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Haiti and Santo Domingo Bibliography

Adams, Thomas K. "Intervention in Haiti: Lessons Relearned." Military Review 76, no. 5 (September/October 1996): 45-56.

Baker, C.S. "Some Colorful Haitian History." US Naval Institute Proceedings 50, no. 5 (May 1924): 723-743. [Examines the Haitian revolution of 1915 and the US intervention.].

Ballard, John R. Upholding Democracy: The United States Military Campaign in Haiti, 1994-1997. London: Praeger, 1998.

Beach, Edward Latimer. "Admiral Caperton in Haiti." Washington, DC: n.d. [1915?]. [The original document is apparently located at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, DC, in Record Group 45. A photocopy is located in the Navy Department Library. [An extract from manuscript available online.].

Beede, Benjamin R., Ed. The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions, 1898-1934. An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1994.

Beman, Lamar T. Intervention in Latin America. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1928. [See pp. 115-131 for a report on the 1915 occupation of Haiti and relations between the US and Haitian governments.].

Bemis, Samuel Flagg. The Latin American Policy of the United States. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1943.

Bickel, Keith B. “Intervention in Haiti and Lessons Learned.” Chap. 3 in Mars Learning: The Marine Corps Development of Small Wars Doctrine, 1915-1940. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001. 

Blach, Emily M., ed. Occupied Haiti. New York: Writers Publishing, 1927.

Blake, Robert. “Campaigning Around the Caribbean.” Marine Corps Gazette 22, no. 2 (June 1938): 7-11. 

Boyden, Hayne D. “...and Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 56, no. 11 (November 1972): 58-59.

Brady, John D. “Haiti: Some Information and Advice for Officers Ordered to that Republic for Duty for the First Time.” Marine Corps Gazette 9, no. 2 (June 1924): 149-156.

Bride, Frank L. “The Gendarmerie D’Haiti.” Marine Corps Gazette 3, no. 4 (December 1918): 295-299. 

Caperton, William B. “History of Flag Career of Rear Admiral William B. Caperton, US Navy, Commencing January 5, 1915.” Washington, DC: n.d [1919?]. [The original document is located at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, DC, in Record Group 45. A photocopy is located in the Navy Department Library. Admiral Caperton authored this document at the end of his career. The full document contains a firsthand account of operations in Haiti, 1915-1916; Nicaragua and Mexico, 1916; and in the South Atlantic, 1917-1919. Extract from manuscript available online.].

Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 2005. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2005. [Also available online at].

Child, John. “From ‘Color’ to ‘Rainbow’: U.S. Strategic Planning in Latin America, 1919-1945.” Journal of Interamerican Studies 21, no. 2 (May 1979). [Provides a brief description of war plans related to Latin America.].

Clader, Bruce J. The Impact of Intervention. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984.

Clague, Christopher K. Haiti: The Politics of Squalor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971.

Coffey, R.B. “A Brief History of the Intervention in Haiti.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 48, no. 8 (August 1922): 1325-1344. [An account of the intervention in Haiti and the development of the new Haitian constitution. Reproduces maps and documents from the campaign and the occupation of Port au Prince.].

Collin, Richard H. Theodore Roosevelt’s Caribbean: The Panama Canal, the Monroe Doctrine, and the Latin American Context. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

Conrad, Charles. “A Year in Haiti's Customs and Fiscal Service.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 49, no. 4 (April 1923): 605-624. [Concerns US control of Haitian customs houses, written by the Administrator of Customs, the leading American customs official in Haiti.].

Cooney, David M. A Chronology of the United States Navy: 1775-1965. New York: Franklin Watts, 1965. [An extremely useful source.].

Corey, Herbert. “Across the Equator with the American Navy.” Geographic Magazine 39, no. 6 (June 1921): 571-624. [Mr. Corey accompanied the Atlantic Fleet on 1921 operations in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.].

Cortada, James N. & James W. Cortada. U.S. Foreign Policy in the Caribbean, Cuba, and Central America. New York: Praeger, 1985.

Cosmas, Graham A. “Cacos and Caudillos: Marines and Counterinsurgency in Hispanolia, 1915-1924” in William R. Roberts and Jack Sweetman, ed. New Interpretations in Naval History. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1991.

