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Boatner, Mark. Military Customs and Traditions. Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Press, 1976.

Carman, W.Y. A Dictionary of Military Uniform. New York: Scribner's, 1977.

Castano, J.B. The Naval Officer's Uniform Guide. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1975.

Elting, John R., ed. Military Uniforms in America. Vol. 2, Years of Growth, 1796-1851. San Rafael, Ca.: Presidio Press, 1977.

Dupuy, R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy. The Encyclopedia of Military History. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.

Finke, Detmar H. "Insignia of Rank in the Continental Army." Military Collector & Historian, Fall l956. This is the journal of the Company of Military Historians, must reading for anyone interested in uniforms or insignia.

Finke, Detmar H. and Mark Haynes, "U.S. Army Insignia of Rank." Fact sheet of the Army Center of Military History, 7 August 1973.

Gordon, Lawrence. Military Origins. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1971.

Grosvenor, Gilbert. Insignia and Decorations of the U.S. Armed Forces. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1943.

Kerrigan, Evans. American Badges and Insignia. New York: Viking Press, 1967.

Lovette, Leland P. Naval Customs, Traditions and Usage. Annapolis, Md.:Naval Institute Press, 1939.

Mack, William P. and Royal W. Connell. Naval Ceremonies, Customs and Traditions. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1980.

Nalty, Bernard C. United States Marine Corps Ranks and Grades, 1775-1969. Washington, D.C.: Historical Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1970.

Onions, C.T. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford, Eng.: Clarendon Press, 1966.

Oxford English Dictionary: Compact Edition. Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Partridge, Eric. Origins: A Short Entymological Dictionary of Modern English. New York: Macmillan, 1958.

Perrin, W.G. "Vice-Vice-Admiral and Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom." Mariner's Mirror 14, no. 1 (Jan. 1928): 26-31.

Peterson, Mendel. "American Epaulettes, 1775-1820." Military Collector & Historian, June 1950 and March 1951.

Powell, Isabel. "The Early Naval Lieutenant." Mariner's Mirror, Dec. 1923.

Steffen, Randy. The Horse Soldier: The United States Cavalryman-His Uniforms, Arms, Accoutrements, and Equipments, 1776-1943. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977.

Tily, James C. The Uniforms of the United States Navy. New York: T. Yoseloff, 1964.

U.S. Army. Adjutant General's Office. "Fact Sheet, 24, Mar. 1955." Unpublished. A discussion of the ranks of General of the Armies and General of the Army.

U.S. Army. Office of the Chief of Military History. The American Soldier. Lithographs, 1964-1966.

United States Quartermaster Department. Uniforms of the Army of the United States (Illustrated) From 1774 to 1889, 1898 to 1907. Authorized by the Secretary of War and Prepared and Published by the Quartermaster General. American Lithographic Co., 1890-1909. Two volumes. Paintings by H.A. Ogden. Reprinted New York: T.Yoseloff, 1959.

U.S. Navy. Naval History Division. Uniforms of the United States Navy. Lithographs, 1966 and 1967.

Weekley, Ernest. An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, London: J. Murray, 1921.

Weiner, Frederick. "Three Stars and Up." The Infantry Journal, June, July, September and October 1945.

Uniform regulations of the military services (title varies).


  1. Updating of the rank of Commodore was done using vertical files of The Navy Deparment Library in January 1998.
  2. Updating of the rank of Sergeant was done with the assistance of the Air Force Personnel Center at Randolph AFB, TX on 1 March 1999.

Published: Tue May 13 12:42:32 EDT 2014