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A Guide to U. S. Military Casualty Statistics

Operation Inherent Resolve, Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom

A Guide to U. S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation Inherent Resolve, Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom cover image.

Congressional
Research Service
Informing the legislative debate since 1914

A Guide to U. S. Military Casualty Statistics:
Operation Inherent Resolve, Operation New
Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and
Operation Enduring Freedom

Hannah Fischer
Information Research Specialist

November 20, 2014

Congressional Research Service
7-5700
www.crs.gov
RS22452

CRS REPORT
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress

Summary

This report presents statistics regarding U. S. military casualties in the active missions Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR, Iraq and Syria) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF, Afghanistan), as well as operations that have ended, Operation New Dawn (OND, Iraq) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF, Iraq). This report includes statistics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), amputations, evacuations, and the demographics of casualties. Some of these statistics are publicly available at the Department of Defense's (DOD's) website and others have been obtained through contact with experts at DOD.

This report will be updated as needed.

--i--

Contents

Overall Casualties in OIR, OIF, OND, and OEF 1
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 2
Traumatic Brain Injury 3
Major Limb Amputations 6
Self-Inflicted Wounds 7
Gender Distribution of Deaths 8
Race and Ethnicity Distribution of Deaths 8

Figures

Figure 1. Annual Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnoses in All Services, 2000-2014 3
Figure 2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by Classification, 2000-2014 Q2 5
Figure 3. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Over Time, 2000-2014 Q2, 5
Figure 4. Major Limb Amputations Due to Battle Injuries in OIF, OND, and OEF, 2001-2014 7

Tables

Table 1. Overall Casualties in OIF, OND, and OEF, 2001-2014 1
Table 2. Annual New Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnoses in All Services, 2000-2014 2
Table 3. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by Classification and Service, 2000-2014 Q2 4
Table 4. Individuals with Battle-Injury Major Limb Amputations for OEF, OIF, and OND, 2001-2014 6
Table 5. OIF and OND Gender Distribution of Deaths, 2002-2014 8
Table 6. OEF Gender Distribution of Deaths, 2001-2014 8
Table 7. OIF and OND Race and Ethnicity Distribution of Deaths, 2002-2014 8
Table 8. OEF Race and Ethnicity Distribution of Deaths, 2000-2014 9

--ii--

Overall Casualties in OIR, OIF, OND, and OEF

On August 31, 2010, President Obama announced that the U. S. combat mission in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom, or OIF) had ended.1 A transitional force of U.S. troops remained in Iraq under Operation New Dawn (OND), which ended on December 15, 2011.2 (For more information on war dates, see CRS Report RS21405, U.S. Periods of War and Dates of Current Conflicts, by Barbara Salazar Torreon.) Several thousand U.S. civilian personnel, contract personnel, and a limited number of U.S. military personnel remain in Iraq carrying out U.S. government business and cooperative programs under the auspices of agreements with the Iraqi government. On October 15, 2014, U.S. Central Command designated new military operations in Iraq and Syria against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant as Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR).3

Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) began on October 7, 2001, and is primarily located in Afghanistan. OEF is ongoing.

Daily updates of total U.S. military casualties in OND, OIF, and OEF can be found at the Department of Defense's (DOD's) website, at http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf. Table 1 gives the overall casualties in OIF, OND, and OEF.

Table 1. Overall Casualties in OIF, OND, and OEF, 2001-2014

(as of October 30, 2014)

U.S. Servicemember Deaths U.S. Department of Defense Civilian Deaths U.S. Servicemembers Wounded in Action
Operation Iraqi Freedoma 4,412 13 31,949
Operation New Dawnb 66 0 295
Operation Enduring Freedomc 2,346 4 20,037
Operation Inherent Resolved 2 0 0

Source: Table compiled by the Congressional Research Service (CRS).

a. Department of Defense (DOD), "Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) U.S. Casualty Status," Fatalities as of October 30, 2014, 10 a.m. EDT, at http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf.

b. DOD, "Operation New Dawn (OND) U.S. Casualty Status," Fatalities as of October 30, 2014, 10 a.m. EDT, at http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf.

c. DOD, "Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) U.S. Casualty Status," Fatalities as of October 30, 2014, 10 a.m. EDT, at http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf.

d. DOD, "Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) U.S. Casualty Status," Fatalities as of October 30, 2014, 10 a.m. EDT, at http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf.

