"Maritime component of national military strategy"

CNO ADM Watkins called it a "strategic vision" in his sidebar to his Proceedings article

Consolidation of existing thinking. Not a vision

Explanation of use of current forces

Told a story; provided a narrative


What it was (II)
      Published: Multi-media:
            1st 2 years: SECRET briefing (lingua franca of the Pentagon)
            Later: SCI, SECRET, UNCLAS briefings, pubs; US Naval Institute Proceedings, International Security, journal articles; book (Norman Friedman); video
            Included 8 successive CNO-signed official versions
               SECRET versions: 70 to 87 to 70 to 51 pages
                   Amphibious Warfare Strategy: 47 pages
               UNCLAS versions: 40 pages; then 4 & 9 pages
                   Central CNO Watkins article: 16 pages

Cited but not reprinted verbatim in annual CNO Reports ("posture statements")

A "work in progress" throughout its lifetime

Why it was written (I)
      To achieve consensus within Navy on USN rationale
      To show USN vital relevance to conflict with Soviets, primarily through forward, global, offensive, joint & allied naval operations, especially in Pacific, on European flanks, & against Soviet ocean bastions
      To deter Soviets through communicating to them USN capabilities & intentions
      To show fit between Reagan Administration national security policies & USN recommended strategy, especially to Congress
      To underpin arguments for the Reagan Administration "600-ship Navy" building program, especially CVNs
      To influence development of USN POMs and budgets


Why it was written (II)
      To incorporate new intelligence community view of Soviet naval capabilities & intentions
      To counter SECNAV Lehman arguments that USN officer corps had no strategy
      To educate the OPNAV staff on wider world of joint & USN intelligence, strategic plans & policy
      Driver for OP-06 AO drafters
      To vet fleet & CNO SSG operational & tactical-based inputs
      To identify & spur internal Navy addressal of "uncertainties"
      Primary targets: Numerous, but esp. USN officer corps

Context (I)
      CNOs ADMs Watkins (1982-86) & Trost (1986-90) (submariners)
      VCNO ADM Small (1981-3)
      USN ASW prowess peaked
      Agreed new US intelligence on Soviet Navy
      New systems & tactics entering fleet, especially AAW, ASW, ASUW, strike


Context (II)

CWC concept institutionalized in the fleet

Naval Strike Warfare Center ("Strike U") established at NAS Fallon (1984)

USN SEAD capabilities improved

Maritime Defense Zones created (1984)

Soviet submarines becoming progressively quieter

USN FLEXOPS deployment policy (1982-5)

USN OPTEMPO & PERSTEMPO goals (from 1986 on)

Context (III)

Navy Long Range Planners Conferences & unofficial "Navy Study Groups"

OP-00X (Long-Range Planning) created (1980)
      USN Long-Range Planners Conferences (1985-9)

Advanced Technology Panel (ATP) re-directed (1981)

SECNAV Lehman shut down OPNAV campaign analysis & Net Assessment efforts (1981)
      OP-96 (Systems Analysis) became OP-91 (Program Resource Appraisal)
      OPNAV Office of Net Assessment abolished


Context (IV)

NAVWARCOL Center for Naval Warfare Studies (CNWS) (created 1981)
      Director: Bob Murray

CNO ADM Hayward created Strategic Studies Group (SSG) under CNWS (1981)
      Director: Former UNDERSECNAV Bob Murray
            "To make captains of ships into captains of war"
      SCI access; well-funded & staffed
      SSG I SCI games yielded preferred USN CONOPs (1982)
            Defeat Soviets at sea, combined arms, attrite SSBNs
            Widely briefed to USN leadership

NWC Global War Games continued, expanded
      Focus on superpower war (through 1988)

Context (V)
      Context shifted during 1980s
            Phase I: 1981-1986
            Phase II: 1986-1988
            Phase III: 1988-1990
      The Maritime Strategy reflected these shifts
            1st, 2nd, 3rd, Amphibious, UNCLAS editions (1982-6)
            UNCLAS article (1987)
            4th edition, UNCLAS article (1989, 1990)


Context (VI): Phase I: Early 1980s (thru Jan 1986)

1st ed. Maritime Strategy (1982)
      Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty (1979)
      Formal USN Freedom of Navigation challenge ops (FONOPS) (from 1979)
      Increased USN visibility in late Carter Admin. defense plans, due to emerging salience of SWA (1979-81)
            Congress put CVN-71 into FY 80 budget (1979)
               President Carter did not veto this time
            "Carter Doctrine": US use of force in Gulf (1980)
            Desert One debacle (1980)
            New RDJTF included significant USN forces
      Polish "Solidarity" Crisis; martial rule (1980-81)
      US voters repudiated Carter administration (Nov 1980)

Context (VII): Phase I: Early 1980s (thru Jan 1986) (cont)

1st ed. Maritime Strategy (1982)
      New Reagan administration (1981-89)
               New SECDEF Weinberger
               New SECNAV Lehman (1981-87)
            Large defense budget increases; soaring U.S. gov't deficit spending
            Anti-Soviet policies, rhetoric
            UN Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (1982)
               President rejected LOS seabed mining terms; would not sign
      CNO ADM Hayward expanded OPNAV OP-095 mandate from ASW to encompass all Navy warfare areas (1980)
            Moved responsibility for naval warfare program planning from OP-96 to OP-095
            OP-96-led Naval Warfare CPAMs became OP-095-led Naval Warfare Appraisals (initially, for POM-83, in 1980)
            OP-96 retained responsibility for readiness, sustainability, supports CPAMs


Context (VIII): Phase I: Early 1980s (cont)

