Skip to main content

The Navy Department Library

Related Content

United States. 1826. Annual report of the Secretary of the Navy. Washington: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

Document Type
  • Monograph-Research Report
Wars & Conflicts
File Formats
Location of Archival Materials

Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy, Showing the Condition of the Navy in the Year 1826

Communicated, With the President's Message, December 5, 1826

19th Congress.]

No. 319.

[2d Session.



The following report is respectfully submitted to the President of the United States by the Secretary of the Navy:

On the 2d January, 1823, the law entitled "An act to increase the navy of the United States" authorized the building of four ships, to rate not less than 74 guns each, and six ships to rate 44 guns each.

On the 29th of April, 1816, the law entitled "An act for the gradual increase of the navy of the United States" was passed, and authorized the building of nine ships, to rate not less than 74 guns each, and twelve ships to rate not less than 44 guns each, including within these numbers one 74 and three 44 gun ships, authorized by the preceding act. By these two laws, therefore, twelve ships of not less than 74 guns, and fifteen ships of not less than 44 guns, were directed to be built.

Of these twelve 74s, seven have been launched, and five are in various stages of forwardness. Of the fifteen 44s, one was burnt on the stocks in the Navy yard at Washington, in the year 1814, and may be considered as replaced by the one lately purchased; four have been launched; seven are on the stocks; and the frames of the remaining three have been contracted for. (See paper I, accompanying the report of the Navy Commissioners.)

By the law of the 2d January, 1813, $2,500,000 were appropriated; by that of 29th April, 1816, and a subsequent law of 3d March, 1821, $8,000,000 were appropriated to carry the object of those laws into execution, amounting in all to $10,500,000. The appropriation of $8,000,000 included a previous sum of $600,000 for "the purchase and supply of a stock of every description of timber required for ship building and other naval purposes." This appropriation expires with the present year. It was not founded on any specific estimate of the cost of building and equipping the number of vessels authorized, and is not sufficient to accomplish the object. What addition may be necessary, there are not competent means within the reach of the Department at this time to ascertain with accuracy. Nothing more, however, will be required during the next year, as there remain, of the former appropriations, about $800,000, which is more than can be usefully expended.

At the time of the passage of the law of 1816, there were three ships of the line, the Independence, Washington, and Franklin; four frigates of the 1st class, the Constitution, United States, Guerriere, and Java; and three of the 2d class, the Congress, Constellation, and Macedonian. These, added to the number authorized by the law before mentioned, and the frigate purchased in August last, under the authority of the law of 11th May, 1826, will give, when they are all completed, twelve ships of the line, seventeen frigates of the 1st class, and three frigates of the 2d class; to which may be added the Fulton, which is used at present as a receiving ship at New York.

There are also in our navy two ships of 24 guns each, the Cyane, captured in 1815, and the John Adams; and four sloops-of-war of 18 guns; to these were added, by the law of 3d March, 1825, ten sloops-


of-war, to carry not less than twenty guns; making, when completed, sixteen vessels of nearly the same class, and which may be ranked under the denomination of sloops-of-war. There are also four schooners of 12 guns, and three other vessels used as receiving ships.

In the report from this Department, of the 2d December, 1825, it was stated that three of the sloops-of-war authorized by the act of the 3d March, 1825, would be completed within the year. Since that time those three have been finished, and are now at sea. One has been recently launched; will be immediately put in commission. The others are far advanced, and the whole would have been entirely completed if the contractors for certain portions of the materials had not produced disappointment, by failing to comply with their contracts within the times specified. They will all be launched during the next year, and may be ready for sea in six weeks after launching, if no difficulty should be experienced in procuring seamen. (See paper I.)

From this statement it will appear that the whole naval force, authorized by law, consists of twelve ships of the line, (exclusive of two on Lake Ontario,) seventeen frigates of the 1st class, three frigates of the 2d class, sixteen sloops-of-war, four schooners of 12 guns, and 3 other vessels. The whole of these, with the exception of three of the frigates, could be prepared for active service at sea in a few months, should the situation and interests of the nation demand their employment. For their names and other particulars I refer to paper I, and Naval Register of 1827.

By the law of 9th March, 1814, the sum of $500,000 was appropriated "for the purpose of building, equipping, and putting into service one or more floating batteries, adapted to attack, repel, or destroy ships of the enemy which might approach the shores or enter the waters of the United States." This law was executed in part by the purchase of one steam engine, and the building of one vessel, the Fulton. In other respects it has been unexecuted, in consequence, it is presumed, of the peace which soon succeeded its enactment.

By the 3d section of the law for the gradual increase of the navy, passed in April, 1816, the President was authorized to cause to be procured the steam engines and all the imperishable materials necessary for building and equipping three steam batteries on the most approved plan, and best calculated for the defence of the ports and harbors of the United States. The frames of the three vessels have been procured; two of the engines with all their appurtenances, and part of the third engine purchased.

The steam engines and vessels procured were of the best construction known at the time; it is probable that others, of more approved form, both for economy and power, might now be obtained.

This is a subject to which it is presumed legislative attention will, before long, be directed. By the law just referred to, it is manifest that Congress, at the time of its passage, looked to this species of vessels as an efficient means of protection for our ports and harbors; and subsequent experience and improvements have justified the opinion.

The powerful agency of steam has been constantly yielding, both in point of economy and skill, to the improvements of the age, and there can now be little hazard in anticipating that, at no very distant period, it will be employed in propelling a large number of the vessels used for the protection of the maritime frontiers of all countries; and in none can they be used with more advantage than in this. The peculiar formation of our coast, harbors, and estuaries renders them an indispensable addition to the line of fortifications and defences which the nation is constructing with such prudent forecast.

A minute detail of the employments and services of our armed vessels at sea does not seem to be required. The year has presented few incidents which are uncommon, of deep interest, or requiring legislative action. It may be truly said of all our squadrons, that they have enjoyed good health, have faithfully performed the duties entrusted to them, doing credit to the skill and patriotism of our officers, and justifying the expense to which the nation is subjected in supporting them. Paper M furnishes a list of the vessels in commission, with their stations. It will be perceived that few changes have been made in the vessels employed in active service.

The frigate Brandywine and sloop-of-war Erie have returned from the Mediterranean; the former to relieve the frigate United States; the latter is in ordinary, and her place will in a few days be supplied by the new sloop-of-war Warren, Master Commandant L. Kearny.

The West India squadron has been diminished: 1st. By the sale of the brig Spark, she being so far decayed that it "was not for the interest of the United States to repair her;" 2d. By placing the schooner Fox at Baltimore as a receiving vessel, she being in such a state that she could not any longer be profitably employed as a cruising vessel; and, 3dly. The store ship Decoy has been sold, such arrangements having been made as rendered her no longer useful.

The Brazilian squadron remains the same as at the close of the last session of Congress, consisting of the Macedonian, Cyane, and Boston.

The Pacific squadron has not in any respect been changed, but the Brandywine and Vincennes are on their passage to relieve the frigate United States and sloop-of-war Peacock. It was the purpose of the Department to add to the relief squadron the sloop-of-war Lexington, but other employment became necessary for her, under the resolutions of Congress. That vessel has been employed in a cruise among the fisheries, and in the melancholy, yet grateful duty of removing the remains of Commodore Perry, and will now be sent, for a time, to the West Indies.

In obedience to the resolution of the House of Representatives, of the 18th of May last, directing "that the Secretary of the Navy be instructed to 'cause the remains of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry to be removed from the Island of Trindad, in a public vessel of the United States, and to have the same conveyed to Newport, State of Rhode Island,'" the Secretary of the Navy, as soon as a vessel could be commissioned for that purpose, and at as early a day as the safety of those employed would permit, dispatched the sloop-of-war Lexington, under the. command of Master Commandant William B. Shubrick, with such instructions as were supposed proper on an occasion so interesting to the national feeling, and with a letter from Mr. Vaughan, the British minister in this country, to the Governor of Trindad, to both of whom the thanks of the Department are due for the facilities afforded in accomplishing the object. Master Commandant Turner, who was with Commodore Perry at the moment of his death, and attended his funeral, was directed to accompany Master Commandant Shubrick. Information was also given to the relatives and friends of Commodore Perry, in Rhode Island, that they might be enabled to make suitable preparations for receiving and paying funeral honors to his remains. The Lexington sailed from New York on the 12th of October, and I am this moment apprised that she reached Newport on the 27th of November. The instructions and correspondence of the Department on this subject, with the report of Master Commandant Shubrick, are annexed, marked N.


The squadron in the Mediterranean has remained under the command of Commodore Rodgers, and been actively and usefully employed in cultivating the friendship of the powers bordering on that sea, and in affording protection to our commerce and interests. Some extracts from his correspondence, marked O, will explain the nature of the services of the squadron, and the manner in which they have been performed.

The presence of a respectable naval force in that quarter is demanded by our growing commerce, and by the continued and perhaps increasing dangers to which it is subjected by the present state of the contest between Greece and Turkey. Several of the vessels will return home in the course of the year, but their places will be supplied by others. Private letters just received prove that piracies of the worst kind are daily increasing, and that our force cannot safely be diminished.

The squadron in the Pacific has continued to be useful to the interests of the nation. The termination of active war between Spain and the South American governments bordering on that ocean has relieved our commerce from some of the evils under which it suffered; but, the unsettled state of the governments and people, with the mass of individuals who have been thrown out of employment on the land and the water, expose it to others which require the presence and active exertions of a competent naval force on the whole coast, from California to Cape Horn.

Commodore Jones, one of our most experienced and prudent officers, has been ordered to succeed Commodore Hull in the command of the squadron, and, should the force already sent not be sufficient to protect our interests, an addition to it will be made if practicable.

Our extensive interests in every part of the Pacific, and the difficulties which not unfrequently occur in the neighborhood of many of the islands, render the occasional presence of a public force among them very important It was the intention of the Department that Commodore Hull should, previous to his return, visit the Society and Sandwich Islands, look to the interests of our commerce there, acquire a better knowledge than is now possessed, both of its extent and necessities, and of the best means and mode of defending and promoting it. But his duties on the coast have forbidden him to be absent; he has, however, under the orders of the Department, dispatched, at different times, the Dolphin and Peacock, to accomplish those objects as far as practicable. The report of their cruises has not yet reached the Department.

Information was received of war between Brazil and Buenos Ayres, soon after the Cyane sailed, in December last, which rendered an additional number of vessels there necessary. These were provided under the act of appropriation of 5th April, 1826, and the new sloop-of-war Boston, Master Commandant B. V. Hoffman, sailed on the 11th April; the frigate Macedonian, Commodore Biddle, on the 13th June.

The presence of this force in that quarter has been essentially useful, by the relief which it has afforded to our vessels and fellow-citizens in many cases, and by the impression which it has produced, that, if assailed, protection was at hand.

The Emperor of Brazil established a blockade of an extensive coast, resting solely upon principles which have been uniformly resisted by our government; its operation has, to a great degree, been counteracted by the interposition of our officers, as will be seen by the accompanying correspondence, marked Q and R.

The view of our interests in the West Indies, so far as they are connected with the services of the navy, is more gratifying than at any time during the last four years. The zeal, enterprise, and skill of our officers, which received commendation in the last annual report, have continued to merit it; and it is satisfactory to add that not one case of piracy, within the range of the cruising grounds of our squadron, has been brought to the knowledge of the Department. The health of the officers and men has also received strict attention, and has been preserved to as great an extent as on any other station. (See paper S.) Commodore Warrington has been invited to the Navy Board, and Captain Ridgley appointed to succeed him.

The benefits resulting from the cruise of the schooner Porpoise over the fishing grounds at the northward, during the last year, confirmed the propriety of sending a vessel, during the late fishing season, to perform a like service. Master Commandant Shubrick, sailed in the Lexington for that purpose, from New York, on the 12th June, and returned on the 4th September; having in the meantime examined the greater part of the coasts and shores frequented by our fishermen. His reports, a copy of some of which accompany this communication, show that much good has resulted from the attention of government to this important interest of the nation, and that it will be well not to relax on this subject. More diversified and extensive benefits are not produced by the employment of any one of our public vessels. (See paper T.)

A law of 3d March, 1825, appropriated $100,000 for the establishment of a Navy yard and depot on the coast of Florida. By the report from this Department, of 2d December, 1825, Congress was informed of the measures which had been taken to execute the law, and of the selection which had been made. Since that time the yard has been laid out, the wharves, buildings, &c., located, and the whole are satisfactorily progressing under the superintendence of the Commissioners of the Navy. There still remain unexpended about $60,000, which will be insufficient to complete the whole, as the erection of works in that portion of the Union is very expensive.

On the 10th day of May last a letter was directed by the chairman of the Naval Committee of the House of Representatives to the Secretary of the Navy, inquiring "whether the arrangements made by the Department for executing the act of the 29th April, 1816, for the gradual increase of the navy, would be injuriously interfered with if the building of one of the frigates authorized by that act should be suspended for the present, and the timber for her frame secured, and the government be authorized to purchase, in lieu of such frigate, for the naval service, a ship of equal or rather superior force, if the same can be procured for the United States on advantageous terms." This letter was received and answered the 12th of that month. On the 11th May a law was passed, authorizing the President "to cause the building of one of the ships to be suspended, and to cause to be purchased a ship of not less than the smallest class authorized to be built."

In the execution of this law, the Secretary of the Navy, on the 29th of May, appointed Commodores Bainbridge, Chauncey, and Jones to examine two vessels, then lying at New York, with as little delay as practicable, and furnish a full report of their state and qualities, with an estimate of their value. On the 21st of June they reported that they had examined the two ships, and thought the one called the Liberator the best adapted to the public service of the United States; that from her form and dimensions they should judge favorably of her qualities, and estimating her value at $233,570.97.


Controversies having arisen between the persons interested in the vessel, which were submitted to arbitration, some delay took place in making the purchase, but instructions were eventually given to the Navy agent at New York to lay the papers before the district attorney, and obtain from him an opinion as to the right and power of the arbitrators to transfer the title to the United States. In obedience to instructions, and with the approbation of all persons concerned and interested in it, he made the purchase for the sum estimated as the value, and the vessel is now at the Navy yard in Brooklyn, N. Y. She is a valuable ship, calculated to perform much service, and will be fitted for sea in a short time. The papers relating to the execution of this law will be found annexed, and marked U.

In compliance with the joint resolution of the 22d May, requesting the President to cause an examination and accurate survey to be made by a skillful engineer of a site for a dry dock at the Navy yard, at Portsmouth, N. H., Charlestown, Mass., Brooklyn, N. Y., and Gosport, Va. Loami Baldwin, Esq., was employed to make the necessary surveys and examinations. He has been diligently engaged in the work, and it is hoped that he will be able to make his report in a few days. As soon as it is received, it will be communicated, together with the instructions under which he acted, and the views of. the Department on the subject.

In the act making appropriations for the support of the navy for the year 1826, there is an item of $10,000 for a survey of the harbors of Savannah and Brunswick, in Georgia, Beaufort, in South Carolina, and Baltimore, in Maryland, "with a view to ascertain the practical facilities of those places for naval purposes." In the execution of this law, a survey was commenced, under the superintendence of Captain R. T. Spence, and, after his unexpected and lamented death, was committed to Master Commandant Claxton, then upon the Baltimore station, with the aid of Lieut. Sherburne and other officers.

A report upon the subject, accompanied by a chart, has been made to the Department, but is not now communicated, because the surveys of the other places mentioned in the law have not been completed; and it is believed to be more correct to present the whole at one view.

The remaining surveys are progressing, under the superintendence of Lieut. R. F. Stockton, and will be finished with the least practicable delay, when they will be presented, with that of Baltimore.

The correspondence marked W will show the situation of the African agency and slave trade.

It was anticipated, at the commencement of the year, that a large number of Africans would be sent to the agency, but a delay in the decision of the claim to a part of them has hitherto prevented. This delay has occasioned a great expense to the United States, but no remedy is perceived. Brought to this country by no act of their own, there is no principle of justice on which they can either be made slaves by the government, or turned loose among our fellow-citizens to suffer. They must be carried somewhere out of the limits of the United States, and a more economical mode does not seem practicable.

On the 1st of January, 1826, a balance of $32,401.63 remained of the appropriation of $100,000 made in 1823, which was carried to the surplus fund; but a reappropriation of $32,000 was made during the last session; of this sum $22,220.81 have been expended, leaving a balance at this time of only $9,779.19, which it is believed will not be sufficient to meet the existing and necessary claims upon the fund during the ensuing year. Another appropriation will therefore be required.

It is probable that, in a few weeks, the question respecting the Africans in Georgia will be determined, in which event there will be from 100 to 160 in that State, and about 15 from Louisiana, to be sent to the agency, for whose reception provision has been made.

No vessel has been dispatched to the coast of Africa for several months, until within a few days. It was the purpose of the Department to order the brig Spark on that service; but, upon her arrival from the West Indies, she was found too much out of repair, and consequently sold. The schooner Shark, Lieut. Otho Norris, left Norfolk about a week since, with orders to remain one or two months, as occasion may require, and afford such protection to the agency as its situation shall demand. After performing this duty, the Shark will cruise a short time in the neighborhood of La Guayra, and then resume her station in the West India squadron.

In the report of the President at the commencement of the last session of Congress, and in other communications from the Department, several evils under which the marine corps and the naval service labored, and which could only be relieved by legislative interference, were exhibited, in the hope that a remedy would be provided. It would be unnecessary, and perhaps improper, to renew the representations respecting them. Reference is made to the views and opinions heretofore expressed, and it is respectfully added that the marine corps and the service still continue to feel, sensibly, the necessity of a remedy for some of the inconveniences there suggested.

A few subjects of importance are not mentioned in this report, because they must hereafter be presented to Congress, in answer to resolutions passed, and calls made, during the last session.

Paper X contains a list of the officers of the navy and marine corps who have died since the 2d December, 1825.

Paper Y contains a list of resignations during the same period.

Paper Z contains estimates for the service of the navy and marine corps for the year 1827. Respectfully submitted.


Navy Department, December 2, 1826.



List of vessels of the United States navy in commission, their commanders, and stations.

North Carolina, 74 guns Commodore John Rodgers.
Constitution, 44 guns Captain D. T. Patterson.
Ontario, 18 guns Master Commandant J. B. Nicholson.
Warren, 18 guns Master Commandant L. Kearney.
Porpoise, 12 guns Lieut. Commanding Benjamin Cooper.


Constellation, 36 guns Commodore Charles G. Ridgley.
John Adams, 24 guns Master Commandant J. Wilkinson.
Hornet, 18 guns Master Commandant A. Claxton.
Grampus, 12 guns Lieutenant Commanding W. K. Latimer.
Macedonian, 36 guns Commodore James Biddle.
Cyane, 24 guns Captain Jesse D. Elliott.
Boston, 18 guns Master Commandant B. T. Hoffman.
United States, 44 guns Commodore Isaac Hull.
Peacock, 18 guns Master Commandant Thomas Ap Catesby Jones.
Dolphin, 12 guns Lieutenant Commanding John Percivial.
Brandywine, 44 guns Commodore Jacob Jones, to relieve the frigate United States
Vincennes, 18 guns Master Commandant William B. Finch, to relieve the Peacock
Lexington, 18 guns Master Commandant William B. Shubrick.
Shark, 12 guns Lieutenant Commanding Otho Norris.



Navy Department, September 8, 1826.

Sir: As soon as the U. S. sloop Lexington, under your command, can be prepared for a cruise of two months, you will proceed to the Island of Trinidad, to perform the duty prescribed by the resolution of the House of Representatives, of which I enclose a copy.

On your arrival at Port Spain, you will communicate to the proper authority in the island the object of your government in sending you, and request permission to remove the remains of Commodore Perry.

Having obtained the permission, you will receive them on board the Lexington, with your colors half-mast, and a salute suited to the rank which Commodore Perry held in the navy of the United States. Your colors will remain half-mast so long as you continue in the harbor.

His friends at Newport, R. I., have been apprised of your departure, and will be ready to receive the body.

On your arrival at that place you will again wear your colors half-mast, and when the body is taken from the vessel fire another salute, and, with your officers and men, unite in such funeral services as may be performed by the citizens of that place; after which you will return to New York.

In selecting you for this deeply interesting duty, the Department relies with confidence on the exercise of your correct judgment and feelings, and expect that you will discharge it in a manner suited to the respect due to the memory of Commodore Perry—to the feelings of his friends—and to the national gratitude for his patriotic services, and the national pride in his pure fame.

I enclose to you extracts of a letter from an officer in the navy, who was present at the burial of Commodore Perry, which may be useful to you.

I am, respectfully, &c., SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD.

Captain William B. Shubrick, commanding U. S. Sloop-of-War Lexington, New York.

Navy Department, October 17, 1826.

Sir: I beg the favor of you to have the enclosed letters delivered to the mother and widow of Commodore Perry. Their object; is to announce to them the time when the resolution of the House of Representatives will probably be executed.

Captain Shubrick, in the Lexington, has sailed to Trinidad, and will probably arrive in Newport, with the remains, in about 40 or 50 days. He is commanded to deliver them to the friends of Commodore Perry, and to unite in the funeral services which may be performed by the citizens of that place. Will you do me the favor to give such information as may be proper and necessary on the subject?

I am, respectfully, &c.,


Hon. Dutee J. Pearce, Newport, R. I.

Navy Department, October 17, 1826.

Madam: The House of Representatives of the United States, on the 18th May last, passed a resolution, instructing the Secretary of the Navy to cause the remains of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry to be removed from the Island of Trinidad, in a public vessel of the United States, and to have the same conveyed to Newport, State of Rhode Island.

The duty to be performed was of a character not to be unnecessarily postponed; and I have at the earliest moment in my power devoted the Lexington, commanded by Captain Shubrick, to its discharge.

He is directed to bring the remains to Newport, and deliver them to the friends of Commodore Perry, and will probably arrive there in forty or fifty days from this time.

I rely with confidence on the correct judgment and feelings of Captain Shubrick, to discharge this service in a manner suited to its interesting character; and I rejoice that the remains will be received by those who will best know how to pay that respect which private affection and public gratitude demand.

I am, very respectfully, &c.,


Mrs. Elizabeth Perry, Newport, R. I.


Captain Wm. B. Shubrick to the Secretary of the Navy.

Newport, November 27, 1826.

I have had the honor to announce to you my arrival in this harbor, with the remains of the late Commodore Perry.

My letter of the 13th ult. informed you of my departure from New York.

I anchored in the Gulf of Paria, after a passage of seventeen days, on the evening of the 31st, and on the 1st of November got up to Port of Spain. On anchoring, I addressed a letter (a copy of which accompanies this, marked A) to the governor, and, that evening, received the answer marked B. On the morning of the 2d, after exchanging salutes with the fort, I waited on the governor, who expressed his readiness to afford me every facility in the execution of my commission, and his wish to have the remains attended, on removal, with such military honors as I might think proper. As the commodore had been interred in the most splendid manner, by the same governor, I thought it most proper to decline any further parade, which I did in the most delicate manner. The governor, however, caused a car to be prepared especially for the purpose, and to be drawn from the cemetery to the wharf by his own carriage horses; his secretary, and other members of his family, giving their personal attendance.

At the wharf, the remains were received by the boats, with a proportion of the officers and crew of this ship. During the time they were rowing off, I caused minute guns to be fired, half-masting the colors at the firing of the first gun.

The remains were received on board under a salute from the marine guard, the officers and men uncovered, and the music playing a dead march.

On the afternoon of the 3d, I addressed a letter (copy marked C) to the governor, and at 10 o'clock, on the morning of the 4th, the wind being favorable, I got under way, and made sail from the harbor, the fort saluting me with 17 guns, which I returned with a like number.

I received from Captain Turner the most ready and important assistance, in disinterring and getting on board the remains; and it is, in a manner, owing to his exertions, that I was enabled to leave Trinadad in so short a time, which was very desirable, the rainy season not being over, and the place, consequently, sickly. My return passage has been longer than I expected, owing to frequent calms in the Caribbean sea, and a succesion of northwest gales on the coast.