Coyle, Randolph. “Service in Haiti.” Marine Corps Gazette 1, no. 4 (December 1916): 343-348. [Captain Coyle provides practical advice on living in the country.].

Cushman, John H. “Haiti Becomes a Turning Point.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 120, no. 10 (October 1994): 73-74. [Describes the Joint Task Force Uphold Democracy mission planning.].

Davis, H.P. Black Democracy. New York: Dial, 1928.

Davis, Henry C. “Indoctrination of Latin-American Service.” Marine Corps Gazette 5, no. 2 (June 1920): 154-161. 

Doerrer, Eric, A. “Operation Vignette: Civil Affairs in Haiti.” Military Review 76, no. 2 (March/April 1996): 73-78. [A review of US Army 82d Airborne Division civil affairs operations in Haiti, including organization, their accomplishments, lessons learned, and destabilizing influences encountered.].

Domínguez, Jorge. U.S. Interests and Policies in the Caribbean and Central America. Washington, DC: American Institute for Public Policy, 1982.

Duncan, G.A. “The Corps of Civil Engineers, U.S. Navy, in Haiti.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 3 (March 1930): 209-219. [Concerns various US Navy-built engineering projects during the occupation of Haiti, written by one of the engineers.].

Ellsworth, Harry Allanson. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines, 1800-1934. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1974. [Useful descriptions of most, but not all Marine landings during this period.].

Engle, Eloise. “King Faustin II.” Marine Corps Gazette 52, no. 11 (November 1952): 49-54. [Sergeant Faustin Wirkus served on Haiti’s La Gonave Island as a sub-district commander and was elected “king” by the islanders during the 1920s.].

Fauriol, Georges A. Haitian Frustrations: Dilemmas for U.S. Policy. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1995. 

Fellowes, Edward A. “Training Native Troops in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 7, no. 4 (December 1923): 215-233.

Fernandez, Ronald. Cruising the Caribbean: U.S. Influences and Intervention in the Twentieth Century. Monroe, ME: Common Courage, 1994.

Fils-Aimé, Andre. Haitian Directory (Handbook of Haiti). New York, 1933. [A wide range of information on the history, government, geography, resources and the commerce of Haiti.].

Greene, James R. and Brent Scowcroft. Western Interests and U.S. Policy Options in the Caribbean. Washington, DC: Atlantic Council of the United States, 1983.

Haiti: U.S. Response to Allegations of an Assassination Plot. GAO/NSIAD-97-87. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 1997. [Covers the 28 March 1995 assassination of Mrs. Mireille Durocher Bertin, a prominent attorney and critic of President Aristide and the government of Haiti.].

“The Haitien Gendarmerie.” Marine Corps Gazette 11, no. 2 (June 1926): 73-81.

Haggerty, Richard A., ed. Dominican Republic and Haiti: Country Studies. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1991. [Also available online at []. 

Hayes, Margaret D. and Gary F. Wheatley, eds. Interagency and Political-Military Dimensions of Peace Operations: Haiti - A Case Study. Washington, DC: National Defense University, 1996. [Focuses on events between 1990 and 1994.].

Healy, David. Drive to Hegemony, the United States in the Caribbean, 1898-1917. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

Healy, David. Gunboat Diplomacy in the Wilson Era: The U.S. Navy in Haiti, 1915-16. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976.

Headquarters, United States Marine Corps. Division of Operations and Training. “Protection of American Interests.” Marine Corps Gazette 12, no. 3 (September 1927): 175-183.

Heinl, Robert Debs and Nancy Gordon Heinl. “The American Occupation of Haiti: Part One.” Marine Corps Gazette 62, no. 11 (November 1978): 28-41.

Heinl, Robert Debs and Nancy Gordon Heinl. “The American Occupation of Haiti: Part Two.” Marine Corps Gazette 62, no. 12 (December 1978): 46-56.

Heinl, Robert Debs and Nancy Gordon Heinl. “The American Occupation of Haiti: Conclusion.” Marine Corps Gazette 63, no. 1 (January 1979): 48-57.

Heinl, Robert Debs and Nancy Gordon Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People, 1492-1971. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.

Johnson, Stephen. “Haiti: Democracy of Dictatorship.” World & I 18, no. 2 (February 2003): 38-43.

Jones, Chester L. Caribbean Interests of the United States. New York: D. Appleton, 1916.

Jones, Chester L. The United States and the Caribbean. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929.