2nd & 3rd eds. Maritime Strategy (1984-5); UNCLAS ed. (Jan 1986)
      UK-Argentine Falklands War (Apr-Jun 1982)
            RN SSN sank Argentine cruiser
            Argentine air-launched anti-ship Exocet missile sank RN destroyer
      Small-scale real-world ops in Middle East & Caribbean
            Libya a/c shoot-down (1981); Grenada intervention (1983), Lebanon intervention (1982-3); Med hijacker force-down (1985); US assistance to Central American anti-communist forces
      Terrorist incidents
            Shiites destroyed USMC, French barracks in Beirut (1983)
            Covert Libyan mining of Red Sea choke points (1984-5)
            Hezbollah hijacked TWA flight. USN diver killed (1985)
            Libyans, PLF hijacked Achille Lauro cruise ship (1985)
      PRC hostility to Soviets; fear of Soviet amphibious invasion

Context (IX): Phase I: Early-1980s (cont)

US economy in recession; pulling out of from Nov 1982)

High U.S. government deficit spending

Reagan defense budget increases (1981-5); included 600-ship Battle Force goal

DON annual budgets, USN force levels rising
      USN in 1981: 490 battle force ships
      USN by 1987: 568 battle force ships

Some unfavorable Navy publicity (1985)
      "$600 toilet seat" acquisition scandal
            Item in question was actually entire shroud assembly for P-3 a/c
      Walker family Navy spy ring arrested for spying for Soviets
      Naval intelligence analyst Jonathan Pollard arrested for spying for Israel


Context (X): Phase I: Early-1980s (cont)

      President Reagan "Evil Empire" speech (Mar 1983)
      Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) (1983)
            CNO ADM Watkins, RADM Holland, CAPT Brooks, etc.
      US deployed GLCMs & IRBMs to Europe (1983)
            Triggered so-called Soviet Navy "analogous response" Delta II-class SSBNs deployed off US coasts (1984-7)
      Soviets shot down ROK civilian airliner KAL-007 (1983)
      Soviet "Able Archer" NATO exercise war scare (1983)
      President Reagan re-elected (1984)
      Push for increased US jointness
            Standup of USCENTCOM (1983), USSPACECOM (1985)
            USN vainly opposed all

Context (XI): Phase II: Mid-1980s (1986-8)

UNCLAS CNO ADM Trost Maritime Strategy article (1987)
      US economy growing
            But "Black Monday" US stock market crash (Oct 1987)
      Gorbachev became GS CPSU (1985)
      Reagan-Gorbachev Geneva summit meeting (Nov 1985)
      Reagan-Gorbachev Reykjavik summit meeting (Oct 1986)
            Failed to agree on arms control & SDI


Context (XII): Phase II: Mid-1980s (1986-8) (cont)

UNCLAS CNO ADM Trost Maritime Strategy article (1987)
      INF negotiations led to INF Treaty (1985-7)
            Eliminated all IRBMs & GLCMs on both sides
            1st nuclear agreement w/ intrusive inspections
      Reagan to Gorbachev: "Tear down this wall" (1987)
      Increased Soviet push for naval arms control agreements limiting US Navy
            Gorbachev "Murmansk Speech" pro-Arctic arms control (Oct 1987)
      PRC no longer feared Soviet invasion (from 1985)

Context (XIII): Phase II: Mid-1980s (1986-8) (cont)
      Continued small-scale real-world ops in Middle East
            Libya strikes (1986); Persian Gulf "Tanker War" ops (1984-8)
      USN force levels stable; DON budgets peaked (1985) & plateaued (1985-88)
            USN in 1987: 568 battle force ships (post-Vietnam War peak)
            USN in 1989: 565 battle force ships
      Push for increased US jointness continued
            Goldwater-Nichols Act 1986
            Standup of USSOCCOM & USTRANSCOM (1987)
            USN vainly opposed all
      Continued terrorist incidents
            Libyans bombed US-frequented Berlin disco (1986)
      Iran-Contra Affair: NSA VADM Poindexter resigned (1986)
      Commander, US Third Fleet shifted flag from ashore HQ to USS Coronado (AGF 11) (1986)
      USN 6-month routine forward deployment length rule imposed (1986)


Context (XIV): Phase III: Late-1980s (1988-90)

4th ed. Maritime Strategy (1989)

UNCLAS Maritime Strategy article (1990)
      George H.W. Bush elected president (Nov 1988)
            New administration (Jan 1989)
      Rapid SECNAV turnovers
            John Lehman (resigned 1987)
            James Webb (1987-88)
               Resigned to protest SECDEF Navy force level cuts & de facto abandonment of 600-Ship Navy goal
            Will Ball (1988-89)
            Lawrence Garrett (1989-92)

Context (XV): Phase III: Late-1980s (1988-90) (cont)

      Soaring U.S. government deficit spending
      US Navy force levels, DON annual budgets dropping
            USN in 1989: 566 battle force ships
            USN in 1990: 547 battle force ships
      Continued small-scale real-world ops
            "Tanker War" (1984-8); Libya a/c shoot-down (1989); Panama intervention (1989-90); Liberia embassy protection, NEO(1990)
            Soviet Navy warships bumped USN FONOPS warships in Black Sea (1988)

      International Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts (SUA) against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (1988)


Context (XVI): Phase III: Late-1980s (1988-90) (cont)

      Continued Soviet push for naval arms control agreements limiting USN
      Continued terrorist attacks
            Naples USO bombing. USN sailor killed (1988)
            Libyans bombed PANAM flight over Scotland (1988)
            Arab terror attack on cruise ship south of Athens (1988)
      Spate of unfavorable USN publicity
            USS Vincennes (CG-49) shoot-down of Iranian airliner (1988)
            Former National Security Advisor VADM John Poindexter USN indicted for role in Iran-Contra Affair (1988)
            USS Iowa (BB-61) turret explosion, investigation (1989)
            US Naval Academy sexual harassment scandal (1989)
                Female midshipman chained to a urinal

Context (XVII): Phase III: Late-1980s (cont)