The Lexington having, for the last six months, been almost constantly at sea, and in every variety of climate, requires to be thoroughly overhauled before going on another cruise.



Captain Shubrick to Sir Ralph James Woodford, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Island of Trinidad.

United States Ship Lexington, November 1, 1826.

I have the honor to make known to your excellency the arrival in the harbor of Port Spain of the United States ship Lexington, under my command.

Having being charged by my government with the melancholy duty of conveying to his native country the remains of Commodore Perry, I have anchored in this harbor for that purpose; and I pray that your excellency will enable me to carry into execution the views of my government, by granting me permission to disinter and take from the island the said remains.

I have the honor to forward herewith a letter for your excellency, entrusted to my charge by his Majesty's minister near the Government of the United States.



Copy of a letter from Sir Ralph Woodford, Governor of the Island of Trinidad, to Captain William C. Shubrick.

St. Ann, November 2, 1826.

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 1st instant, acquainting me of your arrival, in the United States ship Lexington, for the purpose of receiving and conveying to his native country the remains of the late Commodore Perry.

In conceding the request, made in the name of your government, I have to assure you of my readiness to afford every assistance to the object of your commission that you may consider to depend upon me.

I have also to acknowledge the receipt of the letter of his Majesty's minister at Washington, entrusted to your care, and to express the satisfaction it will afford me to receive you at my residence during your stay in the island.



Captain William B. Shubrick to Governor Ralph James Woodford.

U. S. Ship Lexington, November 8, 1826.

Having received the remains of the late Commodore Porter on board, I am about to leave the harbor of Port Spain, and I avail myself of this occasion to express to your excellency my sense of, and to tender my thanks for, your kind attentions during my stay at the island under your excellency's government.

I shall take great pleasure in making known to my government the generous facilities afforded me by your excellency in the execution of my melancholy commission.




Extract of instructions from Commodore John Rodgers to David Beacon, Esq., commanding United States sloop Erie, dated—

U. S. Ship North Carolina, Port Mahon, February 18, 1826.

The United States Ship Erie, under your command, being ready for sea, I have to desire that you proceed with her to the Archipelago for the protection of our commerce in that sea, and particularly that to and from Smyrna, which is so important as to forbid its being neglected, in the present state of the war subsisting between the Turks and Greeks, for a single day. The season of the year is rapidly approaching when danger is most to be apprehended from such small craft as have hitherto committed piracies among the islands of the Archipelago, under the Greek flag.

On leaving this, in order to obtain such information as will enable you to afford the most effectual protection to our trade, you will proceed direct to Smyrna, where, on your arrival, I would recommend your consulting our consul, Mr. Offley, by whose advice and information you will be able to afford it the most ample and extensive protection.

In the performance of your duties your own judgment will point out to you the necessity of abstaining from, yourself, and preventing in all others under your command, the commission of any act which might tend in the slightest degree to compromit the neutrality of the United States.

Should it be found unsafe to permit vessels to leave Smyrna without convoy, you will afford it to such a distance west of the Island of Serigo as to ensure their safety, returning again to Smyrna as soon as the nature of the service you are on, and the information you may receive from any other quarter requiring your attention, will permit.

Extracts of a letter from Captain David Deacon to Commodore John Rodgers, dated—

U. S. Ship Erie, Smyrna, March 18, 1826.

In compliance with your order, bearing date 18th February, 1826, I proceeded with this ship for the Archipelago, and have great pleasure of informing you of my safe arrival, with all the American vessels I have met with, at this anchorage.

On the 1st of March, fell in with, supplied with fuel, and took under convoy the American brig Seaman, belonging to New York, bound to Smyrna.

On the 7th, fell in with, supplied with water, and took under convoy the American brig Smyrna, bound to Smyrna.

The Greeks have retaliated on the Austrians by capturing three vessels said to be loaded with stores for the Turks; this happened a few days ago, at Milo; two Greek brigs boarded the convoy under two Austrian brigs; the Austrians told the Greeks that if they persisted they should fire into them; the Greeks answered, very well, they were ready to return it; the Austrians then called on a Dutch frigate for assistance, but the Dutchman declined interfering; in the meantime the Greeks carried the Austrian merchantmen over to Napoli di Romania. I overhauled one of the Hydra cruisers in the Bay of Smyrna; he had boats out capturing everything Turkish; I observed to him the vessels astern were my convoy, and Americans; he said we were then good friends, and he would always treat them well.

Extract of a letter from Commodore John Rodgers to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Ship North Carolina, Gibraltar Bay, May 13, 1826.

The Erie, if her crew will not consent to re-enter for a longer term, and which I am led to think very doubtful, I shall be obliged to send to the United States, the necessity of which I shall regret, particularly at this time, as the war between Greece and the Porte seems now to be drawing to a crisis; and unless Russia declares war against the latter, (as some think she will,) or England and the principal continental powers interpose as mediators between her and the Ottoman government, (as others seem inclined to believe they will do,) the unfortunate Greeks will be obliged, it is thought, to have recourse to increased acts of piracy, and, in this event, that the commission of such acts will not be, as heretofore, confined to small boats only.

Should such a change take place prior to my departure for the Archipelago (for which I shall depart to-morrow) as to render the presence of more than a sloop-of-war necessary, I shall leave the Constitution there, with the Ontario, until the affairs of Greece assume such a shape as to permit one or both of these vessels to be drawn from that quarter, without risk. It is confidently believed, if the Greeks lose Missolonghi, that they cannot maintain themselves in the Morea, and that, in such an event taking place, they will be obliged to seek refuge among the barren islands of the Archipelago, where, to avoid starvation, a large portion of the population will necessarily be forced to turn pirates.

Copy of instructions to Master Commandant John B. Nicholson, United States ship Ontario, from Commodore John Rodgers, dated—

U. S. Ship North Carolina, Harbor of Milo, August 21, 1826.

In the present state of the war between the Porte and Greece, it has become absolutely necessary that one vessel-of-war, at least, should be kept in the Archipelago, for the protection of our commerce; and, in consequence thereof, I am induced to assign to the Ontario, under your command, that duty.

In the performance of this service you will have a delicate part to act. It will be expected of you to exercise much vigilance, and, at the same time, much discretion; for whilst, on the one hand, you will be required to afford to our merchant vessels trading in those seas the most ample protection the force under your command will admit of, it will be equally expected that you abstain from meddling with the affairs of either of the parties at war, from giving to other nations (beyond what your duty requires in the suppression of piracy) the protection of our flag, and from intermingling its name, or identifying its character or our commercial interests, with those of any nation, in any way that might compromit ourselves by affecting the neutral position we have hitherto sustained, and which it is the desire of our


government most earnestly still to maintain. You will keep me informed of your own proceedings, by every opportunity that offers, as well as of everything of a political nature that may transpire in this quarter, which you may think it desirable for me to be apprised of.

Mr. Offley, our consul at Smyrna, with whom you will confer from time to time as to the mode most likely to ensure to our commerce the necessary protection, will, on your requisitions, furnish such few stores and provisions as you may stand in need of, to pay for which, and to meet the other necessary disbursements of the ship, I have furnished your purser with bills on London to the amount of £1,000 sterling—calculated to produce about $5,000—and $4,000 loaned him by my authority, by the purser of this ship, together making about $9,000, exclusive of the funds previously remaining in his hands. When there are no American vessels at Smyrna requiring convoy, you will do well by spending a portion of your time at Milo, and occasionally running out as far as Cape St. Angelo and Cerigo, to meet and afford protection to such as may be bound to Smyrna. Until the warm weather is over, I would advise your not remaining at Smyrna for any length of time.

Copy of a letter from Commodore John Rodgers to the Hon. the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Ship North Carolina, Port Mahon, September 11, 1826.

My letters of the 25th and 28th June last, from Smyrna, by the brig General Boliver, bound to Boston, will have made you acquainted with the movements and proceedings of the squadron, up to that time, and this, together with the accompanying communication, dated at Vourla, the 18th of July, (marked A,) but which I have had no opportunity of sending until now, will put you in possession of its movements and employment subsequently to that date. On the 22d of July, three days after my return to Vourla from an excursion to the Dardanelles, with this ship, the Constitution, Ontario, and Porpoise, (for the particulars of which permit me to refer you to the accompanying letter of the 18th of July,) the Erie joined me, having been employed, during her separation from the other vessels of the squadron, in convoying the brig General Bolivar clear of the islands. On the 10th of last month, finding the term of service of the crew of the Erie was about to expire, I dispatched her under orders to communicate with the consulates of Tripoli and Algiers, and to proceed from the latter place to Mahon, there to replenish her provisions and water, and wait my arrival for orders to return to the United States. On the 11th, the day after the departure of the Erie, I sailed with this ship, the Constitution, Ontario, and Porpoise, for the Island of Milo, and taking a circuitous route, by Mytilene, Scio, Negropont, and Cape Colonna, arrived and anchored at Milo on the 15th, at which, as the communication between the Morea and it is more frequent than with any other island in the Archipelago, I continued until the 21st ultimo, for the purpose of obtaining the latest and most correct information possible, in regard to the actual situation of Greece, before my final departure from that sea. The day I left Milo, after getting to sea, I parted company with the Ontario, which vessel I have stationed in the Archipelgo, with instructions to her commander, of which the enclosed is a copy, marked B, to protect our commerce in that quarter. On leaving the Archipelago, I shaped a course for Malta, having directed Mr. Henry, our consul at Gibraltar, to send all letters for the squadron, that might come to his hands, in time to reach that place by the first of September. On arriving off Malta, which was on the 29th ultimo, I sent a boat in to communicate with Mr. Pulis, our consul, and bring off any letters which might have reached him.

I now learnt from him that the mail of the August packet, which usually arrives between the 25th and 31st of the month, was still due, and thinking it probable that Mr. Henry might have received letters from the Department for me, during my absence, and have forwarded them by the packet, I made sail for Mahon, accompanied by the Constitution, leaving the Porpoise to wait the arrival of the packet, until the 8th instant, to bring such letters as might have been forwarded by her from Gibraltar.

I reached this port yesterday, in company with the Constitution, where I found the Erie, she having arrived here six days before.

The enclosed copies of Captain Deacon's letter, and the letters of Mr. Shaler and Mr. Morillo, Nos. 1, 2, 3, (the latter left by Mr. Anderson in charge of the affairs of the American consulate at Tripoli) will show the peaceable footing on which we stand with those two regencies.

The Erie is now replenishing her water and provisions, and as soon as she is ready for sea I shall dispatch her for New York, to receive your orders for the discharge of her crew.

She is a fine ship, and will require but little expense to equip again for sea; and as the services of more than one vessel of her class will be necessary for the protection of our trade in the Archipelago, so long- as that sea continues infested, as it now is, by pirates, I hope you may find it soon convenient to send her, or some other sloop to supply her place, on this station.

No robberies have, as yet, been committed upon any American vessels since the first appearance of the squadron in the Archipelago, notwithstanding those of every other nation have suffered more or less; even the English and French, of late, have had several vessels plundered, and some of very valuable cargoes, notwithstanding the former has six or seven vessels-of-war, and the latter nine or ten in that sea.

The Austrians, although they keep as many as ten or twelve sail constantly at Smyrna and among the islands, have had upwards of fifty vessels plundered during the last six months; in one or two instances the crew of the vessel has been murdered.

After dispatching the Erie for the United States, I shall leave here (on the arrival of the Porpoise from Malta) for Gibraltar, to supply the pursers of the several vessels with the necessary sums of money, on account of pay for the next six months, and to purchase such few articles of stores as are not sent from the United States.

The officers and crews of the vessels of the squadron have been peculiarly healthy during the past summer, there not having been a single death among the officers, and only four, out of upwards of 1,800 men, since we left Gibraltar.

Copy of a letter of Wm. Shaler, Esq., enclosing extract from journal of consulate at Algiers, to Commodore John Rodgers, commanding U. S. naval forces in the Mediterranean.

Algiers, August 30, 1826.

I had the honor to receive your letter of the 10th inst., by Captain Deacon. I, herewith enclosed, send you a transcript of the journal of this consulate, which contains everything of any moment since your departure from Algiers. I also send, by Captain Deacon, a copy of a book which I lately published in the United States, on this country, which please to accept as a mark of my friendly consideration.


Extract from the journal kept in the consulate of the United States in Algiers, from the 1st to the 25th, inclusive, of August, 1826.

August 3. Sailed the Algerine squadron on a cruise, consisting of five schooners of 22, 14, and 6 guns. It is believed they are destined against Spanish commerce.

August 18. Arrived this morning an Algerine cruiser accompanied by a large ship, supposed to be her prize. The Dutch consul was early informed that this vessel was of his nation, and at 9 o'clock he visited the minister of marine and conversed with the captain of the ship. He informed the consul that this vessel, measuring 500 tons, belonged to Curacoa, was owned by himself, a citizen of that island, and that her cargo was principally American; that she had sailed from Curacoa to Campeachy in Mexico, where she was laden with Campeachy wood, her present cargo, and was bound for Marseilles; and that when within 60 miles of that port was captured by the Algerine squadron because she was not provided with a Mediterranean pass. The minister remarked to the consul that, according to the ancient usages of Algiers, a vessel found navigating the Mediterranean, without this passport, was liable to confiscation. The consul replied that the absence of this passport might be reason for bringing in a friendly vessel for examination, but furnished no right to condemn. He had examined the ship's papers, had found her to be the property of a Dutch citizen, and he therefore formally demanded restitution.

The minister deferred his decision.

August 19. All the dragomans were called to the marine and directed to invite their respective consuls to a divan, to be held to-morrow, to decide upon the legality of the prize, and to be composed of the raises, or captains of the Algerine navy and the corps consulaire.

August 20. At eleven o'clock this morning the consular corps assembled at the marine, where were also present the Algerine captains, The minister, addressing the Dutch consul, said the subject of the prize ship would now be discussed.

The consul premised, by formally declaring that the legality of a Dutch prize was a question which in nowise affected the representatives of other powers, and to a decision of which they were not competent. But, denying their jurisdiction, the consul did not object to the expression of their opinions, as to the nationality of the vessel. Her papers being found to be in the usual form, the consul formally demanded restitution. The treaty of Holland with the regency was then read, which stipulates that, in such cases as the present, the vessel should be liberated, but the cargo confiscated. This brought the cargo into discussion, a part of which appeared to be the property of citizens of the United States. The United States consul made a like preliminary declaration as the Dutch consul, of the incompetency of the divan to judge a case between the regency and the United States.

The bills of lading having been examined, the larger part of the cargo was found to have been shipped on account of merchants in Boston. This the consul formally claimed as American property. For the lesser part of the cargo he made no demands, as the evidence of its being American property was not sufficient, but said that he would write for information, and, if proved to be such, he would claim of the regency.

To the demand of the consul upon the larger part of the cargo, the minister made two objections: 1st. Informality;- as the bill of lading did not declare the owners to be citizens of the United States. 2d. Insufficiency; because this paper did not prove the property to be American. The cargo must therefore be detained, till it could be verified by more abundant proof.

To the first objection the consul replied, that it was not usual or necessary to identify the owners' citizenship; that, in the present case, being merchants of Boston, they were protected by our laws. To the second he answered, that commercial usages knew of no other proofs of property laden on vessels; that no greater was now required or would be sought. He therefore demanded the restitution of that part of the cargo, as being absolutely American property. The minister rejoined, we have suspicions of its being Spanish property; if you are assured of its American ownership, give us your personal responsibility for it, if, eventually, it should be ascertained to be Spanish; otherwise the cargo must be confiscated. The consul declined this proposition peremptorily. He could not consent to personal responsibility for what he was bound to protect from official duty, but was willing to give his receipt for the property, which by the bill of lading appeared to be bona fide American.

This being refused, he warned the minister not to confiscate this part of the cargo, as it would become his duty to claim it with damages. The minister then requested the Danish consul to pronounce the confiscation of the property. It was accordingly declared. The consul at a late hour dispatched his dragoman to the palace, to demand an audience of the Dey, which was granted, with the request of his highness that it should be held the same evening.

The consul, accompanied by the secretary of the consulate, repaired to the palace at 4 o'clock P. M. The consul addressing the Dey said, he was doubtless well informed of all the circumstances connected with the prize ship lately brought to this port, and of the grounds upon which a part of her cargo was claimed as American. His highness replied, that the only difficulty presented to the restitution of the American part of the cargo was the insufficiency of proof to verify it; that he well knew the stipulations of the late treaty of Algiers with the United States, for he was not, as other Deys, unable to read, and would most scrupulously observe them. If the most precious cargo of the Indies were brought here, and proved to be American, it should be esteemed sacred, and immediately restored. But in the present case there exist suspicions of the truth of the bill of lading, and which of itself is not sufficient evidence of ownership. To assure ourselves, we require of you, as an act of official duty, to give us your personal obligation to answer our demands, if the cargo be ultimately proved not to be American.

To the arguments and demands of his highness the consul replied, that no property floating on the seas was accompanied by other or more explicit papers than was the cargo in question; it was fully identified as American, and, as such, he claimed it.

The present controversy of the regency with Spain created no right to vex the property of friends, under pretext of searching for that of the enemy. Whatever suspicious his highness might entertain of the ownership, it was not for the consul to remove them, but by declaring the proof to be legal and regular.

The demand of his highness for the personal guaranty of the consul was inconsistent with the nature and dignity of his office. If the property were detained, it would become his duty to report to his government, and to the United States naval commander in the Mediterranean, when he would be required to claim it with damages. After some further conversation, in which the Dey expressed the elevated


sentiments of a just and magnanimous prince, he agreed to liberate the property named, and accept the receipt which was this morning proposed to the minister of marine.

August 21. The minister determined this morning to unload the ship in search of any articles not expressed in the manifest. He had actually taken off one lighter load, when, upon the representation of the Dutch consul, he was satisfied to receive the captain's declarations to the truth of his manifest.

The vessel and cargo being liberated, they will sail on the 24th instant.

Copy of the receipt given by the consul to the minister of marine.

I, William Shaler, consul general of the United States in Algiers, declare that a portion of the cargo of the Dutch vessel, the Curacoa, captured and brought into this port by cruisers of the regency, which, according to the bill of lading copied below, appears to be bona fide the property of American citizens, has, by order of his highness, the Bashaw, been delivered over to me, in conformity with the sixth article of the treaty subsisting between the United States and Algiers.


Shipped, in good order, and well conditioned, by John L. McGregor, per order of Cushing Stetson, on board the Dutch ship called the Curacoa, whereof Cushing Stetson is master, now lying in the port of Campeachy, and bound for Gibraltar, and a market, to say: Six thousand seven hundred and twenty pounds logwood, for account of Messrs. William Thompson & Co. and Z. G. Lamsen, Boston, being marked and numbered as in the margin, and are to be delivered in like good order and condition, at the port of discharge, (the dangers of the sea excepted) unto order, or assigns, he or they paying freight for the said logwood, with primage and average accustomed. In witness whereof, the master or purser of said vessel hath affirmed to twelve bills of lading, all of this tenor and date, one of which being-accomplished, the others to remain void. Dated in Campeachy, the 18th of May, 1826. Weight not accountable; all on board to be delivered.



Campechy, May 17, 1826.

The within logwood is to be held subject to the order of Messrs. Henry & McCall, merchants, Gibraltar, until payment be made of two thousand nine hundred and five dollars and eighteen and three-fourth cents, being amount advanced by John L. McGregor on said logwood.


John L. McGregor.

In testimony of which I have hereunto affixed my hand and seal of office, in the city of Algiers, this 23d day August, 1826.


Copy of a letter from J. Morillo, Esq., chargé d'affaires of the United States consulate, to Captain Deacon, United States ship Erie, dated—

Tripoli, August 18, 1826.

I have received your communication of yesterday's date, requesting to know the actual state of our political relations with this regency.

In answer to which, I have the pleasure to assure you that our interests continue in the most favorable state with the Bashaw and his government. His highness has at all times shown the most friendly disposition towards the United States, as well as to me individually, and to every one connected with the consulate.




Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Chorillos, Peru, December 21, 1825.

The Dolphin having been dispatched on a long cruise to the Mulgrave Islands, and the Peacock having been constantly on service, and it appearing to me of the first importance that the commerce and citizens of the United States should not be left without proper protection, whilst our ships are compelled to discharge their valuable cargoes in an open roadstead, such as Chorillos, where they are exposed to many difficulties from the heavy swell that is constantly setting in, and scarcely a day passes, but some of the ships require assistance of some kind.

For the last eight or ten months there have been constantly in the Bay of Chorillos from ten to thirty valuable American merchant ships, with valuable cargoes, lying in a situation where they had no protection from the shore, as there is not a gun mounted in the place.

Situated as our commerce has been on this station, and it having been generally believed that a Spanish force would be sent out to relieve the garrison at Callao, and in the event of which, our ships would be still more exposed, I hope you will consider sufficient reasons for my remaining here, and not having left the station for the purpose directed in your letter.

The moment the castles of Callao are given up, and our ships can lie in safety in the bay, I shall lose no time in visiting Chili, for the purpose of executing your instructions, or before, if it can be done consistently with the public interest.


Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, December 30, 1825.

Our commerce is very much exposed, and would be more so in the event of an attempt being made by the Spanish government to relieve the garrison at Callao, by sending out a force for that purpose; nor should I consider it proper to leave the coast, at the moment the English and French are increasing their forces. The French have now eight sail of ships-of-war at Valparaiso, consisting of frigates, sloops-of-war and schooners. The British have one line of battle ship, and several frigates and sloops-of-war—in all, six or eight sail, and neither England or France have as many merchant ships on the coast as we have; under all these circumstances, my present intention is to send the Peacock to the Sandwich Islands. Captain Jones is an excellent and humane man, and an intelligent officer; and I am sure will do all that can be required of him.

In the event of his going, I shall furnish him with a copy of your letter, and call his particular attention to your wishes.

The Peacock is now at Valparaiso. By the time she returns, and the Dolphin joins me, some changes may take place, that will allow this ship to leave the coast without injury to the service.

General La Mar arrived last evening from Guayaquil, to take the command of Lima. He is said to be an excellent man, and much good is anticipated from his government. I had the pleasure of landing him and his family with my boats; and, I have great pleasure in saying, that I am on the best terms, not only with the officers of government here, but with the commanders of the foreign ships that are on this station; they invariably treat our officers with attention and great respect. As yet, not the slightest unpleasant occurrence has taken place between our officers and those of other ships-of-war.

Copy of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, December 31, 1825.

I have the honor to forward herewith a copy of the boarding book of this ship, which will show, in an imperfect manner, the number and description of vessels that have been boarded.

Soon after I arrived in this sea, I endeavored to get at, not only the number and description of vessels arriving at the different ports, but the amount of their cargoes, and every particular relating to them, agreeably to the form of the boarding book, but I found it impracticable; for the captains and the supercargoes would not give the information required; indeed, many of them took offence, on being asked many of the questions by the boarding officer, and wanted to know what business I had to inquire about the cost of their cargoes; and it frequently happened that they would not inform the officer what the cargo consisted of; indeed, very few of them would give the information asked.

The list, however, imperfect as it is, will give you some idea of the extent of our commerce on this coast; and have to regret that it has not been in my power to furnish you with a more correct view of it.


A list of merchant vessels boarded by the United States frigate United States, Isaac Hull, commander, during the period from March 30, 1824, to December, 1825.

