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United States. 1827. Annual report of the Secretary of the Navy. Washington: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

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Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy, Showing the Condition of the Navy in the Year 1827

Communicated, With the President's Message December 1827

20th Congress.]

No. 339.

[1st Session.




The Secretary of the Navy respectfully makes the following report:

The vessels in commission during the past year have been employed in the manner exhibited in the last annual report.

The duties assigned to the officers have been performed to the satisfaction of the Department, and no occurrences on board the ships call for particular notice.

The several squadrons have been as free as usual from disease. Paper A shows the deaths, resignations, and dismissions which have taken place.

Essential service has been rendered to our commercial and our political relations by the squadron in the Mediterranean under the command of Commodore Rodgers. Although the war in the Archipelago continues, with an increasing relaxation of discipline and control over the vessels of one of the contending parties, and difficulties have existed between one or more of the Barbary States and some of the powers of Europe, yet the presence and activity of our vessels of war, under the skillful direction of the commander, have protected our numerous merchant vessels and our growing commerce from serious interruption. The force should not be diminished, and no change is designed by the Department, except in the vessels. The squadron will this year consist of the Delaware, Java, Lexington, Warren and Porpoise, and will be commanded by Captain Crane.

No piracies have been committed in the West Indies. The prudent and active application of our small force has accomplished all that was anticipated from it. Captain Ridgely continues in command there.

The causes which induced the government to order the squadron to the coasts of Brazil and Buenos Ayres, still exist. The Cyane has returned, and a relief for the Macedonian must be sent in the course of next summer, but the force will not be diminished. Some of our merchant vessels on that coast have been captured, and otherwise interrupted, for real or pretended violations of blockades and of the laws of the country. A part of them have been released upon the application and remonstrances of our naval officers, whose skill, industry and zeal have been commendable. Captain Biddle continues in command there.

A number of our seamen have been found in a state of distress on that station, and some in other parts of South America; having been thrown out of the foreign employment into which they had entered. In many cases their distresses have been relieved, and the means afforded of reaching their homes. It


has been the policy of the government, seconded by our officers, to treat them with kindness, and induce them cheerfully to return to this country, where their services are always useful.

In the Pacific, the squadron lately commanded by Captain Hull, and at present by Captain Jones, has afforded all the protection which the smallness of its force, its immense distance from this country, and the nature of the navigation on the western coasts of South America, would permit. Until within the last eighteen months its operations have been confined, almost entirely, to the neighborhood of Chili and Peru, where the war, then existing between those countries and Spain, rendered its presence necessary. That war has terminated, but the necessity for a small force there still continues, and the wants of our commerce in other parts of the Pacific call for its increase.

In the original instructions to Captain Hull, he was directed, when his presence on the coast could be dispensed with, to visit the Sandwich Islands, to protect our interests and acquire information respecting our commerce in that quarter. Subsequent orders to the same effect were given, and particular objects recommended to his attention. His duties not permitting him to be absent, he intrusted to other officers under his command the execution of those orders.

Lieutenant Percival was sent in the Dolphin to the Mulgrave Islands in search of the mutineers of the ship Globe, with instructions, after accomplishing that specific duty, to visit the Sandwich and Society Islands and the coast of California. He was successful in discovering two of the crew of the Globe, who alone remained upon the island, and they were brought to the United States and surrendered to the civil authority, but were probably among the least criminal of the mutineers. He also visited the other places pointed out in his instructions.

At a subsequent period, Master Commandant Jones, in the Peacock, passed over a part of the same route, and obtained much valuable information in relation to our commerce, and made arrangements with the governments existing in some of the Society and Sandwich Islands, from which it is hoped security and advantage will result to our vessels visiting them either for refreshment or trade.

These cruises have confirmed the opinion which dictated the original instructions to Captain Hull.

Our commerce in that ocean is augmenting with great rapidity. During the past year not less than five millions of American property and 2,000 seamen were in the single port of Honolula, being drawn there for traffic, refreshment, or repairs. The multiplied difficulties to which they are subjected by the nature of their employment, and the character of the people and governments of the islands, demand an effort on our part to afford efficient protection to them. At least four vessels of respectable size ought to be constantly in the Pacific, and the distance from the United States renders this impossible, unless six vessels in commission be devoted to that object. With this number, and by a proper arrangement in sending them out, alternately by Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope, large benefits would be secured. This number, however, cannot be so employed, unless the vessels in commission be increased.

Master Commandant Jones was instructed to endeavor to relieve these islands from American seamen who had improperly deserted from whaling and other vessels and taken refuge there, to the annoyance not only of the people, but to the injury of our own citizens; to make arrangements by which such desertions might be prevented, and, if possible, to secure certain debts due to our citizens by the people and government. It is hoped that he was successful in these objects, and that many inconveniences to our whaling and other vessels will be hereafter in some degree avoided. The sailors were removed from the islands by being induced to enter either on board the Peacock or some other ship which was in want of their services.

The report of Master Commandant Jones, upon the subjects confided to him, is too voluminous to be annexed to this report.

In directing the movements of our squadron in the Pacific, great difficulty is encountered from the immense distance and the impossibility of regular and speedy communication with it. It is, therefore, proper again to advert to the establishment of a regular passage and communication through the Isthmus of Panama, which has heretofore been urged in more than one annual report, and on which a detailed statement was made to the Naval Committee, in January, 1826, in answer to a resolution of the House of Representatives of 22d December preceding. It would produce a saving of money, facility in directing the operations of our force, comfort and convenience to our officers, and its effects on the commerce of the country would be salutary. Cheap as the operation might be made, simple and unostentatious as the plan is, it would go far to effect a change in our commercial transactions with the Pacific ocean and Chinese sea, and be the avenue through which a large amount of the precious metals would find their way to this country.

Lieutenant McKeever, in the schooner Shark, left New York on the 24th July for a cruise among the fisheries to the north, and to look after and protect our interests in that quarter. He returned on the 6th October, having accomplished satisfactorily the objects of his cruise. His report is annexed, marked B. The benefits heretofore resulting from the annual visits of our armed vessels to the fisheries indicate clearly the duty of continuing the practice.

Lieutenant Norris, in the schooner Shark, visited the agency at Mesurado in January last, to render to it such assistance as its situation should require. His report is annexed, C. Occasional visits of our armed vessels to this agency, while in its present state, will be useful; but as one of those attached to the West India squadron can be spared for that object, no other need be commissioned, unless it should be the will of Congress to devote one or more, exclusively, to cruise in connection with it and the suppression of the slave trade.

The state of the agency is as favorable as could have been anticipated. Buildings and improvements are very nearly completed, which will be sufficient to receive and accommodate 150 Africans, which is as many as will probably be recaptured at any one time. Those who have been sent, previous to the present year, have ceased to be an expense to the government, and are now in a comfortable situation, capable of taking care of themselves, and acquiring property and respectability among those of their own color, and in their native land. During the past summer 142 were sent from Savannah to the agency. They were brought into Georgia in the year 1820, in the General Ramirez, and have been, from that time to the last spring, in the course of litigation, and at a great expense to the government. As soon as the Department was authorized to take charge of and remove them, measures were taken for that purpose. They were received at the agency and disposed of in such a way that they will occasion very little expense for the first six months, and none afterwards. It may now be confidently asserted that the principal cost in the establishment of this agency has been encountered, and that whenever, in the execution of the laws, Africans shall be recaptured it will be in the power of the government to place them at the agency at a sum


not exceeding $25 each. After their arrival the expense will be small, and not continue longer than six, or at most, nine months. The object of the laws for the suppression of the slave trade has been, in this respect, accomplished, and the effects on the trade itself will be salutary. It will be perceived by the report of Lieutenant Norris that it is nearly extinct in the neighborhood of Mesurado; and if the cruisers of our own and other governments are vigilant, a check may be given to it everywhere, and perhaps its existence destroyed.

Annexed are certain papers, marked D, which show the manner in which the agency has been conducted, the amount of money which has been expended upon it during the year, the present state of the appropriation, and an estimate of the funds necessary for its support. The "act in addition to the acts prohibiting the slave trade," and appropriating $100,000, was passed 3d March, 1819. Subsequent appropriations have been made for the same object, and the whole amount expended upon it is $185,140.12.

It has been customary with the Department for two or three years past to direct the attention of our commanding officers abroad to the propriety of adding something to the agricultural, while they were protecting the commercial interest of the nation, by procuring information respecting valuable animals, seeds, and plants, and importing such as they could conveniently, without inattention to their more appropriate duties. Very few of them have returned without some valuable importations of the kind. More precise and detailed instructions have, under your directions and in connection with the Treasury Department, been prepared, and will hereafter be given to each officer who commands a vessel in commission. The most beneficial results are anticipated from this course; and will certainly be produced, so far as they are practicable, by the individual exertions of the officers, there being no appropriation out of which any money can be taken for so desirable an object.

From this rapid review of the employments of our naval force in commission, it will be perceived that it cannot with propriety be diminished, if regard be paid to our commercial and other interests. And when to this consideration is added the necessity of active employment to our officers and men, to prepare them for the duties which a state of unfriendly relations with other powers may impose, it is presumed no objection will be made to the estimates for the year, which have been formed upon the existing state of the service, and are annexed to this report, marked E.

The amount estimated is $3,043,697.75. Last year it was $3,014,802.92. In the present estimates, however, there is embraced an item of $201,350, for the completion and equipment of the ten sloops-of-war authorized to be built by the law of 3d March, 1825, and which will be prepared for sea in the course of this year. This sum is not properly chargeable to the current expenses of the navy, and when it is deducted, the present estimates will be found to be $172,455.17 less than the 1st. They embrace the support of the several naval establishments on shore, and preservation of the ships in ordinary—of one ship of the line, six frigates, twelve sloops, and four schooners in commission, and, with a small increase, the number of officers now in service.

It is presumed that the number of naval establishments will not be diminished. Although it is manifestly the true policy, so far as economy and efficiency are concerned, to limit, as far as possible, the number of our large dock yards, at which every species of labor connected with our shipping is to be performed; yet other considerations have heretofore operated, and will doubtless continue to operate, to keep up the number now in existence. They have, therefore, been embraced in the estimates. Of the vessels proposed to be kept in commission, none can with propriety be dispensed with.

The small addition to the number of our officers arises from what is supposed to be the absolute necessity of the service. It is one of absence, privation and exposure. In such a service, it must always be expected that about one-third or one-fourth will be unable to attend to active duty. Sickness, and other causes, will always operate to that extent, and when this deduction is made, it will be found that several of our classes of officers are too small. This is especially the case in the medical branch; for with every exertion which the Department could make, it has sometimes happened, during the past as in former years, that sufficient medical aid could not be afforded to all our vessels while at sea, and to all our establishments on shore.

The form of the estimates is such as the decisions of Congress require. There are one or two points in reference to them, however, which it is proper again to notice, inasmuch as they continue to operate with severity, and occasion not only inconvenience but loss of public money.

1st. The estimates and appropriations are made for the year commencing and ending on the first January. The appropriation laws are never passed until after that period. The Department is, therefore, left, sometimes for six weeks or two months, without funds for the use of the navy. Were our ships, officers, and men within the country, this circumstance, although very injurious, would be less felt; but as they are absent, at great distances, it creates serious inconvenience, and sometimes loss of both credit and money. They must have funds for their support, and must therefore procure them, if they can, by drawing bills upon the Department, and these are sometimes protested for want of the means of payment. The consequences are too palpable to require comment. The remedy is simple: to make the appropriation, in the first instance, for a year and a quarter, and let those for subsequent years commence on the 1st April. Should this plan be approved and adopted by Congress, an addition of one-fourth must be made to the estimates for the quarter ending on the 1st April, 1829. All subsequent appropriations would be for a year only.

