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Source: Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy on the Operations of the Department for the Year 1879. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880), 320-371.

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Survey of the Amazon

Report of Commander Thomas O. Selfridge
United States Ship Enterprise (3d rate),
August 1, 1879

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the surveys of the Amazon and Madeira Rivers by the United States ship Enterprise, under my command.

The Empire of Brazil includes an area variously estimated from 2,500,000 to 4,000,000 square miles, probably nearly one-half of the whole continent of South America. Lying almost wholly in the tropics, the great watershed of the Andes passes through its territories, giving it the most perfect water system of any country in the world.

Thus it would seem that nature has prepared a way for the opening up of this vast country by the most inexpensive of all systems of transportation, but in the development of which, up to the present time, little progress has been made.

The headwaters of the Parana River, flowing south on its western boundary, almost meets the Madeira, which empties to the north into the Amazon. The latter, flowing nearly east, embraces with its great tributaries the Xingu, Tapajoz, Madeira, and Negro Rivers, a belt of territory comprised within twenty degrees of longitude and fifteen degrees of latitude, and over a million square miles can be reached by this great stream and its arteries. The larger part of this vast area is an unknown country, and shielded within its limits rove tribes of wild Indians, who, taught by the experience of the past, shun all communication with the whites. From what the few explorers have gleaned and the records left by the early missionaries, the greater portion of this country south of the Amazon is a magnificent table-land, abounding in pampas, which could support countless herds of cattle, covered with splendid forests of the choicest woods and most valuable drugs.

The coast range of Brazil, Sierra Borborema, running north and south at an average distance of 300 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, is the limit of the present portion of the empire devoted to agriculture, excepting narrow strips along the margin of the Amazon and Parana Rivers. Between this range and the Andes lies this great territory, watered by innumerable rivers, which finally mingle their streams with the mighty Amazon. But a barrier in the form of a range of hills extends from the boundaries of Peru to the Atlantic coast range, and breaks up the navigation of the four principal southern branches of the Amazon, viz, the Tocantins, Xingu, Tapajos, and Madeira rivers, into most formidable rapids or cachuelas. These are formed only 250 miles from the mouth of the Tocantins, and about 500 miles up the Madeira. But for such obstacles, the introduction of steam in 1853 on the Amazon would have brought us into closer communication with these rivers.

Steam was first introduced on the Amazon in 1853, and at once new life seemed to be given to the country. It was something compared with the growth of the past, but soon reaching a limit, because dependent upon the productions of the forest gathered by a scattered population, with no inducements for emigration.

The population of Brazil is confined in a great measure to the coast, and engaged in the cultivation of coffee and sugar. The Paraguayan war was a great drain upon its resources, and the expense of which has had to be met by severe taxation. The general government collects its


duties upon all imports, as well as an export tax. Besides, every province supports itself not by internal taxation, but by imports levied upon all its imports and exports. * * *

The country bordering on the Amazon, as well as the lower portion of its tributaries, being subject to overflow, is not healthy, and the soil is light and sandy. It will grow plantains and mandioca, but has not sufficient depth or richness for the more exhausting crops of sugar, coffee, and tobacco.

No nation is more directly interested in the prosperity of Brazil than ourselves. Our geographical situation brings us nearer than Europe, and her coffee, sugar, and raw products of the forest we need in exchange for the manufactures and food we can furnish to her agricultural population. * * *

River Amazon.

The portion of this great river which flows through Brazil is that with which this report is particularly connected.

From Tabatinga, the frontier post or town of Peru, to the Atlantic, it flows in all its majesty for 2,000 miles, receiving as its great tributaries from the south, the Xingu, Tapajos, Madeira, purus, and Javary Rivers, and from the north, the Negro. In its whole course it drains but two provinces of the Empire of Brazil, those of Grão Para and Amazonas - the former embracing 532,000 square miles, the latter, 550,000, or a total are twenty time that of the State of New York. It is sparsely inhabited, Grão Para not numbering over 12,000 and Amazonas about 30,000 inhabitants, by the census of 1875, these figures including everyone but Indians, or about one inhabitant for every 72 square miles. Up to the introduction of steam on the Amazon, in 1854, communication was not frequent between Para and the province of Amazonas, and was confined to a few small sailing vessels, which consumed about six months in the voyage.

Steam, however, brought about a great improvement, for since 1867 the exports have doubled; but they are still insignificant, considering the territory represented, as the following table, giving the exports from Manoas for the year 1878, and from Soopa, the other port of entry of the province, will show: There are at present two large companies that control the steam navigation of the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Steam Navigation Company of the Amazon, limited, who have enjoyed up to the present a subsidy of about $500,000 a year from the government. This company are also in receipt of a tax of 3 per cent. upon all the exports from the province of Amazonas, in return for which they promised to make Manoas the capital of the province, the point of departure of all their steamers, and make there a change of freights to the regular line going to Para. * * * This company have the steamers Marajo, Belene, Manoas and Avary, all paddle-wheel vessels, built in England, from 250 to 400 tons: and thirteen smaller vessels, ranging from 80 to 150 tons. There is also the Steam Company of Marajo, which have the steamers Aonan and Arapixy, with three smaller ones. There are also the Canuman, Tocantius, Villa Bella, and a few others. These steamers nearly all make a central station at Manoas, though a few of the smaller ones are confined to the Tocantins and Lower Amazon. The voyage to Manoas, 874 miles distant from the sea, is made in from give to seven days. From the latter point these lines branch out to include the Madeira, Purus, and Negro Rivers, and to Tabatinga, 1,000 miles distant on the frontier, and from this point up the Peruvian Amazon to


the mouth of the Huallaga, 415 miles, thence up the latter to Turimaguas, 65 miles, in the district of the same name.

Different locations embrace very different products. The india-rubber is brought almost solely from the Madeira and Purus Rivers, and from the Lower Amazon, on the left bank of the Macapa branch and Island of Marajo.

The Rio Negro exports the finest woods and drugs, while sarsaparilla and vanilla are brought principally from the Upper Amazon.

Some coffee and tobacco were formerly raised in Amazonas, but their culture has been neglected for the more profitable gathering of rubber. Cocoa is confined to the settled, older portion of the Amazon, and is principally cultivated below the Madeira.

Steamers burn wood entirely, and wood-yards are scattered along the river-banks wherever one is liable to come. It is sold by the one thousand sticks at $15 a thousand, which is equal to about $5 per cord. I found no difficulty in burning wood under the boiler of the Enterprise, provided it was dry, and in fact used nothing else during the last month we were on the river.

In 1867 Brazil declared the Amazon open to the commerce of the world. But there is not much inducement to take advantage of this liberality, for the present steam tonnage is too large for a profitable business; and so far from being an opening to the flags of foreign nations, it is my opinion that some of the present force will have to be withdrawn unless the railway project around the falls of the Madeira proves a success.

The cargoes up the river are imported through Para, and consist of breadstuffs, liquors, cotton, paint, cutlery, clothes, and small articles of foreign manufacture, such as trinkets, perfumery, and the like. Return cargoes are principally rubber, Brazil nuts, cocoa, and dried fish, to which are to be added in small quantities sarsaparilla, oil of copaiba, Peruvian bark, vanilla beans, hides, deer-skins, tallow, white pitch, bees wax, cloves, coir, hard woods, and cedar.

I estimate at present the total exports of the Amazon to amount to not far from $3,000,000 annually. Of this amount dried fish, the staple article of food for the poorer classes, of a value not less than $200,000, does not go out of the country.

Though generally known under the sole name of Amazon, this magnificent river, at least twice the size of any other in the world in volume, not excepting the Mississippi, is locally divided into three parts under different names. The Amazon proper extends to its juncture with the Negro, near Manaos, the capital of Amazonas, 874 miles from the sea. From this point to the Peruvian frontier at Tabatinga, 1,000 miles away, it is known as the Solimocus and in Peru as the Maranon. Either of its two large tributaries in Peru, the Ucayali or the Huallaga might lay claim in size to be the parent river, but at Nauta the junction of the Ucayali and Maranon Rivers, it becomes then immeasurably and incomparably the peer of all others. As far as the function of the Tio Negro it is navigable for a line-of-battle ship at all seasons of the year. There is, however, one point about 10 miles below the Negro where a ledge or rocks extends across, on which it is said there is found but 18 feet of water at extreme low water, but I doubt the accuracy of it, for at the time I passed over this spot there was a depth of 36 feet.

It is high water in the Amazon proper about the middle of may, though the river falls but a little before the middle of July. The temperature of the river water during July and August, above Marituba Island, was found to be 83° Fah.; below, 84° with no change during the


twenty-four hours. eighteen feet is about the difference between high and low water at the mouth of the Madeira, while at Tabatinga it is as high as 30 feet. This takes place in October after which a rise in the Upper Amazon brings about a fluctuation, there being a rise and fall between that period and January, when the spring rise commences, which culminates in June.

The dry season begins the 1st of June, earlier than at Para, where it rains more or less all the year around. This is the season of the breezes, and the trade wind from E.S.E. blows strong during the day as far up as Obidos, dying out calm at night. During August and September, there are violent squalls with lightning and thunder from the eastward.

The rainy season commences in November, and continues through the winter and early spring months, but during this period the rains are far from being continuous, but interspersed with a great deal of fine weather. The thermometer ranges between 78° Fah. In the wet, and 88° in the dry, season. The nights are not oppressively warm, but are rendered disagreeable at all times by swarms of mosquitoes. There is no relief from these pestiferous insects even in the middle of the river, for the sun is no sooner down that the air becomes alive with them.

There has been a great difference in the reports of the altitudes of the different points on the Amazon. Probably none have had a standard at the ocean level, and as the diurnal fluctuation would represent several hundred feet of altitude without a base of reference for barometrical observations, they cannot but be inaccurate.

Our observations represent the difference between the height of the barometer at the point of observation and one at Para, to the recording of which I am greatly indebted to Mr. Andrew Cahn, United States consul, who considerately allowed it to be hung in his house and volunteered to take charge of the readings.

We found the elevation of the Amazon, at the mouth of the Madeira, to be 78.5 feet; and at Manoas, 84.8 feet. The distance between these two points being 86 miles, would give a rise a little less than an inch to the mile; and this is about the rate for all points from the sea to the mouth of the Rio Negro, as obtained by our observations.

The towns or villages on the Amazon, so far from flourishing, appear to be in a state of decay, judging from the empty houses in the outskirts, neglected streets, and entire absence of all enterprise or business life. Manoas, the capital of the province of Amazonas, is, however, a marked exception, it being the distributing point for all the territory above. Its inhabitants are enterprising and the indications are that it is growing fast. Above Para we have as the principal villages Breves, Garupa, Prainha, Monte Alegre Santarem, Obidos, Villa Bella, Serpa, and Manaos. The use of steam has been detrimental to these towns in scattering their population, for formerly the products were brought to the neighboring villages in canoes and traded off for stores. Now there are hundreds of little trading-points where steamers stop, delivering goods direct from Para and receiving the freights collected, no matter in how small quantities. It is to this cause, rather than a diminution of population or decrease in the productions, that the impoverished condition of these towns is owing.

The current of the Amazon varies from 3 to 21/2 miles per hour, according as it varies in width. The banks are alluvial, and during high water the surrounding country is inundated.

For the first 500 miles from the ocean there is but little irregularity of direction, and there are reaches of 10 and 15 miles in length, giving the appearance of an inland sea.


Above the mouth of the Tapajos the Amazon assumes a winding course, but even here it is more from a comparison with the power portion and from the fact that large islands are more frequent, which give the channel greater irregularity. The general width is about 21/2 miles, narrowing to a mile at Obidos and Serpa, and expanding to 4 and 5 miles above and below the Tapajos. It is not only in its width but in its astonishing depth and consequent volume that the Amazon exceeds all other rivers in the world. Not less than 60 feet will be found in the channel the whole distance of 874 miles to the mouth of the Rio Negro. At Serpa and Obidos, where it narrows to a mile in width, 330 feet is obtained in the center of the stream.

The cross-section at Serpa was very favorable to an approximate calculation of volume; as the river was straight, the banks steep on both sides, and the surface current uniform. It was taken in August, when the river was 6 feet below high water, and gave the astonishing amount of 3,850,000 cubic feet per second.

The Amazon divides just above the junction of the Xingu, 200 miles from the ocean, into two great branches, known as the Macapa and the Garupa, each of which is as large as the Mississippi, and the latter, near the town of the same name, separates again into two others, Garupa proper and the Vicira (Shell).

Most geographers give the mouth of the Amazon as 180 miles wide, which would include Marajo bay, really an arm of the sea, in which the Para River empties. I am, however, of a different opinion; for though Marajo Bay is connected with the Amazon by a series of lagoons and estuaries, their characteristics show that they have no connection proper with it. The water is comparatively clear, but of a moderate depth, and the tide flows within a few miles of the outlet from the Amazon. The majestic, ceaseless flow of this great river is something striking, which effect is lost the moment you enter the intricate channels back of the island of Marajo. Its dimensions are sufficiently grand without attempting to include the net-work of lagoons that are now that communication between Para and the Amazon, and I think the Delta may be justly said to extend from Cape North, at the northern point, to Cape Maguary, on Marajo Island, as the southern limit.

The Survey.

Your order to me to take charge of the survey of the Amazon and Madeira rivers to the head of navigation on the latter, and assigning me to the command of the United States Steamer Enterprise for the purpose, were received April 23, 1878. Beyond the necessity [...] few extra instruments in excess of the ship's allowance but little preparation was necessary, and I sailed from Norfolk, Va., on May 2, 1878. In addition to the officers of this ship, Mr. Sparrow, civil engineer who had been engaged some years previous on a survey of the Upper Amazon, with Commodore Tucker, was detailed as my assistant.

We arrived off Atalia point at noon on May 23, where we anchored, waiting for a pilot to come on board next morning. The entrance to the mouth of Marajo Bay, or river Para, is rendered dangerous by numerous reefs, and, though the main channel is marked by a light-vessel, the light is too feeble to make it advisable for strangers to run for it on account of the variable currents caused by the outflow of the Amazon.

Atalia Point, 20 miles south, marked by a light, may be approached at all times with safety, using the lead, and here will be found pilots for the Para River. We anchored off Para on May 24. Visits were exchanged


with the President of the province of Grão Para, who offered every facility as far as Obidos, the boundary of the province.

Mode of Survey.

My instructions from the Bureau of Navigation contemplated a track survey of the Amazon to the mouth of the Madeira, and up the latter to its falls or the head of navigation. These instructions directed that the courses of the ship should be steered by ranges, and a blank form was furnished called a "deck board" to be filled out with the courses, distance run on it, speed of ship, rate of current, and a column for remarks. As the bureau properly remarked, the survey was to ascertain more that navigability of these rivers rather than an accurate delineation of their beds. Consequently the course of the main channel, the depth, the position of the bars and islands, and particularly the point of crossing from one bank to the other, together with the correct topography of the banks, were the main objects in view.

From our very commencement it became evident that running on ranges would not be practicable. The banks are fringed, it might be said, the entire distance with trees and undergrowth. Some tall tree could be selected, but this would be but a point, and before the course was run over it would become blended with others so as no longer to be recognizable. Strictly, a compass course would not do, for this would be constantly deflected by the current. The method of observing the bearing some point ahead was adopted, and the bearing became a course. When the ship had arrived abreast of it another course was taken, and so on. Instead of the "deck board," I adopted, with some modification, the system I used for the survey of the Atrato, and which was found by experience to fully answer all requirements, and I would recommend it to any one engaged on similar service.

For a clear exemplification I will refer to the accompanying diagram. It will become evident in the course of this explanation that its success would depend upon the accuracy of two cardinal points - correct measurement of speed of vessel, and correct astronomical determination of our position at the end of our work. To maintain the first the engines were not pushed, so that a regular speed of 35 revolutions was easily maintained ascending the Madeira against the current. Going down the Amazon this was reduced to 25 revolutions. The log was hove every half-hour as a check upon the speed, and current observations were made before starting and after coming to. As our line was mainly in the channel, the current was much more uniform than if we had run on line crossing the stream. For a perfect astronomical determination of our position at the end of each day, observations for latitude were made on stars at meridian passage, one north and the other south of the zenith; and for longitude, on stars east and west of the meridian at as nearly the same altitude as possible. Summer's method was used where circumstances prevented the observation for meridian stars. The latitudes were computed using circum-meridian method given in "Professional papers Corps of Engineers, U.S.N., No. 12," and longitudes by the ordinary time-sight (Bowditch).

Observations for rate were made at Para on our arrival, Araras Island, Madeira River, where an interval of fourteen days was obtained. Also at Serpa, Amazon River, on the 16th June and 2d of August, an interval of forty-seven days. This latter gave a most excellent check upon our chronometer rates, which were found to run very uniformly.


On our return the error of chronometer was carefully obtained at Para on the 31st of August and 2d of September.

The position of Para was taken from the French chart, and may be subject to slight error: if so, the error would be applied as a constant to all our positions, and would not in any way affect the general result.

A tabulated list of these observations accompanying this report, and on inspection, the results of the two observations will be found to agree closely, while the mean was taken as a final result.

Lieut. Commander S.H. baker used a Gambey sextant No. 74; Lieut. C.P. Perkins, a Gambey circle of reflection No. 21. A wooden tripod, said to be originally the invention of Passed Assistant Paymaster Tuttle, late United States Navy, was used by both observers, Mr. Perkins having made some ingenious modification to suit the use of his circle of reflection. This tripod, standing about 2 feet high, consisted of its three legs secured with brass hinges to a flat piece of wood of about 4 inches across. In the center of the latter was a socket, in which turned an upright wooden spindle in two parts, hinged together in its center, thus admitting of vertical and horizontal motion for the sextant attached to it. A hole bored through the handle of the sextant, in which a screw was inserted, secured the instrument to the spindle with a button. In this way the sextant resembled an ordinary vertical circle. With the instrument once on the reflected star in the mercury, it was not necessary to move it until the object observed had passed out of the field, and there was time enough generally to take a set of five or more observations. Without some arrangement of this nature, stellar observations with a sextant are very fatiguing: but with the sextant stationary, as above described, there can be obtained an accuracy of observations almost perfect.

The accompanying diagram is a copy of a leaf taken from the field-book in the survey of the upper part of the Amazon, a little below Villa Bella, and an explanation of which will plainly show the method of our survey. The unit is five minutes, which is the value of each one of the lines. The work always commences at the bottom and proceeds upwards. On the left hand are columns for day of month, time, course, magnetic variations and deviation combined, true course distance by log, current, true distance, and soundings. The right page is the field-book, a line drawn in the center representing the course of the ship.