Where boarded. When boarded. Vessel's name. Master's name. Owners' names. Where built or belonging. Lading. Number of— Where from. Whither bound.
Tons. Men. Guns.
Valparaiso March 30 Ship Eagle Kelly Starbuck Nantucket Sperm oil 260 22   Whale voyage Nantucket
do do Potosi R. Baldwin   New York Flour and sundries 300     New York  
do do Tartar Thos. R. Gerry Bryant & Sturgis Boston Flour and dry goods 300     Boston  
Callao May 2 Potosi R. Baldwin   New York Flour and sundries 370 11   Valparaiso  
do May 3 Brig Gratitude     Liverpool Whiskey       do Callao.
do May 8 Ship Providence Bowers E. Carrington & Co Providence Ballast 360 15 2 Coquimbo do
do May 10 China Wm. Putnam Jos. Peabody Salem Flour and dry goods 370        
do do Brig Winifred C. W. Gelston C. W. Gelston Alexandria Ballast          
do do Peru W. Johnson, jr Steph & Philips Salem Flour and dry goods 187 0 2 Quilca Callao.
do do G. P. Stephenson W. Pacill Isaac Maum Baltimore   240 8   Baltimore do
do do Ship America Dickoven Tibbitts & Whitney New York Flour and dry goods 447 28 4 New York do
do do Brig Frederick James Penney Tudor Stonington Ballast 147 10   do Pisco.
do May 11 Ship Clara John Jones James Bosley Baltimore Flour, bread, &c 297 16   Baltimore Callao.
do May 14 Brig Dragon Chiswell Pat. Mulleston do Rice and cocoa 167     Huanchaco do
do May 19 Hebe Nickson Wm. Guthrie London Tallow 229 13 2 California do
do May 21 Col. Young Henry Potter James Goldia Calcutta Ballast 200 11 4 Valparaiso do
do May 27 Ship Tartar Gerry Bryan & Sturgis Boston Flour and dry goods 300     Coquimbo do
do Juno 4 Brig La Pera       Ballast       Pisco do
do do Nancy Charles Sumner Field & Edenton New York do 141     Huasco Valdivia.
do do Ship J. Boggs John Jenkins John Beggs Lima Dry goods 154 17 2 St. Blas Callao.
do Juno 11 Earl Wellington Potts do do do 130     Valparaiso do
do Juno 14 Isabella Lindsay C. Silk London General cargo 225 14   do do
do Juno 20 Earl Egremont R. Johnson Johnson do Flour 230 14 2 do do
do do Peruvian W. Dalling W. Dalling   Dry goods 216 15 6 do do
do do Andes King T. & J. Brockley   do 208 15   Quilca do
do Juno 26 Grecian Halbour Halbour Baltimore Cheese and vegetables 230 13 4 Valparaiso do
do do Minerva Lambert W. & T. Roach & Co Beaufort, S. C General cargo 230 12   do do
do Juno 26 Britannia Lorton Thomas Stage England Oil 310 24 1 do do
do July 2 Duncan Forbes A. Lovid Alexander Forbes Aberdeen Wheat 134 8   Quilca do
do do Antelope Rennowsay Dowsons London Produce of Mexico 157 10 6 Ct. of Mexico  do
do do Royal Sovereign R. H. Dare R. H. Dare Margate Sugar rice and indigo 100 8 2 Sansanta Valparaiso.
Huanchaco July 27 Fiposhire Robinson Robinson, London Rice 144 12 2 Guyaquil Huanchaco.
do July 28 Brig Fortuna               Callao do
do do Camden Porter Harrison Calcutta Salt 131 12   Huasco do
Callao August 17 Liberty N. Hurd Jesse Hurd Chatham, Ct. Wine and dry goods 289 20   Havre de Grace. do
do do Gov. Clinton Bassett N. L. & P. Griswold New York Flour and dry goods 383 20   Valparaiso do
do August 17 Cadet Woodbury J. Hubbot Boston Wax 207 12 4 do Manilla.


A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded. When boarded. Vessel's name. Master's name. Owners' names. Where built or belonging.- Lading. Number of— Where from. Whither bound.
Tons. Men. Guns.
Callao August 17 Ship Neptune Land Miff, Colhoun & Co Philadelphia Flour and rice 292 13   Huacho Callao
do August 23 Canada John H. B. Messick Baltimore Rice and tobacco 210 14 2 Huacho do
do August 24 Lively Hasting Heath London Aguardiente 50 6   Pisco do
do do America Tibbet S. Whitney New York Ballast 447 20 4 Huanchaco do
do September 5 Tuscan               Samanca do
do September 21 Livonia Murphy   London Dry goods 170 11   Huacho do
do September 24 Wabash John M'Cay James Bosley Baltimore Sundries 312 11 2 Quilca Canton
do September 28 Duncan Forbes Al. Lovid Alex. Forbes Aberdeen Wheat 134 7   Huacho Callao
do October 1 Chevy Chase Murphy Brothers & Bogg London   53 6   Huacho Pisco
do do Fame Urquhart   Liverpool General cargo 107 13   Liverpool Callao
do October 2 North Point W. Patton Donnell & Son Baltimore Sundries 480 22 4 Baltimore do
do October 4 Brig Antelope Reynoldson Dowson & Co London Pisco 157 10 6 Pisco To Leeward
do October 6 James Laurence Ford Henry Pratt Philadelphia Sundries 209 0   Pisco  
do October 7 Peruvian W. Darling W. Darling Liverpool Aguardiente 248 16 4 Pisco  
do October 8 Leopold Hunter Cochran Leith Dry goods 186 9 2 Valparaiso Callao
do October 12 President Whooten A Massey & Co Philadelphia Sundries 177 14 2 Valparaiso do
do October 15 Dragon Chiswell Pat. Mullison Liverpool Pisco 167 6   Pisco Huacho
do October 18 Erin                  
do October 20 Ship Lion Green   Portsmouth Sundries 337 10   Baltimore Callao
Huancho October 25 Henry Davis   Portsmouth, N. H.   300 11   Baltimore do
do do Isabella Lindsay C. Silk London Salt 225 14     Valparaiso
Callao October 29 Brig Bolivar Buchanan Cochran & Son Glasgow Sundries 204 14 1 St. Lorenzo St. Lorenzo
do do Sloop Success A. Liman Geo. Ross London Cocoa 28 4   Huacho Pisco
do do Brig Erin Mullaid Wm. Brown Liverpool General cargo 188 12   Huacho Callao
do do Rimack Beckford Alsop New York Cocoa 113 8   Huacho do
do do Velocity S. Brooks H. Stantion London Sundries 151 10   Valparaiso do
do November 3 Elizabeth R. Snowden R. Snowden Liverpool Flour 180 10   Pisco do
do do Lavinia J. Murphy J. Murphy Liverpool Pisco 137 10   Valparaiso do
do November 9 America Eldridge   Philadelphia Flour and provisions 296 14 2 Philadelphia do
Ancon November 15 Bolivar                  
At sea December 11 Cora               Pisco Ancon
Callao December 14 Nautilus Cunan Geo. Nash & Co Salem Provisions, &c. 252 14 3 Valparaiso do
do December 18 Snipe Haig   Calcutta Copper 223 23 6 Copiopo Calcutta
do December 19 Enterprise Clark W. Bottomly Lynn Sundries 184 11   Ancon Chorillos
Chorillos January 1 Olive Branch Hutton P. P. Ritchie London Provisions 204       do


A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded. When boarded. Vessel's name. Masters' name. Owners' name. Where built or belonging. Lading. Number of—   Where from. Whither bound.
Tons. Men. Guns.
Chorillos January 11 Brig Livonia Wilson Rd. Hodge Sunderland Bread and fruit 216 12   Valparaiso Chorillos.
de January 15 Packet S. Tyler Brown & Log Providence Sundries 205 7 4 Quilca do
do do Ship Jane Galager Archer & Bispham Philadelphia do 327 18 2 do do
do do Brig Laura Holman John Derby Salem Flour and dry goods 200 12 2 do do
do do Ship Panther Austin J. C. Ellison Boston Flour, &c. 450 29 14 Boston Coast of Peru.
Callao January 17 Portia Silliman Silliman Charleston Flour 272 14   Valparaiso Callao.
Chorillos January 21 Dragon Chiswell G. Mollison Liverpool Pisco 170 10   Pisco Chorillos.
do January 23 Rubicon Patterson   New York Provisions 143 11 2 do Lima.
do February 12 Leopold Woodbury Wm. Cochran   General cargo 190 13 2 do Chorillos.
do February 14 Tartar Gerry Bryant & Sturges Boston Ballast 400 9 6 Quilca do
do do Sereno Hodges Fish & Bridges Boston do 207 10   Guayaquil do
do February 18 Elizabeth Rios Peru Chorillos Soldiers       Pisco do
do do Enterprise Clark Bottomly Lynn do 184 12   do do
do February 19 Clio Jackson   Boston Leather       Huacho  
do February 15 Minerva Lombard W. Rook & Co New Bedford Ballast 230     do  
do do Heroine Wm. Heath Benj. Banks Scituate, Mass   337 14 4 Boston Boston
do do Brig Carlo Hall N. B. Gram New York Flour 225 8 2 Philadelphia Uncertain.
do do Ship Portia Silliman Silliman Charleston do 272 15 1 Alexandria Gibraltar,
do do Brig Active Neal W. P. Richardson Salem   211 12 2 Salem Uncertain.
do do Sereno Hodges Fish & Bridges Boston Ballast 207 11   Boston do
do do Geo. Gardner Davidson Messick & Johnson Baltimore Assorted cargo 344 16 2 Baltimore do
do do Ship Alfred Zuill Peter Harmony New York do 232 16   New York Unknown.
do do Arethusa Merrille Thos. Sheaf Portsmouth do 319 15 1 Baltimore Uncertain.
do do Brig Colon Ford I. Thorndike Boston do 208 12 2 do Arica.
do do Nautilus Curren Nichols & Co Salem Flour 268 10 3 do Uncertain.
do do Ship Wm. Penn Smith W. Patterson & Co Baltimore do 305 11 4 do do
do do Jane Galager Archer & Bispham Philadelphia Sundries 327 18 2 Philadelphia do
do do Gen. Brown Copland Eckford & Harmony New York Assorted 550 26 2 New York do
do do Tartar Gerry Bryant & Sturges Boston Ballast 402 13 6 Canton Canton.
do do Brig Garnet Lewis Ross & Brintnall Boston do 215     Boston Uncertain.
do February 21 Sch. Britannia Brown Weeks & Birch Southampton General cargo 106 8 4 Quilca Chorillos.
do February 24 Gen. Carreno J. Bap. Ferand   Panama do 47 6   Panama do
do February 27 Fipshire Frero Robinson London do 145 14 2 Huacho do
do do Sarah and Georg Gordon E. Merrill Portland do 156 11   Valparaiso do
do do Brig Nero Horning Nicholson Liverpool Jerk beef, &c. 124 8   do do
Valparaiso March 26 Olive Branch       Salt       Huacho Valparaiso.
do do Columbia     Liverpool Dry goods     6 Liverpool do


A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded. When boarded. Vessel's name. Master's name. Owners' names Where built or belonging. Lading. Number of— Where from. Whither bound.
Tons. Men. Guns.
Valparaiso March 29 Brig Pacific Scott Bacon & Richardson Duxbury   127 11   Boston Valparaiso
do do Stranger Sumner Ml. Hogan Now York Salt 230 11 3 Valdivia and do
Coquimbo May 18 Ship Cadmus N. O. Carey Israel Thorndike Boston Oil, 1,600 bbls 319 26 7 Eimeo.. [Chiloe. Boston.
do May 9 Hydaspe Paddock Flenning Stonington Oil, 1,650 bbls 315 23   Wahoo Stonington.
do May 12 Tarquin Banker D. Elkin Nantucket Oil, 1,700 bbls 310 19   Valparaiso Edgarton.
do May 6 Rose S. Cottle, J. Starbuck do Oil, 2,100 bbls 379 22 1  do Nantucket.
do May 27 Brig Carlo Hall     Flour       Chorillos  
Chorillos Juno 7 Ship Superior Andrews Brown & Jones Providence Sundries 375 20 4 Valparaiso A market.
do do Brig Catalina Walters Panning Peru Rice, &c       Lumbraco do
do Juno 8 Ship Caroline Cheever Jos. Roops Salem Flour 321 16 4 Arica Chorillos.
do Juno 9 Brig Charlotte Gambier             Callao  
do Juno 11 Ellen Simpson D. Hollion London Wine 134 9 4    
do Juno 19 Britomart White S. J. & J. Somer do Ballast 243 14 2 Callao do
do Juno 17 Adventure Smith Warrel Liverpool Merchandise 163 10   Quilca  
do Juno 18 Naiad McClunie   Philadelphia Assorted cargo 259 13 4 Arica do
do Juno 23 Divan Wm. Whatson   Liverpool Cocoa 180 10   Guayaquil do
do June 24 Stranger G. White O'Brian New York General cargo 225 9 1 Valparaiso do
do do Winifred Wm. Burry Esquabourn Alexandria Ballast 200 7   Guayaquil do
do Juno 28 Sch. Four Brothers Anto. Frera             Pisco  
do Jun© 29 Thalia R. Hazzard Hazzard London Spars, &c 206 10   Arica do
do July 1 Basteracha Murphy       45 10   Quilca do
do do Brig Livonia P. Goodlet Patriots London Officers 137 6   Huacho do
do do Gratitude Ml. Ariato D. Mills Sunderland Sundries 155 9   Labraque do
do July 2 Ladiago Wm. Quick Patriots Guayaquil General cargo 196 10   Guayaquil do
do do Jane Kain do   Timber, &c.       Quilca do
do do Antelope Reynoldson Dawson South America Indigo 157 9 6   Lima.
do July 4 Pelica R. McClunie Bishenter Liverpool Sundries 185 14 2 Liverpool Chorillos.
do do San Pedro Roberts   Valparaiso     10   Pisco do
do July 7 Potomac Dexter John H. Howland New York Provisions 200 9 2 Guanchaco do
do July 8 Lincoln Thomas Lincoln Boston Wine 210 10   St. Lorenzo do
do do Sch. James Monroe Forbes Baltimore   Sundries 171 12   Valparaiso do
do do Brig Sarah & Eliza Plaskett New York   Provisions   7   do do
do July 11 Ship Panther Austin Elery New York do       do do
do do Brazilian Hatch Griswold do Sundries 240 7   Rio Janeiro do
do do Midas Hutchins Messicks Baltimore do 265 2   Arica do
do July 14 Young Caledonia McCanley Robinson Lima Pisco 30 5   Pisco do
do July 15 Peruvian Buckanam Robins do do       do do


A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded. When boarded. Vessel's name. Master's name. Owners' names. Where built or belonging.  Lading. Number of— Where from. Whither bound.
Tons. Men. Guns.
Chorillos July 15 Ship Lovely Frances Sullivan   London Cococa 120 9   Guayaquil Chorillos.
do do Herald Brown Nichols Salem Sundries 240 10 2 Arica do
do July 17 Brig Merope Weiddy Howland New York do 325 20 4 Guanchaco do
do July 21 Fatima Christall Ramsay Philadelphia do 170 10 2 do do
do July 25 Sch. America Eldridge Evans do Rice       do do
do July 27 Sea Serpent Marshall Gomes New York Cocoa   10 2 Guayaquil do
do do Clyde Vesterham do Liverpool Provisions 220     Valparaiso do
do July 28 Friendship                 do
do do Nautilus Curran G. Nicholson Salem Ballast       San Lorenzo do
do July 30 Scotland do Findell do Sundries 252 13 2 Payta do
do do Armada do Gibson Scarborough do 146 8   Quilca do
do do Ship London Edwards Edwards & Stewart New York do 407 32 8 Arica do
do August 4 Brig Bolivar Burton   Liverpool do 200 15 2 St. Blas do
do do Blutcher Neil   do do 200 15 2 do do
do do Junius Carter F. Bage Greenock Firewood 115 10 2 California do
do August 8 Earl Wellington Potts W. Pottos London Sundries 132 11 2 Valparaiso do
do August 9 Gen. Suere     Peru Pisco 141 8   Pisco do
do August 10 Sta. Teresa   Matled Paita Cocoa 90 11   Guayaquil do
do do Ed. Francis   John Green Guayaquil   100 6   Callao do
do August 13 Caledonian Holman Bagg Liverpool Sundries 365 23 14 Valparaiso do
do August 18 Sacrament Manuel Limbraco   do 100 9     do
do August 21 Frederick Penney Nixon McCall Connecticut Ballast 140 10   Guayaquil do
do August 25 Rimac Wm. Barney Alsop New York Sundries 114 8   Guanchaco do
do August 29 Gov. Clinton Hepburn Griswold & Co. do do 360 17 2 New York do
do August 30 Dragon Chiswell Molison Liverpool do 176 0   Lambeaque do
do do Eth. Ann               Guanchaco do
do September 2 Mary Laird Scott St. Andrew's Sundries 190 12 1 Glasgow do
do September 8 Fortune Cristall Aguya Lima Ballast 177 2 2 Pisco do
do September 12 Ship Portia Tripp Hathaway Valparaiso Wheat 100 11   Valparaiso do
do September 19 Gamo Mackey Punster do Provisions   6   Arica do
do September 22 Anglo Gardiner Blane   St. Mario Sundries 358 18   Quilca do
do do Brig Garnet Lewis Brumhall & Ross Boston Chili produce 195     Valparaiso do
do September 26 Sch. Conception Baker Fernando Amito Valparaiso Pisco 85 7   Pisco do
do September 27 Britannia Humphreys   St. Brieux Linen 207 9 4 Arica do
do September 29 Cora Dott John Bayarbo Chorillos General cargo 197 10   do do
do October 3 Jane Corim B. Junca Ildondo & Ork Bordeaux Ballast 350 24 4 California do
do October 5 Brig Active Neale W. P. Richard Salem do 211 12 2 Guayaquil do


A list of merchant vessels boarded—Continued.

Where boarded. When boarded. Vessel's name. Master's name. Owners' name. Where built or belonging. Lading. Number of— Where from. Whither bound.
Tons. Men. Guns.
Chorillos October 7 Sch. Ariel Dixon Brookbind Whitehaven General cargo 114 10 2 Arica Chorillos.
do October 10 Sea Serpent Marshall Fabian Gomes Chili Cocoa 100 6 2 Guayaquil do
Callao November 3 Rio Smith Smith & Co   Sugar, rice, &c. 250 10 4 Lambeaque do
Chorillos November 10 Macon Smith Smith Antwerp General cargo 200 11 2 Rio do
do November 18 North Point Patten J. Donnelson Baltimore do 480 21 4 Arica do
do November 20 Almado Cross Wm. Robinet Guayaquil Sundries 160 11   Guayaquil do
do November 24 Peru Johnson S. C. Philips Salem Flour, &c. 200     Valparaiso do
do December 1 Pomona Chas. Gaspar Holands London Timber 57 6   Chiloe do
do December 3 Sarah George Hordon Merrit Portland Cocoa 106 11 2 Guayaquil do
do do Flor. del Mar Rodriguez do Guayaquil Wheat       Valparaiso do
do December 4 Tersiana Jenning Gomes Lima Pisco       Pisco do
do do Rubicano Obejo Loro do Pisco 257 15   do do
do December 6 Emerald Salverson Bunster N. America   100     Valparaiso do
do do Fermina Baker Beacha Guayaquil Sundries 220 10   Aricon do
do December 7 Peruvian Prunier Brunner London Wheat 121 8   Valparaiso do
do do Franco. Isabella Usher Whitehouse do Rice 29 4   Huanchaco do
Salinas Bay December 8 Success Ross Ross do Salt 75     Chorillos Coquimbo.
do December 11 Olive Branch                 do
do do Diligent Pettit   Antwerp Salt 75     Huanchaco Chorillos.
do do Thalia Hazard   London Salt 200       do
Huacho December 12 Ship Peruvian Mary Christopher & Sons North river 110 bbls. oil 331 22   Nantucket Uncertain.
do do Gelgond Brock G. Howland Scituate 10 bbls. oil 333 22   New Bedford New Japan.
do December 21 Elizabeth Snow Douglas Baltimore Sundries 300 11 4 Valparaiso Chorillos.
do December 23 Laura Centre Hollings New York do 234 13 4 do do
do December 27 Cherub Casson Clint New Castle Wheat 200 12   Talcahuana do
do December 28 Porter Callan Porter   Sundries 106 12   Arica do
do do Ayachuco Murphy Begg Lima do 100 12   do do
do do Peruvian Salis Pettretan & Sons   do 329 21 6 Quilca do


Copy of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, December 31, 1825.

I have had the honor to receive your two letters of 24th May last, relative to the state of affairs on this coast, and expressing a hope that, from the changes that have taken place since I have been in this sea, I could be enabled to leave the coast for the purpose of visiting the neighborhood of the Sandwich and Friendly Islands, and return by the way of the coast of California and Mexico.

I regret to state that the changes, though great, that have taken place, are not such as, at the time you wrote, might have been supposed; as, in consequence of the holding out of the castles of Callao, contrary to the expectations of every one, and directly contrary to the articles of capitulation, the situation of our commerce has not received all the benefit that we had reason to hope and believe it would, when we were first made acquainted with the surrender of the Spanish army, and the articles of capitulation that followed, as it was confidently believed that the castles of Callao would be given up, and that our ships would immediately have the benefit of the fine Bay of Callao, and the protection of the castles, when in the possession of the patriots, and that, within a very few months, there would be a settled and permanent government in Peru.

In consequence, however, of the obstinacy of General Rodil, in holding the castles of Callao, our ships have been driven from the bay, and have been compelled to discharge their cargoes in an open roadstead at Chorillos, for the last twelve months, where there is constantly a heavy swell setting in, which causes them to roll very heavy, and frequently for several days in succession boats cannot land without great danger; many boats have been stove by the violence of the surf, and many lives have been lost; and in many instances great damage has been done to the cargoes when landing, and in transporting the goods to Lima; nor have the changes in the affairs of the government of Peru been such as was anticipated, indeed it can hardly be called a government. General Bolivar has been called to the interior, and has been absent many months, and little has been done by those left in charge of the government to establish a permanent and regular form for one; little has been done but to keep up a close siege and blockade of Callao, which has been done at an immense expense, and has caused the patriots to keep up a large force before Callao, and in the neighborhood of Lima.

The Congress is soon to meet at Lima, and General Le Mar arrived the day before yesterday to take the command, it is believed, civil and military, and it is believed much good will result from the changes that are about to take place.

Such has been the state of affairs for the last six months, I have considered it proper to remain at Chorillos for the protection of our merchant ships, to give them such aid as they might require, in the event of the surrender of the castles, which has been expected from day to day for the last ten or eleven months.

Should the situation of affairs in Peru and Chili remain as they now are, and have been for many months past, I shall deem it improper for this ship to leave the coast to visit the islands as directed, and as I have, in part, anticipated your wishes by sending the Dolphin the precise route pointed out by you, my present intention is, to wait her return, as she may be expected in about six weeks or two months, and ascertain the result of her cruise, and immediately dispatch the Peacock or this ship in furtherance of your orders of the 24th; much, however, will depend on the state of Peru and Chili, and the report of the Dolphin on her return, which vessel goes, this ship or the Peacock; and I most earnestly hope that, in using my best judgment and discretion, I shall decide in a way that will meet your approbation.

Copy of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

United States Frigate United States, Callao Bay, January 24, 1826.

I have the honor herewith to forward the articles of capitulation of the castles of Callao, which have this moment been furnished to me by the politeness of Sir Murray Maxwell, commander of the Briton, now at anchor under the castles.

My officers that landed at Callao represent the town as being in a most deplorable state; many houses are entirely destroyed, and the patriots are now burying the dead from their dwellings, where they have perished for want of food; some of them appear to have been dead many days.

The Peacock is now in sight, standing for this bay, and I hope she will arrive in time for me to forward any letters or news that Captain Jones may have from Valparaiso.

The merchant ships are all at Chorillos, and will remain there until the town of Callao is in a state to open a communication with the shipping and Lima. I shall send the Peacock to Chorrills, to give our ships such aid as they may require in coming to this bay. They will all be down in three or four days."

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

United States Frigate United States, Callao Bay, January 21, 1826.