Jones, Melvin R. "Haiti Is Maneuver Welfare from the Sea". US Naval Institute Proceedings 121, no. 68 (July 1995): 67-70.

Jones, Thomas S. “Review the Ingredients: Commanders Insights from Cap-Haitien.” Marine Corps Gazette 79, no. 7 (July 1995): 55-59. [Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force commander’s analysis of the occupation of Cap Haitien, September-October 1994.].

Kelsey, Carl. The American Intervention in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1930.

Kilmartin, Robert C., comp. “Indoctrination in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 7, no. 4 (December 1922): 377-386. [Text of Brigadier General Harry Lee’s general order on proper attitude to be displayed by occupation forces, and what he expected from the Marines.].

Kretchik, Walter E., Robert F. Baumann and John T. Fishel. Invasion, Intervention, "Intervasion": A Concise History of the US Army in Operation Uphold Democracy. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1998. [Includes a useful bibliography. Also available online at [].

Lane, R.H. “Civil Government in Santo Domingo in the Early Days of the Military Occupation.” Marine Corps Gazette 7, no. 2, (June 1922): 127-146.

Langley, Lester. The United States and the Caribbean in the Twentieth Century. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1982.

Lieuwen, Edwin. U.S. Policy in Latin America: A Short Story. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965. [See pp. 46-48 for a short description of the US military occupation in Haiti from 1915-1934, and problems that arose during the intervention.].

Logan, Rayford W. Haiti and the Dominican Republic. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968. [See pp. 118-142 regarding historical events prior to the US intervention in Haiti including reasons for occupying Haiti, significant occurrences during the occupation, and the results of the intervention.].

Maddox, Bill and Gerard Healy. “Instant Advisers: Civil Affairs Team Assists Haitian Ministries.” Special Warfare 8, no. 4 (October 1995): 29-31.

Malone, David. “Haiti and the International Community: A Case Study.” Survival 39, no. 126 (Summer 1997): 126-146. [Reviews the events leading up to the intervention. In particular, see "Use of Force" on pages 131-134.].

Martin, Ian. “Haiti: Mangled Multilateralism.” Foreign Policy, no. 95 (Summer 1994): 72-89. [Describes the events and the missed opportunities prior to the intervention.].

Martin, John B. U.S. Policy in the Caribbean. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1978.

Matthews, William and Mark D. Faram. “Setting Sail for Haiti.” Navy Times 43, no. 1 (October 1993): 8. [Identifies Navy ships/units as well as Marine Corps and Army units that participated in US Joint Task Force Haiti.].

McClellan, Grant S. U.S. Policy in Latin America. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1963. [See pp. 124-126 for Captain McMillen’s account of the impoverished living condition in Haiti during his arrival in 1915.].

McCrocklin, James H. Garde d'Haiti: Twenty Years of Organization and Training by the United States Marine Corps. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute, 1956.

McMillen, Fred. “Some Haitian Recollections.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 62, no. 4 (April 1936): 522-528.

Medom, J. Lloyd. A Summary of the United States - Latin American Relations. Dallas, TX: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.

Miller, Charles J. “Diplomatic Spurs, Our Experiences in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 19, no. 1 (February 1935): 43-50. [This first of a three-part article includes a list of military and constabulary duties of the Marine Corps Second Brigade, and information on banditry and patrolling methods, etc.].

Miller, Charles J. “Diplomatic Spurs, Our Experiences in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 19, no. 2 (May 1935): 19-25. [Covers a wide range of topics including civil patrols, maps and handbooks, administration, disarming the population, etc.].

Miller, Charles J. “Diplomatic Spurs, Our Experiences in Santo Domingo.” Marine Corps Gazette 19, no. 3 (August 1935): 35-55. [Discusses the control of prisons, the Intelligence Dept., civil officials, censorship, military courts, sensation, and proposals to withdraw US forces.].

Miller, Nathan. The U.S. Navy, An Annotated History. New York: American Heritage Publishing, 1977.

Millspaugh, Arthur C. Haiti Under American Control, 1915-1930. Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1931.

Munro, Dana G. Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean: 1900-1921. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964. 

Munro, Dana G. The United States and the Caribbean Area. Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1934.

Munro, Dana G. The United States and the Caribbean Republics: 1920-1933. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974.