It will be observed that the time of the lower line is nine hours twenty minutes, at which time a new course east or south 89° east true was taken. This is marked by a star on the right leaf; and every change of course is so marked. As the survey was progressing down the river, the left hand is the left bank, and the reverse. At nine hours and twenty minutes a bearing on the point of the island is taken south; at 9.25 another bearing is taken of the same point south 50° west, which fixes it, and another bearing south 27° east is taken of the other point. Now at 10.40 a new course is steered north 81° east true, showing that from nine hours and twenty minutes to nine hours and forty minutes twenty minutes have been run on the course south 89° east. As the time distance is that by log plus rate of current, or in this case eight knots, each five minutes will represent sixty-six one-hundredths of a knot. The draughtsman, in plotting, will lay off a course south 89° east, distance two and sixty-four one-hundredths knots. At the point of commencement he lays down the bearing south, then a distance sixty-six one-hundredths of a knot is laid off and at this point the two bearings south 50° west and south 27° east are taken to plot the point of island.

For another example, take the time ten hours and twenty minutes.


The star on the center line of right-hand page indicates a new course; we find it to be from the left page north 67° east true. We find at ten hours twenty-six minutes a bearing south 70° east was taken upon a prominent tree, and again at 10.54 a bearing south 23°30' west was taken, with the point of Isle de Conceicao and the tree in range. The draughtsman then, after laying down the course north 67° east for a distance of 3.28 miles, will lay off on this line points corresponding to the distances run during the time from the commencement of the course to the time of taking the bearings. From these points the several bearings will be drawn.

Unless the system of keeping the courses in a straight line in the field-book were pursued, the course would frequently run off the page, and would require a vast amount of measuring to keep the notes clear.

I think these two examples are sufficient for an explanation of the system followed. The contours of the banks are sketched in as we arrive opposite them, always taking as many bearings of the same points as necessary to fix it. This will give the distance of the river banks from the ship and the general width of the river. At times bearings were taken between the five-minutes spaces, in which cases times were recorded. For instance, at nine hours forty-three minutes a bearing south 18° east, on the course of north 81° east, as this course was begun at nine hours forty minutes, the value of the distance run for three minutes, laid off from its commencement, will indicate the point to lay off the bearing. On each side of the right-hand page are columns for remarks on each bank. For instance, at Corzalinho there were rocks, and the estimated distance was 3.5 miles. With the Madeira it was not difficult to obtain a very correct width of the river by bearings of points on the different banks, because of its numerous bends, and the fact that it rarely exceeded half a mile in width. But on the Amazon, with its long straight reaches of many miles, and intervening islands, this method was not always possible.

In our survey of the Amazon, the steam-launch ran a separate line on the side opposite to the ship. Every twenty minutes a position-flag was hoisted, at which moment the bearing of the launch was recorded, and the angle of our mast-head was taken. This gave the distance between the two, and to this would be added the distance of the bank from each observer, which was generally small, and could be estimated within 100 yards.

These positions of the launch, thus obtained, when plotted, acted as so many offsets to check her survey, which necessarily could not be as accurate as ours, on account of being obliged to use a dumb compass. Every morning or evening, as convenient, the bearing and distance of the point of astronomical position was taken, which marked the termination of the day's work and commencement of the new.

The value of such a survey as described depends upon the accuracy of the points fixed and the correctness of distance run, and, feeling alive to these facts, every safeguard was taken to insure them.

Of course a running survey of this kind would not do where close work is needed, but for all practical purposes, for the survey of a river that is annually undergoing important changes, in order to obtain a thorough knowledge of its navigability, distances position of islands, and general contour, it is all that is required.

In addition, the points of all islands where shoal water would be found were sounded in the launch, and two daily cross-sections were taken.

For the better accomplishment of our survey the officers were assigned to different duties.


Lieut. Commander S.H. Baker and Lieut. C.P. Perkins were selected, on account of their experience in astronomical work, for the very important duty of fixing the several points of the survey. This required their constant attention every evening until near midnight, and the following day would be mostly consumed in bringing up their work. These officers performed the work assigned them with zeal and ability.

To Ensigns Hunt and Peacock was given the duty of keeping the field-book, taking the numerous bearings required, and recording soundings.

Lieutenants Nichols, Blocklinger, Spalding, and Master Wright had charge as officers of the deck, superintending the handling and steering of the ship, and the soundings.

Lieutenant Blocklinger afterwards had charge of the launch in the survey of the Madeira River. Lieutenant Nichols, assisted by Ensign Hunt, had charge of the running survey by the launch, in connection with our own, from the mouth of the Madeira River to Para. To all these officers my thanks are due for the interest they manifested in their work, and for the accuracy and zeal they exhibited in the performance of every duty required of them. Much praise is due to Passed Assistant Surgeon M.L. Ruth for his unremitting attention to his duties, and to which I attribute in a great degree the excellent condition of our ship's company during a very arduous period.

Commencement of Work.

The few preparations necessary, due to a prolonged absence, having been made, the Enterprise sailed from Para at noon of June 30, 1878. In this respect I was greatly indebted to Mr. Fred. Pond, at the head of the old establishment of that name, and the only American house in Para. Mr. Pond is a large-hearted American, noted for his deeds of kindness to any of his countrymen in distress. He gave me every assistance in his power, and in numerous ways facilitated greatly my plans. Such men as Mr. Pond our government would do well to appoint as consuls, for they have an influence for good with the local authorities that a stranger from the United States unacquainted with the language, laws, and customs could be expected to acquire only after a long residence.

The city of Para, or Santa Maria do Belene, is advantageously situated on the Para River, distant about 100 miles from the sea, and about 12 miles from Marajo bay, a beautiful expanse of water, and of an adequate depth for the convenient working of all classes of vessels. The river in front of the town is shoal, and vessels are obliged to lie in the stream and unload by lighters.

Steamers of the larger class anchor off the port 3 miles below the town known as Forte da Barra. Para occupies to the Amazon the same position relatively that New Orleans does to the Mississippi. It numbers about 30,000 inhabitants; the business portion of the city is well built, with many handsome residences. Its importance being wholly due to the fact that it is the distributing point of the products of the Amazon; its growth has been relative to the development of the latter. In this enterprise the merchants of Para have taken the most important part, and many of them, especially the Portuguese, have amassed large fortunes. To continue the dependence upon them, the merchants here have built up a vast credit system, which holds the whole country as its debtors, but which necessarily renders them at times liable to large losses; for


instance, in the almost total failure of the cocoa crop during the past year, upon which large advances had been made.

Some system of wharfage by which vessels could be discharged more quickly is absolutely necessary, and, doubtless, this will come with other improvements when Brazil awakens to the value of the vast domain drained by the Amazon, and embarks in a wise system of improvement and development.

The Enterprise steamed rapidly up Marajo Bay, which in many places is 15 miles wide, as I intended to take what might be called the back passage to the Amazon, which is the only one in use, instead of going outside and entering the mouth proper.

We anchored for the night at the entrance of the estuary of Breves, one of the network of water passages which constitute this back way. This being our first experience, I had a little fright in the grounding of the vessel lest our pilots were incompetent, but fortunately we backed off without difficulty. Just before coming to anchor, the mouth of the Tocantins was passed, the distant shores of which, sinking away in the horizon, gave the appearance of an inland sea, so wide is the river at its entrance. But, like all the other southern tributaries of the Amazon, its navigation is impeded a few hundred miles from its mouth by rapids and cataracts.

The next day was passed proceeding up the estuary of Breves, until at nightfall we reached the little town of the same name, on the western shore of Marajo Island, which is its principal settlement. Rounding to, an accident happened to the reversing gear of the engine, which at this critical moment refused go back. An anchor was let go, but failed to bring the ship up in time, and the EnterpriseI went at full speed into the bank, the head spars pushing into the thickets of the tropical forest. A whirr was heard as a large bird flew from the thicket and down on the forecastle, dropped, to the astonishment of "Jack," a nest with little ones. They were too young, unfortunately, or they would gladly have been adopted by those who had so ruthlessly deprived them of their natural protector.

Breves is the center of the rubber trade of this region, but its situation is so low that the malarial fevers have made it unpopular, and it is anything but flourishing at present.

Our man-of-war was almost as much of a surprise as was Columbus's galley to the natives of the new world, for the Enterprise was the first ship which had ever anchored off their town.

In the evening a violent thunder-squall passed over the town, struck the ship, and drove her crashing against the bank; but this time it was the stern instead of the bow. The rain fell in torrents, the wind roared through the trees, and the darkness was of that intense blackness that one sees in the solitude of tropical forests. A flash of lightning revealed a long, sinuous-looking object, hanging from a branch over our poop deck. Snake! was cried, and it was not long before that spot was as deserted as the forest into which we had been pushed. The storm finally passed, and the bank being steep the current swept us out again into the stream.

In the morning our apparent snake was seen still hanging from the bough where he was first reported, and proved to be the remnant of a large vine that had been broken when the ship struck the bank. It occasioned a good laugh, and was long treasured among the jokes of the expedition.

The river at Breves was 600 feet wide. We were still within the influence


of the tide, which flows as flood for four hours, and then follows eight hours of ebb.

A short distance above Breves we entered a long, narrow passage, hardly wide enough for the ship. These narrow lagoons are known as furos. There are two leading up from Breves, the Paracachi, which is used in ascending to the Amazon, and the Aturia, in descending. As there is no room to pass in them, any vessel not observing this rule would be subject to heavy fine.

We made the passage of the furo Paracachi without accident, though it required the most careful steering, and our yards at times almost touched the trees. At the further end there was a sandspit, which forced us to anchor till the tide, which here rises nearly three feet, was at its full, when we passed over without difficulty.

To those unaccustomed to the luxuriance of the tropics, there was something extremely novel and interesting in the passage of the Enterprise up these lagoons, fringed to the water's edge with trees one hundred and thirty feet high, interspersed here and there with numerous members of the palm family, whose long fan-like branches hang down in such graceful attitudes. but the eye wearies at length with the everlasting tree-line that borders the banks of these rivers, and which, in the mighty Amazon, are also blended together that they lose the attractiveness due to the variety of growth that the narrowness of these "furos" permits the eye to dwell upon. I was strongly reminded of my sojournings of previous years upon the Atrato, which has pretty much the same flora, and I looked forward with eagerness to our approach to the great Amazon. Another day yet elapsed before we reached the point where the Amazon bifurcates into its two branches, the Macopa and Garupa, and it was late at night before we anchored at this point.

I shall never forget the feelings that this mighty river inspired as in the morning we rounded the point where we had anchored, and came out upon the open river rolling down in all its resistless majesty. Four miles broad at this point, stretching out to the westward until it was lost in the dim outline of the distant horizon, it seemed hardly possible that this was a river almost dividing a continent.

Can it be possible, the mind asks the question, that nature reproduces herself year after year, and carries back from the ocean, borne in the clouds overhead, the vapors that, condensed, yield a supply sufficient for the feeding of this tremendous flow of water, amounting to many millions of cubic feet a minute?

Our ship was kept close to the southern bank to avoid the strength of the current, and we thus had the full flow of the river to our right as we ascended. In the distance to the north the blue Almerine hills made a pleasant background to this picture of nature's grandeur, particularly enjoyable, because it was rare on the Amazon to have any break to the forest - girt banks.

A good idea of the width of the Amazon is shown in the fact that at this point we took a series of compass deviations by steaming around in a circle and observing the runs upon each point of the compass.

In the afternoon of the day we entered the Amazon, June 7, 1878, we stopped to speak a schooner that was towing down the river. Upon starting ahead a crash was heard in the engine-room, accompanied by an escape of steam up the hatch. As soon as the excitement had subsided it was found that the connecting-rod bolts of the after-engine had broken short off, which let the end of the rod down into the well, and the crank, in making a revolution, had struck and badly bent it.

This accident filled me with apprehension, for the success of the expedition


was entirely dependent upon the motive-power of the Enterprise.

Far away from the mouth of the Madeira, with no means of reaching there outside of ourselves, at first I was inclined to feel disheartened, but a second thought that we could move along slowly at first with one engine was reassuring.

The accident was caused by water in the cylinder, which the relief valves failed to carry off. To straighten so large a piece of machinery as our rod was no slight undertaking. But it is an unfortunate state of affairs when the stores of a man-of-war will not furnish expedients to repair, Accordingly our little forge was taken forward and placed in the fore hatch, a hearth of bricks built around it, so as to enlarge its area, and the rod hung in chains over it from the carlines of the topgallant forecastle deck; a moderate heat was applied, and a hydraulic jack operating from the deck overhead, by slow stages, brought it to nearly its original form, sufficiently so, that, practically, it was not fore-shortened. It was found, too, that the connecting-rod bolts could be shifted end for end. All this required several days, but in the meanwhile the engines had been disconnected, and the ship proceeded up the river at a rate of almost five knots an hour, the condenser being temporarily changed from a surface to a jet condenser by applying a stream from the donkey-pumps. This gave a poor vacuum at first, but afterwards, at the suggestion of Assistant engineer Shewell, the flow from the donkey]pumps was divided in two streams or jets with a most marked improvement, being able to maintain a vacuum of sixteen inches.

After making the required repairs we proceeded ahead very well with both engines for twenty-four hours, when, attempting to take up some of the lost motion of the after engine, the safety limit was passed and, with another crash, the connecting-rod bolts gave way, letting it down into the engine well.

We were now in a worse plight than before, and it seemed as though circumstances would combine to deprive us of our motive power. It was both dangerous and awkward to work the ship with a single engine, as it was liable at a critical moment to get on the center, and the assistant engineers are entitled to great credit for the skill with which this single engine was manipulated. The expedient of turning the bolts was no longer available, and new bolts must be supplied. It was fortunately found that the transporting-axle of our large pivot-gun was the exact size, 3 inches. Four bolts were accordingly cut from it, and threads at each end of the bolts worked in by hand. Every one knows how difficult this must be, for the smallest inaccuracy would prevent the thread from entering the groove. That we did it, however, was owing only to the skill and faithfulness of one of our machinists, James Moore, assisted by another of the name of Chambers.

I do not hesitate to pay this compliment to Moore, that to him, under the circumstances, though humble his station, I am indebted more than to any other person of this ship. So far no notice has been taken of his services by either the then chief engineer, Elijah Laws, or the Bureau of Steam Engineering, and I think that such meritorious conduct is entitled to some recognition from the Navy Department.

The slow progress of the ship upstream and the rapid falling of the Madeira River, made it essential that I should so far modify my plans as to commence our work on that river, and proceed with the Amazon afterwards.

We arrived off the mouth of the Madeira at 4 p.m. on June 17, having


been fourteen days making a distance of 800 miles, and at once commenced the survey of that river.

Our survey of the Madeira river, of which a detailed account is given in the latter half of this report, ended by our return to its mouth on the 24th of July.

The next day was spent in measuring a base line of 400 feet on the north end of Madeira island, and fixing by triangulation the east and west points of the Madeira, the east and west points of Trinidad Island, as well as Antuz Point, on the Amazon. The north end of the base line was fixed by stellar observations.

Left our coal lighter at anchor at the Madeira in charge of its crew of two Tapinjos Indians, and, getting underway at 4 o'clock p.m., steamed all night up the Amazon, carrying not less than 10 fathoms of water.

July 26. - Approaching the river Negro, a curious phenomenon presents itself. The general course of the banks of the Amazon seems to connect with those of the Negro, as though they were of the same river, while the Amazon, turning off suddenly to the south, and shrinking temporarily very much in size, seems to have lost its majestic proportions and yielded the palm of greatness to its tributary, the Negro. The color of the water of the latter is nearly black, and does not mingle completely with the Amazon for several miles. So sharply are the waters of the two rivers defined, that a vessel crossing their line will be found with its bow in black water and the stern in yellow. The Negro, from its junction with the Amazon, opens rapidly into a river of such proportions as might be considered a bay rather than a river, some 4 miles wide and 12 long.

On this bay is situated the town of Manoas by far the largest on the Amazon, and indeed the largest city in Central South America. It is very picturesquely placed, on a series of low hills skirting the bay. The houses, mostly of one story, are neatly constructed, plastered, with the sides either painted or covered with painted tiles. It is as regularly laid out as the nature of the ground will admit, and the principal streets well paved and lighted.

Manoas contains probably 6,000 people, and is the capital of the province of Amazonas, which has a population of about 100,000, of all classes. It is the residence of the president of the province, and is the port through which passes all the trade of the rivers, Purus, Negro, and Solimoens, and its tributaries, as the Amazon is termed above its junction with the Negro. The Brazilians keep a small naval flotilla here, consisting of a side-wheel gunboat, and three large steam launches, mounting a howitzer, the whole commanded by an officer of the rank of captaine de fregate. It is the principal terminus for the steamers of the Amazonas Navigation Company, and from whence they depart for all the numerous tributaries of the Amazon.

Manoas from its situation should become a town of importance. But started with capital from Para, the latter has retained in it its grasp, and until the merchants of Manoas can succeed in freeing themselves from its rival, it will continue to be as it is now, only a feeder for the older and more opulent city. The cathedral occupying a commanding situation in the center of the town, is a fine edifice, as it indeed ought to be, if the time and money spent on it are criterions, as it is said to have been fifteen years building, and to have cost a half million dollars. There is a pleasing absence of the tinsel and tawdry coverings for the numerous saints common to Catholic churches in foreign countries, and the altar and frieze of the choir is a very handsome structure of cut stone brought from Portugal.


Amazon River, July 31, 1878. - Got underway from Manoas at 8.30 a.m. The river off Manoas is very deep; 500 yards from the shore is found 45 fathoms, and this ship anchored abreast the cathedral, 300 yards from the shore, in 23 fathoms. We passed the junction of the Negro and Amazon at 9.30 a.m. The water of the former is found in the north shore for 4 miles below its mouth, before it is entirely mingled with the Amazon. At about 8 miles below the junction of the Negro and Amazon, abreast the west point of the island of Morodo, and extending in a line across the river to the north shore, is a reef of rocks, whose exact position is unknown, and makes this the most dangerous point in the navigation of the Amazon from its mouth, when the river is low, during October and November. The channel runs about 400 yards from the south bank, and had at this time 7 fathoms. Allowing a fall of 3 fathoms more would give 4 fathoms at extreme low water. Passing slowly down the river, steaming 4 knots with a 3 knot current, at 2 p.m. came to in 8 fathoms at the upper end of island Eva. High land along the north shore the whole distance from the Rio Negro to anchorage. South shore low. Light easterly breezes during the day which died out at sunset; calm during the night, some mosquitoes.

August 1. - Underway at 7 a.m. Attempted to work with one pair of boilers, but found it did not give sufficient steam reserve, and, therefore, started two more. Current fully 3 miles per hour; speed, 4 knots. At 1 p.m., off west end of Trinidad Island. Took on board 2,000 sticks of wood from a house on left bank, just below Trinidad. Then proceeded back to old anchorage off the mouth of the Madeira. Some bluffs 70 feet high on north bank; south bank low. The alluvial bank of the Amazon now about 10 feet out of water. Light breeze from eastward set in at 7 a.m., and died out to perfect calm at sunset. Night very close and hot; swarms of mosquitoes. Hoisted out steam-launch and prepared her for service in connection with our survey.