As the war is now at an end on this side of Cape Horn, and as, in all probability, the Spanish government will despair of ever getting a foothold, either in Chili or Peru again, I respectfully submit to you my opinion as to the force that appears to me best calculated to give protection to our commerce on this coast, in a state of peace, or until regular governments are established in Chili and Peru; for, until regular governments are established, it appears to me absolutely necessary that we should have a naval force in this sea, as, in all probability, the governments of Chili and Peru will now lay up their ships of war and discharge their crews; and as there will be no employment for them, and as the service they have been employed in for years past has been such as to give them the worst habits, and the most of them, officers as well as men, totally devoid of principle, I have no doubt but they will resort to plunder and piracy for a living, unless a force is kept on the coast to prevent it. I should, therefore, recommend one or two large sloops, and one schooner, on the coasts of Chili and Peru, and two schooners to the northward; one of them stationed on the coast of Mexico, and the other still further north. These vessels to be kept constantly moving up and down the coast, by which means our commerce would be protected, and our merchants would have a constant and safe communication with the United States, by way of Panama, and the commanding officer on the station would receive intelligence from home, by that route, much sooner than by Cape Horn.


Our commerce is daily increasing on the whole coast, and particularly by the way of Panama to Guayaquil, and along the coast to the northward; and heretofore, the state of this part of the trade has been such, and our force so limited, that a vessel could not be spared to give protection to our commerce on that coast, although frequent applications have been made by the merchants for a vessel to be sent there.

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

United States' Frigate United States, Coquimbo, March 28, 1826.

I am convinced that our commerce has been heretofore, and will be for many months, more exposed on the coast of Peru, than at Valparaiso or on the coast of Chili. I remained at Valparaiso twenty-six days, which enabled me to accomplish the object of my visit there; and as there was no necessity for my remaining there longer, everything relating to our commerce being quiet where this ship would be of use, I sailed for this port on my way to Lima, intending to call in at all the intermediate ports, between here and that place, where our merchant ships visit.

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, Peru, April 25, 1826.

I have the honor to report to you my return to this port, after an absence of nearly three months. I remained four weeks at Valparaiso: touched for a few days at the intermediate posts, (Coquimbo, Huasco, Arica and Quilca.) The three last-mentioned places I never before had it in my power to visit; they are each much frequented by our merchant vessels, and I was happy to find that our countrymen were there treated with respect.

I received every mark of civility from the authorities of the government at each place, and having visited them in this ship, will, I think, have a favorable effect.

Extract of a letter from Commodore Isaac Hull to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Frigate United States, Callao Bay, May 26, 1826.

As this vessel sails immediately, I have only a moment to inform you that the officers and crews of this ship and the Peacock are in good health, and that nothing of recent date has taken place to interrupt our commerce on this side of the Cape. We have now a large number of valuable ships on this coast, with valuable cargoes, and I am sorry to say they have come to a bad market, and must suffer great loss.

The Peacock is under orders to proceed in execution of that part of your instructions directing me to go with this ship, or dispatch one of the vessels under my command, to the Sandwich and other islands in the Pacific ocean, for the protection of our commerce. Captain Jones is directed to run down the coast as far as Paita, for the purpose of laying in stock and other articles for his crew, which are absolutely necessary, and cannot be purchased here. From Paita he will proceed direct to the Marquesas, and remain there as long as in his judgment is necessary; and from the Marquesas he is directed to visit Otaheite and such other of the Society Islands as to him may appear necessary in furtherance of the object of his cruise; he is then to visit the Sandwich Islands, and after remaining there as long as may be necessary to accomplish the object of his visit, he is to use his discretion as to going to the coasts of California and Mexico. Should he arrive at the Sandwich Islands in time to visit the coasts of California and Mexico before the term of service of his crew shall have expired, and his ship in every other way in a condition to perform the cruise, he is ordered to do so; but should there be any uneasiness among his crew on account of their time being out, or any other circumstance that, in his opinion, the good of the service requires it, he is to return to this port from the Sandwich Islands, touching in at the ports to the northward, on the coast of Peru, to give protection to our ships that are daily leaving here for ports to the northward.

The Peacock has a healthy and fine crew, and no pains have been spared to fit her in the best possible manner for the cruise she is to perform.

(Here follows in the original documents a correspondence of Captain J. D. Elliot, of the navy, and others, relating to affairs with Brazil, which will be found in volume 6, on Foreign Relations, No. 238, from page 277 to 293, inclusive.)

Extracts from a letter from Commodore James Biddle, dated—

United States Frigate Macedonian, Bio Janeiro, September 11, 1826.

Your general order of 10th July last, making known the lamented death of our venerable and venerated fellow-citizen, John Adams, was received last evening by an arrival from Baltimore. Your general order of the 7th of the same month, to which it refers, has not yet been received; and I could not, therefore, know the funeral honors, as they had been prescribed by the Department. At sunrise, this ship and the Boston displayed their colors half-mast, and so continued them throughout the day. Each ship fired thirteen minute guns at sunrise, at noon, and at sundown.

The death of the illustrious patriots, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, will be lamented by the enlightened and the good in every part of the world, without regard to the distinctions of climate or nation. The British men-of-war in this harbor testified their respect on the occasion, by displaying their colors at half-mast; and I wrote a note to Captain King, the senior officer, expressive of my thanks for the respectful manner in which the ships under his command had noticed this mournful dispensation of Providence.

I shall leave orders here for Captain Elliot to testify the national respect for the character and services of these illustrious citizens, and the national sorrow for their loss, in like manner with ourselves, should he not have previously paid funeral honors at some other port.




Commodore Lewis Warrington to the Secretary of the Navy.

U. S. Ship Constellation, Pensacola, August 10, 1826.

The John Adams is on the south side of Cuba: the Hornet is on the north side, watching the old Bahama Straits, Matanzas, and the Double Headed Shot Keys.

No piracies have been committed since my last letters. Depredations on our commerce are fortunately unheard of where they were formerly so frequent, and no interruption has been experienced by it.

I shall be off Cuba in a few days. The squadron enjoys health, and this ship to an uncommon extent.




Copy of a letter from W. B. Shubrick to Stephen Thacher, Esq., collector at Eastport, dated—

U. S. Ship Lexington, June 19, 1826.

I have arrived in this harbor, on my way to the fishing grounds frequented by the citizens of the United States, for the purpose of protecting the said citizens in their rights; and, at the same time, observing that they do not, on their part, give any just cause of complaint by trespassing on the rights of others.

I request that you will have the goodness to give me any information that you may have received on these subjects, and point out to me the fishing grounds most frequented by our citizens during this and the two ensuing months.

S. Thayer, deputy collector, to Master Commandant W. B. Shubrick.

Custom House, Lubec, June 24, 1826.

In answer to your letter of the 19th instant, I beg leave, in the absence of Mr. Thacher, to observe, that no information, which ultimately proved to be true, has been received the present year, that the rights of our citizens engaged in the fisheries have been infringed. The presence of an armed vessel of the United States on this station, the past fishing season, with the expectation that one would be sent, the present year, to protect our rights, has had, without doubt, a most salutary effect.

The places most frequented by our citizens engaged in the fisheries, during the present and two succeeding months, are the Grand Menan banks; the Nova Scotia shore, from Annapolis to Cape Sable; the Bay Chaleur, round the Magdalen Islands; the Straits of Belleisle, and the Labrador coast, as far as the Great Bay of Esquimaux.

Master Commandant W. B. Shubrick to the Secretary of the Navy.

U. S. Ship Lexington, Eastport, June 26, 1826.

Since my letter of the 13th instant, in which I had the honor to announce to you my arrival at this place, I have conversed with the deputy collectors for Eastport and Lubec, and have the satisfaction to say that I cannot learn from them, or from any other source, that any interruption has been given to the pursuits of the citizens of the United States engaged in the fisheries, this season.

U. S. Ship Lexington, New York, September 5, 1826.


In my letters of the 18th and 20th June, and the 6th of July, I had the honor to make you acquainted with my proceedings up to the last date.

After leaving Eastport, I passed south of the North Seal Island, west of the Island of Grand Menan, and along the coast of Nova Scotia, as far as Cape Canso. Passing through the Gut of Canso, I anchored at Entry Island, one of the Magdalen groupe. Leaving the Magdalen Islands, I made the Island of Newfoundland at Cape Ray, run down the northeast coast of the island, and anchored at the Bay of Islands. From the Bay of Islands, I continued down the coast of Newfoundland as far as Cape Rich, from which I crossed over to the coast of Labrador, and anchored at Blanche Sablon, and coasted from thence as far as 54 deg. 45 min. north, visiting, either with the ship or boats, all the harbors most resorted to by American fishermen.

I did not go farther north, because the navigation had become very unsafe, from the immense quantities of ice on the coast, and I could not learn that any fishermen had gone beyond Greedy Island, in 53 deg. 45 min. north.

On the 1st of August, being then in 54 deg. and 45 min. north, the ice extended, in apparently a solid body, from northwest to southeast. Returning through the Straits of Belleisle, I met, on the 9th of August, the British sloop-of-war Orestes, Captain William Jones, and we anchored nearly at the same time, at Isle au Bois. After exchanging civilities in the most cordial manner, Captain Jones and myself visited, together", the fishing establishments of Blanche Sablon and Brasdor.

A few days before I fell in with the Orestes, she had run against an island of ice, and lost her bowsprit. Fogs and strong southwest winds kept us together for a week, during which time the most friendly intercourse was kept up between the officers of the two ships.

After leaving Isle au Bois, I passed again along the north coast of Newfoundland, to Cape Ray, between Cape Ray and Cape North, and along the coasts of Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia, with the intention of going again to Eastport; but, in consequence of light winds and thick fogs, I did not get to Cape Sable until the 29th ult.; when, finding I could not go into the Bay of Fundy without a very


great probability of being detained after the 15th of September, I determined to make the best of my way to this place.

The American fishermen in the Bay of Fundy have not experienced any interruption in their pursuits this season, nor have any complaints, so far as I could learn, been made against them. They, as well as the inhabitants of Eastport, speak in terms of approbation of the conduct of the present commander of the English brig-of-war Dotterel. Many of the difficulties complained of hitherto in the Bay of Fundy, have arisen from the circumstance of our fishermen, belonging to Eastport, Machias, and Lubec, having formed matrimonial connections with the inhabitants of Grand Menan, and being induced thereby to visit the harbors of that island for other purposes than "for shelter," "repairing damages," "purchasing wood," or "obtaining water."

While in the Bay of Fundy I saw no British cruiser, except the one mentioned in my letter of the 6th of July. On the coast of Nova Scotia I saw not one American fisherman. I spoke almost every schooner that I saw, but they all proved to be from the small settlements on the coast, except an English schooner from Quebec, bound to Jamaica.

The American fishermen who have resorted to the Magdalen Islands, have not, that I could learn, at any time experienced any interruption, either from the cruisers or from citizens of any nation. They have taken their fish on the shoals around the islands, and, by agreement with the inhabitants, made (or cured) them on Amherst Isle, one of the group, loaded their vessels, and gone home; mutual harmony subsisting all the time.

On the northwest coast of Newfoundland, not one American fisherman is to be found: they have been obliged to abandon all the fishing grounds around the islands, in consequence of the vexatious conduct of the French cruisers, and the agents for the French fishing establishments on the coast, who have driven them from the harbors, at times when shelter, if not absolutely necessary, was very desirable; not allowing them to procure wood or water, or even to take fish enough for their immediate use. This conduct operates with great severity on our citizens, as the best harbors in the Straits of Belleisle are on the Newfoundland side, abounding in fish and bait, and affording great facilities for procuring wood and water. From this coast the ice clears at least a fortnight earlier than from the opposite one of Labrador, and hence, fish are to be taken here so much earlier. It was the custom of our fishermen, formerly, to take one-third, and sometimes one-half of their fares on the Newfoundland side, and thence cross to Labrador at as early a period as they can now commence their fishing. On crossing over to the coast of Labrador, American fishermen are to be found in great numbers, from Phillipian Bay to Cape Charles; they have uninterruptedly pursued their occupation of taking fish, and only in one instance, that I could learn, has there been any demands made on them for the privilege of drying them on shore.

At Brasdor, a Mr. Jones, who claims to be proprietor of the surrounding rocks, has demanded from each American vessel, one, and sometimes two quintals of fish, for the privilege of drying them on shore; this has generally been acquiesced in cheerfully; some of the fishermen, however, complained to me, that they thought it an unjust exaction, because they doubted if Jones could prove his ownership in the rocks, they being separated from the main land. I conversed with Jones on the subject, and he promised me that he would procure from the proper office at St. Johns a copy of an official record, which would satisfy any doubts that might be entertained by the fishermen, or by any American officer who might visit that place hereafter. My own opinion is, that Jones only exercises a right that is clearly his; he resides at this place all the year, and is, therefore, an inhabitant, as well as proprietor of the soil.

There have not been so many vessels employed in fishing this season as for several seasons past, and very few have gone further north than Cape Charles. At Greedy Island, where Captain Parker found twenty or thirty sail, I found but one; at Indian Island none, and not more than six altogether; have gone as far as 53 deg. 30 min. north.

In all my intercourse with the fishermen, I have been at great pains to impress on their minds that, while it is the intention of the government to protect them in all their rights, it is, at the same time, bound to prevent them from trespassing on the rights of others; and that I should feel it equally my duty to report any misconduct on their part, as to resent any injury done to them.

It gives me great pleasure to be able to say, that the conduct of all my officers has been perfectly satisfactory. I have, during a cruise made perilous by immense quantities of ice, thick, and almost constant fogs, inaccurate charts, and pilots unused to any vessel larger than a fishing smack, received from each, in his respective situation, the most zealous and efficient assistance.

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Hon. Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy, Washington.




House of Representatives, May 10, 1826.


The Committee on Naval Affairs have instructed me to inquire of the Department of the Navy whether the arrangements made by the Department, for executing the act of the 29th April, 1816, for the gradual increase of the navy, would be injuriously interfered with if the building of one of the frigates authorized by that act should be suspended for the present, and the timber for her frame secured, and the government be authorized to purchase, in lieu of such frigate, for the naval service, a ship of equal, or rather superior force, if the same can be procured for the United States on advantageous terms.

Your respectful and obedient servant,

H. R. STORRS, Chairman Naval Committee.

Hon. Sam'l L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy.


Copy of a letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the Hon. Henry B. Storrs, chairman of Naval Committee, House of Representatives, dated—

May 12, 1826.

In answer to your letter of the 10th, I have the honor to state that I do not perceive that the arrangements made by the Navy Department, for executing the law of the 29th April, 1816, for the gradual increase of the navy, would be, in any respect, injuriously interfered with, if the building of one of the frigates authorized by that act should be suspended for the present, and the timber for her frame secured, and the Executive be authorized to purchase, in lieu of such frigate, a ship of equal or superior force. The timber may be so secured as to prevent any injury to it, and it will be necessary either for building or repairs at some future period.

Copy of instructions from the Secretary of the Navy to Commodores William Bainbridge, Isaac Chauncy, and Jacob Jones, dated—

May 29, 1826.

At the late session of Congress a law was passed, of which I enclose a copy.

It is understood that there are now lying at New York two vessels coming within the description contained in the law, built by or under the agency of G. G. & S. Howland, and of Le Roy, Bayard & Co.

It is the wish of the Department that you examine those vessels, with as little delay as practicable, and furnish a full report of their state and qualities, with an estimate of their value.

Copy of a letter from Commodores William Bainbridge, Jacob Jones, and I. Chauncy, to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

Washington, June 21, 1826.

We have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 26th ultimo. We examined the ships therein referred to, and think the one called the Liberator the best adapted for the public service of the United States. Her size is that of a forty-four of the first class. She appears to have been faithfully built, though her frame, being of white oak, is, as respects the material, greatly inferior to that of the ships building under the law for the gradual increase of the navy.

With respect to the "state and qualities" of this ship, we can only observe that she is new, and appears to be sound throughout; and from her form and dimensions, we should judge favorably of her qualities.

We have carefully prepared, and now respectfully submit, the accompanying estimate (A) as to her value, including her cannon and carronades, and such quantity of shot (particularly mentioned in the estimate) as is allowed to a vessel of her class about to proceed on a cruise, of the kind stated in the inventory.

Copy of instructions from the Secretary of the Navy to J. K. Paulding, Esq., Navy agent, New York, dated—

August 12, 1826.

I enclose to you an estimate of the value of the sixty gun ship, now lying at New York, said to have been built by Le Roy, Bayard & Co., and G. G. & I. S. Howland, for the agents of the Greek government. By this estimate you will perceive that certain materials for its equipment are embraced in the general amount. The legal title of the ship is now said to be in the arbitrators who were selected to settle the controversy between the builders and the Greek agents.

You are hereby instructed to place the papers before the district attorney of the United States for the State of New York, and obtain from him an opinion as to the right and power of the arbitrators to transfer the title to the United States, should a purchase be made; and if it be his opinion that a good title can be made, you will obtain from him the papers necessary and proper to make the conveyance legal, and purchase said vessel from those authorized to sell it for the amount of said estimate, viz: $230,570.97.

You may permit the agents or owners of the other Greek vessels to take from this any articles which are on board, designed for its equipment, deducting from the amount of the estimate the estimated value of such articles as are taken.

Should you make the purchase, let the vessel be delivered immediately to Commodore Chauncy. The amount of the purchase money has been remitted to you by this day's mail.

It is desired that not the least delay be permitted in concluding this transaction.


Estimate of the value of the ship-of-war, the Liberator.

Wood of every description for the hull, with a live oak frame, would cost $65,000.
In this frame there are about 24,000 cubical feet. Live oak costs $1.42*, and white oak is estimated at 60 cents;
difference 82 1/2 cents per cubical foot, $19,800, deducted from the $65,000, leaves
$45,200 00
Iron 9,795 00
Copper and composition 27,140 00
Standing and running rigging, cables, hawsers, and messengers, per inventory 12,698 00
Chain cables, [75 fathoms of 1 58, 45 do of 1 3/4] 1,822 80
Boats, with oars complete 1,885 00
Water casks, 33,300 gallons 3,330 00
Blocks 5,000 00
Sails 17,000 00
Anchors 4,474 00
Labor of every description 55,000 00
Kentlege, 100 tons 4,000 00
Galley 2,000 00


Armament; 32 34-pound cannon $13,566 00
3,000 32-pound shot, and 900 32-pound grape 7,004 00
30 42-pound carronades 5,550 00
1,215 42-pound shot, and 500 42-pound grape 1,680 00
Gun carriages, and all the apparatus belonging to the armament,
including the stores in the gunner's department, the magazine furniture,
the forge, bellows, and all the articles belonging to the blacksmith's department,
per inventory
13,426 17
$230,570 97

Copy of a letter from Commodore Bainbridge to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

August 25, 1826.

We have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 25th instant, with Mr. Constavlo's, in which he claims an allowance for the masts and spars of the Liberator, as not having been included in the general estimate as to her cost.

On referring to the estimate, it appears that the wood of the masts and spars was included in the item of $65,000; the terms "masts and spars" were inadvertently omitted in the heading of that item: that the iron, as stated by Captain Chauncey, was also included, but it appears that the labor of making the masts and spars was not included in the general estimate for labor; we therefore think that the value of this labor should be allowed in addition to the amount of the general estimate. There is some difficulty in forming a precise estimate as to the cost of this labor, but we think that $3,000 would be a liberal allowance—say three thousand dollars.

Copy of a letter from B. Tillotson, Esq., to James K. Paulding, Esq., dated—

New York, August 22, 1826.

I have examined the papers submitted to me in relation to the purchase of the ship Liberator. I find that the ownership of the property was legally acquired by the arbitrators, who propose to convey, and are of opinion they are entitled to give a good title. The bill of sale to be executed by the arbitrators will of course be accompanied by delivery, and the register surrendered at the custom house by the parties.

Copy of a letter from Commodore Isaac Chauncey to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

U. S. Navy Yard, New York, August 28, 1826.

In pursuance of your order of the 12th instant I took possession of the frigate called the Liberator, on the 23d inst., purchased by the Navy agent, and this morning she was brought to the Navy yard, where she is now moored.




Secretary of the Navy to Dr. John W. Peaco, principal agent of the United States for liberated Africans, Washington.

Navy Department, December 28, 1825.

In virtue of the authority vested in him by the act of Congress, approved 3d March, 1819, the President of the United States has appointed you the principal agent of this government "upon the coast of Africa, for receiving the negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, delivered from on board vessels seized in the prosecution of the slave trade, by the commanders of the United States armed vessels."

Your commission has been already prepared and delivered; and you will receive herewith a printed copy of the laws in relation to the slave trade, for your guidance.

The instructions heretofore given to those who have preceded you in the discharge of this duty, copies of which accompany this, will exhibit the views entertained by the Executive respecting the general concerns of the agency, at the various periods at which those instructions were written, and you will regard them as a guide to yourself on those points in which they have not been executed or altered, and in which the situation of the agency has not been changed since they were given. Time, and the progress made in improvements, since its first establishment, have lessened many of its wants, and in some respects varied its character.

You will perceive that all the agents have been particularly directed not to connect their views, or in any way to interfere with those of the Colonization Society. From the circumstance that they have been simultaneously clothed with powers, both from the government and the society, it has been found difficult rigidly to adhere to this part of their instructions, located at the same place, for mutual defence and accommodation: and the resources of the society sometimes falling short of the benevolent intentions of its supporters, the colonists have frequently been dependent on the supplies furnished by the government, for the use of the liberated Africans, for their own sustenance; and the agents, from motives of prudence and humanity, distributed provisions among the settlers, to preserve them from want and dispersion; but in this the government has probably sustained no loss. In return, the colonists have contributed their labor, in the erection of buildings and other improvements, and to the defence of the establishment from attacks, which, without their aid, might have proved fatal, and would certainly have required larger expenditures of money.

A question has recently been submitted, how far the government is disposed to sanction such a practice in future. The original instructions contemplated and authorized the employment of a certain num-


ber of persons as mechanics, laborers, nurses, washers, &c., as a means of affording some stimulus and encouragement to the colonists in the infancy of the establishment, and the colonists were properly used in that way. How far a continuance of this course will be found necessary, or may be justified, must depend on the condition of the agency, and be determined by the discretion of the agent.

It is probable that Congress, in passing the law, and making appropriations for carrying it into effect, did not anticipate that the expense of the colony would rest upon the government. It was presumed that the society would furnish the means to meet the necessities of its own establishment. Such, however, has not been the case; but it is believed that they have gone to the extent of their funds, and it is probable that they have not now the ability to afford much further succor, should it be necessary. But, as the agency cannot be sustained without the aid of the colonists—as they will be found indispensable auxiliaries in case of attack—and as their services, both in labor and defence, will merit compensation, you are authorized, until further orders, to employ them in both, as you shall find expedient and proper, and to make them a fit allowance of provisions and supplies, as their necessities may require, and the interest of the agency demand; but in doing this, you will use the strictest economy.

Supplies from this country must always be precarious; and you will not fail, on all proper occasions, to impress upon their minds the necessity of their utmost endeavors to support themselves by labor and the products of the soil, and of not being dependent upon your assistance, or any other resources.

For the purpose of protection against attacks from the natives, should any of them manifest a disposition to be hostile, it would be prudent, as a measure of precaution, to teach both the colonists and the liberated Africans the use of small arms. Prom their remote and insulated situation, they must rely on their own exertions for defence by land. It is to be hoped, however, that the increase of numbers in the settlement, their preparations and constant readiness to repel invasion, together with the occasional presence of a vessel-of-war, will deter the natives from any future attempts to molest them.