2d. Specific sums are appropriated for specific objects, which is undoubtedly the best and safest mode; but the form in which it is done creates difficulty The estimates are made by the Navy Commissioners, with all the skill and accuracy which experience and intelligence can give, and the amount which will probably be wanted for each object of pay, subsistence, &c., is stated. But it is impossible to estimate these things with the precision which can readily be secured, where the expenditure is to be made in our own country, and under the more immediate control of the Department. Hence it is found that, although the appropriation is sufficient for the general object, there is sometimes a surplus under one head and a deficiency under another. Aware that this difficulty would occur, Congress, by the laws of 3d March, 1809, and 1st May, 1820, authorized the President to make transfers, under a few enumerated items. These items have been since changed in the appropriation laws, and the power of transfer thereby rendered useless. This inconvenience is increased by the fact that a large portion of the money is drawn for and expended by pursers and navy agents abroad, who are often unavoidably ignorant of the terms of the law under which the expenditure is to be made; and therefore draw and expend the money under one item, when they should do it under another. As an example: they draw, under pay of


the navy, whatever is to be paid to the officers and men, although a large portion of it is for their provisions and subsistence, and is estimated for under those heads. The head of pay is consequently exhausted before the end of the year; that of provisions is not: so of other items—and there is no remedy. The President cannot make a transfer, founded on the knowledge that this unavoidable error has been committed, nor can the accounting officer, from the absence of the agent, correct it in season in the settlement of his accounts.

It is respectfully submitted that a remedy may be found, without hazarding the proper expenditures of public money, by one of two modes: 1st. Authorizing the President to make, in writing, transfers from and to certain enumerated items, so as to effect the object which Congress had in passing the laws of 3d March, 1809, and 1st May, 1820: or, 2d. By requiring the estimates to be made, as they now are, for each specific item, so that their propriety can be readily tested by Congress, but embracing the amount of several of them under one head, in the appropriation bills. The annual examination, by the committee of Congress, into the expenditures of the navy, would still be made with equal ease, and afford equal security.

There is another evil which duty requires should be brought to your notice. By a rigid enforcement of the law, the disbursing officers within the United States are compelled to make periodical settlements; and, so far as they expend the public money, the accounting departments can furnish statements, showing whether it has been properly expended, and whether the appropriations have been sufficient for the objects. But this is not the case with the large number of disbursing officers who are out of the United States, and who are often absent two or three years, at the distance of thousands of miles In their absence their accounts cannot be settled, nor can it be known whether they have expended the money properly, or the appropriations of the year are exhausted. From the same, and other causes, many claims upon the Department, by individuals, are not, and cannot be, presented within the year. It necessarily results that when the accounts of a particular year are settled, there are sometimes deficiencies and sometimes a surplus in those items which are appropriated for certain objects, "and for no other object or purpose whatever." Confusion and want of accuracy, and sometimes want of means for the payment of claims, are the consequences, creating both public and private inconvenience.

The Secretary of the Navy has heretofore proposed to the Committee of Ways and Means, and now respectfully suggests, two plans to obviate the inconvenience. One is, an appropriation for arrearages for the service generally, as was done last year for the navy, and has been done for many years in the War Department. To this end an item of $15,000 has been added in the estimates. The other is, to incorporate into the appropriation bill a provision, that the balances of the several items, which remain at the end of the year, constitute an aggregate fund for the payment of such arrearages in the naval service as may be due and unsatisfied at that time.

This provision, it is believed, would be sufficient to enable the Department to meet the calls, public and private, upon the service; save great vexation to individuals; secure more precision and certainty in the settlement of accounts, and, at the end of the limitation of the two years required by law, the balance would be passed, as it now is, to the surplus fund.

In the expenditure of the appropriations of the year, so far as the Department is informed, there has been no loss or defalcation. The disbursing officers have exhibited punctuality and faithfulness, and as much accuracy as the circumstances before alluded to would permit.

Under the appropriation made in 1826 for a survey "to ascertain the practical facilities of Baltimore, Savannah, Brunswick, and Beaufort, for naval purposes," that of Baltimore was completed before the last session of Congress, and the result communicated in answer to a resolution of the House of Representatives. Since that time surveys of Brunswick and Savannah have been made by Lieutenant Stockton, and his report is in the Department. The time necessarily occupied in them rendered it impossible to complete that of Beaufort during the spring and summer, without great hazard to the officers and men, the health of several of them having suffered before that of Savannah was ended. It is now in progress, under the superintendence of the same officer, and will be finished without delay, when the whole will be ready to be communicated to Congress. These surveys have been made by competent officers, and will furnish sufficient information to decide how far those places afford "practical facilities for naval purposes." They are, however, unavoidably incomplete. The time within which it was supposed desirable to make them, and the means granted by the appropriation, did not permit them to be so made as to furnish perfect surveys and charts of those harbors. Nor can such surveys be made without the aid of the means contemplated by the act of 10th February, 1807, "to provide for surveying the coasts of the United States."

The report of the Navy Commissioners, under the law for the gradual increase of the navy, is annexed, marked F.

Under the second section of the "act for the gradual improvement of the navy," passed at the last session, contracts have been made for the frames of five ships of the line, five frigates, and five sloops-of-war. (See letter F.)

Under the authority vested in the Executive, reservations of land have been made in Louisiana and Alabama, and of a tract adjoining the Navy yard at Pensacola. Orders have been given to the commandant of the yard to plant live oak on the latter. An examination of the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, as far south as Mosquito inlet, has been made, with a view to the purchase and reservation of land having timber upon it. Much less was found than had been previously hoped for. Orders have also been given, and are in course of execution, for the examination of the west coast of Florida. It is manifest, from the information already obtained, that we shall be obliged to plant extensive tracts of land with the live oak, or that we shall, after a few years, be deprived of this most valuable timber for the uses of the navy.

The fourth section of the act referred to authorizes the President "to cause to be constructed two dry docks for the use of the navy—the one to the south, the other to the north, of the Potomac." The two sites selected are at the Navy yards at Gosport, in Virginia, and Charlestown, in Massachusetts. Loammi Baldwin, Esq., was appointed the engineer to superintend the construction of the docks. Contracts for a large portion of the labor and materials for both have been made, and the work at Charlestown commenced. That at Gosport will be commenced in a short time. Attention has been paid to the direction of the law respecting the marine railway at Pensacola, but the situation of the navy yard and improvements, with other causes, have prevented a decision upon the subject.

In the early part of the last summer, a board of officers, composed of Captains Bainbridge, Chauncey


and Morris, was directed "to examine thoroughly all the navy yards, and prepare plans for their improvement and the preservation of the public property therein," which might be submitted to the President for his sanction. These officers have devoted to this object as large a portion of their time as could be spared from their other urgent duties, and have made some progress. The whole will be completed in the course of the winter, or early in the spring; and, from what has already been done, entire confidence is felt that such plans will be prepared and sanctioned as will greatly promote the public interest, render our navy and dock yards such as the interest of the nation demands, and prevent an unnecessary and wasteful expenditure of the public money. No law which has been passed, since that for the gradual increase of the navy, has had a more salutary influence upon its interests than the one of which this provision forms a part.

A report of the expenditures under this act, and the "measures taken to carry the same into effect," is subjoined.

The discipline, economy, and efficiency of the service are objects of unceasing attention, and it is believed that they are as worthy of commendation as at any former period. But in this, as in preceding years, experience has proved that many of the evils which have been so often noticed, still exist. Some, which are within the competency of the Executive, have been removed; others must await legislative decision.

It would be improper again to present in detail the views which have before been taken on the questions of rank and pay in the navy; of a want of regular organization; of a code of criminal law or regulations; and of a naval school. But the Department would not discharge its obligations to the service, if it failed to express a conviction, that discipline, economy and efficiency would be promoted by judicious legal provisions on these subjects.

In no service, either of the army or navy, in any age or nation, has a force, such as we now send to sea in squadrons, been commanded by captains; and perfect subordination and discipline, without which there can be neither efficiency nor economy, cannot prevail, unless so large a force has commanders of a proper grade. Rank is as indispensable in the navy as in the army; and equal justice to the officers calls for the establishment of a higher grade. Several of those upon our list of captains have been such for more than a quarter of a century; have commanded forces superior to those commanded by generals on land; have borne themselves as gallantly, and done the State as much service as their military rivals on shore; yet they are still captains, and with the compensation of captains; while their patriotic competitors, with a service less protracted, and not more energetic or deserving, are rewarded by a just and wise government with higher rank and fuller compensation.

Promotions are made from the rank of midshipmen. The proper education of this class of officers is, therefore, the best mode by which we can secure talent, information and merit, in the higher grades. The greater part of them enter the service between the ages of 14 and 16, when it is impossible that they should be well informed scholars. Their situation in the service renders it equally impossible that they should there make much literary or scientific acquisition beyond the practical duties of the seaman. Their pay is incompetent to procure the means of instruction, and their employments are too steady and active to afford the time. The science and information requisite for a navy officer are in no respect inferior to those required by army officers and engineers; and the interest as well as honor of the country are not less concerned in the correct performance of their duties. The reason, therefore, for the preference of the army over the navy, in this respect, is not perceived. All that the Department can do has been done to overcome the want of a naval school, which shall unite a practical with a scientific education; but the evils still felt, urge the Department again, respectfully but earnestly, to present it to your consideration.

At the last session of Congress, memorials were presented by many citizens of New York, Pennsylvania, Maine, Virginia and Ohio, proposing an "exploring expedition to the north and south hemispheres," under the patronage of government. The memorial and papers were referred, by order of the House of Representatives, to this Department, but no appropriation was made. It is presumed that the reference was intended to convey the disposition of the House in favor of the expedition, and was to be regarded as expressing a wish that the countenance and support of the Department should be given to it. As no appropriation was made, there was no money which could with propriety be used to carry into execution the object of the reference. The only aid which could, under these circumstances, be afforded, was to grant to those officers of the navy, who chose to join an expedition which should be fitted out by private enterprise, a leave of absence for that object, and to order to it such seamen as were willing and competent to navigate the vessels. This aid would, under the sanction of the reference, have been afforded, if the expedition had been prepared. Since the adjournment of Congress, a large number of respectable citizens of several of the States have signed memorials of the same tenor as those referred by order of the House.

The condition of the marine corps urgently demands that it should be again presented for consideration.

It was "established and organized" in 1798, and consisted of 720 men, besides officers. The design of Congress in creating it was to furnish a proper guard for the navy yards and for ships at sea. This design points out the extent and organization which it ought to possess. It should be numerous enough to afford a sufficient guard for each yard and each ship in commission. It ought to be also so far incorporated into the navy, and subject to navy regulations, as to render the government of the two consistent and uniform. In both these respects it needs amendment.

