Adams, Thomas K. "Intervention in Haiti: Lessons Relearned." Military Review 76, no. 5 (September/October 1996): 45-56.
Baker, C.S. "Some Colorful Haitian History." US Naval Institute Proceedings 50, no. 5 (May 1924): 723-743. [Examines the Haitian revolution of 1915 and the US intervention.].
Ballard, John R. Upholding Democracy: The United States Military Campaign in Haiti, 1994-1997. London: Praeger, 1998.
Beach, Edward Latimer. "Admiral Caperton in Haiti." Washington, DC: n.d. [1915?]. [The original document is apparently located at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, DC, in Record Group 45. A photocopy is located in the Navy Department Library. [An extract from manuscript available online.].
Beede, Benjamin R., Ed. The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions, 1898-1934. An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1994.
Beman, Lamar T. Intervention in Latin America. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1928. [See pp. 115-131 for a report on the 1915 occupation of Haiti and relations between the US and Haitian governments.].
Bemis, Samuel Flagg. The Latin American Policy of the United States. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1943.
Bickel, Keith B. “Intervention in Haiti and Lessons Learned.” Chap. 3 in Mars Learning: The Marine Corps Development of Small Wars Doctrine, 1915-1940. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001.
Blach, Emily M., ed. Occupied Haiti. New York: Writers Publishing, 1927.
Blake, Robert. “Campaigning Around the Caribbean.” Marine Corps Gazette 22, no. 2 (June 1938): 7-11.
Boyden, Hayne D. “...and Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 56, no. 11 (November 1972): 58-59.
Brady, John D. “Haiti: Some Information and Advice for Officers Ordered to that Republic for Duty for the First Time.” Marine Corps Gazette 9, no. 2 (June 1924): 149-156.
Bride, Frank L. “The Gendarmerie D’Haiti.” Marine Corps Gazette 3, no. 4 (December 1918): 295-299.
Caperton, William B. “History of Flag Career of Rear Admiral William B. Caperton, US Navy, Commencing January 5, 1915.” Washington, DC: n.d [1919?]. [The original document is located at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, DC, in Record Group 45. A photocopy is located in the Navy Department Library. Admiral Caperton authored this document at the end of his career. The full document contains a firsthand account of operations in Haiti, 1915-1916; Nicaragua and Mexico, 1916; and in the South Atlantic, 1917-1919. Extract from manuscript available online.].
Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 2005. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2005. [Also available online athttp://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/.].
Child, John. “From ‘Color’ to ‘Rainbow’: U.S. Strategic Planning in Latin America, 1919-1945.” Journal of Interamerican Studies 21, no. 2 (May 1979). [Provides a brief description of war plans related to Latin America.].
Clader, Bruce J. The Impact of Intervention. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984.
Clague, Christopher K. Haiti: The Politics of Squalor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971.
Coffey, R.B. “A Brief History of the Intervention in Haiti.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 48, no. 8 (August 1922): 1325-1344. [An account of the intervention in Haiti and the development of the new Haitian constitution. Reproduces maps and documents from the campaign and the occupation of Port au Prince.].
Collin, Richard H. Theodore Roosevelt’s Caribbean: The Panama Canal, the Monroe Doctrine, and the Latin American Context. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.
Conrad, Charles. “A Year in Haiti's Customs and Fiscal Service.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 49, no. 4 (April 1923): 605-624. [Concerns US control of Haitian customs houses, written by the Administrator of Customs, the leading American customs official in Haiti.].
Cooney, David M. A Chronology of the United States Navy: 1775-1965. New York: Franklin Watts, 1965. [An extremely useful source.].
Corey, Herbert. “Across the Equator with the American Navy.” Geographic Magazine 39, no. 6 (June 1921): 571-624. [Mr. Corey accompanied the Atlantic Fleet on 1921 operations in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.].
Cortada, James N. & James W. Cortada. U.S. Foreign Policy in the Caribbean, Cuba, and Central America. New York: Praeger, 1985.
Cosmas, Graham A. “Cacos and Caudillos: Marines and Counterinsurgency in Hispanolia, 1915-1924” in William R. Roberts and Jack Sweetman, ed. New Interpretations in Naval History. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1991.
