The Navy Department Library
Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy for the Fiscal Year 1941
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
Price 10 cents (paper cover)
|United States Marine Corps||24|
|Health of the Navy||26|
|Research, developments, and tests||35|
|Offices, boards, and other activities||48|
NOTE: For reasons of economy, no annual reports of bureaus and offices of the Navy Department for 1941 have been printed. Manuscript copies thereof are on file in the bureaus and offices for reference.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY
To the President:
I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the Secretary of the Navy for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941.
I am proud to report that the American people may feel fully confident in their Navy. In my opinion, the loyalty, morale, and technical ability of the personnel are without superior. On any comparable basis, the United States Navy is second to none.
The international situation is such that we must arm as rapidly as possible to meet our naval defense requirements simultaneously in both oceans against any possible combination of powers concerting action against us. Our aim must always be to have forces sufficient to enable us to have complete freedom of action in either ocean while retaining forces in the other ocean for effective defense of our vital security. Anything less than this strength is hazardous to the security of the Nation and must be considered as being unacceptable - as long as it is within our power to produce and man the forces necessary to meet these requirements.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, new construction both for the orderly replacement of overage vessels and aircraft and for the orderly augmentation of existing strength was continued. The Naval Expansion Act of July 19, 1940, provided an increase in the authorized tonnage of under-age combatant vessels, as established by the Acts of May 17, 1938, and June 14, 1940, of 1,325,000 tons. In addition, 100,000 tons of auxiliary vessels, various patrol, escort, and miscellaneous craft, and 15,000 useful aircraft were authorized. Title IV of the Naval Appropriation Act, 1941, approved September 9, 1940, contained funds for the initiation of construction as follows: 109,300 tons of combatant vessels authorized by the act of March 27, 1934; 8 auxiliary vessels authorized by the act of May 17, 1938; 75,000 tons of auxiliary vessels authorized by the act of June 14, 1940; and 1,325,000 tons of combatant vessels, 100,000 tons of auxiliary vessels, and patrol craft authorized by the act of July, 1940. The Naval Appropriation Act, Title VI, 1941, approved March 17, 1941, authorized contracts prior to July 1, 1941, for alterations to 31 auxiliary vessels authorized by the first and second supplemental National Defense
Appropriation Acts, 1941, approved June 26, 1940 and September 9, 1940, respectively. The fifth supplemental National Defense Appropriation Act, 1941, approved April 5, 1941, provided for the acquisition and conversion of twelve additional auxiliaries. An act, approved May 24, 1941, authorized the construction or acquisition and conversion of 550,000 tons of auxiliary vessels.
On June 30, 1940, there were 12 private shipyards building vessels for the United States Navy. By June 30, 1941, this number had been increased to 108 not including 5 additional companies which had received and completed contracts during the fiscal year. There were under construction on June 30, 1941 a total of 697 vessels; of these, 603 were building in private yards and 94 in navy yards.
During the fiscal year, 237 vessels were taken over by the United States for the purpose of conversion to Naval auxiliary, district, and patrol craft. Of these vessels acquired, 149 conversions were completed as of June 30, 1941.
The Navy Department maintained in commission and operated at sea a total of 681 ships during the year. Of these ships, 356 were in commission throughout the year and 325 were placed in commission during the year. There were also operated in the naval districts and stations 226 small craft of various types. The total number of naval vessels of all types that were in service during the whole or part of the year was 907.
The measure of effectiveness of a man-of-war is determined by the efficiency of its personnel. Leadership, morale, and adequacy of personnel properly trained are paramount in the determination of fighting strength.
The complement of a ship is the number of officers and men of varying degrees of individual skill and experience necessary to meet the demands for battle. The allowance of a ship is the number of men and officers that can be assigned to a ship, which is dependent upon appropriations available, in time of peace. The allowance, normally, is less than the complement, but the nearer this peacetime allowance approaches the complement, the nearer the ship is maintained at its maximum battle efficiency. In time of peace the Navy may operate with a shortage of personnel, but the price of such shortage should be clearly understood as unreadiness for war.
Sufficient funds were appropriated for the fiscal year 1941 to allow an average enlisted strength of 197,040, beginning the year with 144,824, and ending with 264,123. This appropriated strength which provided for the assignment of 37,545 enlisted men of the Naval Reserve, 8,600 members of the Fleet Reserve, and 650 retired enlisted men, on active duty was not reached by June 30, 1941, the actual strength on that date being 206,018 regulars, 941 retired enlisted men,
9,142 Fleet Reserves, and 28,505 other reserves making a total of 244,606.
The number of enlisted men allowed by appropriations for 1941 permitted their assignment in accordance with the complement of all ships for the first time since World War I. The percentage of allowance to complement in the fiscal years 1939 and 1940 was 85.6 and 87.2, respectively, and on June 30, 1941 was 100.
The ship construction program now underway necessitates the training, in advance of commissioning of such ships, of large numbers of personnel. It is imperative that the demands on the active fleet for men to assist in manning these ships be kept at a minimum. As many men as can be efficiently accommodated in combatant ships, in excess of complement, will, therefore, be so assigned in order that personnel for new construction can be properly trained in advance.