The necessity of keeping a military force, in the pay of the government, is not sufficiently apparent to authorize such a step, in the present condition of the colony, or without farther evidence of its utility. It is believed that the residents can be more profitably employed in the cultivation of the soil, and the erection of buildings, and other improvements, required by an augmented population. By organizing themselves into a local militia, for occasional drill, at stated periods, all the purposes of a military force will be obtained, without incurring the expense. It should not be forgotten by them, that, while they are acquiring knowledge in the science of war, they are creating a safeguard for their own protection, as well as for that of the interests of the government. Heretofore the agency and colony have been mutually beneficial in this respect; without the presence of the colonists, the United States would have been subjected to greater charge for military protection, but without the assistance afforded by the government, in maintaining the colonists, they could not have succeeded in their plans. It is very desirable that the recaptured Africans should remain at the agency, so long as to acquire some knowledge of the arts and comforts of civilized life; but should any of them discover their nation and country, and desire to return to their homes, you will not oppose their wishes, but facilitate and promote them. For the large number of Africans now in Georgia, who have been decreed to be restored to liberty, and whom it is intended to remove to the agency, as soon as some preliminary steps are completed, it will be necessary to provide shelter and means of comfort on their arrival. It will be your duty to take immediate measures to prepare for their reception, as they will probably reach the colony by the time you are ready for them. Various buildings have, from time to time, been authorized, but their capacity for the accomodations of these Africans, in addition to those already there, cannot be determined, except by personal observation. A quantity of lumber and other articles has been purchased and shipped on board the Georgiana, and buildings have recently been erected with such materials as were on the spot. The plan fixed upon by the acting agent has no doubt been adopted, as most suitable to the climate. The buildings must be finished in the simplest and cheapest manner.

It is understood to be the intention of the Colonization Society to appoint Mr. Ashmun their principal agent on the coast. He has had the active charge of the agency of the government constantly since the resignation of Dr. Ayres, and occasionally previous to that event. He will be continued as your assistant agent. His salary was, heretofore, fixed at 1,500 dollars, until the further orders of the Department, and will cease upon your arrival. He will be allowed, from that time, at the rate of 1,200 dollars per annum. From his long residence in Africa, his experience in the affairs of the agency, and acquaintance with the manners and habits of the natives, you will derive advantage, and, it is not doubted, that his cordial co-operation will be promptly afforded in all matters tending to promote the interest of the establishment.

You will keep very exact and minute accounts of all expenses of the agency, of every description, and, as far as it is in your power, separate those which arise from the provisions and support given to the colonists, from the other expenditures for the agency for recaptured Africans. You will prepare quarterly statements of the condition of the settlement, its general health, and the progress made in the various departments, together with estimates of the wants of the agency, in advance, and care will be taken to supply those wants as early as practicable. Your accounts of expenditures must also be made out quarterly, and forwarded to the Fourth Auditor, for examination and settlement; prudence will dictate to you the necessity of taking duplicate or triplicate receipts for all payments. These you will transmit by the earliest conveyances. Whenever opportunities occur, by circuitous routes, for communicating with the Department, it would be well to avail of them, as direct ones are not frequent, and to send duplicates and even triplicates of all your communications, by different conveyances; and that no opportunity may be lost, you will be careful to have them regularly prepared, to take advantage of any conveyance that may offer. Commence your quarters with January, April, July, and October.

For the disbursements of the agency, and the purchase of supplies from transient traders, you will negotiate drafts upon the Department; and if it will facilitate the operation, or be any accommodation to the holders, you are authorized to make them payable wherever branches of the United States Bank are located. The sum of five thousand dollars, it is presumed, will be sufficient for the ensuing year. Should it be found more for the interest of the government, or impracticable to dispose of drafts on the United States, you are permitted to draw to the amount of five hundred pounds sterling on Messrs. Baring, Brothers & Co., bankers of the United States, London, with whom a credit will be established in your favor. For every bill you will transmit a letter of advice to the Department, stating the amount, rate of exchange, and necessity for drawing; and you will also advise Messrs. Baring, Brothers & Co., of every draft on them.

A claim of long standing has been preferred by K. Macauly, of Sierra Leone, which you will receive


separate instructions to liquidate. In the event of your having to draw on London for the amount which may be due to him, your credit there will be extended to one thousand pounds.

The Navy agent at Norfolk has been directed to pay, upon your requisition, for two boats, with the necessary appendages. The small arms, and other military stores mentioned, will be provided from the Navy yard at Gosport. The hospital stores mentioned in the list furnished by you, you will purchase in Baltimore or Norfolk, on the best possible terms, and draw a requisition upon the agent there for the cost.

Your compensation has been fixed at $1,600 per annum, to commence from the first day of February last, and the further sum of $500, which will be allowed for providing the small stores requisite for your convenience on the passage, and on your arrival.

It is intended, in a short time, to send to the coast of Africa, for a cruise, one of the vessels-of-war, and hereafter to send one at intervals of three or four months, should the situation of the service permit it. In this there will be two objects—to give countenance to the agency, and to repress the slave trade. Your duty in reference to them will be, to acquire and furnish to the commanding officers all useful information in relation to these objects, and to give to our vessels all the assistance, especially in the medical branch of the service, in your power. Your skill may often be useful in advising and aiding the medical officers, in cases of sickness.

You will proceed, as early as practicable, to Norfolk, in the execution of the trust reposed in you by your appointment, and the duties enjoined by these instructions, to take passage on board the ship Georgiana, Capt. Cornick, which vessel has been chartered by the Colonization Society for the purpose of taking a number of emigrants, stores, &c., to Cape Mesurado.

The remoteness of the settlement from this country, the difficulty and tardiness of communications, render it necessary to trust much to the discretion of the agent. Relying with confidence upon the exercise of a sound judgment, a strict attention to economy, and unremitted endeavors for the improvement of those placed under your care, my best wishes for your individual welfare are united to those of a large portion of this nation, who look forward with earnest hope for the success of this beneficent undertaking.

Secretary of the Navy to Jehudi Ashmun, Esq., Cape Mesurado, Africa.

Navy Department, December 31, 1825.

Since my letter to you of 25th January last, I have received your several communications, 15th, 20th and 25th January; 11th and 22d February; 1st and 5th April; 15th June and 22d August, with their respective enclosures, the contents of all which have been duly noted.

Your representations of the situation of the agency and colony afford a pleasing proof of the increasing strength and improvement of the establishment, creditable to your zeal and the industry of those under your charge. The recent appointment of Dr. Peaco, as principal agent of the United States, will supersede that previously conferred on you, and your salary, as such, will cease from the time of his arrival. You will, however, be continued as his assistant agent, and allowed a compensation at the rate of $1,200 per annum.

I have no doubt that you will render Dr. Peaco all the assistance in your power, and that from your long residence in Africa, and acquaintance with the natives, you will be essentially useful to him.

I have directed the Fourth Auditor to furnish a statement of your account, which will accompany this; your salary has been calculated to the present day, and the balance that may be due will be paid to the Rev. Wm. Hawley, as your attorney, or in any other manner you may direct.

Secretary of the Navy to Hon. John Marshall, Chief Justice of Supreme Court, Richmond, Virginia.

Navy Department, January 5, 1826.

I have received your letter of the 1st instant, requesting information concerning the negroes in Georgia, which were on board the Gen. Ramirez. Arrangements were made last summer for carrying into effect the decision of the Supreme Court, by transmitting its mandate to the United States district attorney in Georgia. Some difficulty has arisen in consequence of the Spanish claimant insisting that those decreed to be delivered to him should be determined by lot, instead of by proof on each individual negro. On a reference of the question to the circuit court, there was a division of opinion, and it was determined to submit it to the Supreme Court. This will cause some delay in the delivery of the Africans to the United States; many of them had been brought into Savannah, by those to whom they were hired, and put into the custody of the marshal, and the rest were soon expected.

Dr. Peaco, the agent appointed by the government, will take passage in the vessel chartered by the Colonization Society, which it is supposed will sail soon, and has been instructed to prepare for their reception. Immediately on his arrival, no time will be lost in sending these negroes to the agency, after the Supreme Court shall have decided upon the mode in which they are to be allotted.

Secretary of the Navy to R. W. Habersham, Esq., United States attorney, Savannah, Georgia.

Navy Department, January 3, 1826.

I have received your letter of the 22d ultimo, respecting the proceedings in the case of the negroes of the Ramirez. That portion of it which related to the decision of the Spanish rights, by lot, created surprise, as it was supposed that the question had been clearly settled by the opinion of the Supreme Court. But, in the present situation of the case, all that can be done is to expedite the settlement of the question, and the collection of the negroes, as much as possible; and I have only to request the favor of your active attention to every part of the case, and that I be constantly advised of the progress which you make.

Secretary of the Navy to John Nicholson, Esq., marshal of the district of Louisiana, New Orleans.

Navy Department, January 10, 1826.

I have received your letter of the 7th ultimo, enclosing a copy of one of 23d July, the original of which was also received in due time; but no directions were given at the moment, presuming that the necessary steps would have been taken to have the Africans brought to trial before the answer could have reached you.


I have written to the district attorney of the United States to adopt such measures as may seem proper to bring the subject before the court for decision, and to consult with you upon the course to be pursued. In the meantime, if the Africans can be hired out to humane and discreet persons, giving bond for their appearance when called for, it would be best to do so, to avoid the expense of their maintenance; otherwise they must be provided for, and taken care of, until the decision of the court.

In the event of their being hired, you will submit to the Department an account of such moneys as may be received for their labor, and the cost of their support from the time of seizure; also, a statement of your other proceedings in relation to them.

Secretary of the Navy to J. W. Smith, Esq., United States district attorney, New Orleans.

Navy Department, January 10, 1826.

I am informed by the marshal at New Orleans that a number of Africans have been seized by the revenue officers, in an attempt to introduce them into the United States contrary to law, on board a schooner called the Fell's Point.

I have to request that you will take such measures, in conjunction with the marshal, as may seem necessary and proper, to have the Africans brought to trial before the United States district court, and inform me of its decision as soon as it may be made known.

Nothing can be done, as to their final disposition, until the decree of court determines to whom they are to be delivered. Your early attention to the subject is particularly desirable.

Secretary of the Navy to B. W. Habersham, Esq., United States district attorney, Savannah, Georgia.

Navy Department, August 10, 1826.

It is extremely desirable that something should be done towards removing the Africans of the General Ramirez out of the country, as the expense of their maintenance will soon absorb the amount appropriated by Congress.

It is understood that the Supreme Court determined the mode in which the division was to be made among the claimants, and it can only remain for the circuit court to give the necessary order.

Will you be pleased to inform me what has been done since the last term of the Supreme Court, and whether there is anything absolutely to prevent the delivery of the Africans? If only a part of them could be sent off, it would reduce the expense of their support. I also wish to ascertain what is their present situation, and if an arrangement cannot be made with the Portuguese claimant for the delivery of a portion, or the whole, without an order of court, should it be impracticable to obtain it immediately.

United States Agency for Liberated Africans, Cape Mesurado, October 14, 1825.

Sir: I have the honor to state that an unexpected event has augmented considerably the number of liberated Africans connected with this agency.

The Spanish schooner Clarida, of about eighty tons, Captain -----, master and supercargo, with an assorted cargo, adapted to the slave traffic of this coast, owned by several merchants of Havana, names unknown, sailed from that port on the 30th of May last, having on board a crew, including officers, of twenty to twenty-five men. Ostensibly she was, in all respects, regularly documented, except the specification in her clearance of the objects of her voyage, which is disguised under the general phraseology of "trade in the productions of the country."

This vessel arrived in Liberia Bay early in July, and about the 20th of that month, having contracted with several native slave dealers of the neighborhood for 140 slaves, to be delivered in three months, commenced landing her cargo, at a town sixteen miles to the northward of this cape, belonging to an intelligent headman, who passed by the name of Yellow Will, in the territory and subject to the jurisdiction of King Bristol.

About the first of September, merchandise, equal in value to the purchase of one hundred slaves, had been sent ashore, and nearly all distributed under the direction of the two chiefs already mentioned. Before the 20th she had lost both her anchors; and to sustain her ground was obliged constantly to stand off and on, under easy sail, at about two leagues from the shore.

The captain had remained at the factory from the first; but falling sick late in September, went on board on the 30th of that month, leaving in his place, to conduct the business of the factory, his mate, Zugaste, assisted by two seamen of the names of Juliana and Baptiste. The captain, who had been some time ashore, preparing light spars to accelerate the return voyage of the schooner, also remained.

On the 5th of October inst., the English merchant hermaphrodite brig Tom Cod, of Bristol, England, Captain Potter, a well known trader on the coast, standing down the bay from Cape Mount, fell in with the Clarida, off Digby.* The schooner, after standing along a short time in the track of the Englishman, hailed and demanded, "where bound?" was answered, "to Mesurado," and continued on about half a mile astern of the Tom Cod, until the latter vessel cast anchor in our roads, at one o'clock on the same day. The Englishman running up his ensign on coming to an anchor, was answered by the hoisting of the Spanish flag on board the Clarida.

The Spaniard lay by until half-past six, P. M., when, approaching the Tom Cod, under cover of the night, (which here commences at that hour) sent her boat with twelve armed men alongside, who instantly boarded, but without offering any violence.

They inquired if they could be furnished with an anchor, and stated that they had had the misfortune to lose their own. On receiving a negative answer, and having accurately examined the force of the brig, they all went on board their own vessel, declaring, at the same time, that "an anchor they must have, and might as well perish, in fighting for it, if they could not obtain it by other means, as to be lost for the want of one."

At seven, the Spaniards came abreast of the brig, at half pistol shot distance, and ordered the officer of the latter to weigh his anchor. With this order, the mate, who, in the absence of Captain Potter ashore, had charge of the vessel, refused to comply; when the Clarida fired two shots in succession into the Tom Cod from a long revolving nine-pounder; and, immediately after, sent eighteen armed men on board of


* Bristol's territory, commencing ten miles, and extending twenty, from Cape Mesurado, is distinguished by this name.


her, who took possession, driving her crew forward, and forcing them to weigh their anchor and make sail. Both vessels then stood out together two leagues, when the anchor of the brig was let go in 18 fathoms. All these operations were directed by the Spaniard, who had taken his station on the quarter deck of the brig. The vessel was also steered by a Spaniard; but worked by their own crew, who acted from compulsion; the pirates being ranged fore and aft, with their arms in their hands.

A communication was now formed, by means of a strong rope bent to the bight of the Englishman's chain cable, and taken on board of the Spaniard. The end of the chain thus secured was then slipped, roused aboard of the Clarida, and bent to her windlass.

The Tom Cod was detained by another anchor, let go for the purpose, till four o'clock on the morning of the sixth; when the pirates, after plundering her cabin and deck of a variety of articles, left her, went aboard of their own vessel, weighed the anchor which they had taken from the brig, and made sail. The brig being thus liberated, weighed her anchor, stood back to Mesurado roads, and made the agent acquainted with the transaction, at four o'clock on the same evening.

Having received the testimony of six individuals, all going to prove the piracy and identify the Clarida, and obtained of Captain Potter the use of his brig to punish the pirate, I dispatched a messenger, on the morning of the 7th, to all the native chiefs to the northward of the Mesurado, to assure them that whatever military movements might be necessary for me to make along the beach, none was to be directed against them, and that it was expected, on their part, that they were to interfere with those movements in no way whatever.

The military of this colony is organized into a corps of independent infantry, consisting of thirty-six young men, and a corps of artillerists, consisting of forty-eight. From the former I made a requisition of twenty-five men to act under Captain James C. Barbour, their commander, and their other officers. Twenty-two artillerists, under Captain F. James, the commanding officer of their corps, at my request, volunteered to attend me on board the Tom Cod.

I then gave Captain Barbour written instructions to proceed the same evening with his force, taking two days' provisions, to the mouth of the St. Paul, five miles, send one division by the Stockton, in boats, and conduct the other along the beach, encamp at the place of rendezvous till daylight on the 8th, and then advance by the beach upon Digby, awaiting further orders, which I was to send him from the brig.

But should the brig, by any accident, fall into the hands of the pirates, or be pursued out to sea, he was to seize upon the factory at Yellow Will's, and make the best of his way back with the prisoners, slaves, and property captured in it. In this young officer's prudence and intrepidity, and in the exact discipline and firmness of his men, I knew I could entirely confide.

With the twenty-two volunteers under Captain James, I went on board the Tom Cod at four o'clock, taking along two carriage guns, and a suitable provision of ammunition belonging to the agency. Of these brave fellows, eight had, on two former occasions, fought at my side for nearly three hours in our bloody conflicts with the natives; and I knew they would all follow wherever it might be necessary for me to lead them. Their number was greater than the crew of the Spaniard by six men, and our weight of metal considerably superior; so that there is little doubt, had we fallen in with the pirate, that she must have been taken. But it was not our lot to engage him.

During the night I had brought the brig to the windward of Digby, upon which we bore down under the American flag at daylight on the morning of the 8th, ready for action. The morning was thick, and it was not until half-past one o'clock that I was able to ascertain the absence of the Clarida, which, I afterwards learned, had not communicated with the shore, nor been seen from Digby, since the robbery of the brig.

Captain Barbour's division having now arrived, I landed with five men through the surf, ordering the brig to lie off and on till she should receive a signal to return to Mesurado; and at a few minutes past nine entered Yellow Will's town, but found the factory abandoned, and the slaves and nearly all the property gone. I soon learned that the whole had been conveyed across Poor river, a broad and deep stream, which has its course parallel with this part of the coast, and at only two miles distant from it.

Messengers were immediately dispatched to King Bristol and Will, conveying my friendly assurances, but insisting on the immediate delivery of the Spaniards, and all the slaves and property belonging to the factory, into my hands. In reply I was openly informed that both refused to comply with the demand, but assured, secretly, by one of the headmen, that the King was willing to see me seize upon the concern, provided the business could be so managed as to save the appearance of treachery to their customers on the part of himself and his people. I perceived the force and intention of this hint at once, and took my measures accordingly.

After a personal interview with Bristol and Will, I returned, and with twelve men, crossing the Poor river in a small canoe which could carry but four men at a time, soon obtained possession of the Spaniards at a town situated a short distance from that in which the wreck of the factory was concealed.

In the meantime I had perfectly informed myself of the exact state of the concern at that time.

Two of the four Spaniards left ashore were ill. Goods of the value of ninety slaves had been already advanced to the country dealers, on which only fourteen had yet been received at the factory. Goods equal in value to about six hundred dollars only remained in the factory on the morning of the 8th, when, in the confusion caused by the alarm at daylight, nearly the whole had fallen into the hands of the country people, who, under color of assisting the Spaniards to secure their goods, had carried them off. But the fourteen slaves had been preserved.

None of the four Spaniards now in my custody were on board the Clarida at the time of her committing the piracy of the 5th, nor had communicated with her since that act; and there was not even presumptive proof that the character of the vessel was piratical by the laws of Spain previous to the perpetration of the robbery of that date.

The slaves, and all the property remaining, were surrendered into my hands by the mate, Zugaste, at three o'clock on the 9th, and the four Spaniards discharged from custody on the grounds just stated.

A part of the goods, as per the accompanying statement, amounting to forty-three dollars, was restored to the mate for the purpose of subsisting himself and his companions till an opportunity should offer to take passage for some other part of the world.

After several other deductions for expense, as per the same statement, the residue, amounting to $91.50, was equally divided between the captors and the United States, as had been promised to the


people previous to their engaging in the expedition. The net balance remaining to the agency, after all charges and demands paid, is $5.34 1/2 cents, which has been deposited in the public store to be applied to the expenses of the agency for liberated Africans.

The English brig was restored to her own captain, and, after landing the guns and colonists at Monrovia, proceeded on her voyage in the night of the 8th, and myself, with the detachment of infantry, bringing in safety the liberated slaves and merchandise, arrived in town on the 10th. The weather had been exceedingly rainy, and the return of the detachment was delayed a day, in consequence of two of the poor slaves, unable to comprehend the intention of the interposition, which had so suddenly broken their irons and given them their freedom, having absconded under cover of the night, and secreted themselves in the woods. But I have the satisfaction of announcing their speedy recovery; and that the whole number, consisting of one boy of eleven years, eleven youths between fifteen and twenty-two, one man of thirty-eight, and one woman of about twenty years, in all fourteen persons, are now, through the munificence of the United States Government, and the active zeal of the settlers, decently clothed, comfortably fed, and introduced at once to the blessings of liberty, Christianity, affectionate friends, civilized life, and a permanent and peaceful home. I procured an engagement to be entered into between the country authorities, the observance of which may be depended upon, to suffer their people to communicate no more with the Clarida, in the event of her returning; and in no case whatever to furnish her with a single slave. That vessel may indeed escape capture, as I have no craft large enough to take her, but she is thus sure to lose her cargo and voyage.

A quantity of spars belonging to the schooner, found at Will's place, were burnt; and the rice collected at the factory, which could not be conveniently brought off, was distributed among the natives.

Most of the poor beings restored on this occasion to liberty, are natives of countries situated at a distance in the interior of Africa; had been several months in irons when liberated, and are in a very emaciated and miserable state. Then gratitude to their deliverers is unbounded, which they delight to testify by every mode of expression in their power. I have, by a temporary disposition, connected them in couples with the families of the most humane and respectable of the settlers, where they will remain until their health shall have been re-established, and they have acquired some knowledge of our language, and of domestic life among a civilized people. Before these objects shall be accomplished, I hope to have prepared a new range of houses, already considerably advanced, at Thompson's Town, for their reception.

In this little expedition, it gives me great pleasure to state that not a musket was fired, not one untoward accident occurred, not a point of duty was neglected, or otherwise than most handsomely performed by the officers; not an instance of disorderly conduct was observed among the 54 men who composed the force employed on the occasion. The order for respecting the persons and property of the natives was so punctually obeyed, that by their own declaration, and to their utter astonishment, not a fowl nor a plantain was taken, nor even a hut entered, except with consent, by the people, even in Will's town, which was entirely deserted of its inhabitants, and in which the whole body encamped for forty-eight hours.

I have, since my return, already received from the country princes, deputations conveying their thanks for these substantial proofs of my friendly disposition towards themselves, even where it became necessary to carry the arms of the settlement into the heart of their country. The policy which, in the face of some opposition, and much misrepresentation from such as were incapable of understanding it, I have for four years most scrupulously observed, in all my intercourse with the people of this country, has been that of justice, sincerity, mildness, and firmness; and its success has on this occasion appeared to be complete. I never menaced them with an empty or unnecessary threat; never failed to carry into full effect an intention once announced, and never forfeited my word. While a similar policy is persisted in on the part of this establishment, I do not hesitate to assert that no reasonable demand made by it on the native authorities will be refused.

In these remarks, I have in view the introduction of a measure, on the part of the United States, for which, I believe, the time has arrived, of which the object shall be, entirely to abolish the slave trade, with the concurrence of the native authorities, along a, given line of coast contiguous to this agency. But the particulars of this plan it is proper to defer to a distinct communication. The object, if it can but obtain the sanction of the United States Government, is practicable; and all the means necessary to effect it are on the spot.

Nor can I, in closing this communication, suppress the mortifying fact that, whenever the American flag is displayed at this agency, it literally waves over, and, I can add, affords protection to a slave factory, established in the immediate neighborhood. In the short expedition just terminated, it was with emotions of indignation, which it was impossible to repress and idle to indulge, that I was obliged to conduct the little force under my command past two slave factories, of which the most distant is only five miles from the Cape. We heard the clanking of fetters as we marched along, and were annoyed with the groans of human beings who had lost their freedom without their fault; but, as their tyrants, who regarded us with folded arms, and a leer of barbarous exultation, had not committed piracy, according to the Spanish definition of the crime, it was not in my power to interfere for the relief of the one or the punishment of the other.

Respectfully, sir, I have the honor to remain, your obedient and humble servant,


To the Hon. S. L. Southard, Secretary of the U. S. Navy, Washington.

U. S. Agency for Liberated Africans, Cape Mesurado, October 25, 1826.

Sir: I had the honor, in my last, of the 14th instant, to detail the circumstances connected with the capture of the slave factory belonging to the piratical schooner Clarida, at Digby, and the liberation of fourteen miserable slaves found in that iniquitous establishment. It is with pleasure that I have to subjoin to the communication of that event that of the liberation and safe arrival at this agency of six more unfortunate persons of the same description, all men, and, except a single child of nine years, between the ages of eighteen and thirty years, who appear to have belonged to the same concern.