Musicant, Ivan. “Intervention.” American History 29, no. 6 (February 1995): 28-35. [Brief discussions of intervention in the Caribbean region beginning with Panama in 1856 to Haiti in 1994.].

Perkins, Dexter. The United States and the Caribbean. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966.

Perusse, Roland I. Haitian Democracy Restored, 1991-1995. New York: University Press of America, 1995. 

Polidoro, John, Jr. “Marine Corps Tankers in Haiti.” Marine Corps Gazette 81, no. 7 (July 1997): 46-47. [Account of D Company, Second Tank Battalion experiences in Haiti late 1996-spring 1997 while participating in operation Fairwinds.].

"Professional Notes: Less Than a Day's Automobile Casualties." US Naval Institute Proceedings 58, no. 7 (July 1932): 1067. [Short article with a table of statistics on US Marine Corps casualties in Haiti and elsewhere.].

Quinn, John T. "Marine Expedition to Haiti: September-October 1994". Marine Corps Gazette 79, no. 7 (July 1995): 50-54. [Discusses the Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force Caribbean that landed at Cap Haitien, Haiti on 20 September 1994.].

Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of US Imperialism, 1915-1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Reynolds, Nicholas E. A Skillful Show of Strength: US Marines in the Caribbean, 1991-1996: US Marines in Humanitarian Operations. Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 2003. 

Rotberg, Robert. Haiti: The Politics of Squalor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971.

Roth, Patrick H. The US Navy and Marine Corps Involvement in Latin America: 1775-1994: A Bibliography and Research Aid. Unpublished manuscript, 2000. [An excellent bibliography. Some of its annotations were reused in this bibliography, courtesy of the author.].

Russell, John, H. “A Marine Looks Back on Haiti.” Typewritten manuscript. Washington, DC: Marine Corps Historical Center, [Memoir by General Russell who served as Marine Brigade commander, 1917-1922, and as US High Commissioner, 1922-1930. As High Commissioner he supervised all US activities, military and civilian, in Haiti.].

Scheina, Robert L. Latin America: A Naval History, 1810-1987. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1987.

Schmidt, Hans. The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1971.

Schreadley, Richard L. Intervention: The Americans in Haiti, 1915-1934. Charleston, SC: Evening Post Books, 2017.

Seabrook, William. The Magic Island. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1929.

Shacochis, Bob. The Immaculate Invasion. New York: Viking, 1999. [Impressionistic, novel-style, eye-witness account of events by columnist who accompanied US Special Forces during 1994-1996.].

Siegel, Adam B. The Intervasion of Haiti. Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 1996. [Concerns the US military intervention in 1994-1995.].

Street, John M. Historical and Economic Geography of the Southwest Peninsula of Haiti. Berkeley, CA, 1960.

Thomas, Lowell. Old Gimlet Eye, the Adventures of Smedley D. Butler. New York. Farrar & Rinehart, 1933. Reprinted in 1981 by the Marine Corps Association, Quantico, VA. [The book is based on notes of oral interviews conducted by an assistant of Thomas in 1931 and then rewritten by Thomas. Butler was at Culebra, 1902-3; Honduras, 1903; Nicaragua during the period, 1909-14; Vera Cruz in 1914; Haiti, 1915-1917, including capture of Ft. Riviére, establishment of the gendarmerie, and involvement in local politics.].

Upshur, W.P., trans. “Marine Maneuvers Through Haitien Eyes.” Marine Corps Gazette 8, no. 1 (March 1923): 21-23. [Translation of L’Essor newspaper article titled “Marines Maneuvers at Camp General Russell.”].

US American High Commissioner. Annual Reports to the Secretary of State. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1923-1928.

US Congress House of Representatives. Hearing Before the Committee on Haiti, United States House of Representatives. 4 Vols. 103d Cong., 2d sess. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1995.

US Congress. Senate. Hearing Before a Select Committee on Haiti and Santo Domingo, United States Senate. 2 Vols. 77th Cong., 1st and 2d sess. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1922.

US Congress. Senate. Hearing Before the Committee on Current Operations in Bosnia, North Korea, Haiti, and the Caribbean, United States Senate. 104th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1996.

US Congress, Senate. Hearing Before the Committee on Haiti Situation, United States Senate. 103d Cong., 2d sess. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1994.

US Department of State. Relations with Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1926.