      PLA occupied some Spratly Islands; PLAN defeated Vietnamese Navy in South China Sea battle (1988)
      Soviet retreat from Afghanistan (1988-9)
      Non-Communist government in Poland (1989)
      PLAN deployed 1st SSBN, launched 1st SLBM (1988)
      PRC Tiananmen Square massacre (Jun 1989)
            US suspended all arms sales and military contacts with China
      US, Soviets agree to avoid future Black Sea FON incidents (Sep 1989)
      CNO ADM Trost visited Soviet Union (Oct 1989)
      Berlin Wall down (Nov 1989)
      Operation Just Cause (Panama) (1989-90)
      Bush-Gorbachev at-sea "Malta Summit" (Dec 1989)
      CFE Treaty signed; Germany reunified (1990)


Cited references (I)      Alliances & treaties
      US Reply to NATO Defense Planning Questionnaire (DPQ)
      NATO CONMAROPS (1981, 1985, 1988)
      Title 10 of the U.S. Code
      National Security Decision Directives (NSDDs)
            NSDD-32 U.S. National Security Strategy(Mar 1982)
               Superseded PD 18 US National Strategy (Aug 1977)
      NIE 11-15-82/D Soviet Naval Strategy (Mar 1983)
      NIE 11-15-89 Soviet Naval Strategy and Programs toward the 21st Century (Jun 1989)

Cited references (II)

      Defense Guidance (DG)
      Joint Strategic Planning Document (JSPD)
      Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP)
      Unified & specified commander (CINC) plans
      CNO-CSAF MOA (1982)
      CNO-CCG MOA (MARDEZ) (1984)
      CSA-CSAF MOA (1985)
      Escort Requirements Study (1982)

Included annotated bibliography (1986)


Context: Other contemporary publications (I)

      NATO MC 14/3 Overall Strategic Concept for the Defense of the NATO Area (1968)
            NATO MC 48/3 Measures to Implement the Strategic Concept for the Defense of the NATO Area (1969)
      Flexible response
      Robert Komer et al., Alliance Defense in the 1980s (RAND) (Nov 1976)
      NSDM 344 "Navy Shipbuilding Program" (1977)
      Last Carter Administration budget (1981)
            Turnaround: Call for strong carrier strike force (for SWA)
      President Reagan "Evil Empire" speech (Mar 1983)
      DOD Dir 5100.1 Functions of the Department of Defense and its Major Components (Successive editions: Jan 1980, Apr 1987, Sep 1987)

Context: Other contemporary publications (II)

      Stockholm Agreement (CSBMs) (1986)
            Included naval CSBMs when linked to ground ops
            Superseded by Vienna Document (1990)
      US-USSR Dangerous Military Activities (DMA) Agreement (1989)
      1st Reagan National Security Strategy (1987)
      2nd Reagan National Security Strategy (1988)
      NIE 11-15-84/D Soviet Naval Strategy and Programs through the 1990s (Mar 1985)


Context: Other contemporary publications (III)

      New SECDEF Planning Guidance for Contingency Planning (1980+)
      SECDEF "Weinberger Doctrine" of "Full Force" (1984)
            6 requirements to be met before US forces committed
            Major contributions by Military Assistant LTG Colin Powell USA
            Reaction to disastrous USMC intervention in Lebanon (1983)
      Forces for Unified Commands memorandum (Feb 1987)
      JCS Pub 26 Joint Doctrine for Counter Operations (includes JFACC) (1986)
      CINC & Navy component plans & CONOPS
      ADM Long PACOM Campaign Plan (1982)
      CINC CONOPS briefs to CJCS GEN Vessey (1982)
      Ikle, Holloway et al, Discriminate Deterrence (1988)
      DOD, Soviet Military Power (10 editions, 1981-1991)

Context: Other contemporary publications (IV)

      Project SIXTY (1970)
      NWP 1 (1978)
      Sea Plan 2000 (1978)
      "The Future of US Sea Power" (1979)
      SECNAV John Lehman, "Rebirth of U.S. Naval Strategy," Strategic Review (Summer 1981)
      Other SECNAV Lehman speeches interviews, articles, testimony (1981+)
      Strategic Studies Group (SSG) reports & briefings (1982-89)
            Esp. Owens-Cebrowski SSG I game brief (1982)
      DON, Lessons of the Falklands (1983)
      "DON Lift 1" & "DON Lift 2" studies (1983, 1990)


Context: Other contemporary publications (V)

      CSFL/C2F/CJTF 120 "Fighting Instructions" (1982-89)
      CINCPACFLT & other fleet "Fighting Instructions"
      CNA studies
            Soviet Navy policy, strategy & doctrine studies
               E.g.: Jamie McConnell, "Strategy & Missions of the Soviet Navy" (1978)
            Outer Air Battle study (1981-3)
            Northern Region Warfare Assessments campaign analyses (1983)
            USN presence & responses to crises studies
            USN outer air battle studies
            Offensive Mining Study
      ADM Gorshkov, Sea Power of the State (English translation) (1979)
      Navy Strategic Planning Experiment (NSPE) "Maritime Balance Study" (1979)
      David Rosenberg, Historical Perspectives in Long-Range Planning in the Navy (1980)

Context: Other contemporary publications (VI)

      FM 1-1 Basic Aerospace Doctrine of the United States Air Force (1984)
      JCS Pub 26 "Joint Doctrine for Theater Counterair Operations (from Overseas Land Areas)" (1986)
      Omnibus Agreement for Command and Control of Marine TacAir in Sustained Operations Ashore (1986)
      Col John Warden, The Air Campaign (1988)
      US Army FM 100-5 Operations (1982, 1986) (AirLand Battle)
      USMC, Small Wars Manual (reprint of 1940 ed.) (1987)
      FMFM 1 Warfighting (1989)


