NAVAL HISTORY BIBLIOGRAPHIES, NO. 5
The purpose of this publication is to encourage understanding and further study of the naval aspects of the Spanish-American War. Study of the sea services in this conflict is especially important because of the central role the Navy played in nearly every aspect of the war from logistics to diplomacy. American planners and leaders anticipated that the fight with Spain would be primarily a naval war. The U.S. Navy's victories at Manila Bay and Santiago de Cuba were pivotal events that turned the course of the war and America's future. Joint Army-Navy operations at Santiago, Puerto Rico, and Manila sealed the success won by the U.S. Navy's command of the seas.
This bibliography will prove useful for several reasons. The centennial of the Spanish-American War has brought forth a number of new articles and books on the conflict. Moreover, the compilers of this bibliography have included numerous older works, many published during or just after the war, but not listed in earlier bibliographies, and works in languages other than English. Readers will find here the most comprehensive listing available of works, conveniently grouped by topic, that touch on the naval war. Scholars seeking original avenues of investigation for themselves or for their students will do well to examine the section on needs and opportunities for research and writing.
In a collaborative work like this one, it is often difficult to assign due credit. In general, however, the authors divided responsibilities as follows: Captain Michael Sessions, USNR, as commanding officer of the Center's Reserve Volunteer Training Unit, VTU 0615, prepared the preliminary list of works. Dr. Crawford, head of the Center's Early History Branch, and Mark L. Hayes, a historian in that branch, edited the list, appended additional works, verified the entries for accuracy and appropriateness, and wrote the annotations. Mr. Hayes researched and wrote the historical overview and the section on needs and opportunities for research and writing.
Captain John Charles Roach, USNR, drew the original sketches found throughout the bibliography. Captain Roach took the time to research and draft these representations during the same period he was completing some 150 artworks illustrating the international peacekeeping mission in Bosnia as a member of the Joint Military History Office. His contribution to this publication is evidence of a deep commitment to his art and to naval history. He deserves a hearty "Bravo Zulu."
I join the authors in expressing the hope that this publication will be a valuable resource to anyone interested in the history of our nation and of the United States Navy.
William S. Dudley
Director of Naval History
On 10 June 1898, one hundred years ago from the penning of this preface, Commander Bowman McCalla and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Huntington led a U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expedition into Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, in one of the most important actions of the Spanish-American War. The anchorage seized in this operation was crucial for the maintenance of a close blockade of Spanish warships at Santiago de Cuba, about forty miles to the west. In the histories of the war this event is often overshadowed by the larger battles of Manila Bay and Santiago de Cuba. Similarly, in the histories of the U.S. Navy, the much longer Civil War and World War II often overshadow the important transitional period at the end of the nineteenth century. As authors, we hope the centennial of the Spanish-American War and this publication will remind the public and scholars of the influential place the events of 1898 hold in American history.
We are grateful to our colleagues within the Center for various forms of assistance. Mrs. Jean Hort, Director of the Navy Depart-ment Library, and her staff helped ably with on-line computer searches and interlibrary loan requests, as well as retrieved numerous works from the rare book room and special collections. Historians on the staff of the Early History Branch, E. Gordon Bowen-Hassell, Charles E. Brodine, Jr., Christine F. Hughes, and Carolyn M. Stallings, assisted in verifying and in copy editing bibliographical entries. Dr. Edward J. Marolda, the Senior Historian, and Dr. Jeffrey G. Barlow, a historian in the Contemporary History Branch, read and commented on the preliminary draft of the historical overview.
We also deeply appreciate the contributions of scholars from outside who lent their expertise. Dr. John R. Hébert, senior specialist in Hispanic bibliography of the Hispanic Division of the Library of Congress, offered a long list of suggested bibliographic entries written in Spanish. Dr. James R. Reckner, of the Depart-ment of History at Texas Tech University, and member of the Secretary of the Navy's Advisory Subcommittee on Naval History, offered his criticisms and suggestions.
As grateful as we are for the valuable assistance we received in preparing this work, we accept sole responsibility for the contents.
Michael J. Crawford
Mark L. Hayes