____________

1 The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on the End of Combat Operations in Iraq, August 31, 2010, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2010/08/31/remarks-president-address-nation-end-combat-operations-iraq.

2 Remarks by the President and First Lady on the End of the War in Iraq, December 14, 2011, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/12/14/remarks-president-and-first-lady-end-war-iraq.

3 U.S. Department of Defense, "Centcom Designates Ops Against ISIL as 'Inherent Resolve'," October 15, 2014, at http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123422&source=GovDelivery.

--1--

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

The U.S. Army Office of the Surgeon General (OSG), using the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), provided the statistics on the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) cases. According to Dr. Michael Carino of the OSG, a case of PTSD is defined as an individual having at least two outpatient visits or one or more hospitalizations at which PTSD was diagnosed. The threshold of two or more outpatient visits is used in the DMSS to increase the likelihood that the individual has, or had, PTSD. A single visit on record commonly reflects someone who was evaluated for possible PTSD, but did not actually meet the criteria for diagnosis.

All those who have been diagnosed as having PTSD during deployment were diagnosed at least 30 days after they deployed. However, it is not possible to be certain that the PTSD resulted from an event associated with the deployment. The PTSD could have resulted from an event that occurred prior to a deployment.4 OIR began after the cut-off date, therefore its numbers are not included.

Table 2. Annual New Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnoses in All Services,

2000-2014
(as of September 5, 2014)

Year Incident Cases (Not Previously Deployed) Incident Cases
Among OEF/OIF/OND Deployed
2000 1,611
2001 1,703
2002 1,746 90
2003 1,736 985
2004 2,137 3,564
2005 2,287 6,682
2006 2,123 7,572
2007 2,571 11,586
2008 2,889 14,260
2009 2,957 13,936
2010 2,969 14,780
2011 3,119 15,933
2012 3,202 17,640
2013 3,329 14,200
2014 1,942 7,268
TOTAL 36,321 128,496

Source: CRS communication with Dr. Michael Carino, Army Office of the Surgeon General, September 11, 2014. Data from Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS).

Note: "Deployed" incident cases indicate a deployment to OEF/OIF/OND for longer than 30 days.

_____________

4 CRS communication with Department of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense liaison, September 21, 2010.

--2--

Figure 1. Annual Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnoses in All Services,

2000-2014
(as of September 5, 2014)

Figure 1. Annual Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnoses in All Services

Traumatic Brain Injury

Many statistics on traumatic brain injury (TBI) are available to the public at the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, at http://dvbic.dcoe.mil/dod-worldwide-numbers-tbi. Unlike PTSD numbers, which are broken out by those deployed and those not previously deployed, TBI numbers represent medical diagnoses of TBI that occurred anywhere U.S. forces are located, including the continental United States.5 OIR began after the cut-off date, therefore its numbers are not included.

_____________

5 Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center at http://www.dvbic.org/dod-worldwide-numbers-tbi. The DOD categorizes TBI cases as mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating. Mild TBI is characterized by a confused or disoriented state lasting less than 24 hours; loss of consciousness for up to 30 minutes; memory loss lasting less than 24 hours; and structural brain imaging that yields normal results. Moderate TBI is characterized by a confused or disoriented state that lasts more than 24 hours; loss of consciousness for more than 30 minutes, but less than 24 hours; memory loss lasting greater than 24 hours but less than seven days; and structural brain imaging yielding normal or abnormal results. Severe TBI is characterized by a confused or disoriented state that lasts more than 24 hours; loss of consciousness for more than 24 hours; memory loss for more than seven days; and structural brain imaging yielding normal or abnormal results. A penetrating TBI, or open head injury, is a head injury in which the dura mater, the outer layer of the system of membranes that envelops the central nervous system, is penetrated. Penetrating injuries can be caused by high-velocity projectiles or objects of lower velocity, such as knives, or bone fragments from a skull fracture that are driven into the brain. "Not Classifiable" indicates additional incident information is required prior to TBI categorization.