Context: Other contemporary publications (VII)
      Paul Nitze et al., Securing the Seas (1979)
      RADM (Ret) Henry Eccles, Military Power in a Free Society (1979)
      OSD/NA Navy Strategic Planning Experiment "Maritime Balance study" (1979)
      J. A. Williams, "Strategies & Forces of the USN" (1981)
      Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave (1980)
      Alva Bowen, Ron O'Rourke CRS reports

Context: Other contemporary publications (VIII)

      Gen Sir John Hackett
            The Third World War, August 1985 (1978)
            The Third World War, The Untold Story (1982)
      Tom Clancy
            The Hunt for Red October (1984)
            Red Storm Rising (1986)
      Movie "Top Gun" (1986)
      Cher, USS Missouri (BB-63) music video "If I Could Turn Back Time" (1989)


Context: Other contemporary publications (IX)

      Col John Boyd, briefings on defense reform, maneuver warfare, OODA Loop (1980s)
      James Fallows, National Defense (1981)
      Barry Posen, The Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain and Germany Between the World Wars (1984)
      COL Harry Summers, On Strategy (1982)
      Bill Lind, The Manoeuvre Warfare Handbook (1985)
      Carl Builder, Army in the Strategic Planning Process (1986)
            Will become Masks of War (1989)
      SEN Gary Hart & Bill Lind, America Can Win: The Case for Military Reform (1986)

Context: Other contemporary publications (X)

      Graham Allison, Essence of Decision (1971)
      Morton Halperin et al., Bureaucratic Politics and Foreign Policy (1974)
      ADM (Ret) Elmo R. Zumwalt Jr., On Watch (1976)
      Barry Blechman & Stephen Kaplan, Force without War (1978)
      CAPT Wayne Hughes, Fleet Tactics (1986)
      Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (1987)
      RADM Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Problem of Asia and its Effect upon International Politics (1900)


How it was written (I)

      An organic process. No master POA&M
      Socialization throughout Navy staffs of "Sea Strike," Sea Plan 2000, ADM Hayward strategy, SSG I briefings, new intelligence assessments, Global War Game insights, new PACOM/PACFLT & LANTCOM/LANTFLT warfighting concepts, etc. (1978-82)
            Initial SECNAV Lehman pronouncements on strategy (1981-2)
            "Strategy...had to be my business"
            "Strategy is the logical set of allocations and priorities that guide how the Navy Department spends its money and trains its people"
            "Hail the Return of Strategy" speech (NAVWARCOL 1981)

How it was written (II)

      ENS David Rosenberg USNR Project SIXTY analysis for CDR Harlan Ullman (OP-965) (Jul 1982)
            Showed utility of such a document
      VCNO ADM Bill Small Aug 1982 tasker: A document to kick off/ inform OPNAV POM-85 force structure decisions
      Based on "Bottom-up" fleet inputs: ADMs Long/ Hayward/ Train PACOM/PACFLT & LANTCOM/LANTFLT war plan concepts of operations
      CNO ADM Watkins initially a customer, not an author
      Personalities (& interactions): Many (West, Hayward, Train, Long, Lehman, Murray, Inman, Haver, Hay, Watkins, Small, Ullman, Moreau, Lyons, Mustin, Larson, Pendley, etc.)


How it was written (III)

      "Hand-picked" OPNAV Strategy & Concepts Branch (OP-603) drafted & briefed successive unsigned SECRET briefings, revisions (Fall 1982 through Fall 1983), to lead POM-85 & -86 development discussions
      Widely vetted. Inputs:
            Existing CINC & NCC OPLAN & CONPLAN CONOPs
            Intel community, SSGs 1 & 2, NWC Global War Games
            Fleet experience & inputs: Operations, exercises, advanced trng
            CNA: Analyses, tactics, Sovietology
            Perception management: Bill Manthorpe
            OPNAV OP-095 (To ensure "fit" with POM development)
      Formal CNO-signed SECRET document finally gelled by May 1984 4

How it was written (IV)

      Debated in unofficial DC-area "Navy Study Group" (1983-5) convened by CDR Jim Stark (Ph.D. Fletcher)
      Various UNCLAS briefs, articles written in 1985
      Naval War College UNCLAS Maritime Strategy seminar with proponents & leading academic critics (Apr 1985)
            Esp. CAPT Linton Brooks (pro); Dr. John Mearsheimer (con)
      CNO ADM Watkins tasked OP-00K to draft UNCLAS version (published Jan 1986)
      CNO ADM Watkins announced drafting of UNCLAS version at International Seapower Symposium (ISS) in Newport RI (Nov 1985)
      Anti-SSBN ops, rationale not explicit until CNO ADM Watkins decision Dec 1985


How it was written (V)

      Efforts at higher levels of classification
      Spin-off strategies drafted
      Strategy conferences with USA & USAF
      USN-initiated strategy officer exchange w/ USA, USAF
      Semi-official history published
      Annotated bibliography tracked & debated issues
      Related unofficial outside publications actively encouraged

How it was written: Drafters (I)

      Initial Nov 1982 SECRET brief to kick off POM-85 development

Principal drafters:

CDR Spence Johnson
  (Fletcher MA);
LCDR Stan Weeks
  (American U Ph.D.)
Inputs from

CAPT Bill Manthorpe

  (Ex-Net Assess/; GWU MA)
CDR Ken McGruther
Branch Head oversight

  (SSG staff; Brown U MA)
CAPT Bill Garrett
  (SAIS Ph.D.)
CAPT Betsy Wylie
  (Fletcher Ph.D.)
Later enhancements

CDR Tom Marfiak
  (Fletcher MA)


How it was written: Drafters (II)

      May 1984 SECRET Pub

Principal drafters:

CAPT Roger Barnett
  (USC Ph.D.)
CDR Peter Swartz
  (SAIS, Columbia MAs)
Assist from

CDR Jim Stark
  (Fletcher Ph.D.)
  (Sea Plan 2000 team)
Inputs from SSGs, fleets, Intel, etc.
Intentionally eye-catching bright yellow cover