Coyle, Randolph. “Service in Haiti.” Marine Corps Gazette 1, no. 4 (December 1916): 343-348. [Captain Coyle provides practical advice on living in the country.].
Cushman, John H. “Haiti Becomes a Turning Point.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 120, no. 10 (October 1994): 73-74. [Describes the Joint Task Force Uphold Democracy mission planning.].
Davis, H.P. Black Democracy. New York: Dial, 1928.
Davis, Henry C. “Indoctrination of Latin-American Service.” Marine Corps Gazette 5, no. 2 (June 1920): 154-161.
Doerrer, Eric, A. “Operation Vignette: Civil Affairs in Haiti.” Military Review 76, no. 2 (March/April 1996): 73-78. [A review of US Army 82d Airborne Division civil affairs operations in Haiti, including organization, their accomplishments, lessons learned, and destabilizing influences encountered.].
Domínguez, Jorge. U.S. Interests and Policies in the Caribbean and Central America. Washington, DC: American Institute for Public Policy, 1982.
Duncan, G.A. “The Corps of Civil Engineers, U.S. Navy, in Haiti.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 3 (March 1930): 209-219. [Concerns various US Navy-built engineering projects during the occupation of Haiti, written by one of the engineers.].
Ellsworth, Harry Allanson. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines, 1800-1934. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1974. [Useful descriptions of most, but not all Marine landings during this period.].
Engle, Eloise. “King Faustin II.” Marine Corps Gazette 52, no. 11 (November 1952): 49-54. [Sergeant Faustin Wirkus served on Haiti’s La Gonave Island as a sub-district commander and was elected “king” by the islanders during the 1920s.].
Fauriol, Georges A. Haitian Frustrations: Dilemmas for U.S. Policy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1995.
Fellowes, Edward A. “Training Native Troops in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 7, no. 4 (December 1923): 215-233.
Fernandez, Ronald. Cruising the Caribbean: U.S. Influences and Intervention in the Twentieth Century. Monroe, ME: Common Courage, 1994.
Fils-Aimé, Andre. Haitian Directory (Handbook of Haiti). New York, 1933. [A wide range of information on the history, government, geography, resources and the commerce of Haiti.].
Greene, James R. and Brent Scowcroft. Western Interests and U.S. Policy Options in the Caribbean. Washington, DC: Atlantic Council of the United States, 1983.
Haiti: U.S. Response to Allegations of an Assassination Plot. GAO/NSIAD-97-87. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 1997. [Covers the 28 March 1995 assassination of Mrs. Mireille Durocher Bertin, a prominent attorney and critic of President Aristide and the government of Haiti.].
“The Haitien Gendarmerie.” Marine Corps Gazette 11, no. 2 (June 1926): 73-81.
Haggerty, Richard A., ed. Dominican Republic and Haiti: Country Studies. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1991. [Also available online at [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/httoc.html].
Hayes, Margaret D. and Gary F. Wheatley, eds. Interagency and Political-Military Dimensions of Peace Operations: Haiti - A Case Study. Washington, DC: National Defense University, 1996. [Focuses on events between 1990 and 1994.].
Healy, David. Drive to Hegemony, the United States in the Caribbean, 1898-1917. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.
Healy, David. Gunboat Diplomacy in the Wilson Era: The U.S. Navy in Haiti, 1915-16. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976.
Headquarters, United States Marine Corps. Division of Operations and Training. “Protection of American Interests.” Marine Corps Gazette 12, no. 3 (September 1927): 175-183.
Heinl, Robert Debs and Nancy Gordon Heinl. “The American Occupation of Haiti: Part One.” Marine Corps Gazette 62, no. 11 (November 1978): 28-41.
Heinl, Robert Debs and Nancy Gordon Heinl. “The American Occupation of Haiti: Part Two.” Marine Corps Gazette 62, no. 12 (December 1978): 46-56.
Heinl, Robert Debs and Nancy Gordon Heinl. “The American Occupation of Haiti: Conclusion.” Marine Corps Gazette 63, no. 1 (January 1979): 48-57.