--3--

Table 3. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by Classification and Service, 2000-2014 Q2

(as of August 19, 2014)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
(Q2)
Totals
Severe or Penetrating 199 198 174 206 256 275 349 428 548 648 379 357 248 116 72 4,642
Moderate 591 612 560 560 740 780 878 1,353 1,242 1,167 1,102 1,069 916 754 465 13,603
Mild 3,167 3,678 4,074 4,454 5,521 6,238 7,866 12,402 15,245 15,152 15,793 17,346 16,102 10,235 5,817 146,413
Not Classifiable 675 507 436 287 225 271 170 336 2,583 1,872 1,306 2,175 1,938 1,550 774 15,060
Total 4,632 4,995 5,244 5,507 6,742 7,564 9,263 14,519 19,618 18,839 18,580 20,947 19,204 12,655 7,128 179,718
Severe or Penetrating 88 113 90 91 98 81 54 57 46 46 43 44 38 20 17 958
Moderate 346 367 312 340 292 336 229 261 223 194 169 174 200 144 136 3,825
Mild 1,475 1,617 2,023 2,093 2,351 2,377 2,320 2,442 2,482 2,677 2,554 2,662 2,937 2,076 1,306 34,234
Not Classifiable 555 364 258 211 71 62 62 64 69 91 87 143 130 97 82 2,353
Total 2,464 2,461 2,683 2,735 2,812 2,856 2,665 2,824 2,820 3,008 2,853 3,023 3,305 2,337 1,541 41,370
Severe or Penetrating 75 78 67 81 67 63 55 57 49 52 48 61 43 30 15 867
Moderate 331 317 278 252 248 232 220 225 208 232 220 193 202 155 100 3,535
Mild 1,430 1,698 1,947 2,216 2,366 2,282 2,255 2,410 2,298 2,887 3,058 3,141 3,267 2,250 1,544 35,997
Not Classifiable 241 155 132 76 128 78 41 46 70 64 71 129 143 110 68 1,515
Total 2,077 2,248 2,424 2,625 2,809 2,655 2,571 2,738 2,625 3,235 3,397 3,524 3,655 2,545 1,727 41,914
Severe or Penetrating 90 86 60 75 97 92 89 86 74 90 74 97 68 30 15 1,159
Moderate 343 374 291 275 294 269 295 391 254 282 324 322 210 171 148 4,407
Mild 1,107 1,313 1,604 1,518 1,692 2,009 2,123 2,634 3,008 3,292 3,797 4,396 3,705 2,298 1,413 36,705
Not Classifiable 245 142 101 80 73 86 31 25 63 131 163 316 259 214 110 2,009
Total 1,785 1,915 2,056 1,948 2,156 2,456 2,538 3,136 3,399 3,795 4,358 5,131 4,242 2,713 1,686 44,280
Grand Total 10,958 11,619 12,407 12,815 14,519 15,531 17,037 23,217 28,462 28,877 29,188 32,625 30,406 20,250 12,082 307,282

Source: CRS communication with Dr. Michael Carino, Army Office of the Surgeon General, September 11th, 2014. Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, http://www.dvbic.org/dod-worldwide-numbers-tbi.

Note: Deployed and not previously deployed are combined.

--4--

Figure 2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by Classification, 2000-2014 Q2,

(as of August 19, 2014)

Figure 2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) by Classification, 2000-2014 Q2

Note: Deployed and not previously deployed are combined.

Figure 3. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Over Time, 2000-2014 Q2,

(as of August 19, 2014)

Figure 3. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Over Time, 2000-2014 Q2

Note: Deployed and not previously deployed are combined.

 

--5--

Major Limb Amputations6

Table 4 shows the number of individuals with battle-injury major limb amputations for OIF, OND, and OEF. A major limb amputation includes the loss of one or more limbs, the loss of one or more partial limbs, or the loss of one or more full or partial hand or foot. The total number of amputations in OIF, OND, and OEF as of September 1, 2014, is 1,573. OIR began after the cutoff date, therefore its numbers are not included.

