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Background and Preparation

Illustration: Spanish soldiers execute members of the crew of Virginius. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach
Caption: Spanish soldiers execute members of the crew of Virginius. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach

Cuban Insurrection and Relations with Spain

153. Akers, Charles E. "The Situation in Cuba." Harper's Weekly 42 (12 March 1898): 261.

154. Antes del "desastre": Orígenes y antecedentes de la crisis del 98. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departmento de Historia Contemporánea, 1996. 480 pp.

155. Beck, Henry Houghton. Cuba's Fight for Freedom, and the War with Spain: A Comprehensive, Accurate and Thrilling History of the Spanish Kingdom and Its Latest and Fairest Colony...Philadelphia: Globe Bible Publishing Co., 1898. 569 pp.

156. Benjamin, Jules R. The United States and the Origins of the Cuban Revolution: An Empire of Liberty in an Age of National Liberation. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990. 235 pp.

United States-Cuban relations, from the Ten-Years' War to the Communist Revolution.

157. Castañeda, Tiburcio P. La explosión del Maine y la guerra de los Estados Unidos con España. Havana, Cuba: Librería e imprenta "La moderna poesía," 1925. 333 pp.

Primarily a diplomatic history of the war, with emphasis on U.S. ulterior motives in declaring war and the causes of the explosion of Maine. The author quotes extensively from contemporary documents.

158. Chapman, Charles Edward. A History of the Cuban Republic: A Study in Hispanic American Politics. New York: Macmillan, 1927. Reprints. New York: Octagon Books, 1969. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1971. 685 pp.

159. Companys Monclús, Julián. España en 1898: Entre la diplomacia y la guerra. Madrid: Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, 1991. 374 pp.

Focuses on the diplomatic negotiations concerning Cuba between Spain and McKinley's administration, concluding with the rupture of diplomatic relations. Chapter 8 discusses the destruction of Maine.

160. Cortada, James W. Two Nations over Time: Spain and the United States, 1776-1977. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978. 305 pp.

See chapter 7, "The Spanish-American War."

161. Flack, Horace Edgar. Spanish American Diplomatic Relations Preceeding the War of 1898. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Press, 1906. 95 pp.

Topics cover belligerency or insurgency, the legal case for intervention, and Spain's efforts to avoid war with the United States.

162. Healy, David F. The United States in Cuba, 1898-1902: Generals, Politicians and the Search for Policy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963. 260 pp.

163. Kelly, David E. "Prelude to the Spanish-American War: The Cuban Junta, the deLome Letter, the Sinking of the Maine." Marine Corps Gazette 82 (February 1998): 64-69.

First in a series of articles about the war that discusses the new roles that the Marines began to take on.

164. Langley, Lester D. The Cuban Policy of the United States: A Brief History. New York: John Wiley & Sons, [1968]. 203 pp.

165. Lee, Fitzhugh, and Joseph Wheeler. Cuba's Struggle against Spain with the Causes for American Intervention and a Full Account of the Spanish-American War: Including Final Peace Negotiations. New York: American Historical Press, 1899. 676 pp.

Includes chapters entitled "A Story of Santiago," by Theodore Roosevelt, and "A Description of the Destruction of the 'Maine'," by Richard Wainwright.

166. Miller, Richard Hayes, ed. American Imperialism in 1898: The Quest for National Fulfillment. New York: Wiley, 1970. 206 pp.

167. Offner, John L. "President McKinley and the Origins of the Spanish-American War." Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1957. 401 pp.

168. _____. An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba, 1895-1898. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. 306 pp.

169. Rubens, Horatio Seymour. Liberty: The Story of Cuba. New York: Brewer, Warren & Putnam, 1932. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1970. 447 pp.

170. Spanish Diplomatic Correspondence and Documents, 1896-1900: Presented to the Cortes by the Minister of State. Translation. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1905. 398 pp.

171. Thomas, Hugh. Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. Rev. ed. New York: Da Capo Press, 1998. 1,696 pp.