Heinl, Robert Debs and Nancy Gordon Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People, 1492-1971. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.
Johnson, Stephen. “Haiti: Democracy of Dictatorship.” World & I 18, no. 2 (February 2003): 38-43.
Jones, Chester L. Caribbean Interests of the United States. New York: D. Appleton, 1916.
Jones, Chester L. The United States and the Caribbean. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929.
Jones, Melvin R. "Haiti Is Maneuver Welfare from the Sea". US Naval Institute Proceedings 121, no. 68 (July 1995): 67-70.
Jones, Thomas S. “Review the Ingredients: Commanders Insights from Cap-Haitien.” Marine Corps Gazette 79, no. 7 (July 1995): 55-59. [Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force commander’s analysis of the occupation of Cap Haitien, September-October 1994.].
Kelsey, Carl. The American Intervention in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1930.
Kilmartin, Robert C., comp. “Indoctrination in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 7, no. 4 (December 1922): 377-386. [Text of Brigadier General Harry Lee’s general order on proper attitude to be displayed by occupation forces, and what he expected from the Marines.].
Kretchik, Walter E., Robert F. Baumann and John T. Fishel. Invasion, Intervention, "Intervasion": A Concise History of the US Army in Operation Uphold Democracy. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1998. [Includes a useful bibliography. Also available online at [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1998/kretchik.htm].
Lane, R.H. “Civil Government in Santo Domingo in the Early Days of the Military Occupation.” Marine Corps Gazette 7, no. 2, (June 1922): 127-146.
Langley, Lester. The United States and the Caribbean in the Twentieth Century. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1982.
Lieuwen, Edwin. U.S. Policy in Latin America: A Short Story. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965. [See pp. 46-48 for a short description of the US military occupation in Haiti from 1915-1934, and problems that arose during the intervention.].
Logan, Rayford W. Haiti and the Dominican Republic. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968. [See pp. 118-142 regarding historical events prior to the US intervention in Haiti including reasons for occupying Haiti, significant occurrences during the occupation, and the results of the intervention.].
Maddox, Bill and Gerard Healy. “Instant Advisers: Civil Affairs Team Assists Haitian Ministries.” Special Warfare 8, no. 4 (October 1995): 29-31.
Malone, David. “Haiti and the International Community: A Case Study.” Survival 39, no. 126 (Summer 1997): 126-146. [Reviews the events leading up to the intervention. In particular, see "Use of Force" on pages 131-134.].
Martin, Ian. “Haiti: Mangled Multilateralism.” Foreign Policy, no. 95 (Summer 1994): 72-89. [Describes the events and the missed opportunities prior to the intervention.].
Martin, John B. U.S. Policy in the Caribbean. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1978.
Matthews, William and Mark D. Faram. “Setting Sail for Haiti.” Navy Times 43, no. 1 (October 1993): 8. [Identifies Navy ships/units as well as Marine Corps and Army units that participated in US Joint Task Force Haiti.].
McClellan, Grant S. U.S. Policy in Latin America. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1963. [See pp. 124-126 for Captain McMillen’s account of the impoverished living condition in Haiti during his arrival in 1915.].
McCrocklin, James H. Garde d'Haiti: Twenty Years of Organization and Training by the United States Marine Corps. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute, 1956.
McMillen, Fred. “Some Haitian Recollections.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 62, no. 4 (April 1936): 522-528.
Medom, J. Lloyd. A Summary of the United States - Latin American Relations. Dallas, TX: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.
Miller, Charles J. “Diplomatic Spurs, Our Experiences in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 19, no. 1 (February 1935): 43-50. [This first of a three-part article includes a list of military and constabulary duties of the Marine Corps Second Brigade, and information on banditry and patrolling methods, etc.].
Miller, Charles J. “Diplomatic Spurs, Our Experiences in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 19, no. 2 (May 1935): 19-25. [Covers a wide range of topics including civil patrols, maps and handbooks, administration, disarming the population, etc.].