How it was written: Drafters (III)

       Principal drafters:

May 1985 SECRET CAPT Larry Seaquist
Amphibious Warfare Strategy Col Phil Harrington
(Roots in SSG effort)
Nov 1985 SECRET Pub CAPT Larry Seaquist
Rev CDR T. Wood Parker


How it was written: Drafters (IV)       Principal drafters:

Jan 1986


UNCLAS Booklet

CNO Watkins text:
- CAPT Linton Brooks
- CDR Robby Harris
CMC Kelley & O'Donnell
- Maj Hugh O'Donnell
SECNAV Lehman text
- Dr. Harvey Sicherman
- CAPT Peter Swartz
Artwork, photos, captions:
- CAPT Peter Swartz
- Fred Rainbow
(Naval Institute Proceedings

How it was written: Drafters (V)

      Principal drafters:
            Jan 1987   UNCLAS article   CNO OP-00K staff
            Feb 1989   SECRET Pub rev.   CDR Mitch Brown
               CNO Trost tasker directed rewrite   (OP-603)
            May 1990   UNCLAS article   CNO OP-00K staff

      All 3 UNCLAS versions professionally edited by US Naval Institute Proceedings staff

      Classified naval special warfare strategy - nicknamed "SEALSTRAT" - also drafted & signed

      Unsigned "LOGSTRAT" effort also undertaken


How it was written: USN-USMC coordination (I)

SSG included USMC members from the start
HQMC staff officers LtCol Tom Wilkerson USMC & Maj Tony Wood USMC actively participated in drafting early SECRET versions
Col Phil Harrington USMC wrote The Amphibious Warfare Strategy (SECRET) with CAPT Seaquist
CNO ADM Watkins & CMC Gen Kelley signed SECRET Amphibious Warfare Strategy (1985)
  Maj Hugh O'Donnell USMC published 1st real UNCLAS discussion of The Maritime Strategy, in US Naval Institute Proceedings (Sep 1985)

How it was written: USN-USMC coordination (II)

CMC Gen P.X. Kelley & Maj Hugh O'Donnell co-signed UNCLAS "Amphibious Warfare Strategy" article in Jan 1986 US Naval Institute Proceedings booklet, following CNO ADM Watkins "Maritime Strategy" article
CMC Al Gray, PP&O LtGen Carl Mundy inputted, chopped on 1989 SECRET version, signed by CNO ADM Carl Trost

OP-603 incl/ USMC (& USA & USAF) AOs in mid-late 1980s

USCG inputs sought & used

Via USCG AO assigned to OPNAV OP-60 staff
COMDT COGARD not directly involved


How it was written: Semi-official documents (I)
      Swartz annotated bibliographies (1986, 1987, 1988, 2004)
      VADM Hank Mustin, "The Role of the Navy and Marines in the Norwegian Sea," (Mar-Apr 1986 NWCR article)
      "600-Ship Navy & The Maritime Strategy" (1986 HASC print)
            3-part presentation: Strategy; 600-Ship Navy; Affordability
      CAPT Linton Brooks, "Naval Power and National Security" (Fall 1986 International Security article)

Image - Covers of monographs

How it was written: Semi-official documents (II)

      CAPT Tom Daly, CDR Al Myers, CDR Chris McMurray, "The Maritime Strategy" (1986 UNCLAS CHINFO video)
      RADM Bill Pendley, "Comment & Discussion: The Maritime Strategy," Jun 1986 US Naval Institute Proceedings letter
      Ellmann Ellingsen, ed. NATO and US Maritime Strategy (1987 edited book)
      CAPT Linton Brooks, "The Nuclear Maritime Strategy," (Apr 1987 US Naval Institute Proceedings article)
      RADM Bill Pendley, "The U.S. Navy, Forward Defense, & Air-Land Battle" (1988 book chapter)

Image - Covers of monographs


How it was written: Semi-official documents (III)
      Norman Friedman, The US Maritime Strategy (1988 book)
      John Lehman, Command of the Seas: Building the 600-Ship Navy (1988 book)
      John Hattendorf, "The Evolution of the Maritime Strategy" (Summer 1988 NWCR article; SECRET study)
      Fred Hartmann, Naval Renaissance: The U.S. Navy in the 1980s (1990 book)

Image - Covers of monographs

Activity at higher levels of classification (I)
      New intelligence community views of Soviet Navy concepts & intentions
            DDCI VADM Inman
            DNIs RADMs Shapiro, Butts, Brooks
            Rich Haver
            New NIEs on Soviet Navy; downgraded to SECRET in 1983
      VCNO efforts (ADM William Small & successors)
      DNI & DNW (OP-095) efforts (RADM Shapiro & VADM McKee & successors)
      OP-009J (Rich Haver et al.) & OP-095 "Team Charlie" (Alf Andreassen et al.) efforts (from 1980)


Activity at higher levels of classification (II)
      Advanced Technology Panel (ATP) (1975-1990)
            Pre-1981: Assessments of specific threats & programs
            Post-1981: Discussion of broad policy issues
               E.g.: SSBN security, anti-SSBN & maritime campaigns, value of EW, perception management & technology transfer
      Senior flags "Board of Directors" under VCNO ADM Small & successors (from 1981)
      ATP Rump: Principal sub-panel (from 1981)
      ATP Soviet strategy study group (from 1982)
      ATP Working Group (from 1984)
            CAPT Linton Brooks et al.
       War gaming support

Activity at higher levels of classification (III)

      NAVWARCOL Newport war gaming support
            ONI Det NFOIO-05 (from 1977)
      CNO Strategic Studies Group (SSG) access (from 1981)
      War Plans changes
      CAPT (Ret) Bill Manthorpe as liaison with Navy SECRET & UNCLAS Maritime Strategy efforts, prior to 1985
      OP-603 direct participation in ATP from 1985 on (CAPT Seaquist (prior access through SSG))