The statement annexed, marked G, shows the proper number for a guard at each yard, and for each vessel in commission, in the opinion of the commandant of the corps, amounting, in all, to ----- effective

men. The corps now consists of 750 men, besides commissioned and non-commissioned officers; being thirty more than when it was first established, although the service to be performed by it is much more extensive. It is apparent that this number of men cannot furnish the required guards; and our vessels are, therefore, often without the requisite number, and a very insufficient protection is afforded to the public property. Watchmen have, during the past year, been hired at several of the yards to aid the marines, which unavoidably creates confusion and insecurity. It would be better to have the guards composed altogether of one description of persons, either marines or watchmen. The nature of the duties to be performed by this corps, both on land and on water, is such that great danger results from their being insufficiently discharged. The public interest would, therefore, be promoted by augmenting its numbers, or by withdrawing it altogether, either from the navy yards or from the ships, and trusting to other means for protection, which would be regarded as a hazardous experiment.


There is still greater defect in the organization than in the numbers of the corps. By the law of 1798, it is governed "by the same rules and articles of war as are prescribed for the military establishment of the United States, and by the rules for the regulation of the navy, according to the nature of the service in which they shall be employed." By the construction uniformily given to this law, the corps is subject to the naval regulations when at sea, and to the army regulations when on land. "The same officers and men are at one moment under one system of rules and discipline, at the next under another. Their compensation is governed by one law at sea, by another on land. The nature of their connection with the navy is unsettled and subject to constant disputation; and when the laws are to be enforced in the punishment of an officer, neither the War nor Navy Department can, in many cases, act without the interference of the other. It is not necessary to detail the consequences which follow. It is, perhaps, matter of surprise that confusion, disorder, and violation of duty have not existed to an extent which might jeopardize the existence of the corps.

The following amendments are respectfully suggested as the proper remedy:

1. That the corps be increased in the number of privates, and that the number and grade of the officers correspond with those which have been established in the army, and approved by experience.

2. That it be placed entirely under the laws and regulations for the government of the navy.

3. That accommodations be afforded to them out of, but adjoining, the navy yard; so that details can be sent, under proper arrangements, by the officer commanding them, into the yards, and while there to be entirely subject to the control and orders of the commandant.

4. That a sufficient number, for the sole purpose of guarding the property at Portsmouth, Philadelphia, Washington, and Pensacola, be assigned to those places, and the remainder be divided between the stations at Boston, New York, and Norfolk, where they can be properly drilled and prepared for sea service, and from which our vessels can obtain the necessary guards, when fitting for sea.

5. That the commandant and staff of the corps remain at this place, as most convenient for communication, both with the Department and the corps, and for the prompt settlement of their accounts.

If these suggestions should be adopted, it is believed that the marine corps would be much more efficient and less expensive to the public. The two first of these propositions would require legal enactments; the others might be effected by regulation.

The naval hospital fund has an intimate connection with the interests and feelings of the officers and seamen who are under the control of this Department. Humanity, justice, and policy require that the diseased and wounded seaman, when brought into port, should have a home, and the means of cure provided; and that the disabled and aged seaman, who has worthily served his country until his strength is exhausted, should have an asylum where a comfortable subsistence may be found for his last days. This truth has been felt in all civilized and commercial nations. It was early felt in ours, and laws were passed upon the subject; but they have, thus far, not accomplished their object. They direct twenty cents per month to be retained out of the pay of the officers, seamen, and marines, and that, from the proceeds, hospitals and an asylum should be erected. As yet, not one building has been completed, although the deduction has been regularly made from the pay since the passage of the law, in 1799. The reasons for the failure were stated in a report by the commissioners of the fund, at the last session of Congress. A part of the fund was absorbed by and expended during the late war in the pay of the navy. This sum has been repaid, under regulations, and by order of this Department, in the course of the last three years. There is another sum, however, of $50,000, which was declared by law to be due to the fund on the 26th February, 1811, and was directed to be paid out of any moneys in the Treasury, not otherwise appropriated, which has not yet been paid, except $3,782.86. This sum was, by $80,000, less than it ought to have been. The sum which had been paid by the navy amounted to at least $130,000, as is readily shown by calculating the numbers employed in the service. It is most respectfully suggested that the whole sum of $130,000 should be restored, with interest upon it, now amounting to $262,600. It is not the money of the government or nation. Not one cent has been paid to the fund by the nation. It has been taken out of the pay of the officers and men, and belongs to them as justly as any portion of their private estates.

It is now mentioned in this report, because their rights and interest are necessarily the object of attention by this Department, and because the money is wanted to meet the buildings for their accommodation. Sites have been purchased for four buildings; at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Norfolk; which, with a small one at Pensacola, may be made sufficiently extensive to answer all the necessities of the service at any future period.

Two buildings, an hospital at Norfolk and an asylum at Philadelphia, are progressing very satisfactorily; and if the funds were put in a proper condition, the whole might be completed in two years, and form together an hospital establishment, at least as creditable to the country, and beneficial to the service, as that belonging to any other nation.

The completion of this establishment is demanded by the plainest policy. In this country the services of our seamen are voluntary; no impressment or other mode of compulsion is, or ought to be, applied, to force them to perform the duties of peace, or fight the battles of the country in war. But in proportion to the voluntary character of the service ought to be the effort to render that service pleasant, and to create every inducement to join it. And when it is perfectly understood by all who are acquainted with the character of the seaman, that his foresight is seldom directed to any other object than a place of refuge, when disease and misfortune overtake him, surely that place of refuge ought not to be wanting.

In this view, it is hoped the payment of the debt, before mentioned, will be made; and if something were added to it, it would be justified by the consideration that the nation has not yet given one dollar to so desirable an object.

Respectfully submitted.


Navy Department, December 1, 1827.



List of deaths in the navy of the United States since December 2, 1826.

Name and rank. Date of death. Cause of death. Place of death.
Sidney Smith. May 17, 1827 Unknown Plattsburgh.
Hugh Dulany January 6, 1827 Unknown Delaware Bay.
George M'Cauley February 20, 1827 Unknown Philadelphia.
Charles A. Budd March 15, 1827 Unknown New York.
Pardon M. Whipple May 11, 1827 Unknown Providence.
John P. Tuttle June 10, 1827 Yellow fever Havana.
A. H. Hopkinson August 11, 1827 Fever Off Milo.
Wm. B. Nicholson October 15, 1827 Fever At sea.
Robert L. Thorn August 18, 1827 Bilious fever Portsmouth.
John W. Peaco May 23, 1827 Fever Savannah.
Thomas J. Bradner August 23, 1827 In a duel Rio de Janeiro.
Thomas Shields Unknown Unknown Unknown.
Burgess Allison February 20, 1827 Unknown Trenton.
C. E. Wadsworth May 8, 1827 Drowned Tampico.
Alexander F. Porter February 11, 1827 Yellow fever Mesurado.
Edward Worthington July 18, 1827 Yellow fever Norfolk.
S. J. Dusenberry October 4, 1827 Unknown New York.
Edward Linscott May 25, 1827 Unknown Norfolk.
William Smith July 7, 1827 Unknown Unknown.
H. Van Voorhees August 30, 1827 Unknown At sea.
G. D. Brewerton January 31, 1827 Unknown Valparaiso.
Navy Agent.
S. R. Overton August 30, 1827 Unknown Pensacola.

Resignations in the navy of the United States since December 2, 1826.

Name. Date of resignation.
Louis Alexis September 17, 1827.
Samuel B. Phelps February 2, 1827.
Thomas S. Cunningham April 21, 1827.
William T. Rodgers April 21, 1827.
Enoch H. Johns April 26, 1827.
James L. Morris September 10, 1827.
John H. Gordon March 22, 1827.
William Williamson November 2, 1827.


Name. Date of resignation.
Stephen B. Kingston December 16, 1826.
Crawford W. Hall January 16, 1827.
William W. Wiswall February 7, 1827.
Francis S. Key February 12, 1827.
Solomon D. Betton February 16, 1827.
John C. Bunnet March 26, 1827.
Israel D. Smith April 23, 1827.
Thomas H. Yeatman June 12, 1827.
John Weems June 20, 1827.
James Bradford June 25, 1827.
Joseph S. Cornwell July 5, 1827.
Joseph W. Jarvis July 14, 1827.
John T. Wallace July 27, 1827.
Thomas Dimmock August 7, 1827.
Archibald M. Green October 19, 1827.
John Young October 19, 1827.
Charles V. Morris October 20, 1827.
Christopher N. Greene October 23, 1827.
Andrew M. Irwin November 3, 1827.
James W. Crenshaw November 6, 1827.
William H. Alexander November 10, 1827.
Philip S. Meyer September 10, 1827
Nathaniel Stoodly April 6, 1827.
Thomas Stanley November 19, 1827.
Richard Reynolds June 8, 1827.

Dismissions from the navy of the United States since December 2, 1826.

Name. Date of dismission.
James E. Legare May 17, 1827.
John Q. A. Boyd November 5, 1827.



Copy of a letter from Lieutenant Isaac M'Keever to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

United States Schooner Shark, Long Island Sound, October 4, 1827.

After leaving Eastport, on the 3d of August, we proceeded on our cruise, passing through the Straits of Canso, touching at the Magdalen Islands, and nearly all the principal fishing rendezvous on the north coast of Newfoundland, and along the shores of Labrador, from Esquimaux Bay northwardly as far as the Bay of Sandwich, where we arrived the latter part of August; and finding that the few of our vessels that took their fish to the northward of Belle Isle had left, we remained only a few days at Greedy Harbor, and bent our course again to the southward, stopping a second time at some of the principal harbors, and at others we had not visited on our way to the northward. The Black Islands, or Greedy Harbor, was, some years ago, a very considerable resort of our fishermen; this season only one vessel took her fish there, and some five or six others at the neighboring islands; indeed, from the Straits of Belle Isle north, the British occupy the best fishing ports, where they have large permanent establishments for curing fish; and although our countrymen meet with civil treatment at these places, they prefer situations more exclusively their own, and have in consequence, of late years, and this season more especially, confined themselves in a great measure along the coast of Labrador, from Esquimaux Bay to Cape Charles; the far greater number, even of those who do not carry their fish home in salt, cure them at Bradore or the Bay of Ledges, one of the best situations on the whole coast for this purpose; here eight or ten of our merchant vessels took cargoes of cured fish for the Mediterranean and South. America.

Not many of our fishermen have frequented the north coast of Newfoundland for some years past, under an impression that they would be expelled by the French. I have, however, not heard of the slightest interruption from any of their national vessels. In one or two instances the French fishermen themselves have evinced some disposition to debar ours from a participation in the fisheries of certain districts where they have fixed establishments; but I could not ascertain that they had ever resorted to force. I speak of this year more particularly. When we reached the coast, the second week in August, the few of our vessels that took their fish there had left, the fishing season commencing and finishing sooner than on the Labrador coast.

At different periods within the last two years the French have suffered severe depredations upon many of their establishments by some British fishermen, to such an extent as to have called forth a proclamation on the subject from his excellency the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland. This circum-


stance, perhaps, may have tended to exasperate them against our own fishermen, from a belief that they were concerned in the robberies; but I am happy to say, so far as I have been able to ascertain, they have not been in any instance engaged in these or other trespasses.

A French national schooner was on the coast of Newfoundland a short time before our arrival, and the British brig Contest was cruising to the northward of Belle Isle; these were the only foreign vessels of war in those waters, neither of which we met. The season has been uncommonly boisterous, so much so as to have interfered a good deal with taking fish; but as the high winds disperse the usual dense fogs, it was more propitious to curing them. The season in consequence was sooner over, and almost all our vessels were on their return to the United States by or before the middle of September, when we left the Straits of Belle Isle, and those from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Chaleur Bay, followed soon after through the Straits of Canso, whence we sailed on the 28th ultimo.