Miller, Charles J. “Diplomatic Spurs, Our Experiences in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 19, no. 3 (August 1935): 35-55. [Discusses the control of prisons, the Intelligence Dept., civil officials, censorship, military courts, sensation, and proposals to withdraw US forces.].
Miller, Nathan. The U.S. Navy, An Annotated History. New York: American Heritage Publishing, 1977.
Millspaugh, Arthur C. Haiti Under American Control, 1915-1930. Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1931.
Munro, Dana G. Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean: 1900-1921. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964.
Munro, Dana G. The United States and the Caribbean Area. Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1934.
Munro, Dana G. The United States and the Caribbean Republics: 1920-1933. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974.
Musicant, Ivan. “Intervention.” American History 29, no. 6 (February 1995): 28-35. [Brief discussions of intervention in the Caribbean region beginning with Panama in 1856 to Haiti in 1994.].
Perkins, Dexter. The United States and the Caribbean. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966.
Perusse, Roland I. Haitian Democracy Restored, 1991-1995. New York: University Press of America, 1995.
Polidoro, John, Jr. “Marine Corps Tankers in Haiti.” Marine Corps Gazette 81, no. 7 (July 1997): 46-47. [Account of D Company, Second Tank Battalion experiences in Haiti late 1996-spring 1997 while participating in operation Fairwinds.].
"Professional Notes: Less Than a Day's Automobile Casualties." US Naval Institute Proceedings 58, no. 7 (July 1932): 1067. [Short article with a table of statistics on US Marine Corps casualties in Haiti and elsewhere.].
Quinn, John T. "Marine Expedition to Haiti: September-October 1994". Marine Corps Gazette 79, no. 7 (July 1995): 50-54. [Discusses the Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force Caribbean that landed at Cap Haitien, Haiti on 20 September 1994.].
Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of US Imperialism, 1915-1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Reynolds, Nicholas E. A Skillful Show of Strength: US Marines in the Caribbean, 1991-1996: US Marines in Humanitarian Operations. Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 2003.
Rotberg, Robert. Haiti: The Politics of Squalor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971.
Roth, Patrick H. The US Navy and Marine Corps Involvement in Latin America: 1775-1994: A Bibliography and Research Aid. Unpublished manuscript, 2000. [An excellent bibliography. Some of its annotations were reused in this bibliography, courtesy of the author.].
Russell, John, H. “A Marine Looks Back on Haiti.” Typewritten manuscript. Washington, DC: Marine Corps Historical Center, [Memoir by General Russell who served as Marine Brigade commander, 1917-1922, and as US High Commissioner, 1922-1930. As High Commissioner he supervised all US activities, military and civilian, in Haiti.].
Scheina, Robert L. Latin America: A Naval History, 1810-1987. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1987.
Schmidt, Hans. The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1971.
Seabrook, William. The Magic Island. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1929.
Shacochis, Bob. The Immaculate Invasion. New York: Viking, 1999. [Impressionistic, novel-style, eye-witness account of events by columnist who accompanied US Special Forces during 1994-1996.].
Siegel, Adam B. The Intervasion of Haiti. Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 1996. [Concerns the US military intervention in 1994-1995.].
Street, John M. Historical and Economic Geography of the Southwest Peninsula of Haiti. Berkeley, CA, 1960.
Thomas, Lowell. Old Gimlet Eye, the Adventures of Smedley D. Butler. New York. Farrar & Rinehart, 1933. Reprinted in 1981 by the Marine Corps Association, Quantico, VA. [The book is based on notes of oral interviews conducted by an assistant of Thomas in 1931 and then rewritten by Thomas. Butler was at Culebra, 1902-3; Honduras, 1903; Nicaragua during the period, 1909-14; Vera Cruz in 1914; Haiti, 1915-1917, including capture of Ft. Riviére, establishment of the gendarmerie, and involvement in local politics.].
Upshur, W.P., trans. “Marine Maneuvers Through Haitien Eyes.” Marine Corps Gazette 8, no. 1 (March 1923): 21-23. [Translation of L’Essor newspaper article titled “Marines Maneuvers at Camp General Russell.”].
US American High Commissioner. Annual Reports to the Secretary of State. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1923-1928.