US Department of State. Report of the President's Commission for the Study and Review of Conditions in the Republic of Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1930.

US Marine Corps. Division of Operations and Training Intelligence Section. Monograph of Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1932.

US Marine Corps. Regulation Garde D' Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1928.

US Marine Corps. Regulations Gendarmerie D' Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1916.

US Navy. Annual Reports of the Navy Department. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1915-31.

US Navy. Commander Caribbean Sea Frontier. “Administrative History of the Caribbean Sea Frontier to VE-Day.” 1945. [US Naval Administrative History of World War II # 160. Available in hardcopy and microfiche at the Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center, Washington, DC.].

US Navy. The Public Works in Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1931.

“The US Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934.” Congressional Digest 73, no. 8 (August 1994): 197.

“The US Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934.” Congressional Digest 73, no. 9 (September 1994): 224.

Utley, H.H. “The Landings and Occupation of Seaports.” Marine Corps Gazette 19, no. 1 (February 1935): 15-20. [Lieutenant Colonel Utley describes the landings at Vera Cruz, 1847 and 1914; and Puerto Plata and Santo Domingo in 1916, and methods adopted by commanders in meeting tactical problems.].

Wakefield, Tonya H. “JTF Haiti: Lasting Impressions.” Special Warfare 7, no. 3 (July 1994): 10-11. [Special operations forces in Haiti.].

Weil, Thomas E. Area Handbook for Haiti. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1973. [An excellent survey.].

Weinstein, Brian and Aaron Segal. Haiti: The Failure of Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.

Westcott, Allan. “Notes on International Affairs: Disturbances in Haiti.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 2 (February 1930): 165. [Gives a brief overview of events in Haiti in 1930.].

Wiada, Howard J. In Search of Policy: the United States and Latin America. Washington, DC: American Enterprise for Public Policy Research, 1984.

____. “Notes on International Affairs: Haiti Rejects New Treaty.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 58, no. 11 (November 1932): 1663. [Article recounting signing of a new US - Haiti treaty hastening the withdrawal of US occupation forces.].

____. “Notes on International Affairs: New Policy in Haiti.” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 5 (May 1930): 463. 

____. “Notes on International Affairs: Temporary Haitian President.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 5 (May 1930): 463. [Brief outline of President Hoover’s plan for ending the US intervention in Haiti and describes M. Eugene Roy becoming the temporary president.].

____. “Notes on International Affairs: The Situation in Haiti.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 56, no. 3 (March 1930): 255-256. [Brief mention of impending elections in Haiti and a defense of the occupation by Haiti's President.].

Wilentz, Amy. “Haiti's Occupation.” Nation 278, no. 15 (April 19, 2004): 5-7.

Williamson, Charles T. The U.S. Naval Mission to Haiti: 1959-1963. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1999.

Wilson, Thomas R. “Joint Intelligence and Uphold Democracy.” Joint Force Quarterly, no. 7 (Spring 1995): 54-59. [Also available online at: [].

Wirkus, Faustin and Taney Dudely. The White King of La Gonave. New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1931. [Personal account of Sergeant Faustin’s service in Haiti during the occupation. While the only Marine on Gonave Island, Faustin was crowned “King of La Gonave” by a superstitious local population, using the honorific to great effect in maintaining order. He achieved international fame as the hero of William Seabrook’s book on Haiti, The Magic Island.].

Wise, Frederick May. “The Occupation of a Haitian Town.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 57, no. 12 (December 1931): 1629-1632. [Briefly details the occupation in the town of Jeremie and US control of the customs house, written by the commander of the Marine Corps detachment deployed there.].

Yerxa, Donald A. Admirals and Empire: the United States Navy and the Caribbean, 1898-1945. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.

Yerxa, Donald A. “The United States and the Caribbean, 1914-41.” In Naval History, the Sixth Symposium of the US Naval Academy, edited by Daniel Materson. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1987.

Yerxa, Donald A. “The United States Navy in Caribbean Waters During World War I.” Military Affairs 51, no. 4 (October 1987): 182-187.

Additional Internet Resources

Air University Library. Bibliography: Operation Restore (Uphold) Democracy – Haiti, September 19, 1994 - March 31, 1995. Maxwell AFB, 2001. 
[Includes links to useful online resources.].

US Department of State. Country Information: Haiti. 


Published: Mon Jan 04 11:37:34 EST 2021