The fisheries have not, upon the whole, proven very abundant this year, but it appears that our countrymen have been generally more successful than either the British or French. The latter, it is supposed, are becoming less active and enterprising than they were some years past, and the former have suffered very severely at many of their establishments from the typhus fever, whilst ours have been comparatively healthy.

It is with regret, sir, I have to add that on our way to the northward, in the Bay of Chedebucto, we got on a dangerous rock, near the harbor of Arichat, the existence of which was unknown to the pilot, or if known, he was entirely mistaken about its position; owing, however, to the weather being moderate, we got off ten hours after we struck, without other damage than roughing the copper a little; and in a heavy gale at Greedy Harbor we parted two cables, lost the stream anchor, and having broken the arm off one of the bowers, it became necessary to procure another anchor, which I did at Anec au Longue, upon moderate terms.



Copy of report by Lieutenant Commandant Otho Norris, of the U. S. schooner Shark.

U. S. Schooner Shark, St. Thomas, March 18, 1827.

Sir: I have the honor to announce the arrival of the Shark at this place, in thirty-four days from Cape Mesurado, Africa, from whence she sailed on the 13th February.

I sailed from the Chesapeake on the 30th November, 1826, for Mesurado, agreeably to an order of the 3d inst. from the Hon. Secretary of the Navy, and arrived there on the 12th January. I communicated immediately with Mr. Ashmun, the acting agent, and found the colony to be in perfect security. After taking in water I received Mr. Ashmun on board and proceeded to leeward as far as Trade Town, for the purpose of settling a misunderstanding that existed between the people of that place and the American settlements, which was amicably adjusted.

Having heard that a slaver had landed a cargo at Little Bassa, about 40 miles from Mesurado, I proceeded to that place on the 29th January; while off there gave chase to a small schooner, which, after a run of 10 hours, I overhauled; she proved to be the slaver, was under French colors, and armed with one brass pivot gun, and a crew of 17 Frenchmen. Her papers not appearing very regular I detained her during the night in order to examine her more minutely. At daylight next morning fell in with a French brig-of-war, who took possession of the schooner and sent her to Goree. No other slaver has been on that part of the coast, extending from Cape Mount to Trade Town, for a long time. The piratical brig that robbed the American vessel in Mesurado roads, in August last, was captured in December by an English cruiser. From all that I could learn while on the coast, it appears that the slave trade is nearly extinct, at least on that part of the coast between Cape Mount and Trade Town. It gives me pleasure to state that the colony is in a very flourishing condition, the people contented and healthy, and the neighboring tribes friendly.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,


To Com. Charles Ridgely, commanding U. S. Naval Forces in the West Indies, Gulf of Mexico, &c.



J. Ashmun to the Secretary of the Navy.

Cape Mesurado, February 10, 1827.

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by the U. S. schooner Shark, of letters from the Navy Department, of the 10th and 15th of August, 1826, addressed to Dr. Peaco, and one of the 4th November to myself. Three long twelve-pound guns, with their carriages and fixtures complete, and a quantity of ammunition, all receipted for to Mr. Norris, have also been delivered to us in good order from the same vessel.

Of the communications hereby acknowledged, that of the 10th of August seems to demand of me a few explanatory remarks, in order to present in a clearer light, if not to justify, certain parts of my conduct, to which that letter particularly relates, as having led to the liberation and removal to this place of 173 Africans, found in different slaving establishments in the neighborhood, which, for reasons formerly stated at length, it became necessary, in my judgment, to break up.

These Africans, thrown upon my hands in consequence of events which it may not be necessary here to recapitulate, were, at the date of my letters, without protection or the means of subsistence. It was my impression at the time that the benevolent provisions of the act of Congress of March 3d, 1819, might, by a liberal but just construction, be extended to these unfortunate beings. The first act, therefore, in relation to them, for which, as the U. S. agent, I consider myself accountable, was the placing them on


this provision until the determination of the Executive in regard to their right to it should have been formed and signified to me; and in order to enable the Executive properly to estimate their claims to the protection and aid for which their situation so strongly appealed to the best feelings of humanity, I gave, in my several communications from the 14th October to the 8th December, 1825, inclusive, an exact and circumstantial narrative of all the events concerned in placing them in that situation.

This narrative appears to me plainly to show that the agent of the colony of Liberia, acting for the defence, safety, and welfare of the little community over which he presided, and within the laws of nations and of nature, being assisted by the forces of that colony, and at its expense, had effected the liberation of these people, and offered them for acceptance at the agency for recaptured Africans. And at this period and stage of the transactions, your agent, as already observed, fixes the date of his own responsibility.

In exact accordance with this view of the proper line of conduct to be observed by the U. S. agent, was the part I acted in the liberation and ulterior disposal of the fifty-three slaves who fell into my hands at Trade Town, on the 13th and 14th of April, 1826. Having brought them to Mesurado on the 17th of April, 1826, I found myself relieved of the responsibility of placing them on the funds of the agency by the presence of Dr. Peaco, the U. S. agent, then very recently arrived from America. As agent of the Colonization Society, for their colony, in which capacity I had acted in effecting their liberation, I offered them to the acceptance of the U. S. agent and they were received. Dr. Peaco's responsibility in relation to these fifty-three persons surely could not have commenced previously to his signature of the receipt which took them out of the hands of the colonial agent and placed them on the provisions made for recaptured Africans. But this act was subsequent to and independent of all those transactions which had led to their liberation.

And, were not the three preceding cases, in everything affecting the responsibility of the United States agent, exactly similar? And if it is apparent that Dr. Peaco's responsibility in relation to the Trade Town Africans began when he admitted them to the asylum for recaptured Africans, and is limited to that act and its consequences, do I ask anything unreasonable, or of doubtful justice, when I request that my own responsibility in relation to the Poor river and St. Paul's Africans may be limited and estimated by the same rule?

That this was the view in which I constantly acted, is further evident from another circumstance, which appears not to have sufficiently explained itself in my letters to the Department; I refer to my omission to report to it, in detail, the circumstances of the Trade Town expedition. Having acted in the capacity of colonial agent in that affair, my report was, of consequence, addressed to the board of direction of the colony, who had a right to require it. Had Dr. Peaco required any exposition of those transactions, tending to show under what circumstances the fifty-three Africans came to be offered to his acceptance, as a document which he might transmit to his government in justification of his act in receiving them at the agency, it would most cheerfully have been furnished him; and, if hereafter required by him, it shall still be furnished.

Should the Executive concur in this view of the transactions preceding the admission of these persons to the agency, the only questionable part of my own and Dr. Peaco's official conduct would be that of unfortunately erring in our judgment as to the right of the one hundred and seventy-three Africans, liberated since the 14th, inclusive, of October last, to the provision of the act of Congress of March 3, 1819. But such, in my opinion, was the strength of the palliating, and even justifying inducements to commit this error, which the circumstances of the Africans presented, that should it involve me in any pecuniary loss whatever, I shall apply, so far as I am concerned, to the equity of Congress for relief.

The preceding statement exhibits that simple view of my conduct, as agent for recaptured Africans, by which I desire to have it judged.

There are two other instances of my conduct as United States agent somewhat implicated in those transactions, the mention of which I have reserved to this place, and which, I trust, will not be regarded as affecting materially the view already submitted.

Two of the liberated Africans were, in the latter part of October, 1825, seduced from the agency, and resold to Millot and Poussin, at Mammas, on the St. Paul's. These persons I demanded formally and repeatedly, and they were as peremptorily and often refused to be delivered up. On the 8th of December I therefore, as United States agent, retook them by force.

In the month of December, 1825, and January, 1826, from five to eight of the liberated Africans were resold, and detained under exactly parallel circumstances, by a Spanish slaver, (whose vessel has since been condemned at Goree, as a pirate, for acts committed at the very same time, this act of kidnapping and detaining the Africans making one of those charges,) after being several times exactly identified and demanded. Two of them I also retook by force, on the 13th and 14th of April. The others had been conveyed beyond my reach. These two acts were contemporaneous, and certainly otherwise very closely united with other acts, for the performance of which I derived my authority, not from the instructions of the Government of the United States, but from my situation as agent of the Colonization Society for the colony of Liberia; but they were acts to which I regard myself impelled, in order to a faithful discharge of the trust reposed in me, as agent of the United States for recaptured Africans.

In obedience to your instructions, contained in the same letter of the 10th of August, I have discharged from the agency the whole number of Africans liberated since the month of October, inclusive, 1825.

In discharging this duty, it affords me some satisfaction that I am able to state that, since their connection with the agency commenced, they have been under a system of discipline and instruction which cannot fail to prove to many of them substantially and permanently beneficial. Sixty of the adults have been within that time married, and are realizing the advantages of that institution, as recognized by Christians. Sixty of the children (thirty-five boys and twenty-five girls) have been for six months at an excellent school, and are apprenticed in the same number of the most respectable families of the colony.

The adults form a settlement by themselves, four miles above Monroe, on a tract of excellent land devoted by the colony to persons in their situation, and to the recaptured Africans as they come to be settled within its limits and adopt the usages of civilized life. The union of these people with the American colonists seems to be too strongly cemented ever to be dissolved; and the habits of regular industry to which they have been so many months in constant training, it is hoped, will furnish them with the necessaries, and ultimately with the comforts of life.


All the recaptured Africans sent to this country by the Government of the United States have passed out of the agency, and now sustain the character of colonists, and either actually possess the same quantity of lands and civil rights enjoyed by emigrants from the United States, or are in a state of apprenticeship to colonists, with the same rights and grant of lands in reversion at the expiration of their respective terms.

It has been deemed expedient to construct at Thompson Town no more houses, after the present time, for the reception of recaptured Africans or their agents, and to transfer two of the large frames prepared for that town to the tract of lands already mentioned as permanently appropriated to the agency, situated on the Stockton creek, four miles above Monroe, and three below Caldwell, the two principal settlements of the American colony. The accompanying engraved map will indicate this position. These lands extend half a mile along the southeast bank of the Stockton, and two miles back, and are not exceeded in fertility, or susceptibility of easy cultivation, by any in the colony.

A spacious and well-finished house, of two stories, is erected on the site designated for the village, for the residence of the superintendent or an agent, together with two ranges, of a single story, for the Africans. To these last are now adding the frames originally intended for Thompson Town, all of which together will furnish ample accommodations for 140 to 160 Africans. The people expected from the United States are to be provided with neat log cabins. The whole of these buildings 1 shall endeavor either to have completed, or in a state of great forwardness, before quitting the coast, on my intended visit in the spring ensuing to the United States.

The construction of these houses, together with the services of a laboring nature, require the constant employment of a large number of native laborers, which, although singly exceedingly moderate, will, in the aggregate prove a charge on the agency of a considerable amount. But I consider it as one that cannot be dispensed with without discontinuing the buildings.

The liberated Africans being discharged from the agency, the services of Anthony D. Williams, in the capacity of their superintendent, can no longer, I am sensible, remain a charge on the United States. But his services as superintendent of the common laborers employed on the buildings and improvements going forward in the new African town are, in my opinion, absolutely necessary. And the propriety of employing him in this service is heightened by the circumstance that all these laborers are selected from the liberated Africans lately discharged from his care as superintendent of recaptured Africans. These people can be better managed, and made much more useful under his direction, than that of any other person in my power to select. This arrangement I conceive to be necessary to keep up, at least during Dr. Peaco's absence.