On July 19, 1940, legislation was enacted to expand the fleet by 70 percent and to increase the total number of planes to be maintained to 15,000. It was necessary, therefore, to increase the authorized enlisted strength allowed by law. Accordingly, on April 22, 1941, legislation was enacted which increased the authorized enlisted strength of the active list of the regular Navy to 232,000 men. This legislation also provided for an increase in authorized strength, upon the declaration of a national emergency, to 300,000 regular enlisted men. Authorized strength was defined to mean the total enlisted men of the Navy authorized by law, exclusive of the Hospital Corps.
Until October 5, 1940, personnel of the Naval Reserve were ordered to active duty on a voluntary basis only. On that date, however, the Secretary of the Navy placed all Organized Reserve divisions and aviation squadrons of the Organized Reserve on short notice for call to active duty and granted authority to call Fleet Reservists as necessary. Mobilization of all Organized, Fleet, and local defense divisions of the Naval Reserve was completed on June 1, 1941.
On May 27, 1941, the President proclaimed the existence of an unlimited national emergency, and on June 12, 1941, instructions were issued placing all Naval Reservists, not in a deferred status, on active duty.
The officer personnel, though capable in ability, has been inadequate in numbers to meet the growing demands incident to the expansion in ships and planes. Studies indicate that some 26,000 line officers, regular and reserve, including aviators, will be required to adequately man the expanded Navy. In order to meet the demands, legislation was recommended, and enacted, which authorized the maintenance of the Naval Academy on a 5-appointment basis with a reduction in the course at the Naval Academy, until August 1, 1945, from 4 to 3 years. Studies indicate that with the Naval Academy
operating on a 5-appointment 3-year basis, the officer requirements of the Regular Service can be adequately met. The fiscal year 1945 should be our peak year in manning requirements. It should be unnecessary, after that year, to continue the shortened course.
To augment the Naval Academy as the source of supply of regular aviators, legislation was enacted on August 27, 1940, which authorizes the appointment to the Line of the Regular Navy and Marine Corps of naval aviators of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserve. A total of 328 naval aviators were commissioned in the line of the Regular Navy from this source.
Legislation approved October 8, 1940 authorizes the appointment to commissioned rank in the Line of the Regular Navy of those officers of the Naval Reserve who were commissioned therein upon graduation from the Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps. Because of eligibility requirements no officers were commissioned from this source during the year. About 25 such officers became eligible for appointment on June 30, 1941. Those recommended will be commissioned during the fiscal year 1942.
Hearings are pending before the Naval Affairs Committee of the House of Representatives on a bill which, if enacted, would authorize officers of the Naval Reserve, commissioned therein while holding the rank of midshipman in the Naval Reserve, to be appointed to commissioned rank in the Line of the Regular Navy under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy. The advantages of such a bill are twofold: First, it would provide an additional incentive for personnel to enroll as midshipmen in the Naval Reserve, and, second, it would assist the Navy in meeting the immediate requirements in the lower grades in the Line of the Navy in its current expansion. The Navy Department has recommended enactment of this bill and been advised by the Bureau of the Budget that there would be no objection to the submission of such recommendation. It is expected that hearings will be held in this connection some time after September 15, 1941.
By the graduation of the Class of 1941 at the Naval Academy, and the appointment of naval aviators in accordance with the act of August 27, 1940, a net gain at the end of the year, over the accumulated losses throughout the year, of 459 line officers, resulted in a total of 7,670 line officers on June 30, 1941. The several staff corps increased by 183, and the warrant grades by 383.
Legislation approved July 24, 1941, authorizes the temporary appointment to ranks or grades in the Regular Navy, not above lieutenant, of commissioned warrant and warrant offices and chief and first class petty officers. The act also authorizes the temporary
promotion or advancement of officers of the active and retired list.
Likewise, to increase the source of supply of Naval Reserve officers, legislation was enacted to authorize the increase in number of students at Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps schools from 2,400 to 7,200.
With the enactment of pending legislation and the recall to active duty of all reserve and retired personnel, it is anticipated that the requirements for officer and enlisted personnel, afloat and ashore, can be adequately met.
The morale of naval personnel continues to be of the highest order. Recruiting in the Regular Navy continues on the 6-year enlistment basis and for minority.
The fiscal year 1941 witnessed the virtual transition of the nation from a peacetime to a wartime footing, with tremendous industrial expansion for production of war material. Much of this expansion was keyed to the needs of military and naval aeronautics. The Navy's authorized airplane complement alone was increased from 10,000 to 15,000 and the appropriations for "Aviation, Navy," were four times as great as in 1940. While plans were set in motion to procure these airplanes, mobilization of the Naval Reserve was accomplished, thousands of new students being enrolled for aviation training, and additional aviation shore establishments and operating units being established. In design of aeronautical equipment and training of personnel, the lessons of the European war were rapidly absorbed and applied. New joint programs with the Army were formulated. Adjustments for the unprecedented defense aid activities were made. The application of critical priority schedules for aeronautics was undertaken. At the fiscal year end, satisfactory progress toward the realization of all objectives was reported.