August 2. - At 7 a.m., got under way from Madeira taking our coal-lighter alongside, and bid it a final farewell. Both banks of the Amazon from the mouth of the Madeira to below Santarem are lined with cocoa plantations, which are generally planted on a narrow strip back from the river, not three hundred feet wide. At all the plantations that I visited the trees seemed very old, and, from what I could learn, the date back as far as the Portuguese. The crop is an uncertain one, and I should judge not very profitable.

A cocoal or cocoa plantation is an exceedingly pretty sight; the trees interlock their branches, and with their large leaves make a shade impenetrable to any ray of the sun. The ground is level, covered with a carpeting of dead leaves, and the large golden-colored fruit hanging by themselves from branch and trunk show through the green with a most beautiful effect.

There are two harvests - one in January and February, the other, and largest, in June and July. The fruit somewhat resembles a large over-ripe cucumber; when gathered the shell or pod is broken open and the seeds spread on raised platforms to dry. They have to be frequently turned, and in about a week are ready for the market. The seed is planted in garden-beds in August. When the plants come up they must be carefully protected by arbors of palms from the sun, as well as preserved against insects.

In January the plants are transplanted to their permanent place, where they are set out in squares of 4 feet apart. Indian corn or plantains are planted between the rows to give them protection against


the sun while young, which are grubbed up as soon as they commence to press against the trees.

The launch in charge of Lieutenant Nichols, with Ensign Hunt, left at the same time as the ship, for a survey of the rocks on the south side of Trinidad Island, and survey of the south shore, while this ship ran the north bank and channel. Arrived off Serpa at noon. Found 45 fathoms in middle of river off the town. The river was so deep on the south shore and rocks lining the Serpa side that I tied the ship up to the south bank, with 8 fathoms close to.

Serpa is a town of some consequence, as the custom-house for provincial exports from the Madeira is located here for the collection of dues from produce that does not pass through the port of Manoas. It has a population of about 700 people, and the district of Serpa will number near 2,000 persons. There is but a small export trade of rubber, cocoa, and dried fish. Mr. Stone, an American, resides here, owning a cattle ranch a short distance below the town. He is an intelligent man, and much information on the affairs of the country may be obtained from him. Currents, 3 knots per hour.

The volume of the Amazon at this point, as calculated from our cross-section allowing a current of 2/2 miles per hour, amounted to 3,858,000 cubic feet per second.

August 3. - Passed down to the south of the long island of Serpa. The steam-launch in the parana of the north bank. Beautiful weather; light, pleasant breeze from eastward. Current, 3 knots, which may be regarded as the general average rate of the Amazon. came to at 2 p.m., off the Furo Resaca, on the south bank, in 12 fathoms. The Furo Resaca is a long igarapé which connects with the Furo Cannman, affording navigation with the Madeira or as far as the Tapajoz at Santarem. The steam-launch ran a cross-section and found the width of the river at this point 3 nautical miles.

Sunday, August 4. - Remained at anchor.

August 5. - Sent the large iron lighter in tow of the steam-launch to the shore for wood. Took on board 1,700 sticks. Passed down the river as far as the island of Friexal, at the head of which we came to in 10 fathoms. Found the current to-day about 21/4 knots. The banks from the Furo Resaca to the island Friexal are low on both sides, and but very sparsely inhabited. On the north bank, opposite the anchorage, there are high hills which bound an igarapé, which comes into the Amazon again at the eastern end of the island of Serpa. The volume of the Amazon, measured at this point gave 4,094,396 cubic feet per second.

August 6. - Made 30 miles by river and anchored at 1 p.m., at the mouth of the Parana Pacoral, which is used by all steamers, up and down, in preference to the main river, which is much longer. Came to with stream-anchor, and on account of defective link, and also partly because anchor was let go before ship was headed upstream, the chain parted at 60 fathoms. Let go port-bower anchor. The buoy attached to stream-anchor refused to watch, and though we spent one day in dragging for the anchor, did not succeed in picking it up. The nights are much more sultry as we pass down, and mosquitoes are very numerous and troublesome.

August 7. - Got under way at noon, and passed down the right bank in main stream. The river along the islands of Pacoral and Onces is very wide, and a broad plain makes out from these islands. Arrived off Villa Bella at 5.30 p.m., and anchored in mid river in 12 fathoms of water. The Brazilian chart gives too much water in cross-section opposite the town. The pilot reported rocks off the town of Villa Bella.


Sent steam-launch in to sound, but could not find less than 10 fathoms close to bank. The volume of the Amazon, as calculated from our cross-section, gave, at this point, 3,899,149 cubit feet per second.

August 8. - Visited Villa Bella for a short while this morning. It is located on a bluff about 60 feet above the river. Marks on banks indicate a fall of about 5 feet thus far in the Amazon. The town presents rather an imposing appearance from the river, with its long row of one-story white houses. But on going ashore one finds the whole village consisting of the single front street, the suburbs being confined to half a dozen mud huts. The town owes its chief importance to being the point of export and import for the Ramos or Carmunan, which extends for 150 mils, and connects with the river Madeira, 60 mils from its mouth. On this inland river is situated the town of Manheés settlement of the Mandirwea Indians, noted principally for its manufacture of the much-sought-for guarana. The land bordering on the Ramos is spoken of as being of more than ordinary fertility. Considerable quantities of cocoa are also exported from Villa Bella; as also dried pirarum and a little rubber. The population of the town is about 400, and of the district 5,000. Came to at 1 p.m. at the head of the islands Caldeiros. The river forms two channels at the head of these islands, and while there is good anchorage, it must be approached with caution from the south shore, as there is but 3 fathoms quite a distance from the island, which would only give a few feet in low water. A short distance above the Caldeiros Islands are the Sierras Pauntin, the boundary line between the provinces of Para and Amazonas. They are remarkable for rising directly up and a very steep slope from the river bank, to a height of 500 feet. It is the only instance of high hills jutting abruptly into the river from its mouth to Manoas. These sierras are heavily wooded from their base to summit. Fresh breezes from the E.N.E. Till 2 p.m., then a perfect calm. Night very hot and sultry.

August 9. - Got under way at 7 a.m. Sent launch down the north side of the Caldeiros. Fresh breezes from N.E. From 7 a.m., and considerable sea on the river. Spoke a steamer at noon bound up the Purus, which reported that the delayed steamer Rio de Janeiro had arrived six days behind time at Para, which will assure our getting a mail upon reaching there. Sent the steam-launch around inside the island Macaraassu; found quite a large village known as Juruty. Anchored off Santa Ana at 1.30 p.m. Though there is good anchorage, care must be taken in approaching from across the river, as there is nearly a dry bar with only 6 feet not more than 300 yards inside of 12 fathoms. Pulled up little river of same name for some distance, and found it wide enough for the gig to pass easily. Cocoals of cocoa lined the banks, and I was informed it took a canoe a day to reach the head of the creek, upon which were many houses. Cattle may be obtained here from the padrone. During our stay at Santa Ana, on our passage up, the little settlement was engaged in a "festal" in honor of the christening of the few babies that had been born during the year. Had a great many mosquitoes, but a light breeze from the eastward tempered the air, and made it less close than previous evening.

August 10. - The steam-launch left at 6.15 a.m., to pass around the north of the island Bon-Jardin, while we got under way later, and passed down on the south side, which is the one principally used. The river from Bon Jardin to Obidos runs nearly straight, in an easterly direction. Arrived off Obidos at 2 p.m. The water is very deep close aboard the town, there being 45 fathoms 100 yards from the shore, and a strong eddy or counter-current at this distance off. Came in slowly


to within 100 feet of the beach, and anchored abreast of, and at the foot of, the bluff, upon which the fort is located, and a little west of the water-battery, in 13 fathoms. Got a line out immediately from the port bow to the shore, and also one from the port quarter. Ship laid very quietly, stern to the westward, head downstream, with the sternpost just touching in soft, muddy bottom.

Obidos is a scattering town of about 500 inhabitants, skirting the river and extending back half a mile. The bluffs upon which it is located measured by my aneroid gave 80 feet for the lower, then rising to 160 feet, upon which is a small chapel dedicated to Our Savior, from the portico of which there is a fine view up and down the river.

Obidos, from the many unoccupied and ruined houses, would not appear to be in a flourishing condition. It seems to be affected with the same apathy as one sees in all interior towns of South America: only enough labor is undertaken as will furnish the bare necessities of life. It is the last town on the Amazon within the limits of the province of Grao Para. It is the only fortified position on the river, there being a battery of eight 32-pounder guns on the bluff which, however, could be passed without difficulty at night. This is the extreme point, 537 miles from the sea, at which the tide makes itself felt, there being a fluctuation of a couple of inches.

The district, which extends back indefinitely and up and down on both sides of the Amazon, contains about 15,000 inhabitants. There is considerable trade in cattle, the rolling country affording good pasturage, and all the Upper Amazon received its supplies of beef from this place. The banks of the Amazon are in this vicinity generally taken up with cocoals, and Obidos, in good years, will ship 30,000 arobas of cocoa, also some 500,000 pounds of castawhas or Brazil nuts, and some oil of copaiba. The river at this point is but 2,200 yards wide, and has in the middle 55 fathoms, the greatest depth we have yet found in the Amazon.

August 11. - Passed a quiet Sunday at anchor: a good many persons visited the ship in the afternoon.

August 12. - Got under way at 7 a.m., and stood down south bank; launch going to the north of islands. Anchored at 2 p.m. off a place called Lago Grande, the proprietor of which was engaged in the manufacture of tiles.

August 13. - Under way at 8 a.m., and met the launch around by the island Marinarituba. At the end of this island the Amazon makes a sharp turn to the south, and at the angle of the bend comes in the long parana. Abreast of the island Paranatoba there is a large praia, which our pilot, not knowing the channel, attempted to cross; soundings continued to decrease to 3 fathoms, when we anchored; sent out a boat to sound, and found that the channel, with 61/2 fathoms, ran down along the south bank. Got under way at 1 p.m., and stood over to the south side. Arrived off the mouth of the Tapajoz at 4 p.m. The water of this river is clear, and the sandy bottom imparts a greenish tinge to it. Here was presented the same phenomenon as at the mouth of the Negro - the water of the Amazon not mingling with the Tapajoz, a sharp dividing line between the two rivers extends across the mouth of the latter. One mile from the mouth is the town of Santarem, the largest place on the river bank. It is beautifully situated on rising ground, in front of which is a beach fo white sand, and the junction of the two rivers gives a large river front which adds much to the situation. The country back of Santarem is hilly, as are also the banks of the Tapajoz, with numerous cattle ranches on the latter. The merit of the discovery of this place


and of the friendly relations that existed between the Portuguese and the Indians is due to Capt. Pedro Texeira, who, in 1626, under superior orders, went up the Amazon in search of Indian slaves, and brought none from Santarem. Forty years afterwards the Jesuits, at the instigation of the local government, founded a mission here. In 1694 a fort was built on a small hillside to the east of what was then the village and called the "Fortress of Tapajoz." It was intended to prevent any outsider from entering the Tapajoz, and to guard against any proposed ascent of the Amazon. Under the protection of the fort many houses were erected, which formed the nucleus of the future city. In 1754 the missionary parish and neighboring village were consolidated, and the title of town given to it by the Government of Para. In 1833 the name of Santarem was changed to Tapajoz, but in 1848 a provincial law restored its former name, and it was made a city. Population of Santarem is about 3,000, and the district 5,000; this was a place of considerable importance with the Portuguese, and, judging from appearances, the ratio of improvement has not been rapid. Borracho from the Tapajoz, some guarana, cocoa, castanha nuts are the principal export.

Santarem is interesting to Americans as the place where a number of American colonists from the Southern States settled immediately after the war. Most of these became discontented and returned home in the Quinnebang; but some ten or twelve families remained engaged in the cultivation of the sugar-cane, and I am glad to say they speak encouragingly of their prospects, and are making slow but sure progress ahead. The dry season commences here in July and lasts till November.

August 14. - Through ignorance on the part of the pilot, though anchored in 7 fathoms when the ship swung to the ebb, it grounded aft in 21/2 fathoms, the stern tending in shore. The better anchorage is off the south end of Santarem, where the water is not so bold. Off the north end the water is deeper, and a ship must anchor in from 12 to 14 fathoms toi keep off the bank when swinging inshore. The action of the tide upon the Amazon produced a regular ebb and flow in the Tapajoz while we were at anchor. This is the more singular as the series of current measurements every hour for twenty-four hours failed to show any difference in its velocity owing to the influence of the ocean tide which is just felt on the Amazon 600 miles from its mouth. I account for this curious incident of an ebb and flow off Santarem by the fact that the Tapajoz, at this season flowing from the south, and through a drier region, is lower than the main river; while the Amazon at its normal state, uninfluenced by tid,e would be higher and would back up the Tapajoz till the difference of level of the latter became equalized to the greater height of the Amazon. This would of itself cause slackwater for a time at the mouth of the Tapajoz. Therefore, when the level of the Amazon is raised still more by the pressure of the inflowing tide, it causes at certain times a backing up of the Tapajoz and results in a slight rising of the same as a flood-tide. Nothing of this ebb or flow is met on the Amazon at this point.

August 16. - Remained at Santarem till to-day, to bring up our survey, which was behind. Took on board a little orphan American girl, Alice Stroope, for passage to the United States. Under way at 10 a.m., and at 3 p.m. anchored off the north shore abreast head of island Barieros. The most dangerous shoal that I have met on the Amazon makes out from the north shore for 500 yards abreast this island, and navigators should give it a wide berth at night. during the day it is marked by a smooth line on the river surface. Upon anchoring, though we approached it as an acute angle, the sounding jumped from 9 fathoms to 1 in a single cast


of the lead, and the ship struck forward heavily, but the bank was so steep that, with the helm hard astarboard and the current, she swung off at once without stopping.

August 17. - Under way at 7 a.m. Launch surveying north shore. At 1 p.m. anchored abreast the Parana Monte Alegre, off and a little below the head of the island Friexal. There is excellent anchorage here in 7 fathoms. Visited during the afternoon in the steam-launch the town of Monte Alegre. This is on a beautiful parana of the Amazon, 5 miles from its mouth. An igarapé connects this parana with the Lago Monte Alegre. It was founded by missionaries of the "Fathers of Piety" early in the seventeenth century on the bank of the river. Afterwards it was moved to the top of the hill, when the Indian village of Gurupatuba became the city. There is first the fort, consisting of 200 people, close to the shore. The mountain road is then ascended to the town. Halfway up is a spring of delicious water running out of the sandstone. The top of the hill is a table-land, containing probably six or seven hundred acres. There is a large plaza, upon which is quite an imposing church for the neighborhood. The houses are arranged round the plaza, and a little off on the slope. The view of the amazon and surrounding campas, the freshness of the air, the wide grass-grown plaza, all combined to make it the pleasantest scene we have encountered in our Amazon experience. Large numbers of cattle and horses graze on the campas, which, with dried fish, make the principal exports. Here can be purchased the rudely decorated calabashes, known as cujas. The prettiest cujas are found at Monte Alegre and Brerer. A cuja is a drinking cup made from a dried gourd. The rich black ground color is produced by a dye made from the bark of a tree called comaten, the gummy nature of which imparts a fine polish. The yellow tints are obtained from tabatinga clay. The red is made with the seeds of the urnea or anatle plant, and the blue from the indigo which is planted around the huts.

August 19. - Passed Sunday at anchor off Monte Alegre. Had a severe squall wind, with little rain, at 2 a.m. Got under way at 7 a.m. buoy fould of the propeller, but fortunately chaffed off. standing down the river steam-launch on south shore. Arrived off Prainha at noon. Pilot said there was good anchorage. Stood in carefully, carrying deep water, within 300 yards of the town, when suddenly shoaled form 15 to 5 fathoms, and immediately to one and one-half; grounded forward, but backed off without difficulty. stood over to island uruara in the middle of river. Water very deep close to latter, and anchored alongside of grass in 7 fathoms. Found a fall of tide of at least two and one-half, but current remained of about the same force. Prainha is a small village of about 300 inhabitants, and perhaps 2,500 in the district. It export some cattle, 200 head a year, and a small amount of cocoas and castauhas.

August 20. - the channel here lies down the north side till the island Acaraassu is reached, when the south bank is followed to the junction of the Gurupa branch. There is a dangerous shoal off foot Itanda Island to look out for coming up stream at night. Anchored at 3 p.m. at the head of Jurupary Island in 8 fathoms, good anchorage. Very strong northeast breeze; ship riding over the anchor. Could not find firm ground at head of island, and observation party had to cross to north bank, and did not return until 2 a.m. From Prainha to the sea, the rise and fall of the tide rapidly increases from about 3 feet to the maximum. When the tide is out it leaves the banks surrounded by soft mud, making them difficult of access.

August 21. - Under way at 7 a.m. The height of Sierra de Intahy in sight all day yesterday and to-day, forming a pleasant change to the


usual background of green: and the sun setting behind them has given very beautiful sunsets. The usual channel extends down the south bank. Ran a cross-section over to the Resqueiro Islands, found 8 fathoms and more across to the islands: found a channel of 8 fathoms in the middle between the two lower Resqueiro Islands by which a ship can pass from south bank to the middle or north bank of the river. Pilot said these were connected by a praia and no passage through. At 1 p.m. came to on south bank, but having 24 fathoms close to it, ran in and tied up to the trees in 5 fathoms, nearly opposite to village of Almerim. Visited the latter in the afternoon, It consists now of but half a dozen house, but form the ruins it might have been in the time of the Portuguese a place of more consequence. There are the remains of an old fort at the bluff, which an intelligent black man said was built by the Dutch. As the latter nation were driven out of Brazil in 1654, it would make the old ruin over two centuries old.

August 22. - Under way at 7 a.m., standing down on south bank, and anchored at 1 p.m. at junction of main Amazon and the Garupa Branch. Sent ashore and measured a base line of 1,100 feet for the purpose of establishing neighboring points. High water at 3 p.m.: rise about 5 feet, ship swinging, however, all the while to the ebb. This night, the first one for three, without a heavy wind squall. Light winds during day and night.

August 23. - Established surrounding points form base line, and point on opposite bank. Took all the coal remaining in lighter alongside except three tons for launch. Under way at noon, passing down Gurupa branch of Amazon. Passed mouth of Xiugu at 1 p.m. At 4 p.m. came to off and just above the town of Gurupa. Found the Brazilian charts at the junction of the Gurupa and main river very much out. By chart, the village of Gurupa is distant 30 miles form this point, while our run made it but 18. The Brazilian maps indicate rocks off the town. Surveyed it carefully, the river front, and found the navigation perfectly safe within 300 feet of the shore. The Garupa branch is deep and about 11/2 miles broad. The Amazon bifurcates at Point Jarinta, the head of Gurupa Island. This point consists of about 4 feet of alluvium, overlying hard, blue clay, which presents an impassable barrier to the further advance of the Amazon, though it receives and divides the mighty forces of that river. The Gurupa branch divides again opposite the town of Gurupa, in the Gurupa branch proper, and another known as the Vieira or Shell. Set out tide-gauge and found high water August 25 to be at 4 p.m.