A history of Cuba from 1762 to the 1960s.

172. U.S. Congress. Senate. Consular Correspondence Respecting the Condition of the Reconcentrados in Cuba, the State of the War in That Island, and the Prospects of the Projected Autonomy. 55th Cong., 2d sess. 1898. S. Doc. 230 (Serial 3610). 91 pp.

173. Volckmer, Otto. Historical Sketch from the Destruction of the Maine to the Battle of Manila: A Short History in Memory of the Lost Heroes of the Maine. New York: M. F. Tobin, 1898. 29 pp. 

Illustration: The battleship USS Maine mysteriously explodes in Havana harbor on the night of 15 February 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.
Caption: The battleship USS Maine mysteriously explodes in Havana harbor on the night of 15 February 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

USS Maine

174. Allen, Thomas B. ed. "What Really Sank the Maine?" Naval History 11 (March/April 1998): 30-39.

Summary of a report by Advanced Marine Enterprises that used computer modeling to examine the possible causes of Maine's destruction. Report concludes that a mine was the most likely cause.

175. Basoco, Richard M. "What Really Happened to the Maine?" American History Illustrated 1 (June 1966): 12-22.

Reviews the known facts and the speculations but arrives at no conclusion.

176. Beehler, W. H. "Experiences of a Naval Attache." Century Illustrated Monthly 76 (1908): 946-55.

Author provides a detailed discussion on how a mine could have destroyed Maine.

177. Bronin, Andrew, comp. Remember the Maine! Edited by Cris Johnson. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1973.

A portfolio of fifteen pieces: one introductory pamphlet, nine facsimiles of contemporary documents, and five explanatory broadsheets.

178. Buettell, Roger B. "Remember the 'Maine!'" Down East (March 1966): 26-29, 54-55.

179. Butler, Charles Henry. The Responsibility of Spain for the Destruction of the United States Battleship Maine in Havana Harbor, February 15, 1898. New York: Evening Post Job Printing House, 1902. 91 pp.

180. Calleja Leal, Guillermo G. "La voladura del Maine." Revista de Historia Militar 34 (1990): 163-96.

Proposes possibility that rebel Cubans residing in the United States, with ties to Garibaldi anarchists also living in the United States, were responsible for the destruction of Maine.

181. La catástrofe del Maine: relación circunstanciada de la terrible explosión ocurrida á bordo del acorazado norte-americano "Maine" en la noche del 15 Febrero de 1898. Havana, Cuba: "El Figaro," 1898. 24 pp.

182. Chidwick, John P. "Remember the Maine!" An Historical Narrative of the Battleship Maine as Told by Its Chaplain, the Right Reverened [sic] Monsignor John P. Chidwick, by Harry T. Cook...Winchester, Va: Winchester Printers and Stationers, [1935]. 34 pp.

183. Cluverius, W. T. "A Midshipman on the Maine." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 44 (1918): 236-48.

Cluverius was on board Maine the night she was destroyed. The article is an account of the ship's last days.

184. Companys Monclús, Julián. De la explosión del Maine a la ruptura de relaciones diplomáticas entre Estados Unidos y España. Barcelona, Spain: Departament de Geografia i Història, Facultat de Lletres de l'Estudi General de Lleida, Universitat de Barcelona, 1989. 147 pp.

185. Duncan, John E. "Remember the Maine, One More Time." Naval History 4 (Spring 1990): 58-62.

An account of the raising of the wreck, 1910-1912.

186. "Foreign Expert Opinion on the Maine Disaster." Scientific American 106 (1898): 322-23.

The "English technical press" supported the findings of the U.S. naval court of inquiry that the destruction of Maine was premeditated and caused from the outside.

187. Greig, Julius. The Immediate Cause of the War with Spain: From the Personal Narrative of J. Greig...[concerning] the Plot Which Resulted in the Total Destruction of the United States Battleship "Maine" Dictated to C. H. McLellan. Boston: Charles H. McLellan, 1899. 51 pp.