It will probably be in the recollection of the honorable Secretary that the Clarida, after perpetrating the robbery of the 5th inst., immediately disappeared from this part of the coast. She has not since been heard from, having abandoned her factory, and three men left on shore at Digby, as stated in my letter of the 14th. These persons, I had, in the exercise of my duty, entirely deprived of the power of effecting


any further purchases in the line of their inhuman traffic, but did not consider myself authorized to take them into custody. They have accordingly since remained at Will's place, under the pretext of awaiting an opportunity to return to Spanish America.

But, on the 20th, information was brought me of the delivery of several slaves at the factory, by dealers living at a distance in the interior. On strict inquiry, I soon ascertained the fact to be as reported, with the additional circumstance that a collusion was carrying on between Yellow Will and the Spanish factor, having for its object the sale of the slaves in the name and right of the former, who was to share the proceeds, at a French factory on the St. Paul.* To the practice of this deception the parties had been induced in the hope of evading an engagement by which I had previously obliged them to be in no way assisting in the collecting and transportation out of the country of any of the slaves bargained for, or that might be bargained for, by the Clarida. No time was, accordingly, lost in concerting the means of preventing the probable effects of this unprincipled combination, and rescue its intended victims from the power of their mercenary oppressors.

On the 25th instant I ordered Captain Barbour to make a requisition for twenty-five men, or accept a voluntary tender of that number from his corps of infantry. Then he was, at sunset of the same day, to march under arms to the mouth of the St. Paul, where he was to arrive at eight o'clock the same evening and expect further orders. The object of the expedition was not divulged.

At two o'clock P. M., taking a boat's crew of natives, with a guard of three men only, in a plain dress, I proceeded by way of the Stockton to the St. Paul, and, after calling at the town in which the French factory is established, and familiarly paying my respects, as I had often done before, to the proprietress of the place, with a view to allay any excitement which might grow out of the subsequent movements, I dropped down to the place of rendezvous at the mouth of the river, at half-past six. Captain Barbour and his followers arrived punctually at eight. At ten o'clock, having fresh instructions, he passed the river and conducted his men without halting to the place of destination, where he arrived at two on the morning of the 26th, and had posted the sentries on all the avenues communicating with the town before the inhabitants were apprised of their situation. The slaves, seven in number, had been conveyed away to a place of concealment two hours before, in consequence of information of our movement having reached the place at that time, which, I regret to add, had been communicated to a native through the officiousness of some misguided member of the colony.

In consequence of this accident, and of the various obstacles to the recovery of the slaves which it gave the ingenuity of the interested native chief occasion to throw in the way of the spirited young officer who conducted the party, one of the captives escaped into the bush from the hands of his unknown liberators and friends, and the surrender of the other six did not take place till ten o'clock on the same morning. They were at the time cruelly pinioned, and several of them enduring, from the inflamed and swollen limbs, the severest torture. The child was in so emaciated a state as to make it necessary for one of his most robust fellow sufferers to carry him on his shoulders.

The whole party returning, arrived at Monrovia in safety, after a most fatiguing expedition of twenty-five hours, in which all except myself and a guard of seven men only, including the boatmen, had, without sleep, performed a forced march of thirty-five miles through a pathless country, of which one-half was traversed in the depth of night and the other under the full power of an African sun.

It gives me pleasure to add that such a cheerful zeal in the cause of African emancipation animates this little corps that not a murmur of impatience was, during the whole time, heard in the ranks. So enured are the men to the climate of their adopted country, that not an individual has suffered in his health from the extreme exposure and fatigue of the expedition; and in such handsome military style was the affair conducted, that the very inhabitants of the country, through which the route of the party lay, were scarcely apprised of the movement before its termination and the return of the people to their homes.

Respectfully, sir, I have the honor to be, your most obedient and humble servant,


The Hon. Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the U. S. Navy.

Agency, October 28, 1825.

Sir: Having this morning renewed an agreement with the principal native slave dealers, among whom the cargo of the "Clarida" has been distributed on credit, of which the object is—to prevent the sale and transportation out of the country of the slaves due to that concern, I hasten to communicate the particulars, in the hope that the part I have taken may be considered as within the spirit of the instructions under which I have the honor to act.

1 am far from regarding myself as authorized to interfere, in ordinary cases, in that branch of the naval service of the United States, which is directed by express acts of Congress and under specific instructions from the supreme Executive against the slave trade. From such interference I have carefully abstained, even when it has been in my power to operate against the traffic as carried on by Americans, and with every prospect of success.

I justify the recent exertion of the military force under my control in the affair of the "Clarida," on the broad principles of natural law, which confer, even on private individuals, the right of self-defence against the violence of the outlaws and enemies of the human race. In the exercise of this right, which, in the actual situation of the settlement, I cannot help considering rather in the light of a serious duty, twenty slaves, without legal owners, have been thrown in my way, together with the right of controlling the purchase of from forty to eighty more: the number actually bargained and paid for by the piratical schooner being one hundred.

I regard myself as undoubtedly possessed of the right to control these purchases, but, without resorting to expedients, my actual power to do so is extremely limited; for the dealers in the interior, hearing of the destruction of the factory, and under a strong temptation, after converting the goods received into slaves, according to the contract, to send them singly to Cape Mount, Gallinas, and other slaving stations, and there dispose of them for their own benefit.

The coast dealers, over whom I can exercise some control, are under an equal temptation to violate their engagements just entered into with myself, to deliver the slaves to the agent at this place; and by collusion with inland dealers, have it in their power so effectually to cover any indirect practices in the


* Distant 15 miles from Cape Mesurado.


matter as to prevent their detection. And this, in my opinion, they are certain to do, if the motives employed to assure their honesty are addressed only to their fears.

Hence, I am reduced to the alternative either to relinquish the hope of rescuing from perpetual bondage the whole of the eighty slaves purchased, or to be purchased, with the cargo of the schooner, and who are not yet delivered, or to engage to pay, on their safe arrival and surrender to the United States, at this agency, a small reward.

The latter is the course pursued. I have fixed the reward at ten dollars each, the lowest sum which, after paying for the safe keeping and conveyance of the slaves to the cape, will offer an inducement sufficient to counteract the temptation to send them off to a market where their full value may be realized the second time.

Under all the circumstances of this case, I beg leave to state that, in stipulating the payment of this small sum, I have acted in the confidence that the object is virtually embraced in the appropriations made under the act of Congress of "March 3d, 1818, in addition to the acts prohibiting the slave trade." The sums necessary to be advanced for these ransoms I shall, however, pay, in the first instance, out of my own pocket, and present an account of the same, which I trust will be refunded by the Government of the United States.

I have also to submit whether the bounty allowed by the fourth section of the same act, to such as aid in the liberation of the slaves unlawfully detained in bondage, of fifty dollars for every negro, mulatto, &c., who shall be delivered to the marshal or agent duly appointed to receive them, is not, in substantial justice, and may not be considered as legally due to the captors of the twenty individuals whose liberation is the subject of this communication. In my opinion, effects much more important than the value of the money itself might follow from the payment of this bounty, either to the managers of the American Colonization Society, or to the militia employed in the rescue of the slaves.

Respectfully, sir, I have the honor to be, your obedient, humble servant,


The Hon. Mr. Southard, Secretary United States Navy.

U. S. Agency for Recaptured Africans, Cape Mesurado, December 8, 1825.

Sir: I have the honor to state that another unforeseen occurrence has placed at my disposal the large additional number of ninety-nine Africans, whom I caused to be released from their irons this morning at eight o'clock, and whom I judge to be proper objects of the beneficent provisions made by the Government of the United States for persons liberated from illegal bondage, under the laws for suppressing the slave trade.

On the fourth of November four of the men liberated at Digby on the ninth of the preceding month, impelled by that innate love of country which none of the vicissitudes of life can extinguish in the human bosom, deserted from the establishment, passed the Mesurado river and disappeared in the boundless woody region which extends to an unknown distance in the interior.

Knowing that, if not speedily brought back, they must inevitably terminate their desperate enterprise in hopeless slavery, I had recourse, without delay, to every means for their recovery which promised to succeed, but to no purpose. Intelligence of their desertion, with the offer of reward for their restoration, was immediately conveyed to the different tribes in friendly correspondence with the settlement, but no information was had of the fugitives before the fifth inst., when I received, from a source entitled to credit, intelligence that three of their number had been reduced to slavery and loaded with chains at the French slave factory, on the St. Paul, five miles (direct distance) from the cape.

On the morning of the 6th, I dispatched three men to demand the deserters in the name of the United States; and to inquire by what means they had fallen into the hands of the factors.

The demand was evasively replied to; but, in answer to the inquiry, it was stated that two Frenchmen, agents resident at the factory, had bought them. I then instructed the messengers charged with the order, to repeat it; they did so, but with no other effect than to draw from the two factors a written declaration of their purpose to detain the people indefinitely.

Finding the recovery of the men by mere rational methods too doubtful to justify any further delay, which, as a French schooner was lying near, ready to receive slaves, might subject them to be transported in a very few hours forever beyond the reach of the Government of the United States; and obliged, to regard the ground taken by the factory as that of virtual defiance, which justified, from a growing concern founded in avarice and iniquity, the apprehension of eventual consequences fatal to the benevolent objects of this agency, I had no hesitation in resolving upon the unpleasant duty of forcibly subverting the establishment altogether.

Captain James C. Barbour, of the infantry, with eighteen men, was accordingly charged last night, at 9 o'clock, with the accomplishment of this service. Two boats were provided, in which this little force embarked at two o'clock this morning.

Ascending the Stockton, they arrived on the St. Paul at daybreak; twenty minutes afterwards the men were landed at the factory. In ten minutes the slaves, to the number of forty-three men, thirteen women, and forty-three children of both sexes, (in all ninety-nine) were in the custody of the officer, and in full march along the beach for Monrovia. The boats received the invalids and feeblest of the children, and stood along shore, at musket shot distance, abreast of the party advancing by land. The whole arrived safely at Monrovia at eight o'clock the same morning, just six hours after the setting out of the party, and eleven only after the first intimation given to the officer who so handsomely conducted it that its services would be required.

Of these people, ninety-seven are in perfect health, two only in a feeble condition, caused apparently by rigorous treatment.

Respectfully, sir, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,


P. S.—In the number of persons rescued are included the three deserters.

The Hon. Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the United States Navy, Washington City, U. S.

December 11, 1825.

Sir: Subjoined to my letter of the evening of the 8th instant, I beg leave to communicate certain facts relative to the French slave trade, as carried on at the present time from this coast, and of which


without a vigorous influence exerted by other governments, no hope of a speedy termination can be rationally entertained. My situation every month throws in my way some intelligent subjects of France, of whom some are interested in the continuance, and others actually engaged in the suppression of the slave trade; and, I regret to say, that both concur in the opinion that the true point of policy in their government, at present, requires a regulated continuance of the trade, and which the ministers of government are too wise not to perceive; that the demand for the products of tropical countries in France is much greater than can be supplied from their inconsiderable colonies, either in America or the East Indies; that, without foreign colonies, the nation can never have a productive foreign commerce, nor come to realize the various objects of advantage growing out of it.

The province of Cayenne offers a boundless extent of fertile territory, but thinly peopled, and, in consequence, uncultivated and unproductive. According to the ancient prejudices, laborers can only be obtained, to subdue and bring out the resources of this country, from the coast of Africa. But how to evade the stipulations of the solemn treaties of the government, so as to save appearances, and at the same time subject the trade in which those laborers are to be procured to that perfect surveillance for which the police and revenue system of France, beyond those of almost any other nation, are distinguished— to combine these conflicting objects in one system, is the result of some political inquiry, and is thus attempted. All outfits to the coast for this trade are understood by the merchants of France to be prohibited by particular injunction, and absolutely impossible to be made from any other ports of the empire, except St. Malois and Nantz; vessels cannot obtain clearances for these voyages elsewhere. But no difficulty, it is equally understood, is ever to be encountered at the custom houses of these ports, particularly of the latter, where it is reciprocally understood that clearances given to vessels to proceed to Africa for general cargoes, and thence to the colonies, authorize such vessels to traffic for, and transport to the latter, cargoes of slaves, and nothing else. The colonial authorities of Gaudaloupe, Martinique, Cayenne, &c. observe a perfect concert of action with the officers of the two ports in France already named; and, by admitting slave cargoes to entry, duty free, in effect pay the merchants a bounty on such cargoes.

The extent of the trade is, by this arrangement, better known in France itself, and prevented from being even suspected by the other governments of Europe, except as ascertained by its operations, observed on the coast of Africa and in America, and comes to be as exactly controlled and regulated by the ministry as any other branch of commerce carried on from French ports But, still further to save appearances, and guard the trade against interruption by foreign powers, France makes the coast of Africa one of her important naval stations. From four to eight of her vessels-of-war, mostly corvettes and brigs, rendezvous every year at Gore, with instructions to their commanders to pursue and suppress the slave trade. The interference of any foreign power in the service somewhat ostentatiously assigned to this naval force, it is but too well known that France utterly declines in any degree to consent to or tolerate. It is refused, not only as impolitic, but as unnecessary. It might, indeed, be both, were not the instructions under which her commanders act, in all cases, carefully made out in exact accommodation to other parts of the artificial system of which it is certain that this display of force forms a part. No cruiser is authorized even to subject to detention a slaver found on the coast, in whatever stage of his voyage, unless slaves are actually found on board the latter vessel at the time of her examination.

M. L'Achelier, the intelligent commandant of a detachment of the Goré station, assured me, in January, 1825, that between Cazamanca and Cape Palomas, in the short period of six weeks, he had visited forty-five vessels, of whose bad character the testimonies seen on board of them were conclusive; of these forty-five, twenty-two were Frenchmen, from Nantz and the colonies, of which his instructions clearly forbade the detention of more than five.

In April ensuing, I received the information from a perfectly authentic source that, of the five vessels sent under these circumstances for adjudication before the naval tribunal at Gore, only one was condemned; and M. L'Achelier amerced in damages, for the detention of the others, to three times the amount of his property.

The factors Vieux Pierre & Millot, whose establishment on the St. Paul was broken up on the 8th, have announced their intention to appeal to the government for redress, resting their claims on the principle which it has set up, never to suffer the inteference of a foreign power, either in the measures which she has thought proper to take for suppressing the trade, or in the punishment of her subjects for any supposed infraction of the municipal and commercial laws of France.

But, as I have assumed in justification of my procedure neither of these grounds, but the necessity of rescuing immediately from slavery, for the prevention of a greater and absolutely remediless injury, the subjects and protégées of the United States unlawfully sold and detained in bondage, and of abating a nuisance which foreigners, without the color of authority, had obtruded upon our own territory, (for the lands actually purchased of the nation comprehend the whole left bank of the St. Paul, on which the factory stood) I am confident that such a claim will never be prosecuted to my own government; or, if so urged, must be forthwith discontinued as soon as it merits an investigation.

Any testimony necessary to elucidate or establish the facts contained in my official report of the transaction, in my power to obtain, shall be cheerfully furnished, on a requisition from his excellency the President of the United States, or the honorable Secretary of the Navy.

Respectfully, sir, I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,


The Hon. S. L. Southard, Secretary of the U. S. Navy.

U. S. Agency for Recaptured Africans, Cape Mesurado, January 22, 1826.

As an integral part of my dispatches by this conveyance, I have the honor to refer you to my letter dated October 14, detailing the circumstances connected with the punishment of the Spanish piratical schooner Clarida, to the plan of the coast accompanying it, as illustrative of the transaction; and to the statement of expenses incurred and property seized in the same expedition. It will be seen from these papers that fourteen miserable slaves fell into my hands on that occasion, who have been provided for agreeably to the instructions under which I have the honor to act.

I have also the honor to refer, as a part of my present communication, to my letter of the 27th of October, also enclosed, and a note explanatory, of the 28th, from which you will learn that an additional


number of six men, making in all, to that date, twenty persons, were cast for protection upon the United States establishment at this place, and have accordingly been provided for at the public expense.

I have also very particularly to solicit your attention to my letter of December 8, 1825, and the private note of the 11th of the same month, from which it will be perceived that still another addition of ninety-nine persons has been made to the number of liberated Africans connected with the agency.

The papers referred to are too minute, I trust, to require, on the subject to which they relate, any additional explanations. The whole number of persons placed at the disposal of the agency by these three several accessions, is 116, (to say one hundred and sixteen) making, with the fourteen previously in charge, one hundred and thirty. Many of the children are, by a temporary disposition, situated in the most respectable families of the colony, under indentures securing to them instruction at the common schools of the place, and every other advantage of which their age and circumstances render them capable. I have engaged a prudent young man to attend constantly on the remainder, at their daily labors, and bring the economy of the little community into which they are formed, into a gradual assimilation to the ideas of civilized life. They have nearly completed a village of dwellings, built in your own style, on a pleasant elevation of Cape Mesurado, about one-third of a mile distant from Thompson Town. Every individual of their number is in perfect health, and as an assemblage of rude and ignorant people, gathered out of nearly twenty different tribes of the country, pursue their labors with a good degree of spirit, union, and success.

For some months to come, it must remain necessary to afford them their entire support, or expose them to the certain danger of being seduced, or kidnapped, by the unprincipled slave dealers of the country, who wait their opportunity to bring them the second time under the chain, and dispose of them at the factories of Gallinas, or Trade Town.

The expense of clothing, providing with the first conveniences of civilized life, furnishing with tools and implements of industry, after our modes, and subsisting so considerable a number of people, thrown upon my hands without previous preparation for their reception, has already proved considerable, and has reduced me to the necessity of making purchases, and advances out of my own pocket, since the 10th day of October, to the amount of the several sums of $366.87 1/2, $260.35 1/2, $330.12, $462.42, $115.03*, $65.62†, $1,187.75. Total, $2,788.17.

The accounts of all these purchases are forwarded, with advices of the drafts given on the Navy Department in payment.

A few of these stores have been purchased at disadvantage; but most of them on very advantageous terms.

These purchases have given me the means of securing, in advance, rice necessary for several months' consumption, a precaution necessary to be taken early every dry season, as the country furnishes very little of that grain, and that little at very enhanced prices after the 1st of February, until the return of the ensuing harvest in September.

The lands of Cape Mesurado being wholly appropriated to settlers, and the former protégée of the government, who have been placed on the footing with settlers, it will be necessary, finally, to fix a large proportion of the last accessions on farms provided in the new settlements of the colony. But at present it would be the height of imprudence to suffer them to want the constant guardianship of their superintendents. Several have alredy been driven by their fears to attempt, and a few have, it is thought, effected their escape. No means in my power to employ for their recovery have been neglected, as their separation from the asylum is sure to be followed by their apprehension and. sale, as soon as their lurking places shall be discovered by the natives of the country.

Vieux Pierre and Millot, the factors whose establishment on the St. Paul has been destroyed, were soon after reduced to extreme distress by the natives, who, believing those unfortunate men without the protection of the settlement, assembled in force, evidently with a design to rob them of the small remainder of their property. In this distress, they appealed to my humanity for protection. I consented to afford it, on condition of their abandoning their voyage, and instead of proceeding to the colonies, returning directly to France, as soon as the necessary preparations could be made for the voyage. To this condition they assented. I immediately sent a guard to bring them and their merchandise to Monrovia, where I have since furnished them and their five seamen with whatever necessaries and comforts the laws of hospitality require.

The schooner attached to the factory, after waiting in the offing several days, and receiving intelligence of the accident which had befallen the factory, made sail for France, without communicating with the factors ashore, otherwise than by billets, leaving seven Frenchmen on my hands. Three of these were shipped the first of January, from Cape Mount, on board of a French vessel bound to Martinique. Millot obtained a passage to a distant part of the coast, with a view to some profitable employment; and Captain Vieux Pierre, with a white servant, takes passage, in the vessel which conveys these dispatches, for the United States, whence he intends to return to his family in France. An industrious young man belonging to the concern has found employment in this colony.


The Hon. S. L. Southard, Secretary U. S. Navy, Washington City.

Monrovia, April 19, 1826.

Sir: The extraordinary labors consequent on the new arrangements required by the arrival of Dr. Peaco, the United States agent for recaptured Africans, and who was the bearer of your favor of the 31st December, 1825, together with the expedition against Trade Town, from which I have just returned with the troops of the colony in safety, render it impossible to prepare the accounts of the agency, for the first quarter of the year, in time to forward them by the "Indian Chief." I hope to send them by the very next conveyance.

In my accounts from the Treasury Department, I perceive myself charged with a requisition for $220, in favor of Thomes Tyson, for which I shall probably be able to show myself entitled to a credit of the same amount.

I have the honor to state that I delivered over, to the hands of Dr. Peaco, on the 17th instant, fifty-three Africans, taken from the piratical establishment at Trade Town, on the 13th and 14th, making the


* By way of Boston, under another enclosure.

† Forwarded through Rev. Mr. Hawley.


whole number delivered over to the United States agency, since the 10th of October, 1825, one hundred and seventy-two; and which, with the aid of Heaven, and two Colombian armed vessels, the forces of the colony under my direction razed to the ground on the 15th instant.

Three vessels attached to the factories of Trade Town have fallen into the hands of French and Colombian cruisers on this station; and the catastrophe of that mart of human flesh; now the last on the whole windward coast of western Africa, is confidently believed to have annihilated, finally, the slave trade within five hundred miles of this settlement.

Dr. Woodside, the bearer of these dispatches to the United States, and who returns in consequence of a severe wound received in the late expedition, for which he had generously volunteered his services, has also an abstract of the journal, detailing all the circumstances of the affair; and will be able to communicate, verbally or otherwise, all the information relating to it that may be called for.

Captain John Chase, commander of the Colombian armed schooner Jacinta, well known in the United States, of which he is a native, as a gentleman of the most honorable principles, and consummate bravery, has rendered us services in this affair, without which success could not have been obtained. His vessel, his marines, arms, ammunition, and personal exertions were, in the entire spirit of the late convention between the Colombian and United States Governments for co-operating against the slave trade, wholly at our devotion; and as long as the heavy curse of this traffic shall, as the fruit of the late expedition, cease to be felt in western Africa, will the services of this gallant commander and his spirited crew be entitled to the gratitude and applause of the world.

The character of nearly all the late transactions of Europeans at Trade Town having been notoriously piratical, it will become a duty of the first obligation to direct against it, and against every attempt to restore it, the little floating force preparing in the colony to be placed under the command of Lieutenant McKean. The arrival of that officer on the coast is expected with particular anxiety.

Associated with Captain Chase, in the affair of Trade Town, is to be mentioned with a particular sense of obligation for his active co-operation, Captain Cottrell, of the Colombian brig-of-war El Vencedor, who covered our landing under a dangerous fire from the piratical Europeans ashore, and brought the guns of his vessels to bear upon the enemy's lines in our rear, during the 36 hours we were hotly engaged with him, after obtaining possession of the town. He supplied our little force ashore with 3,000 rounds of musket ammunition; placed under my command his captain of marines, with twenty men, and expended 130 rounds of cannon shot upon the enemy.

Dr. Peaco's health was thought to be not sufficiently braced, by previous exposure in an African climate, to admit of his accompanying the expedition; and it is feared the few hours which remain before the sailing of the Indian Chief, will hardly allow of his writing in detail by this conveyance. This circumstance will apologize for the otherwise unnecessary length and minuteness of this letter, in the conclusion of which I beg only to add, that the first class of Africans are nearly off the hands of the government, several having finished their terms of apprenticeship, and being now established in business for themselves.

About one hundred and sixty of the newly liberated remain, of whom fifty are so situated, in respectable families, as to be a slight charge on the public fund.

The passengers by the Indian Chief, one hundred and fifty-four in number, are all on the sick list, but the character of the disease under which they suffer is favorable beyond any former example, and gives hope of its speedy termination.

Respectfully, &c.,


The Hon. S. L. Southard, Secretary United States Navy.

Baltimore, July 31, 1826.