August 26. - Anchored Sunday; under way at 6 a.m. Found the extreme rise and fall of tide to be 5 feet. It is within two days of spring tides, so that probably the tide ranges between 4 and 5 feet except during the rainy season. We were anchored on the slack-water side, and the maximum current during the ebb was 2 knots; at the time of high water this was reduced to 1 knot. The town of Gurupa, though picturesquely situated on a rocky bluff 40 feet high, overlooking the river, presents such a dilapidated appearance that it gives the impression that at one time it was much more flourishing than at present. Gurupa was formerly a village called Mariocay, inhabited by savages. The Duty took this place about 1620, fortified it, and, having made a treaty with the Indians, remained until the Portuguese, having received information of the fact, arrived with a force sufficient to drive them out. IN 1623, fearing new assaults, the colonial government fortified Mariocay with a fort, the ruins of which can still be seen to the eastward at the foot of the district. The Carmelites established a mission here in


1674. The San Francisco friars also settled here in 1695, and remained until 1774, when all the friars of this order were sent to Portugal. In fact the advent of steamers has been a blow to the larger villages, as these now touch at all the points where there is any cargo, no matter how little, to give or receive, the result of which is the establishment of a great many petty trading posts, which supply the immediate country and absorb the traffic that used to concentrate in canoes at the town. The latter, therefore, now only maintain their existence by being the voting centers of the districts, at which will assemble all the male inhabitants of the parish once or twice a year, and celebrated as a gala day.

Agriculture is almost extinct. A small portion of the inhabitants still attempt to raise mandioca, but nearly all this article is imported; no better proof of the laziness of the villagers, for mandioca will brow by itself if the weeds are kept away. The cocoa plantations planted thirty years ago may be said to be abandoned, as only an insignificant part of the fruit is harvested for exportation, together with small quantities of sarsaparilla, Brazil nuts, and rubber, which is the most important of its scanty exports. The sugar-cane is only cultivated by two of the principal residents, and there are but two cane-boiling establishments and two rum distilleries, the productions of all of which are consumed in the district. While there are more than 10,000 head of cattle in the district, but little attention is paid to breeding. A few are produced in the interior, but the business is not properly conducted, owing in a great degree to the want of proper clearing near the river above the annual overflow.

This description of Gurupa, once a flourishing village, is unfortunately but too common a type of civilization in the Amazon Valley, where nature in its bounty has supplied such abundant stores of fish, plantains, and the actual necessaries of life, as to result in a dolce far viente lassitude, which envelops the whole country.

Spoke at 7 a.m. steamer Canumen, but was disappointed in not getting any American papers. At 10.30 went alongside of wood-yard, and took on board about 2,500 sticks of wood. Standing down the Vieira (Shell) branch of the Amazon till 2 p.m., when we came to the mouth of the Furo Itaguara, where steamers turn off for Para. The Furo is separated form the Amazon by Vieira Point: off the latter, for 300 yards from it, the water shoals to 31/2 and 4 fathoms; outside this 5 fathoms is found to the opposite shore. Just below Vieira Point is the small island Cobocta. There is good anchorage here, as 6 fathoms will be found from bank to bank. The channel runs on either side of the island. Anchored at 2 p.m. Observation party ashore at Vieira Point. Fine night.

August 27. - Under way at 6.30 a.m. Passing during the day through Furos, Itaguara, Lemão, Tayapura. Anchored at 2 p.m. off the north of Furo Parachachi, the narrow passage through which the ship came on the way up. These Furos will average 700 yards, with depth varying from 5 to 15 fathoms. The channel a little toward the concave side. The passage through these narrow channels is the most picturesque on the voyage from Para to Manaos. Vegetation and water meet, the roots constantly wet from the river, and stimulated by the hot sun, exhibit the rankest profusion of tropical growth. Apparently where a vine can find room to cling, it hangs in a graceful luxuriance, broken here and there by the pretty Javary palms. At the close of the dry season the effect is particularly beautiful by the change in color of many of the trees. Looking ahead, one sees luxuriously blended all the shades of


green, red, and brown. Ship swung one hour to flood, showing this point to be the highest at which the tide overcomes the current.

August 29. - Sounded yesterday off the mouth of Parachachi, and found the channel very narrow, with but 31/2 fathoms, which would give 41/2 fathoms high water. The shoal water is not, however, more than 300 feet wide, with six fathoms on sea-side. Steamers are obliged to ascend the Parachachi Furo and descend the Aturia to the Breres River under the penalty of a heavy fine if disobeyed. Under way at 6.30 a.m., passing down the Tayapura Furo some 6 miles till the mouth of the Aturia Strait was reached. Had 4 fathoms at mouth, then deep water through. It is about 8 miles long and much wider than the Parachachi, as we had no trouble in passing with lighter and steam-launch secured abreast. The Aturia comes into the Breres River some 3 miles below the point where the Parachachi is entered. Passed Breres at 11 a.m. A long praia makes out from south point of the mouth of Breres River well along to the end of Dia Island; care must be taken not to approach within less than five fathoms. Anchored at 3 p.m. off Guajara lights. Squally and cloudy during the first part of night, but the weather cleared sufficiently during middle watch to obtain observations.

August 30. - Under way at 5.30 a.m. High water yesterday evening at 7 p.m., several hours later than at Para. At 9.30, passed the town of Curralinho, which seems to be a larger place than Breres. At 4 p.m., found a wooding station abreast island Xipotuba; stood over to it across the channel and found 6 fathoms to the shore; pilot knew nothing of the state of the channel beyond the beaten track. Took aboard 1,500 sticks and left at 5.30. Passed by the island Januaraca, and anchored after dark, at 6.30 p.m., off the lights Goiabal. There is a very long shoal sand spit makes off the island Janaraca, upon which there is not more than 2 fathoms; also a shoal off Goiabal light. Going up or down without a good pilot, it is well to keep over to north shore, keeping lead going. Going down, do this till 5 fathoms are struck on the Goiabal spit, when stand off at once to southward and westward. Fresh squall of wind at 8 p.m., and heavy rain at 4 a.m.

August 30. - Carried out 5 fathoms from anchorage. Under way at 5.30 a.m., and anchored at 11 a.m., Cotejuba light Bearing northwest, distant one mile. Burned wood alone under six boilers and made 45 revolutions - 7.2 knots.

August 31. - Dispatched the steam-launch in charge of Lieutenant Nichols, to make a survey of the shoals of Gozabal light, which position we left yesterday. Under way for Para at 11 a.m., half-tide. The pilot got out of the channel and ran the ship aground, but with a rising tide backed off. A good guide for this channel is to head for the light on Cotejuba till the cathedral of Para is opened out, then steer so as to shut in the opening between the two islands, and keep this closed till you head over for the point on the right hand going up. From this point the chart is a good guide, but vessels of the draught of the Enterprise, 18 feet, should not attempt to go up until half-tide. The difference between high water at Breres, nearly the highest point within the influence of flood tide, and Para is about three hours. If steamers would leave the latter on the last of the ebb, they will be able to carry the flood with them nearly the whole way to the former point. This is important to remember, for the ebb runs very strong.

The Enterprise arrived off Para in the afternoon after an absence of three months, having during this period completed a running survey of 1,500 miles.

Santa Maria de Belem, or Para, situated on Para river, 100 miles from


the Atlantic, is the seat of the provincial and Roman Catholic diocesan governments, and the place where the provincial assembly meets. It is the port of all the commerce of the province, and, as the receiver and distributor of the products of the Amazon, has before it a splendid future. It contains many public edifices, banking establishments, various mercantile companies, an excellent naval dock-yard, a college for grown students, and, in addition, several schools, attended by 403 male and 401 female students. In the municipality outside of the city there are twenty-one primary schools, attended by 1,418 scholars. The health of the city, except in times of epidemic, is generally satisfactory. Any climatic disease can be traced to a want of cleanliness. The streets are only cleaned by rains, and when these fail on a number of consecutive days there are places which become unbearable. Para is destined to become, if not already, one of the finest cities in the northern part of the empire, and if the municipal rents, which are estimated to amount to $100,000 yearly, are properly expended on works of utility and adornment, it will become one of the first cities of Brazil.

Having fully carried out your instructions, we sailed from Para September 4 for New York, where arrived on the 25th of the same month.

Madeira River.

This, the greatest tributary of the Amazon, rises in the Andes, in the vicinity of Cochabamba, latitude 18° south, longitude 66° west, and, flowing generally northeast for nearly 2,000 miles, empties into the Amazon in latitude 3°22'30" south, and longitude 58°45' west. Though generally known to geographers as the Madeira throughout its whole length, it is really divided into different divisions, and known locally under as many different names. We have first the Lower Madeira from its mouth to its first falls, those of San Antonio; then the falls of the Madeira, eighteen in number, embracing 229 miles of river; the Upper Madeira to the junction of the Marmoré and Guapore rivers, an distance of 96 miles. From this point it is only known as the Marmoré River to its source. Thirty-nine miles below the upper fall, known as the Guajara Merim, opposite the fall known as the Cachoeira Madeira (on account of the large quantity of wood found here, brought down the river Beni), the Madeira receives the river Beni. A cross-section of the Beni, taken by Keller, at its mouth gave a width of 1,000 meters and an average depth of 15 meters. As it discharges at is ordinary stage of volume of 4,344 cubic meters per second, something more than the Marmoré and Guaporé at their junction, it might in justice be considered as the main river, and the two last tributaries, and the name Madeira applied to the river only below the mouth of the Beni.

The exact boundaries of Bolivia and Brazil are matter of dispute; but, according to the treaty regulations of 1870, the mouth of the Beni was designated as the point where the frontier running due west between the rivers Javary and Madeira touches the shore of the latter; consequently the left shore of the Madeira or Marmoré is Bolivian territory upwards from the mouth of the Beni, while the right belongs to the Brazilian province of Matto-Grosso.

A cursory glance at the map of Bolivia shows that the Madeira and its tributaries drain two-thirds of its arable territories.

Confined to the miserable little port of Cobija, on the Pacific, as its only outlet to the ocean, and separated even from this by a trackless desert and the Sierras of the Andes, it is a matter of wonder that Bolivia has not made greater exertions to improve its natural outlet by the way


of the Madeira. It is not in the province of this report to discuss the subject of the Bolivian water-ways, beyond showing their connection with that part of the river Madeira which it has been my duty to survey and investigate. It is sufficient to remark that the Marmoré is navigable to Vichuua, 150 miles from Cochabamba, on the river Chaparé, a branch of the Marmoré, which flows through what may be called the garden of Bolivia, as far as nature has blessed it with a most fruitful soil and equable climate. But the whole of this inland navigation is, and will be, confined to a few canoe-loads of cinchona or quinia until the means of passing the falls of the Madeira are obtained, which at present present an impassable barrier to the transportation of any but the more valuable of Bolivian products, from the danger and expense attending their passage.

On the 27th of August, 1868, the concession of a canal or railroad around the falls of the Madeira and the right of navigation of the Marmoré and other tributaries were given to the National Bolivian Navigation Company, organized by George E. Church, esq., of New York City. A 6 per cent. loan of £1,700,000, authorized by act of the Bolivian Congress August 28, 19871, was placed in London in aid of the above enterprise. Notwithstanding the necessity of this enterprise for Bolivia, but little has been done towards its fulfillment, and this little gives but small encouragement for the future. Unreliable contractors, the difficulty of procuring laborers, the necessity of bringing supplies the whole way from Para, 1,500 miles distant, have all conspired to make the attempts of the originators of this work result in entire failure.

Mr. Church, however, with characteristic American energy, is still struggling for the success of his pet project with a perseverance that should be crowned with success, and in my opinion will be if he can extricate the undertaking from the slow litigation of British courts, in which the discontented and disappointed bondholders of the Bolivian loan have thrown it.

The engineers of the present contractors, Messrs. Collins bros., of Philadelphia, have succeeded in demonstrating the practicability of a line which, after the first 10 miles, presents no difficulties for the next 60 miles: and there is every reason to believe that having reached the elevated plateau through which the Madeira has cut its way by a series of cataracts, they will be able for the remaining 120 miles to find a desirable profile.

As I remarked, at present nothing but the valuable and costly Peruvian bark will bear transportation over the falls, and the natural treasures of the Bolivian plains must remain unsought for until these natural barriers have been overcome.

Let America, then, in every way possible, assist the energetic Church in his noble enterprise, for she, of all nations, should reap the greatest benefits from the success of his undertaking.

It is, then, in the navigation of the Lower Madeira from the Falls of San Antonio to its mouth, in view of the probable construction of the Madeira and Marmoré Railroad, that the United States has the most interest, and to this particular portion of the river I have, under your instructions, confined my survey and investigations.

Characteristics of the Lower Madeira.

By the Lower Madeira will be understood that part of the Madeira between its mouth and the Falls of San Antonio.

In the character of its banks and its numerous islands it resembles the


Mississippi River. In one feature, however, like the Amazon, it is very different. That is, in the number of small lakes that are found on both banks throughout its course, with outlets on the river itself. These lakes embrace a vast network of internal water communication which enables the rubber-hunts to reach with canoes a large area of country that would otherwise be almost unavailable, as they would be compelled to travel long distances by land to reach the numerous rubber trees which are the great source of wealth of the inhabitants.

They abound in large quantities of fish, turtle, and wild fowl, and when the river is high are the homes of numerous alligators. Nearly all these lakes, where the wild Indians have ceased to frequent them, have the little huts of the "seringuieros" on their borders, which thus accounts for the much larger population than is apparent to those who only see the inhabitants on the river bank.

The Lower Madeira, through its whole course, may be said to flow through an alluvium. The only out-cropping I noticed in the first 50 miles was very small, apparently trap, at the foot of a low hill on the left bank at the foot of the island Orucurutuba. Above there is met at rare intervals, at low water, a ferruginous conglomerate underlying a bed of clay. Of such a character is a portion of the left bank abreast of the Uroa rapids. This conglomerate is one of grit stone, little pieces of dolomite cemented with oxide of iron. Its beds are generally horizontal and from four to five yards thick. This ferruginous conglomerate having more resistance than the underlying argillaceous grit stone, the latter crumbles by the action of the water, allowing the conglomerate to topple over into the bed of the river, forming bowlders which, under the general name of "pedras," are the terror of the Madeira steamboatmen.

The occasional irregular resistance of the banks causes the course of the river to become serpentine. Banks of sand are formed on the convex side, and the concave side is gnawed away by the constant action of the water, causing the river to assume an irregular course; then the mighty force of increasing floods will force itself through the isthmus, straightening itself again and cutting off a portion of its bed, which accounts for the numerous lakes spoken of as peculiar to the adjoining territory of the Amazon and Madeira.

This untiring work of the river floods, cutting away and forming new banks, is expressed by the inhabitants of the Amazon Valley under the terms "igapo," "varjem," and "terra firma."

The igapo is the newest alluvium of the convex margin, whose elevation is not above high water mark, and is therefore annually overflowed. Its vegetation is well marked, producing woods of a soft and generally useless nature, excepting the Seringa (Siphonia elastica).

The varjem includes the country whose elevation is between ordinary and extreme high water, not subject to periodical overflows. Here are found the numerous varieties of the palm family, the mulatto wood, seringa, cacao, and others. It is also suitable for the cultivation of the sugar-cane.

The third, the terra firma, are the remains of ancient watercourses through which the rivers have formed their channels, and in the Madeira appear in the form of bluffs, not over 100 feet high, and formed of red and yellow clay. It is only on terra firma are found the hard and close grained varieties of wood valuable in commerce. Therefore, from the Lower Madeira will never ben exported any large quantities of valuable woods, though they abound in the vicinity of the falls of the Madeira.


In a word, then, the Lower Madeira flows its entire course through a flat country, with occasional bluffs, not over 100 feet high. Its banks are annually overflowed from February to the middle of April. The lowest stage of the river is in October. It commences to fall about May 1, and averages about 6 feet a month till July 1, when it goes down more rapidly at a rate of not less than 8 feet.

The average rise and fall is about 40 feet, and the extreme difference between high and low water has ranged as high as 48 feet.


The temperature is always high, but the nights are not uncomfortably hot. The highest reading of the thermometer was on July 23, at 2 p.m., 91°, and form 83° to 88° may be considered the daily temperature from 8 a.m. To 8 p.m.

July and August are the hottest, as well as the dryest. But there are at times a cold wind from the southwest in the summer months, when there is a great and uncomfortable fall. We experienced two such day at anchor 200 miles from the mouth, when the thermometer fell as low at 70°, and did not rise above 77°.

Observations of our wet-bulb show that the moisture decreases very much as the river is ascended.

At San Antonio, whole the mercury frequently goes to the nineties, the heat is not as oppressive as in the Lower Amazon, where there is not evaporation enough in the air to cause the wet-bulb to fall below the outside temperature.

The nights at San Antonio are very much cooler than near the mouth, there being a difference of ten degrees. The great difference of temperature between day and night at San Antonio makes rheumatism a frequent complaint.

The experience of the Enterprise, and what I have gathered from other sources, lead me to believe that the valleys of the Amazon and Madeira may be considered healthy. Persons navigating these rivers would be no more subject to disease than if engaged in similar occupations on the Western rivers.

The Enterprise has been three months on constant service on the Upper Amazon and Madeira, and we have not had more than a half dozen cases of intermittent fever, and these mild.

San Antonio is notoriously unhealthy. No satisfactory reason has ever been given, and it is alleged that the water remaining in the hollows in the rocks after the water falls stagnates, and throws out pestilential vapors. probably so, but the real cause, in my opinion, is in the small creeks which run into the river above the town, and a large lake back of it. As the water dries up by evaporation, there being no outlet, vegetable decomposition takes place rapidly, and no doubt is the reason for the large amount of sickness, for I have never in my life seen a more unhappy and unhealthy body of men than the workmen on the railroad at San Antonio. Hardly a single one had escaped attacks of fever, and the pale and cadaverous looks of nearly all of them was truly pitiable.

The rainy season may be said to commence in November and end in April. The largest rain-fall is in the months of January, February, March, and April. The rain-fall is, however, at no time excessive, and the largest amount in any one month, as gauged at San Antonio, was a total of 15,85 inches in the month of January.

The following gauge of the rainfall at San Antonio, as measured by


the English engineer at this place in the year 1873, will illustrate the seasons and may not be uninteresting:

January 15.85   July 0.32
February 10.87   August 1.07
March 14.89   September 5.70
April 11.01   October 1.94
May 5.96   November 11.32
June 2.56   December 10.03

There is a wide difference between what is known as the rainy season in the Valley of the Amazon and the same on the Isthmus of Darien. There is not the soaking, drenching rains for days at a time of the latter, but rain interspersed with much pleasant weather.