188. [Hambright, Tom]. Battleship Maine Plot: Key West Cemetery. Key West, Fla.: Tom Hambright, 1990. 47 pp.

189. Hammersmith, Jack L. "Raising the Battleship Maine." Industrial Archaeology 15 (1980): 318-29.

Sees the thorough documentation of the Maine wreck before its re-sinking at sea in 1912 as "a model for preservationists and industrial archaeologists."

190. Hansen, Ib S., and Dana M. Wegner. "Centenary of the Destruction of USS Maine: A Technical Historical Review." Naval Engineers Journal 110 (March 1998): 93-104.

Reviews the technical investigations from 1898 to the present into the cause of Maine's destruction. Both authors worked on How the Battleship Maine Was Destroyed by Hyman Rickover, entry no. 206. This article continues to support the conclusions in Rickover's book.

191. Hart, Edward. H. The Authentic Photographic Views of the United States Navy and Scenes of the Ill-fated Maine before and after the Explosion: Group Pictures of Army and Navy Officers. Also, Photographs of the Leading Spanish Men-of-War. Chicago: W. B. Conkey, 1898. 192 pp.

Photographs taken by a U.S. naval photographer.

192. Haydock, Michael D. "This Means War!" American History (February 1998): 42-50, 62-53.

A narrative of events surrounding the destruction of USS Maine. The article places the events in their historical context. The courts of inquiry are discussed, but no attempt is made to analyze their findings.

193. Jane, Fred T. "The 'Maine' Disaster and After: The Naval Position of Spain and the United States." Fortnightly Review 69 (1898): 640-49.

194. "Last of the Maine: A Fitting Burial at Sea." Scientific American 106 (30 March 1912): 288.

An account of the towing and sinking of the hull of Maine off Havana, Cuba.

195. Leupp, F. E. "The Disaster to the Battle-ship 'Maine.'" Harper's Weekly 42 (26 February 1898): 193, 196-98, 200.

196. _____. "The 'Maine' Disaster." Harper's Weekly 42 (5 March 1898): 220, 222.

197. _____. "Maine Report." Harper's Weekly 42 (2 April 1898): 330.

198. Melville, George W. "The Destruction of the Battleship Maine." North American Review 193 (1911): 831-49.

Questions the conclusion that Maine was destroyed by an external explosion.

199. Meriwether, Walter Scott. "Remembering the Maine." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 74 (1948): 549-61.

Account, by the correspondent for the New York Herald in Havana in 1898, of events surrounding the destruction of USS Maine in Havana harbor.

200. _____. "The Unremembered Maine." Harper's Weekly 52 (11 July 1908): 10.

A call to have the wreck of Maine raised.

201. Miller, Tom. "Remember the Maine: Controversy Continues a Century After the..." Smithsonian 28 (February 1998): 46-57.

202. Oyen, Arnt. "An Inquiry into the Maine Disaster, and Other Incidents Which Were Factors in Bringing about the Spanish-American War." Master's thesis, University of Washington, 1932. 120 pp.

203. Pais, Joseph G. The Battleship Maine: A Key West Legacy. Key West, Fla.: Key West Art & Historical Society and U.S. Battleship Maine Centennial Commission, 1996. 64 pp.

204. Pérez, Louis A., Jr. "The Meaning of the Maine: Causation and the Historiography of the Spanish-American War." Pacific Historical Review 58 (1989): 294-322.

Evaluates the various ways historians have used the destruction of Maine to explain the coming of the war. Argues that fixation on the battleship Maine has served to obscure other explanatory factors.

205. Rea, George Bronson. "The Night of the Explosion in Havana." Harper's Weekly 42 (11 July 1898): 221-22.

206. Rickover, Hyman George. How the Battleship Maine Was Destroyed. Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Division, 1976. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1994. 173 pp.

Concludes that Maine was not sunk by a mine. Naval Institute Press edition contains a new foreword and an addendum to the appendix summarizing the technical evidence bearing on the ship's destruction.

207. Samuels, Peggy, and Harold Samuels. Remembering the Maine. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995. 358 pp.

