For Further Information on Early Artillery:
Cipolla, Carlo M. Guns, Sails, and Empires: Technological Innovation and the Early Phases of European Expansion, 1400-1700. New York: Minerva Press, 1965.
Douglas, Howard. A Treatise on Naval Gunnery. London: John Murray, 1820. (The 4th, and final, edition of this work was published in 1855.).
Falconer, William. An Universal Dictionary of the Marine. Second edition. London: T. Cadell, 1771. (Revised editions were later published by William Burney in 1815 and 1830. Burney's 1815 revision was reprinted in 1970 by Library Editions, Ltd., New York, NY.).
Foulkes, Charles. The Gun-Founders of England. Cambridge MA: The University Press, 1937. (the manufacture of bronze and iron guns).
Gilkerson, William. Boarders Away. Lincoln, RI: A. Mowbray, 1991-93. 2 vols. (small arms and "combustibles" of the "classical age of sail, 1626-1826..., with particular attention to the period of the American Revolution through the War of 1812.").
Gooding, Sidney James. An Introduction to British Artillery in North America. Ottawa, Canada: Museum Restoration Service, 1965.
Guilmartin, John F., Jr. Gunpowder and Galleys: Changing Technology and Mediterranean Warfare at Sea in the Sixteenth Century. London & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974.
Hazlett, James C., Edwin Olmstead and M. Hume Parks. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1983.
Hime, Henry W.L. The Origins of Artillery. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1915.
Hogg, O.F.G. Artillery: Its Origin, Heyday and Decline. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1970.
Hughes, B.P. British Smooth-Bore Artillery: The Muzzle-Loading Artillery of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Harrisburg PA: Stackpole Books, 1969.
Jobe, Joseph ed. Guns: An Illustrated History of Artillery. Greenwich CT: New York Graphic Society, 1971.
McAfee, Michael J. Artillery in the American Revolution. Washington American Defense Preparedness Association, 1976.
Manucy, Albert. Artillery Through the Ages: A Short Illustrated History of Cannon, Emphasizing Types Used in America. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1949.
Muller, John. A Treatise of Artillery. 3d ed. London: John Millan, 1780. (Reprinted in 1965 by Museum Restoration Service, Ottawa, Canada. Like Tousard's work, cited below, Muller's important book often describes what the author considers necessary or desirable improvements rather than material actually in use, and should be read with this caveat in mind.).
Olmstead, Edwin, Wayne E. Stark and Spencer C. Tucker. The Big Guns; Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon. Bloomfield, Ontario, Canada: Museum Restoration Service, 1997.
Padfield, Peter. Guns at Sea. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1974.
Peterson, Harold L. Round Shot and Rammers. Harrisburg PA: Stackpole Books, 1969. (Generously-illustrated introduction to muzzle-loading land artillery as used in the United States, including foreign weapons used here.).
Ripley, Warren. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War. New York: Promontory Press, 1970.
Rogers, H.C.B. A History of Artillery. Secausus NJ: The Citadel Press, 1975. (Originally published in England as Artillery Through the Ages.).
Smith, George. An Universal Military Dictionary. London: J. Millan, 1779. (Reprinted in 1969 by Museum Restoration Service, Ottawa, Canada.).
Touard, Louis de. American Artillerist's Companion, or Elements of Artillery. 2 vols. Philadelphia: C. & A. Conrad, 1809. (See note under Muller, above. This work was reprinted in 1968 by Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.).
Tucker, Spencer. Arming the Fleet; U.S. Navy Ordnance in the Muzzle-Loading Era. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988.
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