Insect life is found here in all its varieties, and the two pests of travelers in tropical South America, mosquitoes and piums, are found in full vigor on the Madeira.

The piums, a small black fly of the size of a gnat, are in great numbers at the Falls of San Antonio, and, enveloping their victims in clouds, inflict very irritating and painful bites upon every part of the body uncovered. They commence at sunrise and continue till sunset, when they give way to the mosquitoes.

To Americans fresh from home the latter are annoying in the extreme, and whether anchored in the middle of the stream or at the bank is no peace form them till their attacks are evaded under the shelter of a bar.


It is only within the past twenty-five years that the Madeira has been peopled to any extent by any other than the wild Indians. In 1749, the Portuguese sent a large expedition from Para, by the way of the Madeira, to the mines of Matto-Grosso, on the Guaporé River, a tributary of the Madeira above the falls.

When Lieutenant Gibbon descended it in 1854, in his expedition across the Andes, he found a small settlement at Crato and the town of Borba, with a few scattering huts in the lower part.

What gave a great impetus to its settlement was the unrivalled excellence of its rubber, and the yearly increasing demand for it throughout the world. So that now, from the best information I could gather, there are at present, including Portuguese, Brazilians, blacks, and domesticated Indians, about twelve thousand people scattered along its banks. This whole population may be said to be engaged in the production of rubber. It is doubtful whether there will be much increase in this number, unless the price of this gum should go so much higher as to stimulate the lazy Brazilians to increase its production.

The country is now generally taken up from within fifteen miles of the banks with estradas leading to all the rubber tracts, and to increase the supply the natives must go more into the interior. Here comes in the fear of attacks from the Indians, and what is almost as bad to the indolent Brazilian, the necessity of carrying his rubber a long distance by land.

A quarter of a century ago the Madeira was principally peopled by wild Indians. The chief of these were the Muras, the Mundurucus, the Papunhas, Parintintins, and Capunhas.

It is not probable that any of these tribes were every very numerous, because, from the natural aversion to the Indians to labor, they would be obliged to subsist principally on game, which is not plentiful. Of the above, all but the Parintintins and the Capunas have become domesticated.


At every hut owned by a Brazilian laborer there will be found one or more families of Indians, who, though seemingly independent, are bearers of water and hewers of wood. What remains of these Indians have been collected by the government in the two missions of San Pedro on the Madeira, and San Francisco on the Machado, a tributary of the Madeira.

The term "Tapuyo" is applied to the domesticated Indians of the Lower Amazon, and as a class are industrious and intelligent. They form the crews of all steamers upon the Amazon, in preference to whites or blacks. The girls make excellent servants, skillful with the needle, and are sought after by the Brazilians of the better classes, who bring them up from mere childhood in their families.

In appearance they are far superior to our North American Indians, readily adopting the civilized habits of the whites, cleanly in their persons, faithful in their attachments, and possessing among the females much real beauty, which can hardly be said of any squaw of our home tribes.

The Parintintins are, on the contrary, remarkably savage and ferocious. They have steadily refused all intercourse with the whites or Brazilians, and murder indiscriminately either the latter or domesticated Indians whenever they meet them alone. They are crafty but cowardly, always attacking by stealth. They are said to be cannibals, but whether so or not, they cut off and carry away the head and right hand of their victims. They inhabit the high land about the Machado and Timbuqué rivers about one hundred miles below the falls, and so great is the fear of them that the entire right bank, though rich in rubber, for an hundred miles is without an inhabitant, and no Bolivian dares to pass down alone in his montaria, or camp on the east side of the river within this section.

The following account of this tribe was given to me by a merchant of the Madeira, and interesting as coming from a near neighbor of this dread foe:

The Parintintius Indians live on the banks of the rivers Madeira and Machado (or Matamues), on the right-hand side going up. These Indians are ferocious and untamable, and their constantly repeated attacks on the neighboring villages and the passing canoes, with their attendant assassinations, make them the terror of the nearest settlements. Their last barbarities were committed during the months of January and February of this year. In January six persons who unguardedly passed through the forest on the right bank of the Machado River were murdered. In February five Bolivian merchants who were fishing up the river from the mouth of the outlet of the small lake called the Tamburguy suffered the same fate.

Generally, after making incisions of a span's depth in the bodies of their victims, they cut off their heads, and sometimes one or two arms, which are carried to the festivals which immediately follow their successful attacks. They always travel naked one or two of their number using feather ornaments, to induce the belief that they are the chiefs or commanders of their tribes. Their color is nearly white (Mameluca), and report says that their children are very handsome and well formed.

The barbarous acts of these Indians during the years 1871 and 1872 alarmed the Bolivians, who wished to explore the country and export its rich natural products, and seeing the impossibility of taming the savages, they formed a company of what was considered sufficient force to penetrate the forests. The real object of the expedition was conquest. Five days of foot travel brought the party to an Indian town, where there was a feast over the head of a person recently murdered on the river. They killed some, wounded others, and, their ammunition being expended, allowed many to escape.

A few young children of the head men were captured, and allotted to those who were willing to "lend themselves to a work so clearly defined in favor of humanity." Their efforts produced no good results, and the report of their examination to a government unwilling to use force to exterminate "these wild beasts" or to take active measures to suppress their violence, has been of no avail. This indifference of the government and the disastrous occurrences in this district have forced the inhabitants of St. Roque and Buena Ventura to abandon their habitations, rubber-producing estates, machineries, &c., with great prejudice, if not entire ruin, to their interests.


In 1871 the government established a missionary station on the Machado River, which has been put in charge of an Italian priest, Theodoro Maria Portharara, during his life or pleasure. This priest, of astute character, even at the cost of great sacrifices and the risk of his life, has been unable to penetrate near the vicinity of the Parintintins, although in his last attempt he was accompanied by 300 men from the mission of San Francisco.

It would be tiresome to read an account of the barbarities committed by these Indians in this party of the country. From the opposite bank of the river the victims of the savages receive no assistance in food, fuel, or supplies. After attacking and entering a town the savages set fire to the houses.

Above the Parintintins, in the interior and at the mouth of the January, an affluent of the Madeira, there is another savage tribe called the Caugapyrangas, who, although untamable, are not as ferocious as the others. Further on we find the Carypunas tribe, more domesticated.

The inhabitants of the Lower Madeira may be divided into two classes, the seringueros or negociantes, and the laborantes. The former, few in number, are either Portuguese or Brazilians, and through them the whole transaction of collecting the native products of the forests are carried on. They collect about them a great or less number of the poorer classes, Brazilians, negroes, mestizoes or Indians, according to their wealth and influence. They all keep small stores, at which are supplied all the wants of their dependents, in barter for whatever the poorer classes can procure that is valuable. They buy the rubber and the copaiba at not more than half its value, and give in exchange rum or "chachaça," farinha, cotton goods, and hardware, at a profit probably of an hundred per cent. The consequence is the poor laborante is always in debt to his master. Many of them make fortunes, but the system of credit and debit is so general in this country that they lose a great deal in bad debts from their men. In no other way could I account for their not becoming wealthy, for their profits are enormous.

Animals. - Fish.

Ascending the Amazon or Madeira, the stranger is struck with the absence of game. Not even the all-abundant monkey was seen by the Enterprise in its passage of the river. Probably the submerged state of the banks in the rainy season causes the game to seek higher lands.

The anta or tapir is met in large numbers in the vicinity of the falls of the Madeira, as also deer and peccary, and the onça or American leopard. But for the reasons above stated these animals are rare on the Lower Madeira.

Parrots, paroquets, macaws, toucans, and many other varieties of birds are very numerous. But the lack of game is amply made up with the large quantity of fish in the Amazon and all its tributaries.

The one fish greatly prized by the natives in the piracurù, which attains often a size of eight to ten feet in length. On account of its abundance, and the place it fills in the food supply of the inhabitants, it may well be called the codfish of the Amazon. It is not caught with hook and line, but show with bow and arrow, and on coming to the surface is harpooned and secured. The head cut off and the vertebrae removed, it is laid in large flakes on a platform of bamboo to dry. Large quantities made up in bundles of an arroba, thirty-two pound each, are sent to Para, and form an important article of diet there and the neighboring seaport villages.

The peixe-boa, or cow-fish, from the resemblance of its snout to the nose of a cow, is highly esteemed. It is the same as the manati of the Rio Atrato, and in fact is not a fish, but a mammal, and should, I think, be classed with the seal family. The Madeira abounds in turtle,


of which there are said to be four varieties--the Tortaruga Grande, Cabecerda, Trocajo, and Matá-Matá. The Tortaruga Grande is the one most sought after and in the most abundance.

The common practice of catching the turtle is to shoot them with a loos barbed arrow. The barb is secured to the arrow of cane with a small line: When it enters the turtle's shell it is disengaged, and the shaft of the arrow floats attached by the line. They are also caught with a baited hook, but the former is the favorite method. every seringuero on the Madeira has his turtle-pond back of the house, where great numbers are kept. They constitute a favorite article of food with all classes of Brazilians, rich and poor.

Owing to the destruction of vast quantities of turtle-eggs on the praias of the Madeira during the breeding season, August and September, for the purpose of making tortaruga manteca, or turtle-oil, their numbers have been greatly diminished. But as on this account the manufacture of turtle-oil on the Madeira is no longer profitable and has been discontinued, it is probable the supply of this very necessary article to the inhabitants of the Madeira will now keep up with the demand. The destruction of turtle-eggs is, however, actively carried on the Solimoes or Upper Amazon, where the tortaruga is still abundant. A species of land-turtle known as the "iabuty" is common on the low ground of the Madeira River, and it is highly prized for food.


The products of the Madeira may be said to be such as are entirely extracted from the forest or river.

While the lands bordering on the river are fertile, and would produce large quantities of cacao, mandioca, plantains, maize, and tobacco, one sees in passing nothing beyond a little clearing around the huts of the natives, upon which are growing a few scattering plantains. Higher up, near the falls, where the Bolivians have settled with their Mojos Indians, more attention is given to the cultivation of the soil, and they have large plantations of plantains, mandioca, and maize; but it is the exception, and confined to the more wealthy Bolivians, who make their places their homes.

The Portuguese and Brazilians, only looking on their residences as temporary, seem to have no interest in the improvement of their places, and their one dream is to make a fortune in "borracha," the commercial name for rubber, and retire to Lisbon or Para, though probably few realize it. The great product of the Madeira is rubber; all other pursuits or employments are given up for the extraction of this valuable gum.

From the best authorities attainable I should put the production of rubber from the Madeira at fifty thousand arrobas, or one million six hundred thousand pounds. This, at thirty-five cents per pound, the current price in Para, would make five hundred and twelve thousand dollars. The value of the other productions from the river is insignificant.

The rubber tree, known here in Portuguese language as seringa, on the Atrato, another great source of supply, as cautchou (Siphonia elastica), is not found below Borba.

The siphonia grows best where it is exposed to the annual overflow of the river, and therefore is found in its highest state on igapó, the more recent deposit, and vargem or older deposit. It grows also on the terra firma, for it is found about the falls of the Madeira, but I am inclined to


think the sap is not of as good a quality as where the tree grows in a moister soil.

The season for gathering rubber may be said to commence in June, and extends to the following February, when the different "estradas" paths become impassable from the overflow. These estradas lead out from the hut of the seringuero, embracing all the trees in the neighborhood. The sap, which resembles cow's milk, is collected in little tin cups that will hold about two gills. The collector starts at early daylight, and as he reaches the trees he eats a gash in the bark with his machete, and the cup is struck in just below, so as to catch the sap as it exudes. Four cups are used, which are placed opposite, but on the same circle. They are first arranged at the top, as high as the hand can reach, then shifted down day by day to the ground. They are then again placed at the top in different positions, the idea being in this way to cover the whole surface. The cups being set, the collection begins to gather the sap, visiting the trees and pouring the contents of the cups into a calabash. Where the trees are distant they are visited but once, nearer twice a day. Reaching home, he empties the milk into one of the large turtle shells which are always found at the door of a hut on the Madeira, and proceeds at once with the smoking process, which is generally done in a low hut constructed for the purpose, as the resinous parts will soon separate and produce an inferior article. An earthen jar, without bottom and with a short, narrow neck, is placed over a fire made of the nut anajá or uanassei palm, whose smoke alone has the power of quickly coagulating the seringa. The operator, pouring a little of the milk on the surface of a small wooden shovel or canoe paddle, taking care to distribute it thinly and evenly over the surface, turns it slowly over the smoke until thoroughly stiff. This goes on until all the sap is exhausted or the cake becomes unwieldy. A slit is then cut in the plancha, the paddle slipped out, and a stick run through the mass, on which it is suspended to allow the water to evaporate. Enough planchas are collected on one stick to make an arroba, thirty-two pounds; it is then tied up with bark, and in this condition is ready for market. The skins at the bottom of the cups, the drops at the foot of the trees are al preserved, smoked, and made up in a round mass, forming an inferior article known as semamby or cabeça de negro. One man will probably collect from five to ten pounds per day.

The Siphonia elastica is a noble tree, often 100 feet high, and 24 inches in diameter. Its leaf is elliptical, about the size and somewhat resembling our elm, and of a light-green color. A tree milked as described will not last more than twelve years, and gives very little sap towards the close of this period.

I am told that in fifteen years after planting they can be tapped for their sap. Under the system pursued, as the valleys of the Madeira and Purus are the producing rivers, it would seem as if the supply of this gum has about reached its maximum, for many of the trees have died, and the country has been well prospected. Before long, however, it will commence to diminish, and then the Brazilians will regret that they have not done what would have been the case in any other country, planted young trees to keep up the annual production.

Destructive as is this method finally, it is not as bad as the one practiced in the valley of the Atrato and Darien, where the tree is at once cut down and destroyed, which has compelled the caoutchaudos of those regions to seek for cautchone at constantly increasing distances.

On the Amazon the stranger will hear the terms seringa and borracha both applied to this staple product. Properly speaking, seringa is not only applicable to the tree, but to the sap collected in the cups, while


borracha applies to the article after its prepared for market. One never hears the traders speaking of the seringa he has bought, but the borracha, and it is so termed in the market of Para.

Rubber is worth about 25 cents per pound on the Madeira, when at 40 cents, the present selling price, in Para. The difference, less freight and tax, small, of course, on a pound, is what the traders make, increased probably by an hundred per cent. profit on the goods with which the rubber is bought, for rarely is money paid down to the native collector: the result of which, at the close of the season he is always in debt to his seriuguero, for if a little ahead the latter is sure to excite the desires of the native with some useless but high-priced bauble, for instance a music-box, which will bring the balance on the side of the shrewd Portuguese.

Though rubber is by far the most important article of export of the Madeira, there is a good deal of oil of copaiba, castauha or Brazil nut, some guarauá, and a considerable amount of dried fish, "peracarú," produced. The oil of copaiba is not like the milk of the rubber, the sap of the tree from which it is obtained, but is an unctuous substance contained in a crack in the center of the tree. The latter is therefore bored with an auger to the center, a tap put in, and the juice flows out and is collected in large carboys. From one to five gallons may be obtained, but the flow is immediate, and the tree is not drawn upon oftener than twice a year. This strange oily substance drained form the core is as necessary to the existence of the tree as the sap taken from the rubber, and in a few years they die, diving less each time from the first yield.

The noble castauheira, from which the Brazil nuts are collected, grows on terra firma, and to a great height. The nuts, so familiar to us, are contained in a very hard exterior shell of about the size of a cocoanut, fifteen nuts in a shell. The tree being too lofty to climb without inconvenience, the natives wait for the shells to drop from the tree, which occurs in February and March. This outer covering is so hard that I have seen an axe fly off at the first blow without breaking it. Turned off and polished, very pretty and ornamental cups are made from them. The natives of the Madeira press the kernel of these nuts into a paste, which they afterwards dry in large copper pans, also used in the preparation of farinha, of which they make a kind of bread, and the oil is used by the women in dressing their hair.

The guaranã, made from the seeds of a small plant of the Paullinia sorbilis, is made to some extent on the Madeira, though the largest supply comes form the district of Mauhis, back from Villa Bella. These seeds are crushed into a pulp, rolled up the size of a Bologna sausage, and dried, in which state they almost exactly resemble one.

The dried tongue of the Picarueú is used to grate the guaranã, of which about a teaspoonful in a tumbler of water, sweetened with sugar, is used. In taste in resembles slightly that of almonds, but a little bitter, and, though palatable, there is nothing seemingly about it which accounts for the avidity with which is it sought for in the interior of Brazil and Bolivia, where it brings $3 per pound, while selling on the Amazon for 50 cents. It is said to possess medicinal qualities, and to be very soothing to the nervous system.


The Enterprise anchored off the mouth of the Madeira at 3 p.m. on the afternoon of June 17. The large island of Trinidad extends across the mouth, dividing the Amazon into two channels, while a third, caused


by the island Autuz comes out by the mouth of the Madeira and is divided from it by what is known as Madeira Island. The latter flowing parallel with the Madeira would produce the impressions that it is one and the same as the Madeira, but the great difference of current marks immediately that it is a part of the Amazon and not its tributary.

Considering the great length of the Madeira, its mouth is insignificant, not more than one mile wide between the point of Madeira Island and the island of Porças, to the east, with a depth of seventy feet.

The lower portion of the Madeira is affected entirely by the level of the Amazon for its depth. As the Amazon does not commence falling before the middle of June, while the Madeira is much earlier, there is in consequence a backing up of the latter, so that at the time we passed up for the first fifty miles the banks were not more than two feet out of water, which was about the same as on the main river.

This ship anchored at 5 p.m. 15 miles from the mouth, at the first clearing on the river, at the foot of the island Orucurutuba. Here are two small bluffs 25 feet high, the first seen; and a small outcropping of trap, the only rock met with in the first hundred miles.

Thirty miles from the mouth, at the head of the island of Rosahuiha, is found the first shoal place of the river. At this time there was 6 fathoms upon it. When we passed down in the same place but five ditto, and when the Amazon is at low water there will not remain more than 2 fathoms.

A survey of the Madeira soon becomes as monotonous as one of the Amazon. At first it is a great relief to be away from the vast expanse of the great river, and to be able to take in at a glance both banks, without the feeling of littleness that one experiences on the Amazon. But the same everlasting tree line, the deep silence, only broken occasionally by the screech of a parrot, the absence of animal life along the banks, except the lazy crane or the pretty kingfisher, so characteristic of the amazon and tributaries, soon wearies, and there remains little of interest to distinguish one day from another as we pass up the river.

After passing the island of Rosahiuha the current increases to two miles per hour, and varies form this to two and a half knots for the first two hundred miles.

There being no rubber gathering below Borba, but a few inhabitants are met with up to this point. We maintained an average speed of seven and a half knots, which gave us about five miles over the ground. The banks of the Madeira, being entirely alluvial, are constantly undergoing a great change.

Numbers of islands are met with, the ends of which are to be avoided, as sand-bars always make out form them.