During the year, there was established in the Office of the Secretary of the Navy an Office of Budget and Reports charged with such duties pertaining to naval budgetary matters and statistical and work reporting as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy.
Summaries of the annular reports of the various bureaus and offices of the Navy Department, the major units afloat, and the shore stations follow in this report.
The following summaries show the amounts available for the Navy Department and the Naval Establishment for obligations and expenditure during the fiscal year 1941 and estimated for the fiscal year 1942 under (A) the Regular Navy budget, exclusive of trust funds, and (B) allotments of defense housing funds.
(A) Appropriations, obligations, and expenditures for the Regular Navy budget
|Appropriations warranted, 1941||$3,626,094,838.19|
|Unexpended balances, July 1, 1940||393,824,620.04
|Available for expenditure, 1941||4,019,919,458.23|
|Amount return to surplus fund||$4,676,105.73|
|Unexpended balance, June 30, 1941||1,759,949,230.25||1,764,625,335.98|
|Expenditures recorded, 1941||2,255,294,122.25|
|Obligations, unpaid June 30, 1941||10,325,202,073.06|
|Obligations, unpaid July 1, 1940
|Obligated during 1941||11,379,232,952.33|
|Appropriations warranted, 1942 (estimated)||5,580,241,764.00|
|Unexpended balances, July 1, 1941||1,759,949,230.25|
|Available for expenditure, 1942 (estimated)||7,340,190,994.25|
|Amount returned to surplus fund (estimated)||$3,598,243.53|
|Unexpended balances, June 30, 1942 (estimated)||1,484,195,155.72||1,487,798,399.25|
|Estimated expenditures, 1942||5,852,397,595.00|
|Obligations, unpaid June 30, 1942 (estimated.)||12,007,673,083.06|
|Obligations, unpaid July 1, 1941||10,325,202,073.06||1,682,471,010.00|
|Estimated obligations, 1942||7,534,868,605.00|
(B) Obligations and expenditures under defense housing funds
|Amounts allotted during 1941||$49,019,000.00|
|Available for expenditure, 1941||49,019,000.00|
|Unexpended balance, June 30, 1941||16,244,162.86|
|Expenditures recorded, 1941||32,774,837.14|
|Obligations, unpaid June 30, 1941||15,208,618.53|
|Obligated during 1941||47,983,455.67|
|Unexpended balances of amounts allotted prior to July 1, 1941||16,244,162.86|
|Available for expenditure, 1942||16,244,162.86|
|Estimated expenditures, 1942||16,244,162.86|
|Obligations, unpaid July 1, 1941||15,208,618.53|
|Estimated obligations, 1942||1,035,544.33|
EMPLOYMENT OF FORCES.
The operations of the United States Naval Forces during the fiscal year 1941 have, of necessity, been determined by the demands of the national emergency. Every effort has been directed toward increasing the strength of the Fleets in order to accomplish the fundamental United States naval policy of maintaining a Navy in strength and readiness to uphold the national policies and interests, and to guard the United States and its continental and overseas possessions.
Pursuant to the fundamental policy, the employment of forces has been effected with the fulfilling of the following supplemental policies in view:
To develop the Navy to a maximum in fighting strength and ability to control the seas in defense of the Nation and its interests;
To make effectiveness in war the objective of all developments and training;
To organize and maintain the Navy for major operations in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
The ships of the Navy were maintained during the early part of the year in the same general organization as in the recent past; namely, the United States Fleet, the Asiatic Fleet, the Special Service Squadron, and the Naval Transportation Service. On February 1, 1941, the Fleet was reorganized as noted later herein.
THE UNITED STATES FLEET.
In general, the Fleet continued to base and operate during the period prior to the reorganization in the same areas as during the latter part of the previous year.
The requirements of the neutrality patrol in connection with the European war continued to be carried out by units of the Fleet. Further action made necessary by the present world situation was met by the recommissioning of naval vessels of various types together with acquisition of a number of privately owned vessels.
Certain vessels of the Fleet conducted training cruises for the Naval Reserve and for the various Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps units as in previous years. In addition to these training cruises, certain designated vessels of the Patrol Force conducted an intensive cruising schedule in connection with the training of the candidates for prospective commissioning in the Naval Reserve.
Due to the present world situation no Fleet problem was held as in past years, but numerous tactical exercises were conducted throughout the year.
The Atlantic Squadron (Patrol Force), United States Fleet was actively engaged in training Naval Reserves, N. R. O. T. C. units, candidates for prospective commissioning in the V-7 Naval Reserve, and in conducting midshipmen practice and coastal cruises during the summer of 1940.
The Atlantic Squadron was also engaged in maintaining the Neutrality Patrol, conducting numerous tactical exercises and in routine training operations.
On November 1, 1940, the designation of the Atlantic Squadron was changed to Patrol Force, United States Fleet.