In the accompanying abstract of the accounts of the agency, from August 10, 1826, I beg leave to explain—

That the schooners, having been framed and sent out, with their sails, equipments, &c, from the United States, by the government, I have supposed were intended to be completed and sailed, for the use and at the expense of the agency.

That the public buildings and fortifications, in the uses and advantages of which the agency directly participates, may also be placed among the objects on which some expense may be incurred on account of the agency, and that, owing to the nature, design, and place of the agency, a large scope of incidental expenses is obliged to be admitted.

One of the two schooners, sent out in frames from the United States, has been completed, and in service since the month of November last. The other, owing to the death of the master boat builder, advances very slowly, and will not be afloat for several months to come. The former, called the Catharine, carries a brass 6-pound gun, on a revolving frame, besides small arms, and proves a formidable means of protection against the little pirates of the coast, besides its utility in transporting rice and other commodities, useful to the agency and settlements, from distant places, and uniting the whole chain of our establishments, situated on the seaboard, into one.

In closing my letter, by this conveyance, it is due to the zeal of Lieut. Norris to acknowledge the important service rendered to the establishment by the vessel under that gentleman's command 1 have also to state my determination to return to the United States by the very first opportunity which shall offer after the sailing of the Shark. The state of the agency and settlement, generally, is at present particularly favorable to the accomplishment of this intention. I expect to arrive in Washington early in June.

Dr. George P. Todson, United States agent, to the Secretary of the Navy.

MESURADO, August 29, 1827.

By the schooner Eclipse, which is expected to leave Mesurado this evening for Philadelphia, I have the honor to announce the safe arrival at Mesurado, on the 21st instant, of all the liberated Africans transported in the ship Norfolk, with the exception of three, (two adults and one child,) one afflicted with pulmonary consumption, another with palsy, the child with cholera infantum; all in a hopeless state before the departure of the ship from Savannah; they died on the passage. The others, in number 143, of whom two were born on board of the Norfolk, have all, excepting three, been delivered to Mr. Ashmun; and arrangements have been made, as will be seen from the enclosed copy, to place them for one year in families among the colonists, who are to furnish them with clothing and subsistence, and in some cases with a small compensation for their services; at the expiration of that time they are to receive land, and to be placed in a situation that may enable them to provide for their own future support.

By the charter party it is stipulated that the owners of the Norfolk shall land all the public property at Mesurado; but, in order to overcome the numerous obstacles and dangers which the unfavorable season and the shores of the Mesurado present to the landing of even small boats, and to accelerate and afford greater safety to the landing of the public property, and to prevent the expense of demurrage to the United States, it has been thought advisable to employ, on the part of the agency, some of the natives known here by the appellation of Crowmen, who possess considerable skill in that business. The expense, it is agreed on by Capt Harding, of the Norfolk, and by the agent, Mr. Ashmun, and myself, shall be equally divided between and defrayed by the owners of the vessel and the United States. Every exertion is made, and will be continued on the part of the agency, to place the public property in the safest, the least expensive, and the most speedy manner, on shore; and it is hoped that, with a strict adherence to the arrangement on the part of the captain, the whole of the public property in ten days more will be


landed. It is, however, apprehended that the property shipped by the owners and the captain of the Norfolk, and intended to be disposed of at Mesurado, will cause some delay to the departure of the vessel, and that her return to the United States will be much later than is expected, in consequence of the considerable detention that vessels stopping at the Cape de Verde Islands to take in a cargo of salt, (as is the intention of Captain H.,) are said at this season of the year to experience. When I arrived, Mr. Ashmun was severely afflicted with a catarrhal affection, from which, however, I am happy to state, he is now recovering. From the propriety of the conduct of the liberated Africans while on board, and since their arrival here, I regard their arrival as one of the most fortunate events to themselves and the colony, and one that has already produced the strongest proof how sensible these liberated Africans are of the benefits conferred upon them by the Government of the United States, in breaking their chains and placing them on the shores of their native country, with the blessings of liberty and civilization. Numerous applications for my professional services have been made since my arrival by colonists, as well as by Africans formerly transported. Here and at Stockton, at six miles from Monrovia, I have seen a great number of patients in the most deplorable state, for want of medical and surgical assistance, most of which are chronic affections. Impressed with a belief that this season, however dreaded by the natives and colonists, presents much less danger to passengers arriving from the United States or Europe than the dry season, I have taken great interest and pleasure in endeavoring to be useful to the sick, and the continuance of my own health, and the convalescence of those who placed themselves under my care, have not given me cause to regret what has been repeatedly called great imprudence, viz: visiting at all times those who desired and required my services. Four of the liberated Africans have been constantly employed by the captain, and done ship's duty during the voyage. They have received no compensation excepting a greater allowance of water and provisions, approaching to that of the ship.

Terms on which the recaptured Africans will be placed in the families of colonists, and at service in Monroe and Caldwell.

Class 1. Laboring men having wives, and not mechanics. Man and wife not to be separated; comfortable and sufficient provisions to be found them; quarters to be provided them, dry, and capable of being kept perfectly clean, and they are to receive, as their wants require it, a sufficient supply of decent clothing, suited to the climate and to their employments; one month's provision shall be furnished them, also the materials for one cheap suit of clothing, at the public charge, and no more. Terms of contracting their services on the above conditions: Twelve calendar months' wages for the pair: seven bars of good assorted merchandise, or three and a half dollars in merchantable country produce per month; one-fourth part monthly, three-fourths at the year's end.

Class 2. Mechanics. The above terms and conditions all to hold, except wages, which are to be $8 per month.

Class 3. Laboring single men. The same terms as the preceding classes, except wages, which are $2.50 per month.

Class 4. Laboring single women, above eighteen years of age. The same terms, &c, except wages, which are to be $1 per month.

Class 5. Single girls under eighteen. Same terms, except that the first month is a period of probation; the term of service shall be until eighteen years of age, and no pecuniary compensation allowed; but the girls shall be caused to attend Sunday school and divine worship on Sundays, and treated with the tenderness and care of members of the families they are connected with.

Class G. Boys not grown. Same terms as the preceding; term of service, say three years, or until twenty-one years of age.

General additions to the preceding.

No recaptured Africans, engaged on the terms above specified, are to be sent into the country to sit down, for trade or other purposes, unless, or longer than, attended by their guardians; nor are they to be permitted to straggle off, and waste their time in idleness among the country people, without suitable means to recover them.


Expenditures under the appropriation for the prohibition of the slave trade, in accounts settled between January 1 and November 24, 1827

Date of settlement Account settled To whom paid Purposes   Total
Jan. 25 .J. B. Winn, late special agent Sundries Rope, duck, cable, guns, repairs on schooner Augusta, provisions, tobacco, charter of a schooner, pay of the Augusta's crow, making clothes, burying dead, &c   $3,348 00
March 14. J. W. Peaco, special agent J. W. Peaco Salary from January 1, 1826, to February 28, 1827, at $1,600 $1,866 67  
    J. W. Peaco Expenses on extra service at Sierra Leone 301 11  
    J. W. Peaco Outfit to Africa 600 00  
    Sundries Provisions, powder, cutlasses, iron, steel, beads, pipes, labor, &c 5,505 87  
          8, 173 65
April 19. J. Nicholson, marshal E. Dist. La   Bounty, subsistence, clothing, medicine, &c., for fifteen Africans, illegally brought into the port of Now Orleans on board of the schooner Fell's Point, on July 1, 1825   5,442 22
June 30. J. M. Berrien, proc. for J. Jackson   Bounty on one hundred and fifty Africans imported in the Ramirez, at $25   3,750 00
July 12. W. Loyall, dep. marshal, Norfolk   Maintenance, &c., of twelve Africans, (from March 17 to May 4, 1827), imported into Now Orleans, and brought to Norfolk for transportation to Africa   251 40
July 12. Nathaniel Currier, jailor, Norfolk   Jail fees for six Africans brought from New Orleans to Norfolk, for transportation to Africa   71 04
July 16. J. Beatty, navy agent Sweetser & Co Pipes   33 33
July 25. John Hodges   Medicine and attendance at Fort Norfolk on Africans sent from Now Orleans to Norfolk, for transportation to Africa   70 39
Aug. 1. G. Harrison, naval agent Gusse and Korckhoan Beads $35 00  
    Brown and Lewis Sheeting 262 26  
    Frederick Brown Medicine 145 19  
          442 45
Sept. 12 J. H. Morel, marshal, Geo   Collecting and embarking one hundred and thirty-four Africans on board of the transport ship Norfolk for Africa, July, 1827   335 00
Sept. 22. Samuel Peaco, jr   Services as clerk to the African agency, from April 13 to June 25, 1827, at $25 per month $60 00  
      Traveling expenses from Annapolis to Norfolk. 40 35  
          100 35
Oct. 4. M. King, navy agent Sundries Boards, nails, looks, anchors, canvas, cooking utensils, earthenware, hospital stores, provisions, tobacco, stationery, board of Africans, and transportation, &c.   3,886 50
Nov. 3. Jehudi Ashmun, agent   Salary from January 1 to March 21, 1826, at $1,500 per annum, and from March 22, 1826, to October 31, 1827, at $1,200 per annum $,270 83  
    Sundries Provisions, tobacco, clothing, carpenters' work, powder, tools, trade goods, lumber, boilers, kettles, candles, soap, labor, &c 12,282 82  
          14,553 65
          $40,458 58


Advances to debit of J. W. Peaco $2,533 33
Advances to debit of James Laurie 150 00
Advances to debit of George P. Todson 350 00
Advances to debit of Frederick Lewis 150 00
Advances to debit of J. B. Winn 412 72
Advances to debit of Samuel Bacon 1,386 92
  $4,982 97

Treasury Department, Fourth Auditor's Office, November 26, 1827.


Expenditures by Richard Dashiel, lieutenant commanding, and by Midshipman Richard R. McMullin, successor in the command of the schooner Augusta, and in settlement of their accounts, and carried to the debit of pay and contingent expenses, viz:

Paid officers and crew of the schooner Augusta, between the 21st of March and 3d of November, 1823 $1,850 94
Paid board and lodging, nursing, medicine, &c, for sick; cabin furniture; premium for recruiting; passage of two officers to the United States, and traveling expenses 495 25
  $2,346 19

Estimate of the sum required for the support of the agency on the coast of Africa, and the prohibition of the slave trade.

For the salaries of the principal and assistant agents $2,800
For the medicines and hospital stores 500
For the lumber and other materials to complete the buildings 1,000
For the incidental expenses connected with the agency 5, 100
To provide for any captures which may be made during the year $30,000



Navy Commissioners' Office, November 15, 1821.

Sir: The Commissioners of the Navy have the honor to enclose herewith, in compliance with your directions, an estimate for the expenses of the navy for the year 1828, marked A, together with statements explanatory thereof, marked B, C, D, E, F, and G, and an estimate for the expenses of this office for the ensuing year, marked H.

The 8th item of the general estimate, of one hundred and five thousand dollars, will be required to complete the improvements and repairs at the several navy yards, agreeably to the estimate transmitted from this office on the 9th November, 1826, as explained in the paper marked H, which accompanied that estimate, and to which the Commissioners respectfully refer you.