OPNAV officers actively encouraged related unofficial outside publications
      Michael Palmer, Origins of the Maritime Strategy (1988)
      John Hattendorf (ed), RADM J.C. Wylie, Military Strategy: A General Theory of Power Control (1989)
      Colin Gray & CAPT (Ret) Roger Barnett, Seapower and Strategy (1989)
      Eric Grove, Battle for the Fiords: NATO's Forward Maritime Strategy in Action (1991)
      Edward S. Miller, War Plan Orange: the U.S. Strategy to Defeat Japan (1991)

Sought to build a supportive literature on US naval strategy

Outline (UNCLAS 1986 "White paper")
      "The Maritime Strategy" (CNO ADM Watkins article)
            National Military Strategy and the Maritime Role The Era of Violent Peace
            Soviet Military Strategy
            The Maritime Strategy: Peacetime Presence
            The Maritime Strategy: Crisis Response
            The Maritime Strategy: Warfighting
            Maritime Strategy and War Termination
            Executing the Maritime Strategy


Key ideas (I)
      Maritime component of national military strategy Consolidate & organize existing USN views
      Peace, crises, war, war termination
            Not just warfighting. "Violent Peace"
            Peace-crises-war spectrum borrowed from Sea Plan 2000
      Explained how USN would actually be used in war Global, forward, joint, combined offensive ops vs.
      Soviet Union, allies & clients
            Not just vs. Soviet Navy
            3 phases. Horizontal escalation options
      US naval operations "make the strategic difference"

Key ideas (II)
      ADM Turner's terms used as vocabulary, not as a framework
      Sea control a secondary means. Power projection the primary means
            But priority to ASW (in 1987)
      Adopted NWP 1 warfare tasks vocabulary: AAW, ASW, etc.
            Explicit & deliberate use as organizing concept: 1984-6
            Fit with OPNAV "warfare appraisal" programming process
            Fit with fleet CWC warfighting concept
            Implicit primacy of strike warfare
      Showed global campaign, with geography & sequence
      Told a "story" provided a "narrative"


Key ideas (III)
      USN officers should think deeply about their service
      Rooted in current force levels, not future plans, programs or visions
      Very joint (coordinated, not integrated); very allied
      Included discussion of "uncertainties"
      Consideration of USN strategy should be integrated into annual OPNAV POM development process

Key ideas (IV)
      Future war with Soviets the central planning case
            Reflected war planning & fleet exercises
            USN Pacific posture to attack Soviets, influence China role
               Pacific region priority increased in 1989
            Soviet bastions attacked to eliminate planned Soviet SSBN strategic reserves, alter "correlation of forces"
      IAW new agreed intelligence on Soviets
            Deep intelligence penetration of Soviets
      Management of Soviet perceptions
            Signaled that USN knew how they planned to fight, & would deal with it
      Increasing recognition of important non-Soviet threats (1986-90)


Key ideas (V)
      Showed how all the players might play
            USN LANT-MED-PAC-IO-CARIB forces
            USN above-the-line & below-the-line forces
            Sealift and pre-positioning forces
            USMC & USCG
            USAF & USA
            Allied & friendly navies and other armed forces
            "Neutrals" (like China)
      Showed how new kinds of force packages might play
            BBSAGs, MARDEZs, MPSRONs

Key ideas (VI)
      Some discussion of "littoral" operations
            Only in The Amphibious Warfare Strategy (1985)
            Cited as a US Army responsibility (1984-5)
      FLEXOPS policy optimized & balanced peacetime forward deployment scheduling (1984-5)
      Naval forces prevent major global war through controlling crises & containing limited wars (from 1985)
      Incorporated USMC OTH & pre-positioning concepts


Key ideas (VII)
      "Sealift" as "3rd primary mission of the Navy" (1986)
            Along with "sea control" and "power projection"
      Sealift given ample coverage in slides & text
       But...implications of The Maritime Strategy:
            Soviets to be held at bay well north of SLOCs
            Downgraded anticipated Soviet threat to SLOCs
            Reduced perceived need for replacements for attrited merchant shipping
            Dovetailed with Reagan Administration policies to avoid subsidizing the US civilian Merchant Marine

Key ideas (VIII)
      3 principles of naval strategy (1990)
            Forward deployment



Image - Chart

Was not:
      USN go-it-alone
      Blue-water, open ocean, sea control focused
      Only about war fighting
      Single CVBG operations only
      The product of a carefully orchestrated CHINFO campaign
      Solely the product of SECNAV Lehman
      Merely an ex post facto justification for the 600-ship Navy
      Without significant USMC or USCG input
      Unconnected to national strategy


These later characterizations based on:
      Not actually having read it (or Hattendorf book) or Reagan National Security Strategy
      Perception that any single-service product must be an argument at the expense of the other services and the joint commanders
      Simultaneous strong & public SECNAV & Navy anti-Goldwater-Nichols stance
      Perceived need by later naval strategists to characterize earlier efforts as obsolete
      USMC 1990s agenda to emphasize non-global-war nature of USMC capabilities & operations

What was new? (I)
      Integration of anti-SSBN campaign & all other naval campaigns into a coherent conceptual whole
      Public discussion of anti-SSBN campaign (from 1986 on)
      Mention of forward peacetime submarine intelligence-gathering operations (in 1989)
      Centrality of far forward campaigns vs. Soviets & downgrading of mid-ocean operations, in light of new intelligence community view of Soviet capabilities & intentions
      Mention of naval arms control (if only in passing)
            As a Soviet agenda
            Only in 1989-90
      Mention of forward peacetime submarine intelligence-gathering operations (in 1989)