Forty-six miles form the mouth is met the Furo Canuman, which, running 180 miles up to the eastward, empties into the Amazon under the name "Furo Ramos," just below Villa Bella. It is navigable the whole distance for steamboats, the land is reported fertile, and a considerable population of Brazilian and Mudurucus Indians are settled upon it.

Sixty-four miles form the mouth is the town of Borba, on the right bank, on a bluff 30 feet above the ordinary river stage. It was the first town settled on the river, founded originally by the Jesuits, in the middle of the last century. There is a small production of tobacco, which has an excellent reputation, but the amount is insignificant. Borba presents the signs of decaying existence; the forests in the vicinity do not yield rubber, and probably most of the inhabitants who have had the energy to do so have gone higher up in the rubber region.

Just above the island of José Joao, at a place known as Inatarouta,


there is a praia in the middle, which should be avoided, as in the Enterprise we found but 3 fathoms upon it. The best channel runs close to the west bank, not more than one hundred feet distant.

Ten miles below Sapucaiaroca there are a number of rocks in the river the whole length of the illos Gauchos. The channel lies over on the west side of the island, which is free from rocks, and as close to it as the lead will permit a vessel to go.

Sapucaiaroca is a settlement of Muras Indians, the only pure Indian town to be met with on the river. The Muras are a treacherous, lazy set, and are but little liked. They may be said to be half civilized, have a tumbled-down church in the village, and non longer molest the inhabitants, though a half century ago they were much dreaded: but a perpetual feud with their more powerful neighbors, the Mundurucus, have reduced them in numbers and spirit.

The Madeira is deeper opposite the town than at any other place on the river.

There are no more obstructions on the river until the island of Araras is reached, where there are many rocks on the river-bed opposite the small settlement of that name. The river narrows here, the current is strong, but we did not find less than six fathoms in the channel, which is near the west bank.

At the foot of the island of Uroa, 200 miles form the mouth, the Enterprise anchored on the afternoon of June 21, five days from the mouth of the Madeira.

Five positions were fixed by observation coming up, and on our return four other intermediate points, so that in a distance of two hundred miles seven positions beside the two termini, or one in every thirty miles, have been accurately determined.

The survey of the Madeira up to the point of anchorage has been conducted in the same manner as in the plan described upon the Amazon. With one survey carefully checked every 30 miles the only errors that can creep in are those of speed. With a regular number of revolutions always maintained, there remains the single error of current. but with a maximum of three knots and a minimum of two knots, as found by our observations, and which could be determined in a great degree by the character of the river whether wide or narrow, we rarely found our line more than a half mile out of position as defined by our observations: and this, applied to the whole day's work, would not make an appreciable error in the position of any particular point.

The Madeira varies form half a mile to a mile in width: and now here in the channel was found up to Uroa Island less than 6 fathoms. Later, in the middle of July, such places had 5 fathoms, and probably the river would fall 18 feet more to extreme low water.

The channel to the west of Uroa Island had long been an object of dread to the navigators of the Madeira River, on account of the rapidity of the current, and the number of bowlders in the passage, which caused great eddies in the stream, and gave an appearance of danger more imaginary than real.

Our pilots declined the responsibility of taking the ship through, and ignorance on my part of the situation compelled me to be governed by their opinion. The crippled condition of our machinery, working with but one engine, liable at any time to catch on the center and not in condition to back, added to the difficulties of the situation, and force me, with reluctance, to give up the idea of proceeding farther up in the ship.

Measures were at once taken to prepare the steam-launch for the


further survey of the river to the head of navigation. The water-tanks were taken out and coal-bunkers put in their stead, which enabled me to increase the total amount of fuel to 4,000 pounds. Lieutenant Blocklinger was selected to command the party, assisted by Lieut. C.P. Perkins as astronomer, and Mr. Sparrow as surveyor and draughtsman. The crew consisted of three seamen, a machinist, fireman, and pilot.

Ample provisions for eight men for a month were provided, with all the necessary equipments, including two chronometers. The launch is small, having but 28 feet length and 9 feet beam; therefore I added the dinghy to be towed with part of the provisions, and which would enable the party to have a small boat at hand if needed.

It was not expected that the coal would run the launch but a short distance, and funds were provided to purchase wood as fuel. They were compelled to cut the wood in short pieces of six inches, and this proved to be one of the most fatiguing duties attendant upon the expedition. It was found out by accident that the Anaja nuts used for smoking the seringa, made a hot fire, and after that, when they could be procured, made an excellent substitute for fuel.

The principal difficulty experienced in using the launch in our survey arose from the great deviation in the compass. It was found not possible to swing the boat properly so as to arrive at any reliable data, and even if it were, there was really no place in the already overcrowded little steamer where it could be of use and not interfere with other equally important objects.

Finally we had recourse to deflecting angles, using the dumb compass screwed to the draughtsman's table. Though the latter could give us no true course, it would give us the angle between a course already obtained and the bearing from this to some other point form which the launch would be headed. Thus, before starting in the morning, the magnetic compass would be taken on shore, and the bearing of an object taken, which would be the first course. This was laid by the dumb compass, the launch headed for it, and upon ending the line, the number of degrees to the right or left of this line of another object ahead, for which the launch would be steered, would be laid off.

The plan worked admirably in practice, but it required the most unceasing watchfulness on the part of the observer, Mr. sparrow, for a single error would throw out all the remaining work of the day, and he is deserving of great credit for the painstaking fidelity with which he kept up his work. It was necessary, in order to keep our survey correctly, that the positions obtained nightly should be worked up at once, which employed Lieutenant Perkin's time the greater part of the day. Lieutenant Blocklinger had all he could attend to in managing the steering of the launch, the cooking of food, and in providing supplies of fuel. The crew was necessarily reduced to the smallest number possible with efficiency, and the work required of all hands was such as to tax each to his utmost, and during the long period the boat was away the thorough manner with which my orders were carried out elicited my highest approbation.

It was not possible in a boat of so small power to be able to make much headway against the current, so the upward voyage was employed in making a traverse of the banks, keeping close to the shore, and on the return the channel would be run and soundings made.

My directions to Lieutenant Blocklinger were that he was not to make more than 25 miles per day, and observations were to be taken every night, which would enable him to maintain a close check upon the day's survey; also, to follow up the slackwater side, keeping out of


the strength of the current as far as possible. It was my intention at first to have taken charge of the party in person, but a desire to make a personal examination of the Uroa Rapids, and a feeling that something might turn up during the long absence that should require my presence on board, made me come to the conclusion to go up later in one of the trading-steamers of the Madeira, and come down from San Antonio in the launch, sounding the channel. Besides, I felt I could acquire much useful information from the pilots, not to be had in any other way, as circumstances had caused me to put but little confidence in our own. The launch left the ship at 7 a.m. on Tuesday, June 25.

During out stay at Uroa working parties were sent on shore to cut wood for steaming purposes. The experiment of burning wood and coal had proved very successful. It was found that sixty pounds of steam could be maintained with a speed of 7 knots, and that 300 sticks of wood represented about a ton of coal. This amount of wood cost us $5, while coal on the Madeira cost use $28. This was an important saving, and one that should be remembered if ocean steamers are ever called upon to make the voyage from Para to San Antonio. Had I known it I could have saved the government the $1,000 I paid as freight for a hundred and twenty tons to the mouth of the Madeira in a lighter. Of course, there is a great difference in the wood. If very green, it makes steam with difficulty; but partially dry, with a light bed of coal, it answers finely.

The rapids of Uroa, that I propose to make a more special survey of, are distant some six miles from the foot of the island where we were anchored.

To make soundings in a rapid current of 3 miles an hour, with a rowboat, was no easy matter.

I left the Enterprise at daylight, in the gig, accompanied in whaleboat by Lieutenant Nichols and ensign Hunt. Had some difficulty in finding a suitable place for a base-line, on account of dense undergrowth on the banks. Finally measured one of 440 feet, and fixed by sunset sufficient signal-stations on each bank to cover the river to the head of the so-called rapids, though they are really nothing more than great eddies in the stream caused by large bowlders.

In my absence during the day a naval steam-launch, commanded by a lieutenant of the Brazilian navy, arrived with a letter to me form the president of the province of Amazonas, Baron de Maracajú. The correspondence between the president and myself has already been laid before the department, and to keep up the line of events it is only necessary to state the purport--that is, the Enterprise was in the Madeira river without permission of the Imperial Government of Brazil, while that river was not open to foreign men of war, and he requested that I would immediately retire in my ship to the Amazon. He was correct in saying that I had not the necessary risé, but as I understood in leaving the United States that such had been promised, I replied that I thought he must be mistaken in his assertion; but, however, if he still declined to grant the necessary permit, upon hearing from him, I would depart. I felt assured before I could get answer to my letter our survey would be in such a state of forwardness as to enable me to carry out my promise of retiring from the Madeira without slighting the important work for which the Enterprise has been dispatched from the United States. As I supposed, his excellency replied that he could not grant the required permission, but by that time I was on my return from San Antonio to the Enterprise, which upon reaching, our survey being completed, we dropped down by easy stages to the Amazon.


The base-line measured and stations determined, we proceeded to run lines of soundings over the rapids, the stations at different times being occupied by Lieutenant Nichols, Master Wright, and Ensign Hunt. Simultaneous sextant angles were taken upon the sounding-boat at the dropping of a flag. The survey was very laborious on account of the strength of the current. Thirty-two cross-lines were run, the river averaging about a mile wide, and four up and down lines, at equal distances, by myself, Lieutenant Spalding being with me to record the soundings. After pulling a down line the boat had to be pulled up the shore in slack-water to the head of the survey, making just double the distance, as the current was too strong to be pulled against. Altogether, about eight hundred soundings were put in. We found rocks with from 3 to 6 fathoms upon them, and close aboard 11 to 13 fathoms. The rocks seemed large bowlders, some of them 30 feet high, scattered indiscriminately on the bottom. But a good channel was found 300 yards wide, with 7 fathoms over the whole distance.

Going up, to run this channel a vessel should approach them from the middle of the river, and bringing the western point of Uroa (the only one in sight) directly astern, headed for the point on the opposite bank where the grass meets the clay bank, a point of contact distinguished at a long distance or on a course.

When the upper end of Uroa Island is well opened on the port bow, all danger is passed. The channel is also distinctly marked by smooth water between the whirlpools.

Going down, abreast the upper end of Uroa, approach the west bank within 600 yards and head for the point of the island below and ahead. This should bring the stern on a line from this point to the end of the clay bank where it meets the grass. Should the railroad be completed and ocean steamers ascend the Madeira, two buoys placed at the upper and lower ends of channel will make it easy to run.

The repairs to our machinery being completed, the Enterprise dropped down, on the 3d of July, to Araras Island, where I had had a lighter of coal from Para left for the ship.

The survey of the Madeira, as far as could be performed by the Enterprise, being completed, I awaited the first steamer to ascend the Madeira and join the steam-launch in the survey of the remaining portion to the falls of San Antonio.

During our stay at Uroa Island, from June 21 to July 3, twelve days, the river lowered 31/2 feet, but later, from July 3 to 22, it fell 7 feet, making a fall of about 10 feet in a month.

On the afternoon fo July 4 I went on board the side-wheel steamer Canuman, Alberto Moraes, captain, bound for San Antonio. The Canuman was an American-built iron side-wheel steamer, drawing about 7 feet loaded, and constructed after the pattern of our western river boats, with separate engines. This American type, not found in any steamers of English build, is in great favor among the steamboat owners and pilots of the Amazon and its tributaries, and I doubt if any more steamers for river navigation are ordered in England, unless there is a great difference in price in their favor.

The life on board the river steamers of the country is decidedly cosmopolitan. No state-rooms or berths are provided for no person in this country travels without his hammock, known as "rêde," which, upon coming on board, he hangs in such part of the upper deck as best suits him. It is a cleanly arrangement, giving much more room, and better suited to the climate and people, as berths would be intolerably hot and


alive with vermin. An inclosed room is set apart for women amidship, where they also sling their rêdes form hooks in the bulkheads.

Coffee is served at 6 o'clock in the morning, and two meals afterwards, breakfast at 11 o'clock and dinner at dark.

The Brazilians are great talkers, and have interminable discussions upon all subjects, in which the parties work themselves up to such a pitch of excitement that a person new to the scenes would think it could not fall short of blows, but a third party will step in, then another, and it goes no farther than a war of words.

the Canuman, being a general freighting boat, was loaded with a great variety of merchandise for a hundred different points. All the Seringueros may be said to be storekeepers in a general way: that is, they buy their lands and their rubber in goods. They all have their connections in Para, from whom they buy on credit and remit in produce.

The progress of the Canuman up stream was slow, and it did not reach Manicoré, a town at the mouth of a small river of that name, till the following afternoon, making about sixty-five miles in twenty-four hours.

Manicoré, with its row of white plastered houses, situated on a bluff 90 feet above the river, is one of the few fixed town on the Madeira, and contains probably 500 inhabitants.

The Manicoré River is ascended about 30 miles by steamers, and supports a considerable population. It is lined with bluffs, and, with no breezes in consequence to ruffle its surface, is very hot and uncomfortable to navigate.

At Marinellas, 58 miles above Manicoré, was the only flower-garden met with. The owner seemed in comfortable circumstances, judging by the quantity of rubber he shipped on our return, and his signora displayed neatness about her house and a variety in her flower-beds rare to find in this country.

Baetas, 30 miles above, though placed on some maps as a town, consists of but a single store. There is a large lake, however, behind, upon which many India-rubber collectors are located, and in this way Baetas is a river port of some consequence. It was here that I obtained my first reliable information about our launch, which placed her some two hundred miles ahead, and going on finely when she passed Baetas.

There is little variation in the navigation of the Madeira. Numerous islands, which cause the channel to shift form side to side, and occasional bluffs of never more than 70 feet high, are the only breaks to the uniformity of the banks, which at this point and season are about 20 feet out of water.

The next point of interest was the mission of San Pedro under the auspices of the government, presided over by an Italian friar of the order of Jesuits. Here are collected some 400 Indians form different parts of the Madeira. While a poor church denoted that spiritual instruction is not neglected, a room pointed out to me as a school-room indicated that there was some attempt made to instruct the youth.

The mission boasts a town clock, the work of the ingenious friar, the construction of which no doubt helped to increase his influence with his superstitious flock. These Indians live a free, lazy life, while collecting a sufficiency of borracha and oil of copaiba to give them the means of satisfying their love of finery, and the good friar, while attending to the spiritual needs of his flock, does not hesitate to avail himself of their temporal wants by engaging in a little trade on his own account, buying their produce in exchange for goods. He seemed to be the person


most interested in the stock of goods landed by the Canuman, and, in the words of the captain, was a "born comerciante."

Above San Pedro the settlers are principally from Bolivia. They are from the vicinity of Trinidad and Santa Cruz, and their faciendas have comparatively a thrifty look, with large fields of plantains, mandioca, and sugar-cane. These Bolivians have brought and settled near them numerous Mojos Indians, who are considered as belonging to the family of the proprietor, though they are free and work for hire. There is an understanding that they shall receive so much per day, but their employer has authority to employ them as he pleases.

These Mojos are by far the best type of the laboring class that I have seen on the river. They are strong, industrious, and docile, and there is a look of neatness about them foreign to the Brazilians of the same class, or domesticated Indians of the Madeira. When our steamer would touch at one of their places for wood, they would take hold in the most cheerful way, and commence wooding without a word, even though at midnight.

The Mojos women struck me very forcibly. Naturally tall, the habit of carrying weights on their heads has given them an erect and graceful carriage. They wear their shining black hair brushed close back and plaited in two long braids behind. Their only dress is the camiseta, a loose gown with short sleeves, suspended form the shoulders, and well adapted for easy movements in a warm climate. Assembled often on the bank in numbers as the steamer stopped for wood or land freight, their modest demeanor, neat appearance, and graceful beauty could but produce a pleasant impression on the passing stranger.

Above, 130 miles from San Antonio, we pass on the left bank the small village of Crato, next to Borba the oldest settlement on the river. It has fallen into insignificance in its rivalry with Muyahita, an enterprising little place a mile above on the same side.

The latter town contains about 400 people, and its prosperity is due to the energy and wealth of its principal merchant, Signor Manuel M. de Moraes, who ships yearly more borracha than any other one person on the river, and also supplies large quantities of fire-wood for the steamers.

Forty-two miles above is the Machado River on the right bank. On a branch called the Prieto, 8 miles from the Madeira, is another Indian mission called San Francisco, founded by the government, composed, like the one at San Pedro, of the remnants of different tribes of the Madeira, and is in charge of a friar of the order of the Franciscans. This mission is situated in the country of the dreaded Parintintins, the most savage and warlike of all the tribes of the Madeira. but little, therefore, of the products of the forest are collected beyond some oil of copaiba, as the domesticated Indians are very much in fear of the more savage brethren. The friar told me he had made three attempts to hold intercourse with the Parintintins, but without success. He went to their town, six leagues distant, making the sign of the cross as he approached, but, though they offered him no harm, they all left the village, refusing to hold any intercourse with him.

The Parintintins are found about the rivers Machado and Timbuqué, and such is the dread of them, that for 50 miles on the right bank in the vicinity not a habitation is to be seen.

Twenty-three miles above the mouth of the river is Abelhos. An island of the same name divides the river. In high water the channel is to the west of the island, but when the river is half down, steamers must pass through the east channel, which is one of the few dangerous


points of the Madeira. The channel opposite Abelhos is full of rocks. Steamers must pass up to the east and at the side of the praia that makes out from the island. When nearly abreast the foot of a white clay bank on the opposite or east side will bear about three points on the port bow; cross the river here, heading for it, and it will lead between the rocks. There is a considerable settlement at Abelhos, and large quantities of rubber are exported.

We arrived in the Canuman at Abelhos on the morning of the 11th, and to my surprise I learned that our steam-launch was two miles below, as I had fully expected at this time it would have been at San Antonio. Sent four hundred pounds of coal by a boat which the captain kindly loaned me, and he also consented to wait until the launch came up, which, with the aid of the coal, she finally accomplished. Found that for twelve days, up to the 7th of July, the launch had done finely, making twenty-five miles as a day's run with ease. After this date the boiler gave them a great deal of trouble, and they had been five days making fifty-one miles. Lieutenant Blocklinger attributed the difficulty to the collection of sediment over the crown=-sheet and tubes form the long use of muddy water; but that with a coal fire he felt assured he could make the remaining sixty miles to San Antonio. I accordingly purchased a ton of coal from the Canuman and gave him directions to sail with all dispatch. She started in the afternoon just after ourselves, and when lost sight of at night was making good progress.

To guard against a possibility of the launch breaking down, I took Lieutenant Perkins with the chronometers on board the Canuman.

From Abelhos to San Antonio, 60 miles, the river is clear of all difficulties except at Samandua island. The praia of Samandua is the largest on the lower Madeira, and until lately was the resort in August and September of numbers of natives to hunt for the eggs of the turtle known as the Toraruga Grande, but the turtle by this indiscriminate destruction on its breeding-ground have decreased so much in numbers that it is no longer profitable to seek for their eggs for the making of mantiega tortaruga, or turtle butter.