When the commissioners appointed for the improvement, &c, of navy yards, under the act of the last Congress for the gradual improvement of the navy, shall have made their report, a further estimate in detail will accordingly be prepared and submitted. The Commissioners would respectfully recommend that the several balances which may remain on the books of the Treasury on the 1st day of January, 1828, to the credit of the enumerated contingent funds, prior to that date, may be carried to the credit of that fund for the year 1828, to which all claims chargeable thereto may be charged, whether arising during the year 1828 or not. All of which is respectfully submitted.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, sir, your most obedient servant.

Hon. Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy.



General estimates.

There will be required for the navy, during the year 1828, three millions forty-three thousand six hundred and ninety-seven dollars and seventy-five cents, in addition to the unexpended balances that may remain on hand on the 1st January, 1828.

1. For pay and subsistence of officers, and pay of seamen, other than those at navy yards, shore stations, and in ordinary $1, 176,213 00
2. For pay, subsistence, and allowances of officers, and pay of seamen at navy yards, shore stations, hospitals, and in ordinary 185,032 35
3. For pay of superintendents, naval-constructor, and all the civil establishment at the several navy yards and stations 59, 102 50
4. For provisions 505,000 00
5. For repairs of vessels in ordinary, and for the wear and tear of vessels in commission 475,000 00
6. For medicines, surgical instruments, and hospital stores 27,000 00
7. For ordnance and ordnance stores 50,000 00
8. For repairs and improvements of navy yards 105,000 00
9. For arrearages prior to 1st January, 1828 15,000 00
10. For completing the construction and equipment of the sloops-of-war authorized by act of Congress of 3d March, 1825 201,350 00
11. For defraying the expenses which may accrue during the year 1828, for the following purposes, viz: for freight and transportation of materials and stores of every description; for wharfage and dockage, storage and rent; for traveling expenses of officers, and transportation of seamen; house rent, chamber money, and fuel and  


candles, to officers, other than those attached to navy yards and shore stations, and for officers in sick quarters where there is no hospital; for commissions, clerk hire, office rent, stationery and fuel to navy agents; for premiums and incidental expenses of recruiting; for apprehending deserters; for compensation of judge advocates; for per diem allowances to persons attending courts-martial and courts of inquiry, and to officers engaged on extra service beyond the limits of their stations; for printing and for stationery of every description; for books, maps, charts, nautical and mathematical instruments, chronometers, models, and drawings; for purchase and repair of steam and fire engines, and for machinery; for purchase and maintenance of oxen and horses, and for carts, wheels, and workmen's tools of every description; for postage of letters on public service; for pilotage; for cabin furniture of vessels in commission; for taxes on navy yards and public property; for assistance rendered to public vessels in distress; for incidental labor at navy yards, not applicable to any other appropriation; for coal and other fuel for forges, foundries, and steam engines; for candles, oil and fuel, for vessels in commission and in ordinary; for repairs of magazines and powder houses; for preparing moulds for ships to be built; and for no other object or purpose whatever $240,000 00
12. For contingent expenses for objects arising in the year 1828, and not herein enumerated 5,000 00
  $3,043,697 75



Estimate of the pay and subsistence of all persons of the navy, attached to vessels in commission for the year 1828.

Ships of the line. Frigates. Sloops. Schooners Total each grade. Amount of pay and subsistence.
First class. Second class. First class. Second class.
Number of each class 1 4 2 9 3 4
Captains 2 4 2 1 9 $20,290 00
Masters commandant 8 3 11 12,938 75
Lieutenants commanding 4 4 3,860 00
Lieutenants 10 24 10 36 12 12 104 78,390 00
Masters 2 4 2 9 3 20 13,250 00
Pursers 1 4 2 9 3 4 23 15,237 50
Surgeons 1 4 2 9 3 19 14,867 50
Surgeons' mates 4 8 4 9 3 4 32 18,987 50
Chaplains 1 4 2 7 4,637 50
Midshipmen 34 96 40 108 30 16 324 73,872 00
Secretaries 1 3 4 4,000 00
Schoolmasters 1 4 2 9 16 6,260 00
Clerks 1 4 2 9 3. 4 23 6,900 00
Boatswains 1 4 2 9 3 19 6,293 75
Gunners 1 4 2 9 3 4 23 7,618 75
Carpenters 1 4 2 9 3 19 6,293 75
Sailmakers 1 4 2 9 3 19 6,293 75
Boatswains' mates 6 12 6 18 6 8 56 12,768 00
Gunners' mates 3 8 4 9 3 27 6,156 00
Carpenters' mates 3 8 4 9 3 4 31 7,068 00
Sailmakers' mates 2 4 2 9 4 21 4,788 00
Quartermasters 12 36 18 45 12 16 139 30,024 00
Quartergunners 20 48 20 54 18 12 172 37,152 00
Yeomen 3 12 6 27 9 4 61 13,176 00
Captains' stewards 1 4 2 9 3 4 23 4,968 00
Captains' cooks 1 4 2 9 3 19 4,104 00
Coopers 1 4 2 9 3 19 4,104 00
Armorers 1 4 2 9 3 19 4,104 00
Armorers' mates 2 1 1 4 8 1,440 00
Masters-at-arms 1 4 2 9 3 19 4,104 00
Ships' corporals 4 8 4 16 2,688 00
Cooks 1 4 2 9 3 4 23 4,968 00
Masters of the bands 1 4 2 7 1,512 00
Musicians, 1st class 6 16 6 28 4,032 00
Musicians, 2d class 5 12 4 21 2,520 00
Seamen 280 600 240 540 150 56 1,866 268,704 00
Ordinary seamen 260 680 260 450 120 40 1,810 217,200 00
Boys 40 60 20 90 30 17 257 18,504 00
Total 5,318 $954,074 75



Estimate of the pay and rations, and all other allowances of officers and all others, at the navy yards and stations, for the year 1828.

Number. Pay per month. Rations per day. House rent per annum. Candles per annum. Cords of wood per annum. Servants at $8. Servants at $6. Amount of pay, rations, and allowances per annum.
Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandants 1 60 5 $300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 20 20 1 1,081 00
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Midshipmen 2 19 1 638 50
Boatswain 1 20 2 12 9 1 651 75
Gunner 1 20 2 12 9 1 651 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Ordinary. $12,401 00
* Carpenter's mate 1 19 1 $319 25
Able seamen 4 12 1 941 00
Ordinary seamen 6 10 1 1,267 50
Civil department $2,527 75
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 300 00
Clerk to commandant, to do duty as clerk to master builder 1 500 00
Clerk to yard 1 600 00
Master builder 1 2,000 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$5,400 00
Total $20,378 75
Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 40 20 2 1,710 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 20 20 1 1.081 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 753 75
Master 1 40 2 20 12 1 941 75
Master 1 40 2 662 50
Surgeon 1 50 2 20 20 1 1,109 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 $145 16 14 1 950 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Chaplain 1 40 2 250 12 9 1 1,141 75
Midshipmen 4 19 1 1,277 00
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 12 9 1 651 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Ordinary. $16,257 50
Lieutenant 1 40 3 $753 75
Master 1 40 2 662 50
Carpenter 1 20 2 12 9 1 651 75
* Carpenter's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Boatswain's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Able seamen 14 12 3,293 50
Ordinary seamen 26 10 1 5,492 50
$11,492 50

* To attend particularly to vessels in ordinary, to caulk,& c.


C.—Estimate of pay and rations—Continued,

Number Pay per month. Rations per day. House rent per annum. Candles per annum. Cords of wood per annum. Servants at $8. Servants at $6. Amount of pay, rations, and allowances per annum.
Surgeon 1 $50 2 $200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 450 00
Clerk to yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 1 750 00
Clerk to commandant 1 30 360 00
Master builder 1 2,300 00
Clerk to master builder 1 420 00
Inspector and meas. of timber 1 900 00
Porter 1 300 00
$8,080 00
Total $39,430 00


Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 $300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 200 20 20 1 1,281 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 753 75
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Chaplain 1 40 2 250 12 9 1 1,141 75
Teacher of mathematics 1 40 2 90 12 9 1 981 75
Teacher of languages 1 40 2 662 50
Midshipmen 4 19 1 1,277 00
Boatswain. 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$17,910 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 $753 75
Master 1 40 2 662 50
* Carpenter 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Carpenters' mates 2 19 1 638 50
Boatswain's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Able seamen 14 12 1 3,293 05
Ordinary seamen 26 10 1 5,492 50
$11,901 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook. 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00

* To attend particularly to vessels in ordinary, to caulk,& c.


C.—Estimate of pay and rations—Continued.

Number. Pay per month. Rations per day. House rent per annum. Candles per annum. Cords of wood per annum. Servants at $8. Servants at $6. Amount of pay, rations, and allowances per annum.
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 450 00
Clerk to yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 1 750 00
Clerk to commandant 1 $30 360 00
Master builder 1 2,300 00
Clerk to master builder 1 420 00
Inspector and meas. of timber. 1 900 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$8,080 00
Total $41,491 75
Captain 1 $100 16 $600 65 30 3 $4,066 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 200 20 20 1 1,281 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 753 75
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon. 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Chaplain 1 40 2 250 12 9 1 1,141 75
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$14,638 00
* Carpenter's mate, 1 19 1 $319 25
Able seamen 4 12 1 941 00
Ordinary seamen 6 10 1 1,267 50
$2,527 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 10 1 211 25
$3,576 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,200 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 300 00
Clerk to yard 1 600 00
Clerk to commandant 1 750 00
Master builder 1 2,000 00
Clerk to master builder 1 25 300 00
Inspector and meas. of timber. 1 700 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$6,150 00
Total $26,891 75

To attend particularly to vessels in ordinary, to caulk, &c.


C.—Estimate of pay and rations—Continued,

Number. Pay per month. Rations per day. House rent per annum. Candles per annum. Cords of wood per annum. Servants at $8 Servants at $6 Amount of pay, rations, and allowances per annum.
Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 75 6 40 20 2 1,982 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 20 20 1 1,081 00
Master 1 40 2 20 12 1 941 75
Master in charge of ordnance 1 40 662 50
Master keeper of magazine 1 40 2 662 50
Chaplain 1 40 2 $250 12 9 1 1,141 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner as laboratory officer. 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$12,870 75
Boatswain's mate 1 19 1 $319 25
* Carpenter's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Able seamen 6 12 1 1,411 50
Ordinary seamen 8 10 1 1,690 00
$3,740 00
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurse 1 10 1 211 25
Washer 1 8 1 187 25
Cook 1 10 1 211 25
$3,177 50
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 450 00
Clerk to yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 1 1,000 00
Clerk to commandant 1 40 480 00
Master builder 1 2,300 00
Clerk to master builder 1 35 420 00
Inspector and meas. of timber 1 900 00
Master chain cable and caboose maker 1 1,500 00
Machinist 1 600 00
Engineer 1 782 50
Assistant master builder 1 1,500 00
Master plumber 1 1,200 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$14,032 50
Total $33,820 75
Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 $300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 200 20 20 1 1,281 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 753 75
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Chaplain 1 40 2 250 12 9 1 1,141 75
Teacher of mathematics 1 40 2 90 12 9 1 981 75

* To attend particularly to vessels in ordinary, to caulk, &c.


C.—Estimate of pay and rations—Continued.