The visit of Mr. Ashmun to Trade Town was in consequence of the inhabitants of that place having seduced away from the colony about thirty free blacks belonging to it, and selling them to the Spanish and French slave traders. Mr. Ashmun had frequently demanded those blacks from King West, threatening him with an armed force if he did not give them up, which threat he altogether disregarded, and continued his depredations on the inhabitants of the colony.

On my arrival at Mesurado, Mr. Ashmun communicated the above intelligence to me, and requested that I would accompany him in the expedition to Trade Town, which I consented to, and took Mr. Ashmun, with about thirty troops, on board, and proceeded for that place, which we reached the day following, and found at anchor off the town the Colombian brig El Vencedor, having with her a Spanish brig captured the day before. I communicated the object of our visit to the commander of that vessel, who cheerfully agreed to accompany us.

As we approached the shore, the Spanish and French slaves, occupying three factories, commenced firing on our boats, notwithstanding the boat in which Mr. Ashmun was had the colonial flag hoisted. We however succeeded in landing and taking possession of the factories. Mr. Ashmun addressed a note to King West, stating that the object of his visit was to reclaim the people of the colony, and if he gave them up peaceably, all other hostilities would cease, threatening him with the destruction of the town if he did not immediately comply with the demand. King West acknowledged that the blacks had been seduced away, and sold to the Spaniards, but pleaded inability to get them within two or three days, as they, with four or five hundred others, had been released on our approach to the shore, and had run into the woods. He stated, through his messenger to Mr. Ashmun, that he wished to be on the most friendly terms with the colony, and that he would have all the slaves belonging to the Spaniards, as well as those of the colony, delivered up to us.

On the first day he sent in fifteen or twenty, on the second as many more, and on the third day, a quantity making altogether fifty-two. But it was evident from his tardy movements, and the miserable appearance of the blacks, that his object was to divert our attention until he could rally his forces.

On the third day, as was anticipated, they commenced hostilities with a number not less than two or three thousand men, well armed, and it was not until the vessels were brought near the shore, and several broadsides fired on them, that we succeeded in driving them into the woods. We then put fire to the town, which contained about one hundred and fifty houses, and destroyed it. The factories were occupied by us two days after, during which time we had some little skirmishing.

Finding no prospect of getting the slaves, we re-embarked our troops, putting fire to the factories, which contained a large quantity of powder, arms, munitions of war, and sundry articles of merchandise belonging to the Spaniards. Mr. Ashmun conducted himself strictly neutral towards the Spaniards,


notwithstanding it was pretty well ascertained that some of them had committed acts of piracy in the waters of Mesurado, a short time previous. The fifty-two blacks were landed at the colony, and before I left the Cape, Mr. Ashmun informed me that King West had sent to him to treat for peace.


Navy Department, Washington, August 10, 1826.


I have to acknowledge the receipt of communications from Mr. Ashmun, of 14th, 27th and 28th October; 8th and 11th December; 5th and 22d January, and 19th April, together with their several enclosures, which shall be noticed in the order of their dates. The accounts have been deposited with the Fourth Auditor, to whom they should be transmitted for examination and settlement.

The first letter, of 14th October, relates to the transactions of the Spanish schooner Clarida; the depredations committed by her on the British brig Tom Cod; and the means pursued to punish the conduct of the crew of the Spanish vessel, which resulted in the release of fourteen slaves, at Poor river. The next, dated 17th October, is a continuation of transactions respecting the Clarida, and a narrative of an expedition to the St. Paul, which terminated in the release of six more slaves. The third letter, dated 28th October, assigns the reason for, and justification of his conduct, and proposes a method for redeeming such persons as may be held in bondage in the neighborhood of the settlement. The fourth letter, 8th December, announces an addition of ninety-nine persons to the agency, released in an expedition undertaken to recover four of those previously taken, who had fled from the protection of the agency. The fifth and next, is a private letter, dated 11th December, giving a view of the manner in which the trade is now carried on by the French and others, and the means resorted to, to save appearances and an open evasion or violation of their treaties. The sixth letter is dated 5th January, and contains a review of his past conduct and transactions at the agency. The next, 22d January, is a continuation of occurrences at the agency, the measures adopted to provide for the addition to the numbers occasioned by the excursions to the neighboring factories, and refers to a part of a communication to the Colonization Society, for the reasons for Mr. Ashmun's wishing to return to the United States, which he intends to accomplish, should the situation of affairs permit. The last letter received is dated 19th April, by the Indian Chief, and informs of his return from an expedition against Trade Town, and your arrival. The cause and object of the expedition not being stated in the letter, it is presumed that one must have been written of an earlier date, which has not been received. In the absence of this explanation, I have sought light from other sources, and have been permitted by the Colonization Society to read some of his letters to it; and have also received a letter from Captain Chase, which furnished the probable causes and objects of the expedition. Upon them, it is not the intention now to express a decided opinion.

Should it appear hereafter that some of the recaptured Africans had been taken to Trade Town, confined, and were about to be sold again into slavery, and that Mr. Ashmun went no farther than was found necessary to rescue them, his conduct, as the agent of the government, will not be condemned. So far as he has acted for the Colonization Society, in recapturing the colonists, he will look to that society, both to explain his conduct, and be justified or condemned by it.

The same remark is applicable to the previous expeditions. So far as he acted as agent of the society, the government does not mean to intefere with his responsibility to it. But the President thinks it necessary to disapprove of his conduct in those expeditions, so far as it has any connection with the government. As agent of the United States, for a specified object, he had no justifiable cause to break up establishments supposed to belong to the owners of the Clarida, or any other persons, and to take the people from there to the agency, to be maintained at the public expense. Our government, in establishing the agency, had one object only in view—to provide a place to which Africans, illegally brought into the United States, or lawfully captured by our cruisers upon the ocean, might be carried and taken care of, until they could, with propriety, be restored to their own country, tribe, or nation. It has not intended to authorize, nor has it authorized, a forcible and warlike attack upon the citizens or subjects of any nation with a view to suppress the slave trade, or to accomplish any other object, no matter how desirable, to advance the cause of humanity. You will therefore furnish to Mr. Ashmun a copy of this letter, that he may see the light in which his conduct is viewed by the government.

He has made a claim for the bounty allowed by the 3d and 4th sections of the act of 3d March, 1819; but it cannot be granted. The case of Africans liberated from their captors, on the shores of Africa, does not come within the provisions of that act. It is understood, from his several letters, that about 170 Africans were liberated in his various expeditions, and brought to the agency, and are now on expense there; the accounts for their support to this time will perhaps be paid; but they must cease to be a charge to the government, and restored to their tribes as speedily as possible, or supported in some other mode. The fund devoted to this object is now much reduced, and, unless increased by Congress, will not bear a continuance of the burden. Should captures be made during the year, recourse must be had to another appropriation to enable the Department to comply with the law.

For the same reason, the reward of $10, offered by him for each negro delivered, is not approved; it was not prudent, nor authorized by his instructions from the government.

In censuring the course of Mr. Ashmun, it is not intended to convey an idea that he was actuated by improper motives, or to regret the effect which seems to have been produced upon the slave trade itself. His motives were probably of the purest kind, and his zeal excited and confirmed by his humanity. Everything which represses that trade appeals strongly to our best feelings for excuse and approbation. All that is intended by the Executive, is, to disapprove the act in him, as its special agent for other objects.

In other respects, the conduct and policy of Mr. Ashmun seem to merit commendation; and his intercourse with the surrounding tribes to be dictated by sound discretion, and calculated to insure permanent success and respect. By conveying these opinions through you, you will be informed of the views of the Department as to the proper conduct of your agency, and govern yourself accordingly.

Two additional considerations seem proper to be repeated to you: to preserve the utmost economy, and to keep the business and accounts of the society, and the agency, as much separated as possible. These duties have become even more important than they were when your instructions were prepared, and when they were pressed upon you.

It was the intention of the Department to have sent, before this, the recaptured Africans, now in Georgia, to the agency; but questions are still pending undecided in the court, respecting a part of them,


which render it still impossible to send any of the number. They will be dispatched without the least unnecessary delay, when these questions are decided.

I believe I informed you that the Spark would be sent to the agency, as soon as she returned from the West Indies. On her return, however, she was found so much decayed, that it was necessary to sell her. Since that time, no vessel fit for the purpose has returned: I am daily looking for the arrival of one.

I am, respectfully, &c.,


Doctor John W. Peaco, United States Agent for Liberated Africans, Cape Mesurado.

Extract of a letter from Doctor John W. Peaco to the Secretary of the Navy, dated—

Holmes Hole, October 30, 1826.

On my arrival at the Cape, I found the number of recaptured Africans considerably increased, to which were afterwards added several who were liberated and brought up from Trade Town; the expenses for the sustenance of this class of settlers will, therefore, be proportionably greater, and I would respectfully request that supplies for their support and comfort be sent out, as what have been heretofore sent were intended for a much smaller number. Tobacco and other trading articles can be exchanged to great advantage, and should be provided for them in proportionably larger quantities. It is calculated, from the quantity of land which they have cleared and are continuing to clear for cultivation, and the cassada and other articles they are raising, that the expenses for the support of the present number will, in the course of a year or two, be comparatively trifling.

We find those a very useful set of people at the settlement, and much expense is saved, both to the government and to the Colonization Society, by employing them as laborers, and in clearing the land, when natives from the vicinity must otherwise be hired, the cost for which would be much greater than all the expenses for the support of those people, as, in addition to their pay, we should have to supply them with provisions; whereas the recaptured African is satisfied with his rations and clothing, with a little tobacco. The articles of diet with which we furnish them, and for which they in general give a preference, are rice, cassada, and palm oil, which we procure from the natives in exchange for tobacco, rum, cotton cloths, &c., supplies of which should be always on hand.

The liberated Africans who were sent out from the United States, and the colonists who have been there more than a year, support themselves, and are no longer much expense to us, and the balance will in a short time be able to provide for their own maintenance; we are obliged, however, to employ many of them as laborers, mechanics, &c., who draw their pay from the public stores; it will therefore be necessary to keep a supply of provisions, trading articles, &c., to furnish them; it is found to be the cheapest mode of compensating them, and they have no means while thus employed of procuring- them elsewhere.

As to the defensive state of the settlement, I would respectfully observe, that the uniform companies and local militia are sufficient, provided they are furnished with the means; there is, however, in my opinion, a necessity for a small military force to guard the public property, and prevent surprise. Since the affair of Trade Town, the slave traders who traffic there have shown every disposition to distress the colonists and others at the Cape, which they can do and have done with impunity, in consequence of our not having the aid of a naval force here, by which we might prevent them. It is dangerous for a merchant vessel to approach our roadstead, as information is immediately conveyed down the coast to Trade Town, (a distance of less than one hundred miles.) A vessel is immediately selected for the purpose, which is manned, and proceeds to Mesurado, where, in full view of us all, they plunder any vessels which may be lying there, without our having any means of preventing them. A daring outrage to this effect took place the 27th of July last, an account of which has been lately published in the newspapers. After robbing the vessel and abusing the officers and crew, they proceeded very deliberately to a trading-factory in the vicinity, where we understood they were collecting slaves when I left the coast. There are other cases, though not so flagrant, and we are threatened with a repetition of them. We have endeavored to make terms with King West, of Trade Town, but he will not listen to any; and nothing but the appearance of a naval force will bring him to terms. The necessity of having and keeping constantly on the coast of Africa a naval force, is daily more evident. Trade Town could be effectually blockaded by a sloop-of-war, by which means the slave trade would be abolished as far as four degrees north of the Equator. Our recaptured Africans are enticed away, and sold there to slave dealers and we cannot recover them. It is at considerable risk that our boats venture out for the purpose of procuring supplies for the settlement; our commerce is entirely unprotected; the petty kings insult us and threaten us with war; and we had. it in contemplation, when I left Monrovia, to break up one of our factories down the coast, from which we were regulary supplied with palm oil, rice, and other articles of diet, on account of the hostile disposition shown by the natives in its vicinity to the factors, and the threats of King West, which we have no means of preventing him from executing. A naval force, sir, is indispensable, if it is the determination of government and the society to continue the establishment. The colonists and liberated Africans cannot be considered safe without it, and there is no protection for any vessel which may arrive there with either emigrants or freight.

With some of the lumber which was sent out by government a large house has been erected, intended as a receptacle for the Africans expected there from Georgia, where they can be made comfortable until they clear away lands and build houses for themselves; provision should be made for their support for twelve months, after which they can maintain themselves.



List of deaths in the navy of the United States, since December 2, 1825.

Names. Date of death. Cause of death. Place of death.
Robert T. Spence September 26, 1826 Near Baltimore.
Raymond H. Perry March 12, 1826 New York
James M'Gowan February 19, 1826 Steamboat accident Fredonia, Indiana.
William Lowe May 2 1826 Baltimore
T. S. Browne September 6, 1826 Austerlitz, N. Y.
Robert S. Kearney June 7, 1826 Consumption Washington.
William D. Babbitt May 24, 1826 Small-pox Rio de Janeiro.
John Fitzhugh July 6, 1826 Effects of fever Off Baltimore.
Samuel Biddle February 14, 1826 Fever Thompson's Island.
De Witt Birch May 1, 1826 Typhus fever. Mediterranean.
R. G. Ludlow May 15, 1826 New York.
A. Y. Humphreys February 6, 1826 Pulmonary disease Callao.
N. Andrews
Samuel Renshaw October 11, 1826 Rupt. of blood vessel Philadelphia.
Edward S. Lewis July 25, 1826 Baltimore.
J. Hansford September 10, 1826 Boston.
P. M. Hail June 4, 1826 Salisbury, N. C.
Henry Skinner March 31, 1826 Peritonial inflammation. Norfolk.
Daniel Jones May 21 1826 New York
Joseph Lindsay May 19 1826 Marblehead.
Lewis B. Page September 16 1826 Gosport, Va.
John Randall June 19, 1826 Annapolis.
S. J. Coejeman December 26, 1825 Pacific.
William T. Bourne March 4, 1826 Norfolk.


List of resignations in the navy of the United States, since December 2, 1825.

Names. Date of resignation.
David Porter August 18, 1826.
Francis J. Mitchell November 27, 1826.
Zachariah W. Nixon March 21, 1826.
David H. Porter July 26, 1826.
Samuel D. Heap. December 27, 1825.
Charles B. Hamilton April 12, 1826.
Charles B. Jaudon May 4, 1826.
Richard Stevens May 11, 1826.
James Norris June 20, 1826.
John McCarty April 21, 1826.
Horatio N. Russell January 14, 1826
Lucius C.Heylin January 16, 1826.
Francis Mallory January 17, 1826.


Y.—List of resignations—Continued.

Names. Date of resignation.
James A. Hemphill January 24, 1826.
C. S. Whittington February 17, 1826.
Alfred Cutler March 8, 1826.
Alexander Van Dyke March 10, 1826.
James W. Abbott March 23, 1826.
John M. Doyle April 6, 1826.
William Leggett April 17, 1826.
Richard S. Clinton April 20, 1826.
James W. Marshall May 19, 1826.
Griffen Tompkins May 22, 1826.
William B. G. Taylor June 9, 1826.
Henry A. Chambers June 23, 1826.
William D. B. Trotter July 12, 1826.
Dudley Walker August 21, 1826.
Alexander Thompson August 8, 1826.
Charles E. Hawkins October 17, 1826.
James S. Cosby August 28, 1826.
Henry Etting November 7, 1826.
Alexander W. Macomb May 19, 1826.
Daniel Dobbins June 5, 1826.
Richard Dealy October 18, 1826.
C. P. Gideon, acting June 3, 1826.
James Bogman October 17, 1826.
Thomas Barry November 9, 1826.
John Justice July 6, 1826.
William E. Sheffield October 17, 1826.
William Baldwin April 21, 1826.
Nathan S. Angell, May 3, 1826.
Frederick Thomas July 18, 1826.
James D. Burnham July 24, 1826.



Copy of the estimates for the naval service for the year 1827.

Navy Commissioners' Office, November 9, 1826.

The Commissioners of the Navy, in obedience to your directions, have the honor to hand you herewith—

An estimate of the expenses of the navy for the year 1827, marked A.

Statements explanatory thereof, marked B, C, D, E, F, G, H.

Exhibit showing the disposition and force of the ships and vessels of the United States navy, built and building, marked I, and an estimate of the expense of the office of the Commissioners of the Navy for the ensuing year, marked K.

In further explanation of the 6th item of the estimates on paper A, the Commissioners would respectfully observe that the security and preservation of the public property, necessarily of great amount, render it indispensably necessary, in their opinion, that the navy yards should be enclosed by walls substantially built of brick or stone. Without such enclosures, no vigilance of the sentinels, however their numbers may be extended, can protect the property from depredators and incendiaries.

The large amount and great variety of stores indispensably necessary to be kept on hand, require that buildings should be erected to protect them against pilferers, and from destruction by fire, &c., &c.

The buildings for officers' quarters are required for the accommodation of those attached to the yards, in order that they may be conveniently situated to perform the duties required of them, and by their presence add to the security of the public property, and, at all times, contribute to the prompt suppression of any improper conduct on the part of the numerous persons connected with the establishment. In the opinion of the board it would be true economy to erect suitable buildings for this object, at each yard not already provided with them. The annual allowances made to officers for house rent, &c., would, in a short time, repay the cost of their construction.

The receiving and shipping stores, and the dispatch and economy so all-important in fitting out our vessels, make the wharves estimated for highly necessary.

The judicious selection of sites for the erection of buildings necessary for the yards, and for building and repairing- the vessels of the United States, requires, that certain parts of the respective yards should be leveled and filled up.

The covering the roofs of the ship houses with slate, copper, or tin, is not only to protect them from


accident by fire, and prevent loss or injury to the ships within them, but the immense loss of other property also within the yard. So extensive a fire as one or more of those large buildings would make can readily be conceived as carrying destruction to all within its influence. It is presumed that views of economy, or a disposition to lessen the expense as much as possible, led to the practice of covering the roofs of those buildings with shingles. Inventions were afterwards made of reservoirs, spouts, forcing pumps, &c., &c., to give protection to the roofs against that destructive element, fire, but without success, and the Commissioners, under a sense of official duty, earnestly recommend the appropriation.

A very serious alarm was experienced on the 31st of May last, at the Boston yard. Captain Crane, under date of the 1st June, writes to the Commissioners, "that he deemed it his duty to acquaint them with a very alarming circumstance that yesterday threatened ship house No. 1, ships Virginia, Independence, Columbus, and Java, besides endangering the public storehouses and other buildings."

"A fire broke out about 4 P. M. in the upper part of Main street, Charlestown, the wind fresh to the northward and westward; our engines, &c., were immediately got in readiness; burning shingles were shortly driven into the yard and on board the ships: owing to the great drought, a small brand communicated to the roof of ship house No. 1, and it blazed; to the precautions taken, and to the activity of our own people, I attribute the safety of a vast amount of public property; the tide had just begun to make, and the water in the wells was low; had it occurred in the night, I fear the consequences would have proved serious; our engines are incapable of throwing water on the roofs of the ship houses."

The preceding extract will serve to show the great danger to be apprehended from fire within the yard, when so great an amount of property was jeopardized from one originating without the limits of the yard, and would seem to warn us to use every precaution against so destructive an enemy. Had the occurrence stated by Capt. Crane taken place in the night, property to the amount of more than a million of dollars would probably have been destroyed within the yard; whereas, had the roof of the ship house been of incombustible materials, no loss could have resulted from the occurrence.

The land recommended to be purchased for the extension of the Norfolk yard would be a valuable acquisition to the government, as well as to that yard; and as it is contemplated to secure it by a permanent enclosure, it would be desirable that provision for the purchase of the land should be made, previous to putting up the wall; if afterwards purchased, it would cost an extra expense, probably equivalent to the cost of the land.

The Pensacola Navy yard being a new establishment, where accommodations of every description are required, the estimates must necessarily be considerable, and may appear high; but the amount is, in the opinion of the Commissioners, indispensable to make the improvements necessary to render it a useful establishment.

Whilst on the subject of navy yard improvements, the board, with great deference, respectfully suggest the expediency of again urging, in the strongest manner upon Congress, to make provision to defray the expenses of a board of commissioners, to be composed of three naval officers and two civil engineers, to examine the different yards, and fix upon the plan best adapted to the arrangement of all the docks, building ships, and other establishments proper to be erected within them; which plans, when once approved by the President of the United States, shall be rigidly adhered to in all future improvements, unless deviations therefrom should be specially authorized by him.

I have the honor to be, with great respect, sir, your most obedient servant,


Hon. Sam'l L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy.



There will be required for the navy, during the year 1827, three millions and fourteen thousand eight hundred and two dollars and ninety-two cents, in addition to any balances which may remain unexpended on the 1st January, 1827.

1. Pay, subsistence, and established allowances for all officers, seamen, and others,
belonging to the navy, and for all persons attached to the civil establishment of the yards
$1,343,348 00
2. For provisions 579,148 54
3. For the repairs of vessels in ordinary, and for the wear and tear of vessels in commission 450,000 00
4. For medicines, surgical instruments, hospital stores, and all other expenses on account of the sick 50,000 00
5. Ordnance and ordnance stores 35,000 00
6. For improvements and repairs of navy yards 332,306 38
7. For defraying the expenses which may accrue during the year 1827, for the following-purposes: for freight and transportation of materials and stores of every description; for wharfage and dockage; for storage and rent; for traveling expenses of officers, and transportation of seamen; for house rent or chamber money, and for fuel and candles, to officers, other than those attached to navy yards and shore stations; for commissions, clerk hire, office rent, stationery and fuel to Navy agents; for premiums and incidental expenses of recruiting; for apprehending deserters; for compensation to judge advocates; for per diem allowance to persons attending courts-martial and courts of inquiry, and to officers engaged on extra service beyond the limits of their stations; for printing and for stationery of every description; for books, charts, nautical and mathematical instruments, chronometers, models, and drawings; for purchase and repairs of steam and fire engines, and for machinery; for purchase and maintenance of oxen and horses, and for carts, wheels, and workmen's tools of every description; for postage of letters on public service; for pilotage; for cabin furniture of vessels in commission; for taxes on navy yards and public property; for assistance rendered to public vessels in distress; for incidental labor at navy yards, not appli-


cable to any other appropriation; for coal and other fuel for forges, foundries, steam engines; and for candles, oil and fuel, for vessels in commission, and in ordinary, and for no other object or purpose whatever $220,000 00
8. For contingent expenses for objects arising in the year 1827, and not hereinbefore enumerated 5,000 00
$3,014,802 92


Estimate of the pay and subsistence of all persons of the navy, attached to vessels in commission.