Finally San Antonio is reached at the foot of the lower falls of the Madeira and the head of navigation, 574 miles form its mouth. San Antonio would be an insignificant place but for being the starting-point of the Madeira and Mamoré Railroad, designed to connect the upper and lower Madeira Rivers by a railway 180 miles long.

Two abortive attempts have been already made to carry out this enterprise. A third is now being made by Messrs. Collins, of Philadelphia, who have been at work since February. They have had great difficulties to encounter, on account of indifferent labor and the distance from Para, their only base for supplies. They have already completed and ironed three miles, and it is my private opinion that the experience, perseverance, and energy of the Collins brothers will carry it forward, provided the means are furnished them from the money derived from the Bolivian loan originally issued for the purpose, and which is now locked up in litigation in the English courts at London.

I remained three days in San Antonio, giving us sufficient time for its correct establishment, which is latitude 8° 48' 13.6" south, longitude 63° 55' 05.5" west.

Our steam-launch did not put in an appearance, though it had had ample time, and I felt great uneasiness with regard to her.

I left San Antonio Monday morning, July 15, carrying the survey down myself in the Canuman. The same afternoon we met the steamer Iavary coming up, and our missing launch in tow. Cast her off, and towed her with us to a short distance above Abelhos where the Canuman


anchored for the night. Lieutenant Blocklinger reported that shortly after losing sight of us on the evening of the 11th, that the steam suddenly dropped form 60 pounds to 10, forcing them to anchor. That they had worked incessantly to clean out the boiler, but without any result, and had finally returned to Abelhos under oars. There was nothing to do but to take the launch in tow, and continue the survey in the Canuman. This I was enabled to do with complete success, through the courtesy of her captain, who offered me every facility. The shoreline had been put in by the launch on her up trip, and as the Canuman going down kept in the deepest part of the channel, we were enabled to mark this out correctly. Soundings were taken every five minutes, and we had the benefit of the experience of the two excellent pilots of the steamer in locating any rocks or obstructions which had escaped our attention.

At Abelhos occurred the only mishap of the expedition, in the capsizing of the dinghy in the rapids, by which most of our remaining provisions and clothes were lost.

We reached Manicoré on the night of July 19. On the way down it had been ascertained that the difficulty with the steam-launch did not arise from sediment in the boiler, but from the leaking of the upper end of tubes in the steam-space. Of course the steam escaped as fast as made, though it could not be readily detected except by filling the boiler and putting on a pressure. These tubes were all, therefore, expanded, and as the Canuman was to go up the Manicoré River, I left in the launch the next morning for the Enterprise, now at anchor off Araras Island, which we reached without difficulty the same afternoon.

During my absence the river had fallen 9 feet. As the survey was now virtually completed, we got under weigh on July 22, and proceeded by easy stages to the mouth, which was reached on the 24th. Here a base line was measured, and several important points were established in the vicinity of the junction of the Amazon and the Madeira, which finally completed our work.

It is evident that the weight of the survey of the Madeira fell upon one steam-launch, and it was no small undertaking to go, in this little steamer, several hundred miles against a strong current. Such an undertaking must necessarily be accompanied with much hardship and personal inconvenience.

Fortunately the weather was good throughout, and the health of the officers and crew did not seem to suffer any from the exposure. Lieutenant Blocklinger is deserving of great credit for the perseverance and energy with which he pushed on, and I was not disappointed in finding in him the necessary qualifications for the important position for which I selected him.

Lieutenant Perkins was necessarily entirely occupied with the astronomical determination of the position reached each night, upon the correctness of which depended the whole value of our survey, and he performed this duty with great credit to himself and to my entire satisfaction.

The bulk of the work during the day fell upon my assistant, Mr. Sparrow, C.E., and this gentleman has been untiring in his efforts to make our work both reliable and complete. The necessity of using deflecting angles form the dumb compass compelled him to give, during the launch's running, an absorbing overlook which would not admit of a moment's respite.

Navigation of the Madeira.

It would be impossible to give general sailing directions that would be of any practical value. The river is constantly changing, and at all


times a person unfamiliar with its course would require a pilot. But the channel line is laid down correctly on the charts made by the expedition, and by a close study of these charts one would ver soon be enabled to act independent of a pilot. With the information, for instance, that I could now derive from our charts, I would not have hesitated to have taken the Enterprise to San Antonio in spite of the declaration of our pilot that she could not go above the Uroa Rapids.

As a general rule, it may be understood that 6 fathoms can be carried from the mouth to San Antonio from January 1 to June 1. After the latter month the river falls with considerable rapidity, but still 4 fathoms may be depended upon till the middle of July. Between this period and the middle of December the Madeira is not safe for any but river steamers of 6 feet draught, which can navigate it at all periods in the dry season.

While it would be useless, as remarked, to attempt to give any general directions, it will be well to enumerate the few points where navigators should be particularly on the lookout for shoal-water. Our survey of the Madeira is divided among thirteen sheets on the scale of a nautical mile to the inch. The soundings were taken during the middle of July, and should be reduced by 15 feet or 21/2 fathoms for low water in the middle of October. The soundings are in fathoms.

The following are positions to be carefully sounded:

Sheet No. 1. - Upper end of Rosahiuha island; praia to east bank; channel about in center.

No. 2. - Abreast of island Popeicoca; playa on each side; channel in middle.

No. 3. - Clear.

No. 4. - Abreast upper island dos Gauchos; rocks along west bank; channel as near island as depth by lead will permit. Abreast bluffs of Mataranta; channel close to west bank; praia extends to middle of river.

No. 5. - Abreast village of Araras and upper end of island; rocks in middle and east bank; channel close to island. Upper end of Uroa Island; rocks in river; channel in mid-river. (See special chart.)

No. 6. - A line from Punto Espirio Santo to Casa de Oliviera should clear both praias of islands de Conepapa, but the one on lower island extends well out, and should be felt for with lead.

No. 7. - Praia on point between Island Iatuarana and Capaua, makes well over to the opposite shore, which must be followed close. Rocks on east bank abreast head of island Bieju-assú; keep in middle of stream or as near island as the lead will permit. There are rocks off Mannellos, but they are only dangerous at low water.

No. 8. - Head of island Viado; there are rocks at low water on east bank. Keep as close to praia on island side as lead will permit.

No. 9. - Off center of island of Jurara channel is in mid-stream, but as praias are on both sides, they are liable to change, and one should proceed with caution at low water. At Carapanatuba Point, channel leads straight across to opposite point to avoid rocks above.

Nos. 10, 11. - No remarks required.

No. 12. - Just above Papagaios, dangerous rocks close to shore and two in middle of river. but there is plenty of water between, and the latter may be distinguished by the whirlpools about them. Dangerous rocks off Abelhos Island, channel on east side close to island till the lower point of the upper island is reached, where cross, heading for clay bank on opposite shore and a little above.

No. 13. - Tamandúa Island; channel lies on east side, close to island and praia, to avoid rocks in midstream. There is a deeper channel obtained,


I am told, by hugging east shore, between rocks and bank, but I had no opportunity to examine it. Bar off San Antonio, just below and close to town. River but half full; should sound before attempting to cross.

It will be interesting, in conclusion, to investigate how far the madeira River can be made conducive to American interests. The division of the river, by its falls, leaves us only the lower portion to consider, for until this natural obstacle is overcome there will be neither emigration to Bolivia nor increased demands for American produce beyond the consumption of the last fifty years. In regard to the lower Madeira the estimated population is 12,000; this is probably over than under. They are engaged entirely, as Keller expresses it, in extracting the wealth of the forests, and it is not probable this number will be increased, as the best rubber districts are all taken up. As a population their wants are few. Their food consists mainly of turtle, dried piraruc&ucate;, and farinha; the first two obtained right at their doors, the last brought principally from Pará. For the other demand of this population no better guide can be given than the description of the cargo of the Canuman, which consisted of 3,198 packages, composed of demijohns (large and small) containing cachaça, wines, and vinegar, and cases, rolls, bales, baskets, and barrels of salt beef, sugar, matting, medicines, powder, soap, kerosene, ship's bread, lead, rice, fireworks, leather, farinha, dried fish, beans, milk, bitters, cider, sardines, onions, potatoes, stearine, and stearine candles, soda, biscuit, pepper, salt, pork, lard, dried beef, Florida water, perfumery, beer, cummin seed, window-glass, cheese, preserved meats, lime, varnish, wax, tar, coñac, champagne, codfish, hardware, furniture, &c., and fabrics of wool, cotton, and linen.

I find among the merchants of the Amazon and the Madeira a most excellent feeling towards the American products and manufactures. The demand for American staples is constantly increasing, and I am persuaded that in proportion to population there is a larger demand for American goods in the valley of the Amazon than in any other portion of Brazil.

As already remarked, the trade of the lower Madeira is mostly in the hands of old and well established Portuguese firms, and it would not be worth while to attempt to force in a new element. What America wants is a more extended demand for her productions, and this can be realized much more successfully through the agency of native firms, than attempting a ruinous rivalship with them.

There are four steamers at present on the Madeira, which can make the round voyage to and from Pará in six weeks, and they are more than ample for the present demands of the trade.

In the event of the completion of the railroad to the Upper Madeira, which will open entire new avenues, I believe there will be presented a most excellent field for American capital, enterprise, and productions. But it must be early on the spot, as the merchants of Pará are enterprising and shrewd, and aim at controlling entirely the whole business of the Amazon Valley.


There is little to be added in conclusion to the report. It will have been seen that the Amazon is capable of navigation for the largest class of steamships for a thousand miles from its mouth. That the Madeira River can be ascended by ocean steamers to its fall, or the commencement of the proposed railroad around them, from December to August. That while the immediate vicinity of the Amazon is so low as


to be yearly inundated and its soil is not especially adapted for cultivation, the region drained by its tributaries is of a vast amount, with soil of unsurpassed fertility, abounding in wide pampas where roam thousands of cattle, and immense forests of the most valuable woods or furnishing drugs of the highest commercial importance. That though this vast region is watered by great rivers, tributaries to the mighty Amazon, their navigation is totally obstructed by rapids and falls in every case at variable distances from their mouths. That the railroad enterprise around the Madeira, projected and carried on against immense obstacles by American energy and perseverance, would open a rich productive country, in the improvement of which the United States is directly interested, but which latterly British jealousy bids fair to render abortive.

The population of the region bordering upon the Amazon is small. Nature has bountifully supplied them with the necessities of life, and, therefore, their demands for productions of outside nations is not large, but increasing every year.

The manufactures of the United States are held in high esteem; for example, asking once a merchant how our goods compared with those of other countries, he replied, "We like those of the United States the best, because we know they are always good."

It has been shown time and again that the United States is the commercial ally of brazil. We can furnish everything the country requires, and as cheaply and of better quality than those of Europe. But the entire lack of facilities has turned the channel of trade completely from us. It is estimated that on an average there is at least an arrival of one steamer a day in Brazil from England.

It is vitally necessary, if the United States will take its share of the foreign business of Brazil, to create avenues of trade by which such will flow to our shores.

These are first of all a well-established steam line, with feeders to different ports. Such line must in its infancy be fostered by the government in order to compete with the old established European lines, until the trade directed by them to our country will enable them to take care of themselves.

There should be direct telegraphic communication between the two countries. To the energy of our own countrymen we are indebted for the first successful Atlantic cable, and why cannot one be laid to Brazil?

A bank through which exchanges could be favorably made is also very necessary for the easy flow of commerce.

I would strongly urge upon those American firms that manufacture or sell goods required by Brazil that they should act in concert, and establish sample houses in the important centers of trade. They should be represented by enterprising agents, speaking the language and acquainted with the wants of the country. Such should be encouraged by liberal commissions rather than salaries.

Our products can better be introduced in this manner through native houses than by attempting to establish large concerns in rivalry with them. But especially it must be remembered that steam communication is absolutely necessary first of all, no matter how high and excellent our manufactories may be.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Commander, Commanding.

Hon. R.W. Thompson,
     Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D.C.


Barometric heights Amazon and Madeira Rivers.

Madeira River       Amazon River
Place Altitude
  Place Altitude

  Feet     Feet
Albelios 110.7   Manaous 84.8
Conehicas 103.2   ??? Eva 81.3
Papagayos 101.8   Boca Medis 78.5
Ventura 100.4   Serpa 75.1
Boa Esperanza 99.0   Furi Resaca 74.5
Papunhas 97.6   I. de Frixal 73.9
Tres Casas 96.2   I. de Pacoval 73.2
Caropanatuba 94.8   Villa Bella 68.9
Castauhar 93.4   I. de Cabesa 64.6
San Antonio 92.0   Santa Anna 60.3
Marmelos 90.6   Obidos 55.9
Itaroro 89.2   Santarem 51.6
Manitore 87.8   Sotio-de-Toro 47.3
Locadio 86.4   Head of Frixal Island 43.0
Espiro Sauld 85.0   Prainha 38.7
Oraa 81.7   Carupa 34.7
Boa Esperanza 80.0   Narrow Pass 24.7
Casa Alegre 79.5   Jutavy Light 14.6
Sapucaiaroca 79.0   Para 10.0
Borba 81.7  
Camman 80.1  
Boca Madeira 78.5  
Date. Barometer. Average dry-bulb
Average wet-bulb

Highest. Lowest. Highest. Lowest. Highest. Lowest.

1878.   ° ° ° °
June  4 30.19 --- 30.06 --- 87 --- 79 --- 85 --- 78 ---
June  5 30.17 --- 30.05 --- 88 --- 78 --- 86 --- 78 ---
June  6 30.18 --- 30.03 --- 87 --- 79 --- 84 --- 79 ---
June  7 30.17 --- 30.04 --- 84 --- 79 --- 82 --- 79 ---
June  8 30.15 --- 30.02 87 --- 79 --- 85 --- 79 ---
June  9 30.14 --- 30.00 85 --- 80 --- 84 --- 80 ---
June 10 30.15 --- 29.99 86 --- 82 --- 85 --- 81 ---
June 11 30.16 --- 30.06 86 --- 80 --- 84 --- 80 ---
June 12 30.15 --- 30.05 86 --- 80 --- 84 --- 80 ---
June 13 30.20 --- 30.11 85 --- 81 --- 84 --- 81 ---
June 14 30.20 --- 30.12 83 --- 79 --- 83 --- 79 ---
June 15 30.16 --- 30.03 84 --- 80 --- 82 --- 79 ---
June 16 30.14 --- 30.10 87 --- 79 --- 85 --- 79 ---
June 17 30.16 --- 30.08 --- 87 --- 80 --- 85 --- 80 ---
June 18 30.16 --- 30.05 --- 87 --- 79 --- 84 --- 79 ---
June 19 30.16 --- 30.03 --- 88 --- 79 --- 84 --- 79 ---
June 20 30.10 --- 30.04 --- 88 --- 79 --- 84 --- 79 ---
June 21 30.10 --- 30.01 --- 87 --- 80 --- 85 --- 79 ---
June 22 30.11 --- 30.04 --- 86 --- 80 --- 83 --- 80 ---
June 23 30.11 --- 30.03 --- 87 --- 79 --- 83 --- 79 ---
June 24 30.09 30.02 84 --- 79 --- 82 --- 79 ---
June 25 30.10 --- 30.02 --- 85 --- 78 --- 82 --- 78 ---
June 26 30.05 --- 30.00 --- 84 --- 78 --- 82 --- 78 ---
June 27 30.06 --- 29.99 --- 86 --- 78 --- 83 --- 78 ---
June 28 30.09 --- 30.02 --- 86 --- 79 --- 84 --- 79 ---
June 29 30.07 --- 29.99 --- 86 --- 78 --- 83 --- 78 ---
June 30 30.07 --- 30.00 --- 86 --- 77 --- 84 --- 77 ---
July  1 30.08 --- 30.02 --- 87 --- 76 --- 85 --- 76 ---
July  2 30.07 --- 30.03 --- 87 --- 76 --- 86 --- 77 ---
July  3 30.08 --- 30.03 87 --- 78 --- 84 --- 79 ---
July  4 30.06 --- 30.04 --- 88 --- 79 --- 85 --- 80 ---
July  5 30.07 --- 30.00 --- 87 --- 80 --- 84 --- 80 ---
July  6 30.06 --- 30.00 87 --- 78 --- 85 --- 78 ---
July  7 30.07 --- 30.02 --- 87 --- 78 --- 86 --- 79 ---
July  8 30.07 --- 30.03 --- 86 --- 77 --- 83 --- 76 ---
July  9 30.15 30.05 75 --- 70 --- 75 --- 72 ---
July 10 30.10 30.08 82 --- 70 --- 81 --- 71 ---
July 11 30.10 --- 30.04 --- 85 --- 75 --- 84 --- 76 ---
July 12 30.10 --- 30.05 85 --- 76 --- 82 --- 77 ---
July 13 30.14 --- 30.08 --- 87 --- 77 --- 85 --- 77 ---
July 14 30.17 --- 30.12 --- 87 --- 78 --- 85 --- 79 ---
July 15 30.13 30.07 87 --- 78 --- 84 --- 79 ---


Date. Barometer. Average dry-bulb
Average wet-bulb

Highest. Lowest. Highest. Lowest. Highest. Lowest.