Suggests that Maine was destroyed by a mine, planted probably by disaffected Spanish Weyerlites.

208. Sánchez Gavito, Indalecio. La catástrofe del "Maine." Mexico: Impr. De L. Bustos de Lara, 1898. 86 pp.

209. Sigsbee, Charles D. "My Story of the 'Maine.'" Cosmopolitan 53 (1912): 148-59, 372-83.

210. _____. The "Maine": An Account of Her Destruction in Havana Harbor. New York: Century Co., 1899. 270 pp.

211. _____. "Personal Narrative of the Maine." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-1899): 74-97, 241-64, 373-94.

212. Taylor, John M. "Remembering the Maine." American History Illustrated 13 (1978): 34-41.

Accepts the conclusions of Hyman Rickover's How the Battleship Maine Was Destroyed. See entry no. 206.

213. U.S. Congress. House. Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Report of the Naval Court of Inquiry upon the Destruction of the United States Battleship Maine in Havana Harbor, February 15, 1898, Together with the Testimony Taken before the Court. 55th Cong., 2d sess., 1898. H. Doc. 207. 307 pp.

Official report of the Sampson board of inquiry; includes diagrams and photographs.

214. U.S. Congress. Senate. Lives Lost by the Sinking of U.S. Battle Ship Maine. 55th Cong., 2d sess., 1898. S. Doc. 231. 2 pp.

215. Weems, John Edward. The Fate of the Maine. New York: Holt, 1958. Reprint. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1992. 207 pp.

Includes a list of the officers and crew of USS Maine and their fate.

Illustration: The battleship USS Oregon passes through the Strait of Magellan, April 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.
Caption: The battleship USS Oregon passes through the Strait of Magellan, April 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

Voyage of USS Oregon

216. Bradford, Richard H. "And Oregon Rushed Home." American Neptune 36 (1976): 257-65.

A detailed but undocumented narrative of the battleship's voyage from San Francisco to Florida.

217. Cross, R. The Log of the Oregon: A Sailor's Story of the Voyage from San Francisco to Santiago in 1898. Greenfield, Mass.: E. A. Hall, 1914. 60 pp.

This title is the expanded second edition of R. Cross, The Voyage of the Oregon from San Francisco to Santiago in 1898, as Told by One of the Crew. Boston: Merrymount Press, 1908.

218. Eberle, Edward W. "The 'Oregon's' Great Voyage." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-1899): 912-24.

219. Gannon, Joseph C. The USS Oregon and the Battle of Santiago. New York: Comet Press Books, 1958. 62 pp.

Includes a list of officers and crewmen.

220. Shaffer, Ralph E. "The Race of the Oregon." Oregon Historical Quarterly 76 (1975): 269-98.

221. Sternlicht, Sanford. McKinley's Bulldog: The Battleship Oregon. Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1977. 139 pp.

A narrative of the ship's career. Appendices include a description of the ship's characteristics at the time of construction, the ship's officers, and the race around the Horn.

222. Webber, Bert. Battleship Oregon: Bulldog of the Navy: An Oregon Documentary. Medford, Oreg.: Webb Research Group, 1994. 141 pp.

Includes a list of officers and crew at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba.

The Opposing Fleets

Illustration: Commodore Schley's Flying Squadron at anchor at Hampton Roads, Virginia
Caption: Commodore Schley's Flying Squadron at anchor at Hampton Roads, Virginia

223. Alden, John Doughty. The American Steel Navy: A Photographic History of the U.S. Navy from the Introduction of the Steel Hull in 1883 to the Cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1972. Reprint. 1989. 396 pp.

This work includes sections on administration and social history, as well as biographical sketches and technical data of warships.

224. Beehler, W. H. "The United States Navy." Chapter 4, pages 90-122, in The Naval Annual, 1899. Edited by T. A. Brassey. Portsmouth, Great Britain: J. Griffin, 1899.

Beehler was an intelligence officer in the U.S. Navy at the time he wrote this essay.