Ships of the line. Frigates. Sloops. Schooners. Total each grade. Amount of pay and subsistence.
First class. Second class. First class. Second class.
Number of each class 1 3 2 8 3 4
Captains 2 3 2 1 8 $17,630 00
Masters commandant 7 3 1 11 11,935 00
Lieutenants commandant 3 3 4,068 75
Lieutenants 9 15 8 24 9 12 77 51,012 50
Masters 1 3 2 8 3 1 18 10,282 50
Pursers 1 3 2 8 3 4 21 11,996 25
Surgeons 1 3 2 8 3 17 11,751 25
Surgeons' mates 3 6 4 8 3 4 28 12,635 00
Chaplains 1 3 2 6 3,427 50
Midshipmen 30 54 28 80 24 21 237 54,036 00
Secretaries 1 1 1,000 00
Schoolmasters 1 3 2 8 14 5,477 50
Clerks 1 3 2 8 3 4 21 6,300 00
Boatswains 1 3 2 8 3 17 5,631 25
Gunners 1 3 2 8 3 4 21 6,956 25
Carpenters 1 3 2 8 3 17 5,631 25
Sailmakers 1 3 2 8 3 17 5,631 25
Boatswains' mates 6 9 6 16 6 8 51 11,628 00
Gunners' mates 3 6 4 8 3 24 5,472 00
Carpenters' mates 3 6 4 8 3 5 29 6,612 00
Sailmakers' mates 1 3 2 1 7 1,596 00
Quartermasters 10 24 16 40 12 16 118 25,428 00
Quartergunners 22 36 16 64 18 13 169 36,504 00
Yeomen 3 9 6 24 9 5 56 12,096 00
Captains' stewards 1 3 2 8 3 4 21 4,536 00
Cooks' stewards 1 3 2 8 3 4 21 4,536 00
Coopers 1 3 8 8 3 17 3,672 00
Armorers 1 3 2 8 3 17 3,672 00
Armorers' mates 4 4 720 00
Masters-at-arms 1 3 2 8 3 17 3,672 00
Ships' corporals 5 6 4 15 2,520 00
Cooks 1 3 2 8 3 4 21 4,536 00
Cooks' mates 1 1 144 00
Master of the band 1 3 2 6 1,296 00
Musicians, 1st class 6 12 6 24 3,456 00
Musicians, 2d class 5 9 4 18 2,160 00
Seamen 280 450 240 480 150 56 1,656 238,464 00
Ordinary seamen 260 510 260 400 120 40 1,590 190,800 00
Boys 40 45 20 80 30 17 232 16,704 00
4,648 $805,686 25
Pay and subsistence for six months, for
returning from the Mediterranean —
3 1 2 132,040 25
Pay and subsistence for four months, for returning from the Pacific 1 1 30,817 50
Total $968,544 00



Statement of the pay and rations, and all other allowances of officers and others, at the navy yards and hospitals.


Number. Pay
per day.
at $8.
at $6.
of pay,
per annum.
Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 $300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 20 20 1 1,081 00
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Midshipmen 2 19 1 638 50
Boatswain 1 20 2 12 9 1 651 75
Gunner 1 20 2 12 9 1 651 75
Carpenter's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$12,720 25
Able seamen 4 12 1 $941 00
Ordinary seamen 6 10 1 1,267 50
$2,208 50
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 250 00
Clerk of the yard 1 600 00
Naval constructor 1 2,000 00
Clerk to constructor 1 240 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$5,090 00
Whole amount $20,018 75
Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 40 20 2 1,710 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 20 20 1 1,080 00
Master 1 40 2 20 12 1 941 75
Master 1 40 2 662 50
Surgeon 1 50 2 20 20 1 1,109 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 $145 16 14 1 950 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Chaplain 1 40 2 250 912 50
Midshipman 4 19 1 1,277 00
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 12 9 1 651 75
Carpenter's mate, qualified as caulker 1 19 1 319 25
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$15,274 50
Lieutenant 1 40 3 $753 75
Master 1 40 2 662 50
Carpenter 1 20 2 422 50
Carpenter's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Boatswain's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Able seamen 12 12 1 2,823 00
Ordinary seamen 24 10 1 5,070 00
$10,370 25


C.—Statement of pay and rations—Continued.

Number. Pay

per annum.
at $8.
at $6.
of pay,
per annum.
Surgeon 1 $50 2 $200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 950 15
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 450 00
Clerk to the yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 1 750 00
Clerk to commandant 1 30 360 00
Naval constructor 1 2,300 00
Clerk to naval constructor 1 420 00
Inspector and meas. of timber 1 900 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$8,080 00
Whole amount $37,324 75


Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 $300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 200 20 20 1 1,281 00
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Chaplain 1 40 2 250 912 50
Midshipmen 4 19 1 1,277 00
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Carpenter's mate, qualified as caulker 1 19 1 319 25
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$15,602 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 $753 75
Master 1 40 2 662 50
Carpenter 1 20 2 422 50
Carpenter's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Boatswain's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Able seamen 12 12 1 2,823 00
Ordinary seamen 24 10 1 5,070 00
$10,370 25
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00


C.—Statement of pay and rations—Continued.

Number. Pay
at $8.
at $6.
of pay,
rations, and
per annum.
Civil department. 1
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 450 00
Clerk of the yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 1 750 00
Clerk to commandant 1 $30 360 00
Naval constructor 1 2,000 00
Clerk to naval constructor 1 420 00
Inspector and meas. of timber 1 900 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$7,780 00
Whole amount $37,352 25


Captain 1 $100 16 $600 65 30 3 $4,066 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 200 20 20 1 1,281 00
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Carpenter's mate, qualified as caulker 1 19 1 319 25
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$13,061 75
Able seamen 4 12 1 $941 00
Ordinary seamen 6 10 1 1,267 50
$2,208 50
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,200 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 300 00
Clerk of the yard 1 600 00
Clerk to commandant 1 600 00
Naval constructor 1 2,300 00
Master joiner, and foreman of carpenters 1 1,200 00
Clerk to constructor 1 25 300 00
Inspector and meas. of timber 1 700 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$7,500 00
Whole amount $26,370 25


C.—Statement of pay and rations—Continued.


Number. Pay
per day.
at $8
at $6
 of pay,
 rations, and
per annum.
Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 40 20 2 1,710 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 20 20 1 1,081 0)
Master 1 40 2 20 12 1 941 75
Master in charge of ordnance 1 40 2 662 50
Master keeper of magazine 1 40 2 662 50
Surgeon 1 50 2 $200 20 20 1 1,309 50
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner as laboratory officer 1 20 2 422 50
Carpenter's mate, qualified as caulker 1 19 1 319 25
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$13,718 00
Boatswain's mate 1 19 1 $319 25
Able seamen 6 12 1 1,411 50
Ordinary seamen 8 10 1 1,690 00
$3,420 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 450 00
Clerk of yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 1 1,000 00
Clerk to commandant 1 40 480 00
Naval constructor 1 2,300 00
Clerk to naval constructor 1 35 420 00
Inspector and meas. of timber 1 900 00
Master chain cable and caboose maker 1 1,500 00
Machinist 1 1,500 00
Engineer 1 782 50
Master builder 1 1,500 00
Master plumber 1 1,200 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$14,932 50
Whole amount $25,671 25


Captain 1 $100 16 65 30 3 $3,466 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 $300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 200 20 20 1 1,281 00
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75


C.—Statement of pay and rations—Continued.

Number. Pay
per day.
rent per
per annum.
at $8.
at $6.
of pay,
rations, and
per annum.
Surgeon's mate 1 $30 2 $145 16 14 1 $950 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Chaplain 1 40 2 250 912 50
Midshipmen 4 19 1 1,277 00
Boatswain I 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Carpenter's mate, as caulker 1 19 1 319 25
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$15,602 00
Lieutenant 1 40 3 $753 75
Master 1 40 2 662 50
Carpenter 1 20 2 422 50
Carpenter's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Boatswain's mate 1 19 1 319 25
Able seamen 12 12 1 2,823 00
Ordinary seamen 24 10 1 5,070 00
$10,370 25
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 450 00
Clerk to yard 1 900 00
Clerk to commandant 750 00
Clerk to commandant 1 30 360 00
Naval constructor 1 2,000 00
Clerk to naval constructor 1 35 420 00
Inspector and meas. of timber 1 900 00
Keeper of magazine 1 480 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$8,260 00
Whole amount $37,832 25


Captain 1 $100 16 $600 65 30 3 $4,066 75
Master commandant 1 60 5 300 40 20 2 2,010 75
Lieutenant 1 40 3 200 20 20 1 1,281 00
Master 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Purser 1 40 2 200 20 12 1 1,141 75
Midshipmen 4 19 1 1,277 00
Boatswain 1 20 2 90 12 9             1 741 75
Gunner 1 20 2 90 12 9 1 741 75
Carpenter's mate, as caulker 1 19 1 319 25
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
$13,029 00


C.—Statement of pay and rations—Continued.

Number. Pay
per day.
per annum.
at $8.
at $6.
of pay,
rations, and
per annum.
Able seamen 4 $12 1 $941 00
Ordinary seamen 6 10 1 1,267 50
$2,208 50
Surgeon 1 50 2 $200 20 20 1 $1,309 75
Surgeon's mate 1 30 2 145 16 14 1 950 75
Steward 1 18 1 307 25
Nurses 2 10 1 422 50
Washers 2 8 1 374 50
Cook 1 12 1 235 25
$3,600 00
Civil department.
Storekeeper 1 $1,700 00
Clerk to storekeeper 1 250 00
Clerk of yard 1 900 00
Master joiner 1 $3 per day. 939 00
Master builder 1 2,000 00
Clerk to master builder 1 25 300 00
Porter 1 25 300 00
$6,389 00
Whole amount $25,226 50


Master 1 $40 2 $200 12 20 1 $1,141 75


Captain 1 $100 8 $300 65 30 3 $3,036 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Purser 1 40 2 662 50
$5,009 00


Captain 1 $100 8 $300 65 30 3 $3,036 75
Surgeon 1 50 2 200 20 20 1 1,309 75
Purser 1 40 2 662 50
$5,009 00


Hospital. Total
Portsmouth, N. H. $12,120 25 $2,208 50 $5,090 00 $20,018 75
Boston 15,214 50 10,370 25 8,080 00 $3,600 00 37,324 75
New York 15,602 00 10,370 25 7,780 00 3,600 00 37,352 25
Philadelphia 13,061 15 2,208 50 7,500 00 3,600 00 26,370 25
Washington 13,118 00 3,420 75 14,932 50 3,600 00 35,671 25
Norfolk 15,602 00 10,370 25 8,260 00 3,600 00 37,832 25
Pensacola 13,029 00 2,208 50 6,389 00 3,600 00 25,226 50
Sacketts 1,141 75 1,141 75
$100,149 25 $41,157 00 $58,031 50 $21,600 00 $220,937 75
Baltimore $5,009 00 $5,009 00
Charleston 5,009 00 5,009 00
$10,018 00 $10,018 00



Statement of the number, pay, &c., of officers, &c., required for five receiving vessels, for the year 1827, explanatory of part of the first item of appropriation.

Boston. New York. Philadelphia. Norfolk. Baltimore. Total number. Amount.
Masters commandant 1 1 1 1 4 $4,340 00
Lieutenants 3 3 2 3 2 13 8,612 50
Pursers 1 1 1 3 1,713 75
Masters 1 1 1 3 1,713 75
Surgeons' mates 1 1 1 3 1,353 75
Midshipmen 3 3 2 3 2 13 2,964 00
Boatswains' mates 1 1 1 1 1 5 1,140 00
Carpenters' mates 1 1 1 1 4 912 00
Stewards 1 1 1 1 1 5 1,080 00
Cooks 1 1 1 1 1 5 1,080 00
Able seamen 2 2 2 2 2 10 1,440 00
Ordinary seamen 6 6 4 6 2 24 2,880 00
Boys 4 4 2 4 2 16 1,152 00
108 $30,381 75


Statement of the pay, &c., of officers attached to recruiting stations, together with one captain, as ordnance officer, explanatory of part of the first item of appropriation.

Boston. New York. Philadelphia. Norfolk. Baltimore. Total number. Amount.
Masters commandant. 1 1 1 1 1 5 $5,881 25
Lieutenants. 1 1 1 1 1 5 3,768 75
Midshipmen. 1 1 1 1 1 5 1,596 25
Surgeons 1 1 1 1 4 3,130 00
Surgeons' mates 1 1 542 50
20 $14,918 75
ordnance duty.
1 $1,930 00


Exhibit of the officers, &c., awaiting orders and on furlough, explanatory of part of the first item of appropriation.

Captains. Masters
Lieutenants. Masters Pursers. Midshipmen. Total
Awaiting orders 9 83 4 20 116 $88,966 25
On furlough 2 15 2 1 20 7,651 50
9 2 98 2 4 21 136 $96,617 75

Recapitulation, showing the sums composing the first item of appropriation.

Pay, &c., in commission $968,544 00
Pay, &c., in yards 20 937 75
Pay, &c., in stations 10,018 00
Pay, &c., in receiving vessel 30 381 75
Pay, &c., in recruiting static 14,918 75
Pay, &c., in ordnance duty 1,930 00
Pay, &c., in awaiting orders. 96,617 75
$1,343,348 00



Estimate of provisions required for the navy for the year 1827.

For vessels in commission during the whole year 4,648
For marines for ditto 666
For receiving vessels 108
5,422 persons,
At one ration per day, makes 1,979,030 rations
Estimated at 25 cents, is $494,757 50
Add one ship of the line, one frigate, first class, two sloops, for six months, 1,475 persons. 67,296 87 1/2
Also one frigate, first class, one sloop, second class, for four months, 562 persons 17,094 16 2/3
Amount 579,148 54



Estimates for the improvements and repairs of navy yards, explanatory of the sixth item of appropriation.


For accommodations for officers, blacksmith shop, covering roofs of ship houses with two-thirds slate and one-third copper, leveling and repairing $17,412 55


For completing the yard wall, launching ways for 74 and frigate, causeway to connect blacksmith shop with ship house, warrant officers' quarters, repairs of wharves and buildings, covering the roofs of ship houses with one-third copper and two-thirds slate, 50,657 70


For commencement of wall, completing mast and boat houses, making new front to wharves stone work, repairs of buildings, covering roof of ship houses one-third copper and two-thirds slate, leveling and filling yard. 55,160 28


For building storehouses, building mast "houses, completing wharf, covering roof of ship houses with tin, repairs of buildings, &c., conveying water to the yard, and privilege of using the same. 60, 635 22


For warrant officers' houses, tinning ship house, repairs and filling in wharves 16,561 04


For extension of yard wall, officers' quarters, mast house, timber sheds, boat houses, facing
wharves with stone, covering roofs of ship houses one-third copper two-thirds slate
82,004 09


For officers' quarters, storehouses, work shops, wharves 49,875 50
$332,306 38



Exhibit showing the disposition and force of the vessels of the United States navy, and of the vessels building under the laws for the gradual increase of the navy, and for building ten sloops-of-war.

Independence, 74 Boston In ordinary.
Franklin, 74 New York In ordinary.
Washington, 74 New York In ordinary.
Columbus, 74 Boston In ordinary.
Delaware, 74 Norfolk In ordinary.
North Carolina, 74 Mediterranean In service.
Ohio, 74 New York In ordinary.
Chippewa, 74 Sackett's Harbor Under cover.
New Orleans, 74 Sackett's Harbor
United States, 44 Pacific In service.
Constitution, 44 Mediterranean In service.
Guerriere, 44 Norfolk Repairing.



Ships of the line.Alabama, at Portsmouth; Virginia and Vermont, at Boston; Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia; and New York, at Norfolk.

Frigates, first class.Santee, at Portsmouth; Savannah and Sabine, at New York; Raritan, at Philadelphia; Cumberland, at Boston; Columbia, at Washington; and St. Lawrence, at Norfolk.

Sloops, first class.Concord, at Portsmouth; Warren and Falmouth, at Boston; Fairfield, at New York; Vandalia, at Philadelphia; St. Louis, at Washington; and Natchez, at Norfolk.

Frames for three frigates of the first class contracted for.

Java, 44 Boston Repairing.
Potomac, 44 Washington In ordinary.
Brandywine, 44 Pacific In service.
Congress, 36 Washington Repairing.
Constellation, 36 West Indies and Gulf of Mexico In service.
Macedonian, 36 Coast of Brazil In service.
Cyane 24 Coast of Brazil In service.
John Adams, 24 West Indies, &c. In service.
Boston 24 Coast of Brazil In service.
Vincennes, 24 Pacific In service.
Lexington, 24 West Indies, &c. In service.
Ontario 18 Mediterranean In service.
Erie 18 Mediterranean In service.
Peacock 18 Pacific In service.
Hornet 18 West Indies In service.
Porpoise 12 Mediterranean In service.
Dolphin 12 Pacific In service.
Frigate of the 1st class, lately purchased, and in ordinary at New York.
Grampus, 12 West Indies and Gulf of Mexico In service.
Shark 12 West Indies and Gulf of Mexico In service.
Fox 3 Baltimore Receiving vessel.
Alert Norfolk Receiving vessel.
Sea Gull Philadelphia Receiving vessel.
Fulton, steam frigate New York Receiving vessel.



Estimate of the sums required for the support of the office of the Navy Commissioners, for the year 1827.

Commissioners of the Navy Board $10,500
Secretary 2,000
Clerks, per act of April 20, 1818 3,550
Clerks and draftsman, per act of May 26, 1824 4,000
Messenger 100
Contingent expenses 1,800

Navy Commissioners' Office, November 9, 1826.

Estimate of the sums required for the support of the office of the Secretary of the Navy, for the year 1821.
Salary of the Secretary of the Navy, per act of Congress of February 20, 1819 $6,000
Compensation to the clerks, authorized per act of April 20, 1818 8,200
Compensation to one additional clerk, per act of May 26, 1824 1,000
Compensation to the messenger and assistant messenger 1,050
Contingent expenses 3,000
Additional compensation to the clerk whose salary is now $800, which is proposed to be increased to $1,000 per annum 200
Compensation to one additional clerk, 1,000

The necessity for the two last items was fully explained in a letter to the chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, dated 21st January, 1826.

Note.—Of the sum estimated for contingent expenses, $2,000 will be required for the current expenses of 1821, the other $1,000 for arrearages of and prior to 1826, to repay the amount heretofore expended for extra clerk hire during the session of Congress, and for similar expenses during the ensuing session.


Estimate of the sum required for the improvement and repairs of the two Executive buildings west of the President's house, occupied by the War and Navy Departments, in addition to what is now granted, submitted by the Superintendent.

For repairing the wells and pumps, which are considerably out of order $120
For painting the passages, outside walls, and window frames 500
For planting trees and making pavement 200




Estimate for the marine corps, for the year 1827.

Head-Quarters of the Marine Corps, Washington, November 13, 1826.

Sir: I have the honor to transmit to the Department the estimates for the marine corps for the year 1827, together with a letter from the quartermaster, explanatory of them.

I remain, with great respect, your most obedient servant,

ARCH'D HENDERSON, Lieut. Colonel Commandant.

Hon. Samuel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy.

Estimate of pay for officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians and privates, and subsistence for the officers of the United States marine corps, for the year 1827.

Head-Quarters of Marines, Paymaster's Office, Washington, November 13, 1826.


One lieutenant colonel commandant, at $75 per month $900
One lieutenant colonel, at $60 per month 720
One paymaster, at $50 per month 600
One quartermaster, at $60 per month 720
Seven captains, at $40 per month 3,360
Twenty-three first lieutenants, at $30 per month 8,280
Sixteen second lieutenants, at $25 per month 4,800
One surgeon, at $50 per month 600
One surgeon's mate, at $40 per month 480
One sergeant major, at $10 per month 120
One quartermaster sergeant, at $10 per month 120
One drum major, at $9 per month 108
One fife major, at $9 per month 108
Seventy-one sergeants, at $9 per month 7,668
Seventy-three corporals, at $8 per month 7,008
Twenty drummers, at $7 per month 1,680
Twenty fifers, at $7 per month 1,680
Seven hundred and fifty privates, at $6 per month 54,000
Extra pay to adjutant and inspector, at $30 per month 360


One lieutenant colonel, six rations per day, and six as commandant, twelve rations per day,
is 4,380, at 20 cents each
One lieutenant colonel, five rations per day, is 1,825, at 20 cents 365
One paymaster, four rations per day, is 1,460, at 20 cents 292
One quartermaster, four rations per day, is 1,460, at 20 cents 292
Seven captains, three rations per day, is 7,665, at 20 cents 1,533
Twenty-three first lieutenants, four rations per day, is 33,580, at 20 cents 6,716
Sixteen second lieutenants, three rations per day, is 17,520, at 20 cents 3,504
One surgeon, two rations per day, is 720, at 25 cents 180
One surgeon's mate, two rations per day, is 720, at 20 cents 146

JOS. L. KUHN, Paymaster M. C.

Head-Quarters Marine Corps, Quartermaster's Office, Washington City, November 1, 1826.

Sir: I have the honor to transmit an estimate of appropriation required for the quartermaster's department of the marine corps, for the year 1827.

The limits defined by the Commissioners of the Navy for the marine enclosure in the Navy yard at Philadelphia, render it necessary, in order to properly locate the officers' quarters, (for which an appropriation was made last year,) that the barracks occupied by the men should be removed, and as they are old, and the expense of repairing them would be considerable, it was deemed advisable to suspend the building of the officers' quarters until the additional sum of $11,000, in the present estimate, could be obtained for the erection of new barracks for the men.


Explanatory of the necessity of the appropriation for barracks at New York, I enclose herewith a certificate, forwarded to this office by Lieutenant Col. R. Smith, showing the present barracks to be untenantable and unworthy of repair.

I would further state that from personal inspection I agree in opinion with the signers of the certificate.

I am, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

E. J. WEED, Quartermaster Marine Corps.

To Col. A. Henderson, Commandant Marine Cops.

Marine Barracks, Brooklyn, N. Y., October 12, 1826.

Sir: In obedience to your request, we have taken a survey of the quarters occupied by the troops under your command, and have the honor to make the following statement:

That, on examination of the left wing of the barracks, we find that the dilapidated condition of the roof and the rottenness of the timbers render it entirely unfit to be occupied. The condition of the roof is such, that, in bad or wet weather, the rain is admitted in many parts; and we find, on inspection this day, that the floor of a room occupied by one of the officers is completely overflowed by water, admitted through the roof.

That the rooms occupied by the non-commissioned officers and privates are not in a fit state to live in; they all leak, and it is our opinion, it would be dangerous to attempt a repair of the roof, from the rottenness of the rafters: besides a repair might be attended with more expense than the buildings are worth.

That one of the barrack rooms is occupied as a hospital, and is entirely unfit for the accommodation or comfort of the sick.

That the room occupied as the commanding officer's office is in a very leaky condition, and it appears impossible for the clerk to keep the books and papers in a proper state of preservation.

That the guard room is very bad, and the cells above it so entirely insecure, that the safe keeping of the prisoners is rendered doubtful, even with the most constant vigilance.

That the quarters occupied by the commanding officer, in wet weather are entirely untenantable. That, in fact, the money it would require to put the barracks in good repair would be more than the buildings in their present condition are worth.

That the building occupied as a store, for arms, accoutrements and clothing, is a mere shell, and admits the rain in almost every part; in consequence, the articles receive much injury from such exposure.

We are, sir, respectfully, your obedient servants,

BENJ. MACOMBER, Lieutenant of Marines.

G. F. LINDSAY, Lieutenant of Marines.

JOHN F. WALTON, Master Joiner, Navy Yard.

Colonel Richard Smith, Commanding Marines, New York.

Estimate for expenditures in the quartermaster's department of the United, States marine corps, for the year 1827.


For 291 non-commissioned officers, musicians, privates and washerwomen, serving on shore, at one ration per day each, is 108,405 rations, at 12 cents per ration, is $13,008 60


For 938 non-commissioned officers, musicians and privates, at 30 dollars each. $28,140 00
625 00
For 100 watch coats, at $6.25 each 28,765 00


For the officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians, privates and washerwomen, and for the public offices and armory 9,098 00
For traveling expenses for officers, and transportation of men, freight of stores from one station to another, toll, ferriage, wharfage and cartage, expenses of recruiting, per diem allowance for attending courts-martial and courts of inquiry, and for officers on extra duty, compensation to judge advocates, house rent and chamber money, where there are no quarters assigned, incidental labor in the quartermaster's department, expenses for burying deceased persons belonging to the marine corps, printing and stationery, postage on public letters, forage, expenses of pursuing deserters, keeping in repair the barracks at the different stations, straw for the men, barrack furniture, spades, shovels, axes, picks and carpenters' tools, and for no other purpose whatever $13,500 00
For sundry expenses arising in the current year, and not hereinbefore mentioned 500 00
14,000 00


For medicines, hospital stores, and instruments for the officers and marines (on shore) 2,369 11


For completing the barracks at Philadelphia $11,000 00
For erecting new barracks at New York 30,000 00
41,000 00
$108,241 31

E. J. WEED, Quartermaster Marine Corps.

Head-Quarters Marine Corps, Quartermaster's Office, Washington City, Nov. 14, 1826.


Published: Tue Jan 30 10:26:57 EST 2018