1878.   ° ° ° °
July 16 30.14 --- 30.06 --- 87 --- 78 --- 84 --- 80 ---
July 17 30.08 --- 30.01 --- 87 --- 78 --- 85 --- 80 ---
July 18 30.07 --- 30.03 --- 87 --- 80 --- 84 --- 82 ---
July 19 30.05 --- 30.00 --- 88 --- 78 --- 86 --- 78 ---
July 20 30.06 --- 30.00 --- 88 --- 79 --- 84 --- 79 ---
July 21 30.09 --- 30.03 --- 87 --- 79 --- 85 --- 81 ---
July 22 30.09 --- 29.98 --- 90 --- 78 --- 86 --- 79 ---
July 23 30.17 30.05 91 --- 80 --- 88 --- 81 ---
July 24 30.16 --- 30.05 --- 84 --- 79 --- 83 --- 81 ---
July 25 30.11 --- 30.04 87 --- 78 --- 86 --- 79 ---
July 26 30.15 --- 30.05 --- 88 --- 78 --- 83 --- 79 ---
July 27 30.16 --- 30.07 --- 86 --- 79 --- 83 --- 80 ---
July 28 30.15 --- 30.06 --- 87 --- 77 --- 85 --- 78 ---
July 29 30.13 --- 30.05 --- 86 --- 78 --- 85 --- 79 ---
July 30 30.16 --- 30.06 --- 88 --- 77 --- 85 --- 76 ---
July 31 30.16 --- 30.08 --- 88 --- 76 --- 85 --- 76 ---
August  1 30.18 --- 30.10 --- 88 --- 80 --- 86 --- 80 ---
August  2 30.18 --- 30.09 --- 87 --- 80 --- 85 --- 80 ---
August  3 30.16 --- 30.10 --- 88 --- 78 --- 86 --- 79 ---
August  4 30.15 --- 30.08 --- 86 --- 78 --- 86 --- 79 ---
August  5 30.15 --- 30.07 --- 88 --- 80 --- 85 --- 80 ---
August  6 30.16 --- 30.09 88 --- 81 --- 86 --- 82 ---
August  7 30.13 --- 30.07 --- 88 --- 79 --- 87 --- 79 ---
August  8 30.16 --- 30.08 --- 88 --- 81 --- 86 --- 82 ---
August  9 30.16 --- 30.08 --- 88 --- 81 --- 85 --- 82 ---
August 10 30.14 30.07 87 --- 80 --- 86 --- 80 ---
August 11 30.14 --- 30.06 --- 87 --- 76 --- 86 --- 77 ---
August 12 30.14 --- 30.07 --- 88 --- 77 --- 87 --- 78 ---
August 13 30.14 --- 30.08 --- 88 --- 81 --- 87 --- 82 ---
August 14 30.18 --- 30.13 --- 87 --- 80 --- 85 --- 81 ---
August 15 30.18 --- 30.10 --- 87 --- 78 --- 85 --- 78 ---
August 16 30.20 --- 30.11 --- 81 --- 76 --- 81 --- 77 ---
August 17 30.21 --- 30.13 --- 87 --- 78 --- 84 --- 79 ---
August 18 30.20 --- 30.12 --- 86 --- 80 --- 84 --- 80 ---
August 19 30.18 --- 30.10 --- 85 --- 78 --- 84 --- 78 ---
August 20 30.16 --- 30.10 --- 86 --- 79 --- 85 --- 78 ---
August 21 30.20 --- 30.11 --- 87 --- 79 --- 84 --- 80 ---
August 22 30.18 --- 30.13 --- 87 --- 80 --- 86 --- 81 ---
August 23 30.21 --- 30.12 --- 88 --- 79 --- 86 --- 80 ---
August 24 30.17 --- 30.09 --- 86 --- 79 --- 83 --- 80 ---
August 25 30.16 --- 30.09 --- 86 --- 79 --- 84 --- 80 ---
August 26 30.18 --- 30.11 --- 88 --- 79 --- 86 --- 80 ---
August 27 30.22 --- 30.14 --- 89 --- 80 --- 86 --- 80 ---
August 28 30.20 --- 30.14 --- 89 --- 78 --- 87 --- 79 ---
August 29 30.23 --- 30.11 --- 86 --- 77 --- 84 --- 77 ---
August 30 30.22 30.16 --- 85 --- 78 --- 83 --- 79 ---
August 31 30.22 30.15 --- 86 --- 78 --- 83 --- 79 ---


Exportation of products of Amazonas from July 1, 1874, to June 30, 1875.

Articles.   Quantities. Custom-house
Rate of
      P. cent.
Arbutua (medicinal root) pounds. 792 $216 00 10
Animal oil gallons 77,260 6,661 68 10
India rubber, fine pounds 4,215,038 1,342,659 20 12
                             middling do.    9,722 134,265 92 12
                             ordinary do.    703 162 00 12
                             refuse do.    599,558 105,290 88 12
Tar do.    557 9 45 10
Cacao do.    550,888 38,844 55 10
Brazil nuts do.    3,892,626 108,466 18 10
Dried beef hides do.    6,419 599 29 10
Salted beef hides do.    83,424 4,399 62 10
Panther skins   6 9 00 10
Dried deer skins   2,373 1,655 38 10
Salted deer skins pounds 507 46 07 10
Dried beef do.    1,417 115 92 10
Salted beef do.    429 50 25 10
Cloves do.    1,590 286 39 10
Camarú beans do.    512 102 22 10
Embria do.    44 4 00 10
Oakum do.    8,403 764 73 10
Ginger do.    55 4 00 10
Guaraná do.    10,430 4,186 91 10
Maqueras de travessa (pieces of crooked wood)   40 18 00 10
Pieces of crooked wood bundles 3 33 75 10
Mixeia, prepared turtle flesh gallons 2,469 5,508 90 10
Copaiba oil pounds 94,8081 30,951 92 10
Turtle eggs cases 6 6 00 10
Parasite vines feet 604 32 00 10
Unmanufactured cori pounds 315,927 13,812 57 10
Cori rope yards 13,340 4,150 05 10
Dried pirarucú fish pounds 2,264,549 160,836 36 05
Salted piracurú fish do.    88 6 50 05
Dried ox fish do.    161 8 25 05
Salted ox fish do.    31 2 10 05
Panas mancas yards 79 8 64 10
Puaya pounds 64 7 25 10
Puxury (medicinal bean) do.    1,487 444 67 10
Net of tucum palm   1 9 00 10
Nets of mirity palm   8 24 00 10
Sarsaparilla, in bundles pounds 50,682 16,932 32 10
Sasarparilla, loose do.    4,400 1,233 40 10
Crude tallow do.    165 20 33 10
Cedar logs feet 3,914 658 35 10
Logs of wood for joiner work do.    995 730 40 10
Thread of Tucum palm pounds 143 65 00 10
Vigas (square logs of hard wood) feet 550               168.00 10
Total     1,984,847.40

List of exports from custom-house, Serpa, from July, 1877, to July, 1878.

Rubber, fine kilos 220,498
Rubber, sunamby do.  45,503
Balsam do.  100
Castanha nuts do.  218,830
Cocao do.  21,083
Cumaru do.  97
Beef hides do.  963
Guaraná do.  1,784
Fish-oil litres 96
Oil of copaiba kilos 7,600
Dried pirarucú (fish) do.  57,598

Rubber and guaraná pays a duty of 12 per cent. to provincial custom-house; all other produce pays 10 per cent. to same.

All products pay in addition 3 per cent. to the Steam Navigation Company of the Amazon.

The above products include what is shipped direct from the Madeira River to Parã, and the produce of the district of Serpa is also included.


Population of the province of Amazonas, according to the only records obtainable.

  Males Females Total

Census of 1849      
Free - Of age 6,073 6,267 12,240
            Under age 4,956 4,786 9,742
Slave - Of age 198 231 429
              Under age 140 131 271
Foreigners 80 ······ 80
Indians           ······           ······           ······
          Grand total 11,447 11,315 22,762
Census of 1851      
Free - Of age 7,815 8,772 16,587
            Under age 6,776 5,685 12,461
Slave - Of age 225 272 497
              Under age 117 136 253
Foreigners 106 ······ 106
Indians        ······        ······        ······
          Grand total 15,039 14,865 29,904
Increase of population in two years   3,592   3,550   7,142
Census of 1873      
Free - Of age 7,789 7,337 15,126
            Under age 7,217 8,262 15,419
Slave - Of age and under age, 342; included in above.      
Foreigners, 652; included in above.      
          Total to 1873 15,006 15,539 30,545
Increase since 1849 3,559 4,224 7,783
Increase since 1851 ······ 674 641
Decrease since 1851 33 ······ ······

It will be observed that the native Indians are not taken into consideration or their numbers estimated.


Note: The following astronomical tables include Greek alphabet symbols, which do not reproduce well in HTML; these have been replaced with the names of the letters.

alpha = α ; beta = β ; delta = δ ; eta = η ; upsilon = υ. Also, the Sun = Ø


  Positions determined on the Amazon and
United States steamer Enterprise, third rate.
Locality. Date. Observer
Observed body North. Observed body South.

Para June 3 Perkins For chronometer error


Breves June 5
June 12


Santa Anna August 9
August 9



Concacao June 13
June 13


beta Centauri
alpha2 Centauri
Serpa June 16, Aug. 2
June 16, Aug. 2
eta Ursa Majoris
12 Canum Venat
beta Centauri


Casa Perare June 17
June 17
eta Ursa Majoris


alpha2 and beta Centauri
alpha2 and beta Centauri
Caiçara June 18
June 18
eta Ursa Majoris
eta Ursa Majoris
alpha2 Centauri
beta Centauri
Sapaucaiaroca June 19
June 19
eta Ursa Majoris
eta Ursa Majoris
alpha2 Centauri
beta Centauri
Vista Alegre June 20 Perkins Latitude assumed


Boa Esperanza June 20
June 20
Sumner's method
Sumner's method



Urua June 21
June 21
eta Ursa Majoris
eta Ursa Majoris
beta Centauri
beta Centauri
Base line, Urua June 29 Baker eta Ursa Majoris alpha2 and beta Centauri
East bank off Urua July 1 Baker eta Ursa Majoris beta Centauri
Southwest end
Araras Isl'd
July 5 Baker eta Ursa Majoris and Arc. alpha2 and beta Centauri
Espirito Santo June 25 Perkins alpha Coronae Borealis beta Centauri
Casa Leocadio June 26 Perkins eta Ursa Majoris alpha2 Centauri
Manicoré June 27 Perkins eta Ursa Majoris beta Centauri
Casa Itororó June 28 Perkins eta Ursa Majoris beta Centauri
Casa Manuelos June 29 perkins eta Ursa Majoris beta Centauri
San Antonio
July 1 Perkins eta Ursa Majoris beta Centauri
Castanbar July 2 perkins eta beta Centauri
Caropanatuba July 3 Perkins eta Ursa Majoris beta Centauri
Tres Casas,
Ilha de Botar
July 4 Perkins eta Ursa Majoris beta Centauri
Pupunhas July 5 Perkins eta Ursa Majoris beta Centauri
Boa Esperanza July 7 Perkins eta Ursa Majoris alpha2 Centauri
Papagaios July 9 Perkins Arcturus beta Centauri
January July 11 Perkins Sumner's method


San Antonio July 12,13,14 Perkins Arcturus alpha2 Centauri
Humayta July 17 Perkins Latitude assumed


Minhas July 17 Perkins



Boa Fortura July 18 Perkins Sumner's method


Madeira River
above Borba
July 22
July 22


alpha Coronae Borealis
Borba July 23
July 23





Canuman July 23
July 23
alpha Coronae Borealis
alpha Coronae Borealis
Mouth Madeira,
west point
July 25
July 25


alpha Cassiop.
Fom. Achernai
Manaos July 25, 30
July 25, 30
Antares and Sagitt.
Antares and Sagitt.
Casa Casemiro July 31
July 31
beta and upsilon Draco Antares
Furo de Resaca August 3 Baker beta and Upsilon Draco Antares
West end
Ilha de Freixal
August 5
August 5



Casa Carvalho August 6
August 6
beta Draco


Villa bella (Matriz) Augut 7
August 7
Ilha de Caldeiraes August 8
August 8
upsilon Draco
  Sumner's method.
Obidos August 10
August 10



Boca de Lago Grande August 12
August 12
Vega beta Draco
beta Draco
alpha Tri. and Antares
Santarem August 13
August 13
uplison Draco
upsilon Draco
Sitio de Toron August 16
August 16
Sumner's method
Sumner's method



Mouth of Gurupatuba August 17
August 17
delta Sagittarius
delta Sagitarrius


Madeira Rivers, Brazil, South America.

[Commander Thomas O. Selfridge, U.S.N.]

Latitudes. South
Observed body East. Observed body West. Longitudes. West
  1 27 20       48 29 15
1 49 55 -20 1 41 15


    50 28 08.7
1 44 28.9 -20  


  55 59 34.5  
2 04 47.9     Spica 55 59 31.5  
2 04 50.7 2 04 49.2 Altair Spica 55 59 24 55 59 30
2 32 13   Arcturus Regulus 56 55 57  
2 31 38.9 2 31 56 Arcturus Regulus 56 55 05 56 55 31
3 08 45.7   Arc. and Altair Reg. and Spica 58 26 05.8  
3 08 51.6 3 08 48.7 Arc. and Altair Reg. and Spica 58 25 52 58 25 58.9
3 32 40.4   Antares Spica 58 54 59.3  
3 32 43.2 3 32 41.8 Vega Spica 58 54 48 58 54 53.7
4 15 13   Antares   59 24 40.5  
4 15 24.2 4 15 18.6 Antares Regulus 59 24 25 59 24 32.8
4 48 41   Antares Regulus 59 53 45  
4 48 43.3 4 48 42.2 Antares beta Leonis 59 53 36 59 53 40.5
  4 53 15


    60 01 35
5 03 44   Vega and Antares Regulus 60 18 27.5  
5 03 28 5 03 36 Vega and Antares Arcturus 60 18 06 60 18 16.8
5 18 11.5   Vega Spica 60 43 07.5  
5 18 27.1 5 18 19.3 Vega Spica 60 42 55.5 60 43 01.5
  5 19 35.8 Antares alpha and beta Leonis   60 44 00.2
  5 18 44.4 Antares beta Leonis   60 41 25.5
  5 15 18.9


Spica   60 33 25.7
  5 31 32.2 Antares Regulus   60 50 50
  5 37 33.1 Antares Spica   61 69 20
  5 48 40.1 Antares beta Leonis   61 17 12
  5 49 55.8 Antares Regulus   61 33 20
  6 07 03.8 Antares Regulus   61 49 07.5
  6 12 49.1 Antares beta Leonis   62 04 20
  6 32 32.6 Antares beta Leonis   62 20 23
  6 46 11.6 Antares beta Leonis   62 32 37
  7 00 12.6 Antares beta Leonis   62 46 22
  7 18 42.8 Antares beta Leonis   62 55 20
  7 41 24.6 Vega Regulus   62 53 51
  8 10 33 Antares Spica   63 03 48
  8 27 40 alpha2 Centauri Spica   63 28 55.5
  8 48 13.6 Antares and Vega Spica   63 55 05
  7 31 30


    62 59 06
  7 20 13  Antares


  62 55 36
  6 14 47.7 Altair and Arc. alpha2 Centauri   62 13 16.5
4 39 45   Altair Spica 59 54 25.5  
4 39 07.8 4 39 26.4 Altair Spica 59 54 10.5 59 54 18
4 22 42.4  


  59 35 27  
4 23 24.3 4 23 03.4


  59 34 55.5 59 35 11.3
3 55 16.6   Altair Spica 59 08 29  
3 54 55.8 3 55 06.2 Altair Spica 59 08 40.5 59 08 34.8
3 22 30   Aldebaran Jupiter 58 45 37.5  
3 22 41 3 22 35.5 Aldebaran Jupiter 58 45 34 58 45 35.8
3 08 10.8   Altair Spica 60 01 03  
3 08 00 3 08 05.4 Altair Spica 60 00 48.5 60 00 55.8
3 08 44   Altair Spica 59 29 02.5  
3 08 42.3 3 08 43.2 Altair Spica 59 19 43 59 19 53.8
  2 49 53.4 Altair Spica   57 54 57
2 25 56   Altiar Spica a57 33 08  
2 25 53.6 2 25 54.8 Spica Altair 57 33 01.5 57 33 04.8
2 28 53   Altair Spica 57 16 00  
2 28 50 2 2;8 51.5 Altair Spica 57 16 01.5 57 16 00.8
2 37 35.2   Altair Spica 56 43 33  
2 37 29.9 2 37 32.6 Altair Spica 56 43 29 56 43 31
2 20 35   Altair Spica 56 24 19.5  
2 20 34.5 2 20 34.8 Altair Spica 56 23 46 56 23 58.3
1 55 04.2   Vega Arcturus 55 30 12.8  
1 54 56.6 1 55 00.4 Vega Arcturus 55 29 57 55 30 04.9
2 14 54.6   Altair Spica 55 02 44  
2 14 48.3 2 14 51.5 Altair Spica 55 02 40.5 55 02 42.3
2 24 54.1   Altair Spica 54 42 04.5  
2 24 42.9 2 24 48.5 Altair Spica 54 42 03 54 42 03.8
2 19 20   Alta Vega Arcturus 54 06 43.5  
2 18 56.8 2 19 08.4 Alta Vega Arc. and Jupiter 54 06 49 54 06 46.3
2 02 30.3   Altair Antares 53 58 07.9  
2 02 25.6 2 02 28.0 Altair Spica 53 58 24 53 58 16


Positions determined on the Amazon and Madeira

Locality. Date. Observer
and computer.
Observed body North. Observed body South.
Praia August 19
August 19
delta Sagittarius
Serro Araman August 20
August 20
Sumner's method
Sumner's method
Fazenda Caridade August 21
August 21
delta Sagitarrius
delta Sagittarius
Recade Garupa August 22
August 22
delta Sagitarrius
delta Sagittarius
Garupa August 23
August 23
delta Sagitarrius
delta Sagittarius
Peca de Itaquara August 26
August 26
delta Sagitarrius
delta Sagittarius
Penta Aturia August 27
August 27
delta Sagitarrius
delta Sagittarius
Pharel Guajara August 28
August 28
alpha Androm
Sumner's method
Sumner's method
Pharol de Goiabal August 29
August 29
Fom., alplha Gruis
Pharoll Contejuba August 30
August 30
delta Sagit., alpha Pao
delta Sagittarius
Pura Aug. 31,
Sept. 2
{Baker   }
For chronometer error  


Rivers, Brazil, South American- Continued.

Latitudes. South
Observed body East. Observed body West. Longitudes. West
1 48 39.7   Altair Antares 53 27 54  
1 48 28.5 1 48 29.6 Altair Antares 53 27 52.5 53 27 53.3
1 36 39   alpha Cyg., alpha Androm. Altair 52 55 20  
1 36 49.7 1 36 44.4 alpha Cyg., Vega Jupiter 52 55 31.3 52 55 25.7
1 35 49.5   Altair Arcturus 52 35 37.5  
1 35 49.7 1 35 45.1 Altair Spica 52 35 41 52 35 39.3
1 26 05.6   Altair Arc. and Antares 51 57 41.5  
1 26 57.2 1 27 01.4 Altair Antares 51 57 30 51 57 35.8
1 24 14.6   Altair Spica 51 37 36  
1 24 00.7 1 24 07.7 Altair Antares 51 37 34 51 37 35
1 05 24.1   Altair Spica 51 10 06.5  
1 05 19.6 1 05 21.9 Altair Spica 51 10 10 51 10 08.3
1 28 10.4   Altair Spica 50 45 24  
1 28 06.5 1 28 08.5 Altair Spica 50 45 45 50 45 34.5
1 48 00   Sirius Jupiter 50 11 24  
1 48 25 1 48 12.5 Sirius Jupiter 50 11 10 50 11 17
1 37 30.4   Saturn Altair 49 09 26.5  
1 37 39.4 1 37 34.7 alpha Ariet's Altair 49 09 35 49 09 30.8
1 15 57.9   Markab Arcturus 48 32 42.5  
1 15 58 1 15 58 Altair Arcturus 48 32 08 48 32 25.3
  1 27 20     48 29 15  



Source: Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy on the Operations of the Department for the Year 1879. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1880), 320-371.

Published: Thu Nov 02 16:58:03 EDT 2017