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US Congress, Senate. Hearing Before the Committee on Haiti Situation, United States Senate. 103d Cong., 2d sess. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1994.
US Department of State. Relations with Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1926.
US Department of State. Report of the President's Commission for the Study and Review of Conditions in the Republic of Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1930.
US Marine Corps. Division of Operations and Training Intelligence Section. Monograph of Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1932.
US Marine Corps. Regulation Garde D' Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1928.
US Marine Corps. Regulations Gendarmerie D' Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1916.
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US Navy. The Public Works in Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1931.
“The US Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934.” Congressional Digest 73, no. 8 (August 1994): 197.
“The US Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934.” Congressional Digest 73, no. 9 (September 1994): 224.
Utley, H.H. “The Landings and Occupation of Seaports.” Marine Corps Gazette 19, no. 1 (February 1935): 15-20. [Lieutenant Colonel Utley describes the landings at Vera Cruz, 1847 and 1914; and Puerto Plata and Santo Domingo in 1916, and methods adopted by commanders in meeting tactical problems.].
Wakefield, Tonya H. “JTF Haiti: Lasting Impressions.” Special Warfare 7, no. 3 (July 1994): 10-11. [Special operations forces in Haiti.].
Weil, Thomas E. Area Handbook for Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1973. [An excellent survey.].
Weinstein, Brian and Aaron Segal. Haiti: The Failure of Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.
Westcott, Allan. “Notes on International Affairs: Disturbances in Haiti.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 2 (February 1930): 165. [Gives a brief overview of events in Haiti in 1930.].
Wiada, Howard J. In Search of Policy: the United States and Latin America. Washington, DC: American Enterprise for Public Policy Research, 1984.
____. “Notes on International Affairs: Haiti Rejects New Treaty.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 58, no. 11 (November 1932): 1663. [Article recounting signing of a new US - Haiti treaty hastening the withdrawal of US occupation forces.].
____. “Notes on International Affairs: New Policy in Haiti.” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 5 (May 1930): 463.
____. “Notes on International Affairs: Temporary Haitian President.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 5 (May 1930): 463. [Brief outline of President Hoover’s plan for ending the US intervention in Haiti and describes M. Eugene Roy becoming the temporary president.].
____. “Notes on International Affairs: The Situation in Haiti.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 3 (March 1930): 255-256. [Brief mention of impending elections in Haiti and a defense of the occupation by Haiti's President.].
Wilentz, Amy. “Haiti's Occupation.” Nation 278, no. 15 (April 19, 2004): 5-7.
Williamson, Charles T. The U.S. Naval Mission to Haiti: 1959-1963. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1999.
Wilson, Thomas R. “Joint Intelligence and Uphold Democracy.” Joint Force Quarterly, no. 7 (Spring 1995): 54-59. [Also available online at: [http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/jfq1407.pdf].
Wirkus, Faustin and Taney Dudely. The White King of La Gonave. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1931. [Personal account of Sergeant Faustin’s service in Haiti during the occupation. While the only Marine on Gonave Island, Faustin was crowned “King of La Gonave” by a superstitious local population, using the honorific to great effect in maintaining order. He achieved international fame as the hero of William Seabrook’s book on Haiti, The Magic Island.].
Wise, Frederick May. “The Occupation of a Haitian Town.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 57, no. 12 (December 1931): 1629-1632. [Briefly details the occupation in the town of Jeremie and US control of the customs house, written by the commander of the Marine Corps detachment deployed there.].
Yerxa, Donald A. Admirals and Empire: the United States Navy and the Caribbean, 1898-1945. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.
Yerxa, Donald A. “The United States and the Caribbean, 1914-41.” In Naval History, the Sixth Symposium of the US Naval Academy, edited by Daniel Materson. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1987.
Yerxa, Donald A. “The United States Navy in Caribbean Waters During World War I.” Military Affairs 51, no. 4 (October 1987): 182-187.
Additional Internet Resources
Air University Library. Bibliography: Operation Restore (Uphold) Democracy – Haiti, September 19, 1994 - March 31, 1995. Maxwell AFB, 2001.
[Includes links to useful online resources.].
US Department of State. Country Information: Haiti.