On February 1, 1941, the United States Fleet as such was abolished. The reorganization, effective that date, provided for
The United States Pacific Fleet.
The United States Atlantic Fleet.
The United States Asiatic Fleet.
THE ASIATIC FLEET.
The ships of the Asiatic Fleet performed their normal functions with the exception of incidents resulting from the undeclared war in China.
On February 1, 1941, due to the reorganization of the major naval forces, the designation of the Asiatic Fleet was changed to the United States Asiatic Fleet.
Squadron 40-T continued to operate in the western Mediterranean for the purpose of cultivating friendly relations and protecting American interests. Due to the conditions prevailing in certain parts of Europe, Squadron 40-T was abolished on October 22, 1940; the vessels of this squadron returned to the United States and were assigned to various units of the seagoing forces.
SPECIAL SERVICE SQUADRON.
The Special Service Squadron consisted of the Erie (Flagship), Charleston, Tattnall, J. Fred Talbott, and was supplemented by vessels of Destroyer Division 53.
This force based on the Panama Canal Zone, and conducted training exercises as prescribed. Various visits were made to Central American ports.
On September 17, 1940, the Special Service Squadron was disbanded, and the vessels comprising that force were assigned to other naval activities.
THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD VESSELS OPERATING UNDER NAVAL DIRECTION.
The United States Coast Guard cutter Campbell reported to the Chief of Naval Operations on October 1, 1940, and proceeded to Lisbon, Portugal, to take over to a certain extent the duties previously performed by Squadron 40-T. The Campbell arrived at Lisbon on October 18, 1940, and continued on that duty until relieved by the Coast Guard cutter Ingham on April 25, 1941. Upon return to the United States, the Campbell continued to operate under naval direction during the remainder of the fiscal year.
In addition to the two vessels mentioned above, several other Coast Guard cutters reported for duty with the Navy and performed naval duties throughout the remainder of the fiscal year.
U. S. S. 0-9.
The submarine 0-9 while engaged in a practice dive off the Isle of Shoals on June 20, 1941, failed to surface. The ship was located in approximately 440 feet of water. Attempts at rescue failed. On June 22, 1941, appropriate ceremonies for the deceased were conducted at sea over the spot where the 0-9 was resting on the ocean floor.
Procurement of 2,059 new airplanes was accomplished during the year, in comparison with 306 for the previous fiscal year, resulting in a total number of service planes on hand at the end of the year of 3,926, a net increase of 82 percent of the June 30, 1940, figure. This production was aligned with the progress of experimental designs and a new policy of procuring two units of each design in order to effect speedier testing and insurance against accidental loss. Emphasis in development was placed on dive bomber and fighter types with greater engine-power and improved propeller design and on increase in the relative complement of patrol bomber types.
Engineering and material progress was quickened in all categories. The continued reliance of naval aviation on radial air-cooled engines showed further vindication in the service reports received from belligerents abroad and in the demonstrated ease of production speed-up in this country. Improvements during the year were effected in the high-altitude functioning of fuel and oil systems. The unprecedented equipment requirements of both armed services resulted in a long-needed program for Army-Navy standardization of materials, accessories, and instruments. Substitute materials, including plastics and alloys, were the object of continuing research.
Observation of technical experiences in the current war dictated many adaptations in design and installation, such as self-sealing fuel tanks, improvements in soundproofing and heating cabins, de-icing,
oxygen assemblies, armor, fire power, camouflage and, most recently, troop-carrying gliders. Research in lubricants to offset climatic extremes, and in the problems of structural stress and vibration, was successful. Notable also were developments of the year in the communications and control applications of radio.
The aeronautical organization for the year showed an increase of 48 percent in naval pilots of all classes, with a similar increase of skilled enlisted rating. On June 30, 1941, there were 3,104 aviation students alone in training, more than half of them assigned to special instruction in patrol plane operation. This huge training program was paralleled by the creation of the additional shore establishments needed to carry it out. Including the new training centers at Jacksonville, Miami, and Corpus Christi, 13 naval air stations were commissioned or brought near completion during the year, as well as 3 new Reserve aviation bases at Atlanta, Dallas, and New Orleans, making a total of 16 such bases, and 4 new trade schools. Marine Corps aviation forces, in addition, completed all gunnery and tactical training tasks with the Fleet and at the year-end were proceeding satisfactorily with parachutist and glider-troop training programs.
Within the bureau two new divisions were created, the Progress Division to expedite equipment of the new shore facilities and to coordinate procurement problems with other bureaus, and the Defense Aid Division to administer the requisitions of Navy-type equipment destined for the British Empire and allied territories. In the first 2 months of the latter activity, requisitions valued at nearly half the entire 1941 "Aviation, Navy" appropriations were cleared.
Acquisition of the new Atlantic bases from the British Government extended the routine operating areas of Naval aircraft during the year to vast offshore ocean ranges, and transcontinental ferry flights became daily incidents. In consequence, more than 50 percent increase in total hours flown by service planes was logged. Aircraft participated in all Fleet problems including joint Army and Navy exercises in the Caribbean and the Pacific. In these maneuvers special effort was devoted to implementation of current war tactics, such as the dive-bombing technique originated by the United States Navy, and to testing of new devices. For the latter purpose, two new pre-fleet training and test units, one in each coast area, and one new armament test unit, were established.