Number. Pay per month. Rations per day. House rent per annum. Candles per annum. Cords of wood per annum. Servants at $8. Servants at $6. Amount of pay, rations, and allowances per annum.
Midshipmen 4 $19 1 $1,277 00
Boatswain 1 20 2 $90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$17,910 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 $753 75
Master 1 40 2 662 50
* Carpenter 1 20 2 90 12 9 741 75
* Carpenter's mate 2 19 1 638 50
Boatswain's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Able seamen 14 12 1 3,293 50
Ordinary seamen 26 10 1 5,492 50
$11,901 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 450 00
Clerk to yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 1 750 00
Clerk to commandant 1 30 360 00
Master builder 1 2,000 00
Clerk to master builder 1 35 420 00
Inspector and meas. of timber 1 900 00
Keeper of magazine 1 480 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$8,260 00
Total $41,671 75
Captain 1 $100 16 $600 65 30 3 $4,066 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 200 20 20 1 1,281 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 753 75
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 957 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Midshipmen 3 19 1 957 75
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$11,863 25
Carpenter 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 $741 75
Carpenter's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Able seamen 4 12 1 941 00
Ordinary seamen 6 10 1 1,267 50
$3,269 50

* To attend particularly to vessels in ordinary, to caulk,& c.


C.—Estimate of pay and rations—Continued.

Number. Pay per month. Rations per day. House rent per annum. Candles per annum. Cords of wood per annum. Servants at $8. Servants at $6. Amount of pay, rations, and allowances per annum.
Surgeon 1 $50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 300 00
Clerk to yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 1 600 00
Master builder 1 2,000 00
Clerk to master builder. 1 25 300 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$6,100 00
Total $24,832 75
Captain 1 $100 8 $300 65 30 3 $3,036 75
Lieutenant 1 40 2 753 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Purser 1 40 2 662 50
$5,762 75
1 $100 8 $300 65 30 3 $3,036 75
Captain 1 40 3 753 75
Lieutenant 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Surgeon 1 40 2 662 50
Purser $5,762 75
Master 1 $40 2 $200 20 12 1 $1,141 75

Recapitulation—composing the second and third items of general estimate.

Second item. Second item. Second item. Third item. Aggregate.
Naval. Ordinary. Hospital. Civil.
Portsmouth, N. H. $12,401 00 $2,527 75 $5,400 00 $20,328 75
Boston 16,257 50 11,492 50 $3,600 00 8,080 00 29,430 00
New York 17,910 00 11,901 75 3,600 00 8,080 00 41,491 75
Philadelphia 14,638 00 2,527 75 3,576 00 6,150 00 26,891 75
Washington 12,870 75 3,740 00 3,177 50 14,032 50 33,820 75
Norfolk 17,910 00 11,901 75 3,600 00 8,260 00 41,671 75
Pensacola 11,863 25 3,269 50 3,300 00 6,100 00 24,832 75
Baltimore 5,762 75 5,762 75
Charleston 5,762 75 5,762 75
Sackett's Harbor 1,141 75 1,141 75
Naval constructor. 3,000 00 3,000 00
Total $116,517 75 $47,361 00 $21,153 50 $59,102 50 $244,134 75

Papers B, D, E, and F compose the first item of general estimate.

The naval, ordinary, and hospital estimates, on paper C, make the second item.

And the civil estimate, on paper C, the third item.

Paper C explains the fourth item.




Estimate of the number, pay, &c., of officers, &c., required for five receiving vessels, for the year 1328, a part of the first item of general estimate.

Boston. New York. Philadelphia. Norfolk. Baltimore. Total number. Amount.
Masters commandant 1 1 1 1 4 $4,705 00
Lieutenants 3 3 2 3 2 13 9,798 75
Masters 1 1 1 3 1,987 50
Pursers 1 1 1 3 1,987 50
Surgeons' mates 1 1 1 3 1,627 50
Midshipmen 3 3 2 3 2 13 2,964 00
Boatswains' mates 1 1 1 1 1 5 1,140 00
Carpenters' mates 1 1 1 1 4 912 00
Stewards 1 1 1 1 1 5 1,080 00
Cooks 1 1 1 1 1 5 1,080 00
Able seamen 2 2 2 2 2 10 1,440 00
Ordinary seamen 6 6 4 6 2 24 2,880 00
Boys 4 4 2 4 2 16 1,152 00
108 $32,754 25

Ordnance service.

One Captain. $1,930




Estimate of the pay, &c., of officers attached to recruiting stations, for the year 1828, a part of the first item of the general estimate.

Boston. New York Philadelphia. Baltimore. Norfolk. Total. Amount of pay and rations.
Masters commandant 1 1 1 1 1 5 $5,881 25
Lieutenants 2 2 2 2 2 10 7,537 50
Midshipmen 2 2 2 2 2 10 3,192 50
Surgeons 1 1 1 1 1 5 3,912 50
$20,523 75


Exhibit of the officers,& c, awaiting orders and on furlough—part of first item.

Captains. Masters commandant. Lieutenants. Surgeons. Surgeons' mates. Pursers Midshipmen. Carpenters. Sailmakers. Total.
Waiting orders 13 7 111 12 11 8 85 2 1 $165,097 50
Furlough 3 2 1 1,832 75
$166,930 25



Estimate for provisions required for the year 1828.

To vessels in commission, persons 5,033
Mariners on board 749
Receiving vessels 82
At one ration per day, is 2,140,360 rations, estimated at 25 cents each, is $535,000 00
From which may be deducted, as a balance will probably remain on hand the present year, this sum 30,000 00
Total $505,000 00

Copy of a letter from Lieut. Colonel Archibald Henderson to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

Head-Quarters of the Marine Corps, Washington, September 26, 1827.

I transmit to the Department the annual estimate of the marine corps for the year 1828.

The arms of the corps, from long use, are entirely worn out. It has therefore been deemed necessary to include in the estimate the sum of twenty-one thousand dollars for the purchase of fifteen hundred stand of arms.

On a recent visit to fortress Monroe, I made particular inquiries in relation to the utility and efficiency of Hall's rifle, and of its being particularly useful to the soldiers of the marine corps, on the various services on which they were employed. I had the most satisfactory assurance that this description of arms has a decided advantage over the musket, which has been heretofore used.

The principal objection to this rifle has been entirely done away, by a full experiment at that fortress.

It has been fired several thousand times, and not the slightest disorder or difficulty was experienced, though the discharge was as rapid as any service could require.

The price of each stand of arms is fixed at 14 dollars; the cost of this rifle.

I transmit with the estimates letters from the quarter and paymaster.

Copy of a letter from Lieutenant E. J. Weed, quartermaster of the marine corps, to Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Henderson, dated—

Head-Quarters of the Marine Corps, Quartermaster's Office,

Washington City, September 24, 1827.

I have the honor to submit, herewith, an estimate of appropriation required for the quartermaster's department of the marine corps, for the year 1828.

The 3,098 dollars for arrearages for fuel, is rendered necessary, in consequence of this amount having been deducted from the estimate for the present year.

Twenty-one thousand dollars is required for re-arming the corps; the arms now in use having become entirely unfit for service, and unworthy of repair.

Copy of a letter from Captain Joseph L. Kuhn, paymaster of the marine corps, to Lieutenant Colonel Henderson, dated—

Paymaster's Office, Marine Corps, Navy Department, September 22, 1827.

You will herewith receive an estimate for the pay of officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians and privates, and for the subsistence of officers of the United States marine corps, for the year 1828.

Estimate of pay for officers, non-commissioned offices, musicians and privates, and subsistence for the officers of the United States marine corps, for the year 1828.


One lieutenant colonel commandant, at $75 per month $900 00  
Four lieutenant colonels, at $60 per month 2,880 00  
One paymaster, at $50 per month 600 00  
One quartermaster, at $60 per month 720 00  
Four captains, at $40 per month 1,920 00  
Twenty-three first lieutenants, at $30 per month 8,280 00  
Sixteen second lieutenants, at $25 per month 4,800 00  
One surgeon, at $50 per month 600 00  
One surgeon's mate, at $40 per month 480 00  
One sergeant major, at $10 per month 120 00  
One quartermaster sergeant, at $10 per month 120 00  
One drum major, at $9 per month 108 00  
One fife major, at $9 per month 108 00  
Seventy-one sergeants, at $9 per month 7,668 00  
Seventy-three corporals, at $8 per month 7,008 00  
Twenty drummers, at $7 per month 1,680 00  
Twenty fifers, at $7 per month 1,680 00  
Seven hundred and fifty privates, at $6 per month 54,000 00  
Extra pay to the adjutant and inspector, at $30 per month 360 00  
Extra pay to three lieutenant colonels, from 3d March, 1827,
to 31st December 1828, at $20 per month, $198.33
each (not before appropriated for 1827)
594 99  
    $94,626 99



One lieutenant colonel, at six rations, and six as commandant, 4,380 rations, at 20 cents each $876 00  
Four lieutenant colonels, at five rations per day, is 7,300, at 20 cents 1,460 00  
One paymaster, at four rations per day, is 1,460, at 20 cents 292 00  
One quartermaster, at four rations per day, is 1,460, at 20 cents 292 00  
Four captains, at three rations per day, is 4,380, at 20 cents 876 00  
Twenty-three first lieutenants, at four rations per day, is 33,580, at 20 cents.. 6,716 00    
Sixteen second lieutenants, at three rations per day, is 17,520, at 20 cents 3,504 00  
Surgeon, at two rations per day, is 720, at 25 cents 180 00  
One surgeon's mate, at two rations per day, is 720, at 25 cents 180 00  
Six additional rations per day, for three lieutenant colonels, from 3d March, 1827,
to 31st December, 1827, is 1,824 rations, at 20 cents per ration,
(this amount not before appropriated,)
364 80  
    $14,740 80
    $109,367 79

(Signed) JOS. L. KUHN, Paymaster Marine Corps.

Paymaster's Office, Marine Corps, Navy Department, September 21, 1827.

Estimate for expenditures in the Quartermasters department of the United States marine corps, for the year 1828.


For 297 non-commissioned officers, musicians, privates and washerwomen, serving on shore, at one ration per day each, is 108,405, at 12 cents per ration, is   $13,008 60


For 938 non-commissioned officers, musicians and privates, at $30 each, is $28,140 00  
For 100 watch coats, at $6.25 each, is 625 00  
    28,765 00


For the officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians, privates, and washerwomen, and for the public offices and armory $9,098 00  
Arrearage for fuel 2,098 00  
    12,196 00


For traveling expenses for officers and transportation for men; freight of stores from one station to another; toll, ferriage, wharfage and cartage; expenses of recruiting; per diem allowance for attending courts-martial and courts of inquiry, and for officers on extra duty; compensation to judge advocates; house rent and chamber money, where there are no public quarters assigned; incidental labor in the Quartermaster's department; expenses of burying deceased persons belonging to the marine corps; printing and stationery; postage on public letters; forage; expenses in pursuing deserters; keeping in repair the barracks at the different stations; straw for the men, barrack furniture, spades, axes, shovels, picks, and carpenter's tools, and for no other purpose whatever $13,500 00  
For sundry expenses arising in the current year, and not hereinbefore mentioned. 500 00  
    14,000 00


For the purchase of 1,500 stand of arms, with accoutrements complete, at $14 each, is   21,000 00


For keeping the arms in repair, armorer's pay, and armorer's tools and ordnance stores   3,000 00


For medicines, hospital stores, and instruments for the use of the officers and marines (on shore)   2,369 71
    $94,339 31


E. J. WEED, Q. M. M. C.

Head-Quarters Marine Corps, Quartermaster's Office, Washington City, September 24, 1827.