225. De Saint Hubert, Christian, and Carlos Alfaro Zaforteza. "The Spanish Navy of 1898." Warship International 17 (1980): 39-60, 110-13; 18 (1981): 262-70.

Lists the ships in the Spanish squadrons overseas during the war and includes a number of photographs. Part 1, "Forces in Cuban Waters"; Part 2, "Admiral Camara's Squadron"; and Part 3, "Spanish Warships in Philippine Waters." A research note describes the official Spanish navy ship classification system in existence in 1898.

226. Dowart, Jeffery Michael. "A Mongrel Fleet: America Buys a Navy to Fight Spain, 1898." Warship International 17 (1980): 128-55.

Discusses the important role played by auxiliary vessels purchased by the Navy just prior to and during the war with Spain. Article includes a table of purchased vessels which gives information on the date acquired, original name, new U.S. Navy name, the previous owner, purchase price, and the composition of the ship's battery.

227. Fernández Almagro, Melchor. Política naval de la España moderna y contemporánea. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Politicos, 1944. Reprint. 1946. 281 pp.

Naval policy in Spain from Lepanto to the eve of World War I.

228. The Flag of President McKinley, Adopted March 30th, 1898. New York: Vechten Waring, 1898. 16 pp.

A comparison of the navies of the United States and Spain.

229. Grenville, John A. S. "American Naval Preparations for War with Spain, 1896-1898." Journal of American Studies 2 (April 1968): 33-47.

Appendices contain the texts of war plans recommended by two special boards appointed by the Secretary of the Navy, the Ramsay plan of 17 December 1896 and the Sicard plan of 30 June 1897.

230. Hannaford, Ebenezer. The Handy War Book: A New Book of Important and Authentic Information and Statistics...with Accurate War Maps and Photographic Pictures of U.S. War Vessels. Springfield, Ohio: Mast, Crowell & Kirkpatrick, 1898. 80 pp.

231. Harrod, Frederick S. Manning the New Navy: The Development of a Modern Naval Enlisted Force, 1899-1940. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978. 276 pp.

Although this work focuses on the period following the Spanish-American War, a chapter on the Navy from 1865 to 1898 provides some insight into the composition of the enlisted force serving in the war with Spain.

232. Jornadas de Historia Maritima (5th, 1990: Madrid, Spain). La marina ante el 98.: Antecedentes de un conflicto. Madrid: Instituto de Historia y Cultural Naval, 1990. 118 pp.

Two of these five papers delivered at a cycle of conferences held in April 1990 are of particular relevance: "Marinos españoles en su protagonismo historíco" by José Cervera Pery, and "Programs y efectivos navales españoles y norteamericanos (1865-1898)" by Antonio de la Vega.

233. Naval Vessels of the United States and Spain with Lists and Map. New York: Mershon, 1898. 32 pp.

234. Rawson, Jonathan. Our Army and Navy, What You Want to Know about Them: A Description of Our Country's Fighting Forces on Land and Sea. New York: Rawson & Crawford, 1898. 126 pp.

235. Reilly, John C., Jr., and Robert L. Scheina. American Battleships, 1886-1923: Predreadnought Design and Construction. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1980. 259 pp.

Heavily illustrated and technical study of early American battleships.

236. Rodríguez González, Agustín Ramón. Política naval de la restauración (1875-1898). Madrid: Editorial San Martin, 1988. 522 pp.

237. Smith, C. McKnight. The United States Navy, Illustrated: A New Series of Over Fifty Reproductions from Original Photographs and Drawings. New York: Continent Publishing Co., 1898. 32 pp.

238. U.S. Navy Department. Auxiliary Naval Force. Report of the Chief of the United States Auxiliary Naval Force to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy on Its Operations during the War with Spain. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898. 32 pp.

Report of John Russell Bartlett.

239. Wainwright, Richard. "Our Naval Power." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 24 (March 1898): 39-87.

A discussion of the naval issues necessary for a strong national defense.

Published: Mon Mar 16 16:49:08 EDT 2020