Three new patrol wings were organized and assigned to service operations, in addition to 2 new inshore squadron and various units for newly commissioned ships of the Fleet, including 2 battleships and 1 escort vessel. Other aircraft support vessels acquired were 3 seaplane tenders and 8 small patrol plane tenders. Installations on vessels involved new developments in equipment for launching, arresting, and recovery of airplanes. Future procurement of similar
installations is being scheduled for 15 battleships, 8 heavy cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 6 destroyers, and 12 carriers.
Lighter-than-air activities were conducted at the Naval Air Station, Lakehurst, N. J., consisting mainly of training, experimental and development work in connection with nonrigid airships. A program utilization of the newly authorized nonrigid airships was drawn up and approved. Lighter-than-air operations were extended during the year to provide antisubmarine patrol practice and maintained a high percentage of completed tasks. Airship activities during the ensuing fiscal year will be augmented by employment of new bases to be provided by pending legislation, including the Army's return of Moffett Field at Sunnyvale, Calif., to the Navy.
Continued development and training in aerological communications were carried on, much of it in liaison with the United States Weather Bureau. The photographic service was reorganized under cognizance of the bureau, training was expanded, hemisphere areas were surveyed from the air, and the technique of photographic recording of gunnery and other exercises was improved. Medical research provided valuable data in connection with altitude reactions, oxygen inhalation, night-blindness, aerobatic blackouts, and psychiatric methods of student selection.
New engine and structural test laboratories were nearing completion at the Naval Aircraft Factory as the year closed, and more than 20,000 square feet of production space were added. Approximately 400 complete training planes and engines were manufactured by the Navy at this plant. Maintenance records of all service planes for the year indicated greatly increased operating time between overhauls as compared with 1940 records. Overhaul shops received the additional assignment of small spare-parts manufacture to offset delivery delays at remote stations.
An Army-Navy Patent Advisory Board was created to cooperate with the Patent Office in connection with the security of aeronautical applications vital to defense. The Joint Aircraft Committee, composed of representatives of the Army, the Navy and the British Air Commission, was in regular session during the latter part of the year, notably with respect to delivery, priorities of airplanes, engines and accessories, and worked in close cooperation with the Office of Production Management.
Tactical exercises have been carried out in a realistic manner, although schedules have been handicapped due to the necessity of distributing vessels and aircraft in accordance with strategical necessities rather than as desirable for tactical training. Minor joint
exercises have been conducted with the Army, including Fleet Landing Exercise No. 7.
Ships and aircraft in active commission followed a schedule of progressive training for war and conducted gunnery exercises with their respective weapons. Results were satisfactory considering the number of new men who had to be trained.
Results of full power trials were satisfactory and indicate that the reliability of the machinery of the fleets under stress is up to the required high standards.
Satisfactory progress was made in developing damage control methods, organization, and training to incorporate the lessons learned from the control of battle damage in the present war.
The Naval Intelligence Division has continued the work of collecting, evaluating, and disseminating information of value to the Navy.
Offices of Naval Attachés were maintained in England, France, Germany, Italy (also accredited to Yugoslavia), Japan, China, Guatemala (also accredited to El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama), Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Cuba (also accredited to Haiti), Mexico, Spain (also accredited to Portugal), Venezuela, Sweden (Norway, Denmark, Finland), Dominican Republic, Turkey, and Ecuador. Naval Attaché offices were opened during the year in the Union of South Africa, Australia, Thai, Canada, Uruguay, and Argentina. The Naval Missions to Brazil, Peru, and Colombia and the two naval advisors to the Argentine were continued. New missions were established in Venezuela and Ecuador.
The War Records and Historical Sections of the Division of Naval Intelligence have furnished much information to the public compatible with military secrecy. The personnel of the Records Section has almost completed the selection of records pertaining to the operations of ships of the Navy from the records of the Bureau of Navigation, and is beginning to classify, index, and incorporate them with the records already in the archives. These navigation records begin with the year 1887 and selections have been completed through the Spanish War period. They cover a period of time for which there are few records in the archives but to which there is frequent need for reference. They include records covering the
beginning of our new Navy, the Spanish War, the Philippine Insurrection, and the Boxer Rebellion. They are a valuable asset to the office.
Seven volumes of old naval and historical records relating to the quasi war with France have been completed and are being sold by the Superintendent of Documents, United States Government Printing Office. The second volume of the records relating to the wars with the Barbary Powers has also been completed and is on sale. The manuscripts for the third and fourth volumes are in the hands of the printer.
Additions are constantly being made to the photographic collection. During the year 5,430 pictures were added, bringing the total to 46,016. All these are mounted for preservation and indexed and filed. They are used extensively for reference.