Additional appropriation required for the Quartermasters department, for the year 1828.

For arrearages for fuel, quarters, traveling, court-martial expenses to officers, judge advocates' fees, premium for recruiting, and other incidental expenses, from the year 1821 to 1825.

$39,244 40

E. J. WEED, Q. M. M. Corps.

Head-Quarters Marine Corps, Quartermaster's Office. Washington, October 20, 1827.



Navy Commissioners' Office, November 30, 1827.

Sir: The Commissioners of the Navy have the honor to hand, enclosed, a statement marked A, showing the present state and condition of the vessels built and building, under laws for the gradual increase of the navy and for building ten sloops-of-war, and of those in ordinary, and that are undergoing repairs at the several navy yards.

A statement, also, marked B, is respectfully submitted, showing, in part, the progress made in executing the law for the gradual improvement of the navy.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, sir, your most obedient servant,

SAM'L L. SOUTHARD, Secretary of the Navy.



Statement showing the present state and condition of the United States vessels-of-war now on the stocks, and those in ordinary and repairing, at the several navy yards.


Alabama 74. A—Hull in good order, except some decay in her planks, masts and spars; nearly finished, and considerable progress made in her inboard works, sails, &c.

Santee 44. A—Hull in good order, except some decay in her planks, masts, and spars; nearly got out, and progress made in her inboard works, sails, &c.

Concord, sloop. B—Frame complete, and ready for planking; plank, thick stuff, beams, carlings, &c., dressed out; also stanchions, combings, gun carriages, masts, and spars, nearly finished; sails nearly complete.


Virginia 74. A—Hull sound and in good order; complete, except the stern to plank; masts and yards nearly complete; gun carriages partly got out; boats built; considerable progress made in inboard works, &c.

Vermont 74. A—Hull sound and in good order, and nearly completed; masts and yards, gun carriages, boats, &c., &c., progressed in.

Columbus 74. A—Hull sound and in good order; also masts and spars, except some few small spars; armament and sails in good order; her magazines, cabins, &c, require some slight repairs, and her copper requires to be examined before she could prudently be sent to sea.

Independence 74—Her hull in good order; her magazines, platforms, waterways, &c., require some repairs; her masts and spars so defective as to require a new set; spare spars and sails in good order. Before going to sea, her copper should be examined.

Cumberland 44. A—Hull sound and in good condition; planked in and outboard up to lower port sills, except eight strakes of bottom plank and of wales; masts and yards nearly got out.

Falmouth, sloop. B—In good order; now preparing for sea.


Ohio 74. A—Outside plank much decayed from the rail to the wales, and some spots of decay inside in the plank, across the stern, in the ceiling, and gun deck clamps.

Washington 74—Will require considerable repairs in her planking, top timbers, beams, and floor timbers; the copper should be examined before she goes to sea.

Franklin 74—Will require planking from near water's edge to the rail, and an examination of her copper.

United States 44—Will require considerable repairs in hull, and some repairs in sails, masts and spars; standing and running rigging generally in good order.

Liberator 44. A—Frigate of first class, purchased, now in ordinary.

Savannah 44. A—Hull sound and in good condition, except the wales and one of the riding-bitt knees; masts and spars considerably advanced; laying the gun, spar, and berth decks, progressed in, &c.

Fairfield, sloop. B—Her frame prepared and raised; floors filled in and caulked, with deck beams put in, kneed, and bolted; also wales, kelson, and bilge strakes; progress made in her inboard works.

Sabine 44. A—Advanced to the building of the head and stern; masts and spars, &c., progressed in.

Fulton, steam frigate—Used as receiving ship.

Peacock, sloop—Will require new sails, and considerable repairs in hull, and standing and running rigging.

Shark, schooner—Undergoing repairs.


Pennsylvania, ship of the line. A—Planked from floor-heads to upper gun deck ports; lower gun and orlop decks laid; spirketings, ceiling between ports on; stanchions up; middle gun deck beams in; ledge knees fayed and bolted; partners fitted; upper gun decks on, and beams nearly in; also spar deck, and port sills of gun decks; a great portion of her copper and iron work prepared,& c.

Raritan 44. A—Planked inside and out, except openings for air; decks completed, except orlop; and progress made in her inboard works.

Vandalia, sloop. B—Frame, except counter timbers, up; one-third of the wales on; beams for deck dressed out; knees sided; inboard works and sails considerably progressed in.

Cyane, corvette—Requires very extensive repairs.


Potomac 44. A—Carpenters' work nearly done. Masts, spars, gun carriages, boats, &c., nearly complete.


Columbia 44. A—Wales on; breast hooks, orlops, and berth decks, and spirketings, just in; waterways, knees and breast hooks, for gun and spar decks, hewed out; beams ready; cutwater and channels prepared; masts and spars progressing; gun carriages, skids, and beds roughed out, &c.

Congress 36—Has been thoroughly repaired, and is now ready to fit for sea.

St. Louis, sloop. B—Frame complete, except counter timbers; beams for berth and gun decks trimmed out; masts and spars nearly made; gun carriages roughed out, &c.


Delaware 74. A—In good order, and about to proceed to sea.

St. Lawrence 44. A—Timbering complete, except the cants, filling in the floors, and fitting kelsons.

North Carolina, 74. A—In good order, except her copper, which is somewhat defective, and requires examination.

New York 74. A—Required to complete the hull; planking of the upper and spar decks; thirty-six strakes on lower gun, and twenty on orlop, and planking between ports, from rail to string; twenty-four strakes in the bottom, head and galleries, &c.

Guerriere, 44—Has been thoroughly repaired, and is now ready to receive a crew. Constellation 36—Requires a thorough repair.

John Adams, corvette—Requires extensive repairs in her hull, sails and rigging, and must be hove down to examine her bottom.

Live oak frames for three frigates of the first class, delivering under contract.

[The letters A in italic denote those vessels built and building, under gradual increase; and B those building under the law of March 3, 1825, for building ten sloops of war; five of which have been completed and are now in service at sea.]


Under the act "for the gradual improvement of the navy," the Commissioners have had the necessary moulds prepared, and have contracted for the frames and promiscuous timber, of live oak, for five ships of the line, five frigates and five sloops-of-war of the first class, and part of a frame for a sloop-of-war has been purchased.

Under the same act, scows, anchors and driving machines have been procured; and contracts have been made for timber for a coffer dam, for all the earth, clay, gravel work, and labor for covering two wharves, (one two hundred feet long and sixty feet wide, the other one hundred feet square,) for filling the coffer dam, filling in and backing up the dry stone quay wall; two steam engines, pumps, boilers, machinery, &c., required for a dry dock at Boston, and progress has been made in the construction of a coffer dam, &c.

The civil engineer employed in the construction of the docks has proceeded to Norfolk, where the materials will be procured for constructing a dock, and the work commenced as early as circumstances will admit.

Appropriated by the "act for the gradual improvement of the navy," approved March 3, 1827 $500,000 00
Expended on account of the objects specified in the said act 80,978 81
Balance unexpended, December 1, 1827 $419,021 19


Head-Quarters of the Marine Corps, Washington, November 27, 1827.

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter of this day's date, and, in compliance with the direction contained in it, I transmit to you two papers, Nos. 1 and 2, showing the number of officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates which, in my opinion, are necessary to form a competent guard for each navy yard, and for each vessel now in commission.

In my communications to the Department, I have heretofore assigned a smaller force to the prominent naval establishments at Boston, Norfolk and New York. The docks about to be established at the two former yards lead me to the conclusion that the force I have now allotted to each of them is by no means too large for the protection of the important public interests to be concentrated at them. If there should not be a dock establishment at the New York yard, the number of vessels fitted out there, and the consequent concentration of all the materials necessary for repairing and fitting them out, render it necessary that an effective force should be stationed for its protection. I have included the Constellation frigate among the vessels in commission, under the supposition that the flag ship on the West India station would be of her class.

It may be proper to state that, when relief squadrons are fitted out for distant seas, additional calls are made on the corps to a considerable amount, and not provided for in this statement; and which will make a deduction from the force on shore until the return of the relieved force. I have assigned a captain to the flag ship of each squadron.

I have appended to the statement a small force at head-quarters. At some one of the stations there must, necessarily, be ah establishment for the preservation and repair of the arms of the corps; and as there is already an armory here, I have thought the public interest would be promoted by the retention of a small force at this post. The only possible way in which the large number of musicians required for the different guards of the corps can be furnished, is by having a number of small boys bound, and educated in music for that purpose. It would be impracticable to supply them in any other mode. This


has hitherto been done at head-quarters, and such an establishment would be required at some other post, in case this station is broken up.

I have deemed it right to recommend a field officer for each of the three large stations, and for the line of battle ship. It rests with the government what rank to assign to the commandant of the corps, in case the views now laid before it should be adopted.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

(Signed) ARCH. HENDERSON, Lieut Col. Commandant

The Hon Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy.


No. 1.

An estimate of officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates of marines required for the several vessels of the United States now in commission, viz:

Field officer. Captains. 1st lieutenants. 2d lieutenants. Sergeants. Corporals. Musicians. Privates.
Delaware 74 1 1 2 1 4 4 4 100
Java 44 1 1 3 3 2 50
Constitution 44 1 1 3 3 2 44
Brandywine 44 1 1 3 3 2 50 Flag ship.
Macedonian 36 1 1 3 3 2 40 Flag ship.
Constellation 36 1 1 3 3 2 40 Flag ship.
Corvette John Adams 1 2 2 2 28
Sloop-of-war Vincennes 1 2 2 2 22
Sloop-of-war Lexington 1 2 2 2 22
Sloop-of-war Natchez 1 2 2 2 22
Sloop-of-war Boston 1 2 2 2 22
Sloop-of-war Warren 1 2 2 2 22
Sloop-of-war Peacock 1 2 2 2 22
Sloop-of-war Ontario 1 2 2 2 20
Sloop-of-war Erie 1 2 2 2 20
Sloop-of-war Hornet 1 2 2 2 20
Schooner Grampus 1 2 10
Schooner Shark 1 2 10
Schooner Porpoise 1 2 10
1 5 13 6 42 45 34 574

No. 2.

An estimate of officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates required to compose guards at the several navy yards, viz:

Commandant Staff.* Field officers. Captains. 1st lieutenants. 2d lieutenants. Non-com'd staff.† Sergeants. Corporals. Musicians. Privates.
Head-quarters 1 3 1 2 2 4 10 6 8 60
Navy yard, Washington 1 1 2 5 5 4 60
Navy yard, New York 1 1 3 3 8 8 4 150
Navy yard, Charlestown, Mass. 1 1 3 3 8 8 4 150
Navy yard, Philadelphia 1 2 2 7 7 4 100
Navy yard, Norfolk 1 1 3 3 8 8 4 150
Navy yard, Portsmouth, N. . 1 2 2 7 7 4 80
Navy yard, Pensacola 1 3 3 8 8 4 120
1 3 3 8 19 20 4 61 57 36 870

* Staff,—Adjutant and inspector, quartermaster, paymaster.

Non-commissioned staff.—Sergeant major, quartermaster sergeant, drum major, fife major.


Published: Tue Jan 30 10:29:14 EST 2018