What was new? (II)
            US Coast Guard (from 1984 on)
            Sealift (from 1984 on)
            Allied & friendly land-based TACAIR (from 1984 on)
      Wartime US coastal defense (from 1984 on)
      Terrorism as a threat (from 1984 on)
      Fanatics & insurgents as threats (1987)
      Drug trafficking as a threat (from 1989 on)
      Non-state actions as a threat category (from 1989 on)
      Humanitarian support ops mentioned (in passing) as a US naval capability (1989)
      "Non-state actions" mentioned as a threat (1989)

What was new? (III)
      Comprehensive drawing together of many previous & current campaign strands
      Versions signed by 2 CNOs in a row
      Formal place for strategy presentation & debate in Navy PPBS system ("Maritime Strategy CPAM")
      Multimedia effort
      Tracking the debate on the strategy, to help ascertain effects
      Recording the history of its development, to help capture lessons learned


Not addressed
      Sea-based ballistic missile defense Counterinsurgency, irregular warfare, anti-piracy ops
      Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
      Homeland defense besides in US coastal waters
      Maritime security, interdiction, interception ops
      US Navy as an "enabling" force for other services
      US Navy operations in the "littorals"
      Littorals only seen as areas of USMC & Army interest

Didn't anticipate 1991 USSR collapse, Gulf War

Barely addressed
      Naval arms control (only 1989 & 1990, in passing)
      Blockade (only 1989 & 1990, in passing)
      Major regional contingencies US gov't inter-agency partners
      "Non-state actions" (1st mentioned in 1989)
      Convoy operations
            Discussed in 1st several editions
            No mention after 1986
      "Force-in-being" or "fleet-in-being"


Trends across versions

      Increased discussion & integration of all elements and gelling of format -between MS I (1982) & MS II (1984)
      General similarity of approach in MS II, Amphibious Warfare Strategy, & UNCLAS "White Paper" (1984-6)
      More attention to non-Soviet threats and responses, more focus on USN, more focus on Pacific, more focus on ASW, divergences from 1984-86 format (1987-1990)
      All versions, through last article (1990), focused on Soviet threat

Generated fierce open debates on:
      Utility of naval forces across the spectrum of warfare
      Optimal SLOC defense operations, doctrine, TTP
      Horizontal escalation
      Deterrence vs. provocation
      Efficacy of attacks on Soviet homeland, strategic forces
      Nuclear stability
      Role of USN & USMC Pacific & Indian Ocean forces
      Resource allocations to USN/USMC vice USAF/USA
      Internal DON programmatic & budget implications of the strategy


Was it a "strategy"?
      What is "strategy" (officially)?
            "A prudent idea or set of ideas for employing the instruments of national power in a synchronized and integrated fashion to achieve theater, national, and/or multinational objectives"
               Joint Pub 1-02 DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Oct 2008)
      What is "naval strategy" (officially):
            "The use of naval forces (including naval aviation and Marine forces) to achieve naval objectives determined by national strategy, with the overall objective of controlling the seas and denying to an enemy the use of those sea areas important to enemy operations"
               NTRP 1 -02 Navy Supplement to the DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Aug 2006)

Subsequent analyses & critiques (I)
      ADM (Ret) Stansfield Turner (Ret) & CAPT George Thibault, "Preparing for the Unexpected: The Need for a New Military Strategy," (Foreign Affairs, Fall 1982)
      Barry Posen, "Inadvertent Nuclear War? Escalation & NATO's Northern Flank," International Security (Fall 1982)
      Robert Komer, Maritime Strategy or Coalition Defense (1984)
      Keith Dunn, COL Bill Staudenmeier, "Strategic Implications of the Continental-Maritime Debate" (CSIS, 1984)
      F.J. "Bing" West, "Maritime Strategy & NATO Deterrence," Naval War College Review (Sep-Oct 1985)


Subsequent analyses & critiques (II)
      John Mearsheimer, "A Strategic Misstep: The Maritime Strategy and Deterrence in Europe" (International Security, Fall 1986)
      Colin Gray, Maritime Strategy, Geopolitics and the Defense of the West (1986)
      William W. Kaufmann, Annual broadside booklets vs. the Navy & The Maritime Strategy (Brookings, 1980s)
      Eric Grove, Battle for the Fiords: NATO's Forward Maritime Strategy in Action (1991)
      CAPTs (Ret) John Byron & Peter Swartz, "Make the Word Become the Vision," US Naval Institute Proceedings (Nov 1992)

Subsequent analyses & critiques (III)
      A vast literature. This is a sampling
            David Rosenberg, "Process: The Realities of Formulating Modern Naval Strategy," in Goldrick & Hattendorf (eds.), Mahan is Not Enough (1993)
            Bud Hay & Bob Gile, Global War Game: The First Five Years (1993)
            George Baer, One Hundred Years of Sea Power (1993)
            John Hattendorf, Evolution of the U.S. Navy's Maritime Strategy, 1977-1986 (2004)
            Robert Gile, Global War Game: Second Series, 1984-1988 (2004)
            Christopher Ford & David Rosenberg, The Admirals' Advantage: U.S. Navy Operational Intelligence in World War II and the Cold War (2005)


Subsequent analyses & critiques (IV)
      "The Cold War at Sea: An International Appraisal," Journal of Strategic Studies: "Special Issue" (Apr 2005)
      CAPT (Ret) Peter Swartz, "Meeting the Chinese Naval Challenge: Lessons from the 1980s," in Andrew Erickson et al., China's Future Nuclear Submarine Force (2007)
      Toshi Yoshihara and James R. Holmes, Red Star Over the Pacific: China's Rise and the Challenges to U. S. Maritime Security (2010)
      CAPT Peter Haynes, "American Naval Thinking in the Post-Cold War Era: The U.S. Navy and the Emergence of Maritime Strategy, 1989-2007" (Ph.D. dissertation: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey (Dec 2011))
      Criticisms (I)
      Un-executable. It couldn't be done & wouldn't work
      Dangerously escalatory by threatening Soviet SSBNs
      A major change in national and NATO policy & strategy
      Irrelevant, wasteful and unnecessary
            "We're never going to fight the Russians"
            "If we do fight them, sea campaigns won't make any difference"
      Took needed resources away from the NATO Central Region air and ground battles
      Not the Navy's business to develop its own strategy
      Same old stuff: not visionary or innovative
            Excessively "Mahanian" focus on the offensive
      Not best way to achieve SLOC protection