During the year the Navy Department added 3,133 books and documents to its collection, bringing the total up to about 92,617. These have all been classified, cataloged, and indexed, to assist researchers. Books loaned to individuals totaled 19,332 and 225 were loaned to other libraries. Books borrowed from other libraries totaled 1,432. Since the declaration of the national emergency, the library force is called upon to do much research work to answer the numerous inquiries received from new defense agencies, other government libraries, and within the Department. Research workers who visit the library are also assisted in locating source material.
The correctness of the naval district concept has been fully demonstrated during the past year under the pressure of the general expansion of naval activity. The coordinating agencies provided by the district headquarters organizations have furnished the local machinery of naval organization and have maintained contact with the local Army commanders, other Federal, State, and local authorities. Planning and coordination of effort has been facilitated locally. A considerable decentralization of the departmental effort has been made possible and should continue for best results.
Required expansion of officer personnel of the headquarters' staffs has been effected through the employment of retired and reserve officers. Many pressing problems that have been developed have been solved through the local efforts of the District Commandants.
It was found necessary to establish the Eighth Naval District, with headquarters at New Orleans, La., as an independent entity. The Tenth Naval District, with headquarters at San Juan, P. R., has been expanded in area. It is confidently expected that the naval districts organization will be well adapted to further expansion of
effort in the coordinating field in both a military and administrative sense.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, a tremendous expansion of the Naval Establishment was initiated. This consisted not only in a greatly increased building program but in acceleration of the work on ships already under construction and in the acquisition and conversion of merchant ships for auxiliary and patrol purposes. Concurrently, the aviation program was augmented and the complementary bases and shore activities increased and enlarged.
With the present international situation, it is imperative that all construction work on ships, aircraft, and bases be kept at the highest possible tempo in order that the prospective two-ocean Navy become a reality at the earliest possible date. The recent acquisition of bases stretching from Newfoundland to British Guiana has proven an asset to our defensive problems in the Atlantic, but these are, of course, but adjuncts to our mobile forces which are the real essence of the protection of the Western Hemisphere.
In order to provide closer collaboration between the United States and Canada in matters pertaining to joint defense, The Permanent Joint Board on Defense was established by the Ogdensburg Agreement. This Board, whose membership includes two United States naval officers, has proven of great value in solving the numerous mutual defense problems involved.
This Division, which represents the Navy Department on the Inter-department Radio Advisory Committee, improved and strengthened the Naval Communication System by obtaining a considerable number of new radio frequencies, both harmonic series and spot, for the expanding fleet, air stations, inshore patrol, and an extended point-to-point system; it also contributed to the coordination of radio frequency assignments to Government and non-Government stations.
During the last fiscal year, the Technical Subcommittee of the Inter-department Radio Advisory Committee, whose chairman is an officer of this Division, has been preparing, for Presidential signature, a new Executive order on the radio frequencies assigned to all Government departments and agencies.
Officers of this Division have represented the Navy Department at approximately 30 meetings of 6 committees of the Defense Communications Board. The Director of the Division has coordinated the work of the naval members thereof.
This Division has also represented the Navy Department on the Executive Committee and other committees of the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics, in standardizing defense and air trans-
port radio, and at various hearings on communications before Congressional committees.
No International Radio Conferences were held during the fiscal year 1941 because of the world situation.
Naval communication operations and material have continued in a high state of efficiency throughout the year. Studies of important current communication problems (military, technical, and industrial) have been conducted in order to maintain naval communication personnel and facilities abreast new applications and new technique.
Installation of communication equipment in naval vessels and at bases and stations is proceeding, but procurement of radio equipment has met with some delays because of strikes and by difficulties experienced by contractors in obtaining certain raw materials.
The high standard of fleet communications has been maintained. Emphasis has been placed on limiting all rapid fleet communications to those required for the exercise of command and for urgent naval administration.
Adequate naval radio traffic facilities were maintained and operated on shore to meet naval requirements. Those stations which had been in an inoperative status were recommissioned, the operations of others were modified to meet expanding needs, and communication facilities were and are being provided for newly established activities.
The number of naval air stations was increased about 100 percent during the fiscal year. The new stations are being equipped with permanent radio communication facilities in accordance with a standard plan. This plan provides the majority of these stations with facilities for airport and airways traffic control systems similar to those employed by the Civil Aeronautics Administration to ensure greater safety in aerial navigation. Where required, these facilities interlock with those of the civil airways thereby benefiting both systems.
Twenty-six radio direction finder stations for navigational aid were maintained in active commission throughout the year. These stations furnished 108,705 bearings to vessels, both foreign and domestic, without charge.
The Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C., and the Manila Central Observatory broadcast daily time signals through various naval radio stations. By means of radio control and a crystal clock located at Mare Island, the former controls the broadcast of time from our radio stations at Washington, San Francisco, Oahu, and Balboa.
During the year, time signals were broadcast hourly on one or more frequencies. Choice of transmitter locations and frequencies was such as to provide essential sea coverage with incidental coverage of continental United States and our territorial possessions.