Table 4. Individuals with Battle-Injury Major Limb Amputations for OEF, OIF, and OND, 2001-2014

(as of September 1, 2014)

Injury Date OEF OIF/OND Total (OEF, OIF, OND)
2001 0 0 0
2002 0 0 0
2003 9 68 77
2004 6 149 155
2005 16 145 161
2006 9 148 157
2007 13 196 209
2008 28 66 94
2009 62 22 84
2010 204 1 205
2011 251 2 253
2012 141 0 141
2013 33 0 33
2014 4 0 4

Source: CRS communication with Dr. Michael Carino, Army Office of the Surgeon General, September 11, 2014.

__________

6 A previous update of this report included major and minor limb amputations. However, statistics on minor limb amputations were not available for this update.

--6--

From 2003 until the first quarter of 2009, the majority of the major limb amputations due to battle injuries occurred in OIF. In the second quarter of 2009, however, the trend changed, and since that time, the majority of the major limb amputations due to battle injuries have occurred in OEF. Figure 4 charts the number of major limb amputations due to a battle injury in OIF, OND, and OEF from 2001 through September 1, 2013, for all services.

Figure 4. Major Limb Amputations Due to Battle Injuries in OIF, OND, and OEF, 2001-2014

(as of September 1, 2014)

Figure 4. Major Limb Amputations Due to Battle Injuries in OIF, OND, and OEF, 2001-2014

Self-Inflicted Wounds

According to DOD's casualty website, as of November 5, 2014, 235 servicemembers died of self-inflicted wounds while serving in OIF and OND and 114 died of self-inflicted wounds while serving in OEF.7 Currently, there is no casualty summary by category for OIR.

______________

7 Department of Defense Personnel and Procurement Statistics, Statistical Information and Analysis Department, OIF at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_oif_type.xhtml, OND at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/ report_ond_type.xhtml, and OEF at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_oef_type.xhtml.

--7--

Gender Distribution of Deaths

Table 5 and Table 6 provide statistics on the gender distribution of OIF, OND, and OEF casualties. All numbers for OIF, OND, and OEF are current as of November 5, 2014. Currently, there is no casualty summary by demographics for OIR. Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding.

Table 5. OIF and OND Gender Distribution of Deaths, 2002-2014

(as of November 5, 2014)

Gender Military Deaths % of Total Deaths
Male 4,368 97.5
Female 110 2.5
Total 4,478 100.0

Source: Data from Defense Manpower Data Center, at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/ casualties.xhtml.

Table 6. OEF Gender Distribution of Deaths, 2001-2014

(as of November 5, 2014)

Gender Military Deaths % of Total Deaths
Male 2,295 97.9
Female 51 2.1
Total 2,346 100.0

Source: Data from Defense Manpower Data Center, at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/ casualties.xhtml.

Race and Ethnicity Distribution of Deaths

Table 7 and Table 8 provide statistics on the race and ethnicity distribution of OIF, OND, and OEF casualties. All numbers for OIF, OND, and OEF are current as of November 5, 2014. Percentages do not total 100 because servicemembers may be listed twice, once under a race (such as "White") and once under an ethnicity (such as "Hispanic or Spanish").

Table 7. OIF and OND Race and Ethnicity Distribution of Deaths, 2002-2014

(as of November 5, 2014)

Race/Ethnicity Military Deaths % of Total Deaths
American Indian/Alaska Native 43 1.0
Asian 78 1.7
Black or African American 444 9.9
Hispanic or Spanish 220 4.9
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 18 0.4
White 3,698 82.6
Multiple Races 63 1.4

--8--

Race/Ethnicity Military Deaths % of Total Deaths
Unknown 134 3.0
Total 4,478

Table 8. OEF Race and Ethnicity Distribution of Deaths, 2000-2014

(as of November 5, 2014)

Source: Data from Defense Manpower Data Center, at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/casualties.xhtml.

Race/Ethnicity Military Deaths Percentage of Total Deaths
American Indian/Alaska Native 30 1.3
Asian 62 2.6
Black or African American 191 8.1
Hispanic or Spanish 95 4.0
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 8 0.3
White 1,995 85.0
Multiple Races 30 1.3
Unknown 30 1.3
Total 2,346

Source: Data from Defense Manpower Data Center, at https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/casualties.xhtml.

--9--

[END]

Published:Wed Apr 11 12:17:44 EDT 2018