Criticisms (II)
      Too specific & detailed
      Too general; not enough detail
      Too sensitive; gave too much away to the Soviets on how USN would act
      Promulgating the strategy needlessly called negative attention to the Navy and invited criticism
      Developed subsequent to the Navy force level goal it allegedly justified
      USN focus should be on emerging real-world demand signal for naval forces for SWA and the IO, not the NATO-Warsaw Pact War planning case
      At the end, unwilling to recognize quickly enough that the Soviet Union was no longer a superpower or a threat
      Should have been a co-developed & co-signed bi-service Navy-Marine Corps document

Influence: Significant

Within the Navy & USMC Fleet exercises
W. House, OSD, Joint Staff Global War Games
US Army & US Air Force CNO SSG
Soviets JSPS pubs, esp JSCP
Allied navies & militaries Joint, CINC, NCC staff
Allied parliaments OPLANs & CONPLANs
US, foreign academia USN tactical innovations<
Capitol Hill USN morale
US defense industry Naval education, esp NPS
Programs & acquisition DOTMLPF re: forward ops


Influence overseas
      By design
      Led to CNO Coalition Strategy Enhancement Program (CSEP) (1988)
            The Maritime Strategy as centerpiece for bilateral naval discussions & war games w/foreign navies
            CSEP OPNAVINST drafter was OPNAV OP-603 Maritime Strategy AO (CDR Mitch Brown)

Continuing influence overseas
      E.g.: referenced in:
            Adjusting Course: A Naval Strategy for Canada (1997)
            Freedom to Use the Seas: India's Maritime Military Strategy (2007)

Why so influential? (I)
      Truly achieved internal USN consensus as rationale for USN
      Well-aligned with national defense policies
      Well-aligned with USN & USMC strategic cultures
      Filled a need for clarity and consolidation of thinking
      Major involvement, ownership & support by SECNAV, Navy Flags, SSG, OP-06
      USN confidence & eagerness to debate
      Created by consensus-building approach
      Argued for build-up of naval forces of all types
      Presented to Congress as tied to 600-ship Navy & USN affordability programs


Why so influential? (II)
      Embedded firmly within Navy internal PPBS processes (CPAMs)
            Smooth segue from Planning (OP-06-led Maritime Strategy CPAM) to Program Planning (OP-095-led Warfare Appraisals and Summary Warfare Appraisals)
      Good fit with how fleet thought about warfighting (CWC) * Good fit with Navy doctrine (NWP 1 warfare areas)
      Reflected in changing fleet ops & exercise program
      Official history, annotated bibliography conveyed breadth, depth, legitimacy, openness to criticism
      Constructively exposed alignment issues among CINCs, NCCs, fleets, SUBFORs
      Multi-media approach to dissemination

Why so influential? (III)
      Conscious efforts to ensure buy-in & continuity
            Sense of ownership & pride across the officer corps
            Endorsed & signed by 2 CNOs in a row (Watkins, Trost)
            Calculated efforts to invoke Hayward roots
            Praise by succeeding CNO (Kelso), despite obsolescence
            Sense of continuity in OP-603 & SSG
            Praise for efforts of predecessors by successive action officers
      "Success had many fathers"
            Desire - usually justified - by respected leaders, staff offices, operators to take credit


Influence on subsequent capstone documents
      Became an oft-cited (if less oft-read) "gold standard" against which subsequent (& previous) documents were judged
      Cited in The Way Ahead, NDP 1, Sea Power 21
      Alleged to be the only USN "strategy" until A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower (2007), by the latter's authors
            Latter's authors deliberately sought to bask in The Maritime Strategy's alleged reflected glory

      Format never repeated, however

Can be found in John B. Hattendorf & Peter M. Swartz, eds., U.S. Naval Strategy in the 1980s: Selected Documents (2008)

Image - Cover - U.S. Naval Strategy in the 1980s: Selected Documents


CNA studies on U.S. Navy strategies and their context

Swartz, Peter M., U.S. Navy Capstone Strategy, Policy, Vision and Concept Documents: What to consider before you write one, (CQR D0020071.A1/Final, March 2009).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1970-2010): A Brief Summary, (MISC D0026437.A1/Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts. Introduction, Background and Analyses, (MISC D0026421.A1/Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1970-2010): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts: Volume I, (MISC D0026417.A1/Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1970-2010): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts: Volume II, (MISC D0026417.A2/Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1970-1980): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents, (MISC D0026414.A1/Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1970-1980): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts, (MISC D0026418.A1/ Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1981-1990): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents, (MISC D0026415.A1, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1981-1990): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts, (MISC D0026419.A1/Final (December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1991-2000): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents, (MISC D0026416.A2/Final, March 2012).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (1991-2000): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts, (MISC D0026420.A2/Final, March 2012).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (2001-2010): Strategy, Policy, Concept, and Vision Documents, (MISC D0026241.A2/Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, The U.S. Navy in the World (2001-2010): Context for U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts, (MISC D0026242.A2/Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., and Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1970-2010): Comparisons, Contrasts, and Changes: Volume I, (MISC D0026422.A1/Final, December 2011).

Swartz, Peter M., with Karin Duggan, U.S. Navy Capstone Strategies and Concepts (1970-2010): Comparisons, Contrasts, and Changes: Volume II, (MISC D0026423.A1/Final, December 2011).

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MISC D0026415.A1/Final

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Published: Tue May 02 16:26:26 EDT 2023