Daily broadcasts of weather are made from 24 radio stations and of these Cavite, Pearl Harbor, San Francisco, and Balboa transmit this information on 6 frequencies and Washington on 7. The weather, hydrographic, time, and emergency schedules of these 5 stations are known as primary broadcasts. Four of the 24 stations transmitting this information were included in the 22 stations that were recently transferred to the Coast Guard as they were primarily direction finder stations. Naval radio facilities are also employed to assist the Weather Bureau and Hydrographic Office in collecting as well as disseminating information on which their broadcasts are based.
During the year there was deposited in the Treasury of the United States to the credit of "Miscellaneous Receipts" by the Naval Communication Service approximately $38,000 as earnings on commercial messages handled. The Navy handles commercial messages only when commercial facilities are not available.
The Naval Communication Reserve has furnished a large number of well-trained officers and men who are now on active duty. Naval Reserve Training Schools have been established to meet the growing needs of the Communication Service.
The most satisfactory cooperation between the Office of the Chief Signal Officer of the Army and the Office of the Director of Naval Communications in communication matters of joint concern to the Army and Navy has continued. Communication plans for joint Army and Navy operations have been formulated where the necessity for such plans has become apparent. A new Joint Army and Navy Radio Procedure was adopted and training exercises to familiarize personnel in the use of this procedure have been held from time to time.
During the year, the Navy was faced with the task of providing and distributing officer personnel for greatly increased needs afloat and ashore. In addition to the anticipated increase, of ships resulting from planned new construction, it was necessary to provide personnel for a considerable number of ships converted to Navy use from commercial service as well as from the United States Army Transportation Service. These ships consisted chiefly of transports, cargo ships and oilers. All ships were adequately manned. In several instances the United States Coast Guard provided officer personnel, thus relieving the demands for qualified Navy personnel.
In addition to obtaining and training the necessary personnel, the task of assigning them to duty where their qualifications best meet the needs of the service is of equal importance. This has been accom-
plished in part, by reducing the number of regular officers in auxiliaries but maintaining a higher percentage in combatant ships. Such a policy is not only tending to maintain the higher efficiency of the fleets but permits utilization of Naval Reserve officers, particularly those of the Merchant Marine Reserve, where their previous experience is more in line with operating conditions on board auxiliaries. On the other hand, Naval Reserve officers have been assigned to all classes of ships in excess of actual requirements in order that they might benefit by practical seagoing experiences.
Wherever it has been practicable to do so, regular active officers have been made available for duty at sea by filling shore billets with retired or Naval Reserve officers. No retired officers have been assigned duty at sea. Naval district and coastal defense activities have, to a large extent, been manned by Naval Reserve personnel.
Increased demands for officers are being met insofar as practicable by the enrollment of Naval Reserve officers. There has been no difficulty in obtaining capable Medical, Dental, Supply, Civil Engineer, and Chaplain Corps personnel in the respective specialties. The need of line officers has been met by creating short-term training schools where several months of study, combined with limited practical experience at sea, enable the individual to gain basic knowledge of general line duties. The graduates of these schools are of limited value when first assigned to sea duty but will constitute a valuable source of personnel following a year or more of practical experience, when the demands of the building program will result in a more acute personnel problem than at present.
Training and instruction was conducted during the fiscal year 1941 at the postgraduate school at Annapolis, the Naval War College, Newport, R. I., the Naval Finance and Supply School at Philadelphia, and at many civilian technical institutions. Heavier-than-air instruction was conducted at Pensacola, Corpus Christi, and Jacksonville; and lighter-than-air training was given to a small group at Lakehurst. Training in submarines was accomplished at the submarine base, New London, Conn. A very small group of officers received instruction abroad in the Japanese, Chinese, Russian, and Spanish languages. Nine officers received legal training to fit them for duty in the office of the Judge Advocate General of the Navy.
Nine hundred twenty-five officers received instructions during the fiscal year 1941.
Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps units were maintained during the fiscal year 1941 at 19 universities. A total of 3,096 students were enrolled, and the graduates in the spring of 1941 numbered 217. The authorized total enrollment of this Corps now is 7,200. By normal expansion of existing units and the 8 units to be established during the summer of 1941, it is planned to reach the maximum allowed
enrollment of 7,200 students in the academic year 1944-45, when it is estimated that there will be approximately 1,580 graduates annually.
Some 6,600 men were enlisted in the summer of 1940 for training in the Reserve midshipmen program. These men had finished at least 2 years in an accredited college. They were cruised for 30 days for indoctrinational training, and of those cruised, 5,367 qualified for further training at the Reserve midshipmen schools. Four classes of 3 months each were convened at the United States Naval Reserve midshipmen schools on board the U. S. S. Prairie State and at Abbott Hall, Northwestern University. One 3-month class was convened on February 14 at the United States Naval Academy.
As of June 30, 1941, 5,430 young men had enrolled for these 3-month courses, 3,502 had graduated and had been commissioned ensigns, United States Naval Reserve, and 3,002 were ordered to active duty. As of that date, the fourth class, convening in the U. S. S. Prairie State, had an enrollment of 489 Reserve midshipmen, and the class convening at Northwestern had an enrollment of 856 Reserve midshipmen. Graduation of these classes in the middle of September will complete the first Reserve midshipmen (V-7) program.
On May 7, 1941, the Secretary of the Navy announced that approximately 4,900 young college graduates would be enlisted in the Naval Reserve for training under a second Reserve midshipmen program. The requirements for the second program were raised so that only graduates of accredited colleges holding B. S., A. B., or engineering degrees and having at least 1 year of college mathematics (including successful completion of plane trigonometry) would be considered.
As of June 30, 1941, enlistments of the new program showed that 4,868 young men had applied for enlistment, of whom 1,182 had been accepted. Of this number, 82 were qualified for training in engineering duty only. Of the remaining applications, a large percentage was pending final approval and Would probably be accepted.
Due to lack of cruising facilities, classes for the second program will be of 4 months' duration and will be convened on the U. S. S. Prairie State, New York City, and at Abbott Hall, Northwestern University, Chicago, the middle of September and each 4 months thereafter. The one class at the United States Naval Academy will start in early January 1942.
All of the Naval Academy class and one-half of each class in the Prairie State will be trained for engineering duty only.
As of April 1, 1941, the first classes of instruction in Spanish for officers and enlisted men of the Navy and Marine Corps were convened in Washington. Attendance at these classes was voluntary, and the instructors were furnished by the United States Office of Education. As of June 30, 1941, the popularity of these courses had
increased so that over 200 officers of the Navy and Marine Corps stationed in the Washington area were under instruction in Spanish as were approximately 250 enlisted men of the same services. As of June 30, preliminary arrangements had been made for a joint sponsorship by the Army and the Navy of an expanded program of training in the Spanish language which would reach out to all naval districts and naval training centers. This new program is to be administered by the Works Project Administration.
The Naval Appropriation Act for the fiscal year, approved June 11, 1940, and subsequent enactments by the Congress provided funds for a total enlisted strength on June 30, 1941, of 264,123, which included 37,545 members of the Naval Reserve, 8,600 members of the Fleet Reserve and 650 retired men on active duty. The active enlisted strength of the Navy actually reached on June 30, 1941, was: 206,018 Regulars, 941 retired enlisted men, 9,142 Fleet Reserves, 28,505 other Reserves; a total of 244,606.
The allowances for the year of all ships of the Fleet were made the same as the complements. This will be continued for the fiscal year 1942.
The percentage of reenlistments for the fiscal year was 71.49, as compared with 75.48 for 1940 and 80.81 for 1939. First enlistments in the regular Navy increased from 38,232 in 1940 to 79,625.
In addition, the recruiting service commenced enlisting Naval Reserves in all classes except M-1, M-2, V-5 and V-7. It assisted the commandants in classes V-5 and V-7 doing all preliminary work, but the actual enlistments were made by the commandants of the districts concerned. There was a total of 31,502 enlistments made in the Naval Reserve.
A total of 75,405 recruits completed training at the 4 training stations which were in operation throughout the year. The basic course of recruit training was shortened from 8 to 6 weeks in order that the output of the stations would be increased. To meet the demands of the Service, existing service schools were expanded and new schools established. Enlisted men completing courses of instruction at the various service schools ashore totalled 15,817. Training courses have been issued to commands ashore and afloat for use of enlisted men in preparation for advancement in rating. The extensive use of these courses indicates satisfactory activity in preparing enlisted men for advancement in their various ratings. Eighty-six enlisted men passed the mental examinations for entrance to the Naval Academy under the quota of appointments allowed the Secretary of the Navy.
With the establishment of new schools and the expansion of exist-
ing schools, the total yearly capacity of all schools for both regulars and Reserves was increased from 6,480 on June 30, 1940, to 36,852 on June 30, 1941.
The output for fiscal year 1942, including 10 percent Marines in aviation schools, is estimated to be 48,389. With the completion of the authorized expansion of all enlisted schools, the total yearly capacity will be approximately 86,000.
During the fiscal year, the Identification Division, Bureau of Navigation, classified, searched, and filed the identification records of 126,961 officers and enlisted men of the Navy and the Naval Reserve. During the year, 6,780 individuals were identified. Fingerprints on file in the Navy Department made it possible to identify 63 unknown dead who would otherwise have been buried in unknown graves.
Arrangements were completed for issuing monel identification tags and identification (liberty) cards to all officers and enlisted men of the Navy and the Naval Reserve.
The Identification Division assisted all officers and enlisted men who were ordered abroad on official business for the Navy Department and their dependents to obtain the necessary official passports.
Funds appropriated for welfare and recreation of enlisted men are allocated by the Bureau of Navigation to ships and stations in order to provide athletic equipment, magazines and periodicals, moving-picture service and kindred articles and services. Allotments to the naval stations at Guam, Samoa, and Guantanamo Bay provide assistance in the maintenance of adequate schools for the children of personnel attached to these isolated stations. Funds appropriated for these activities are supplemented by profits from ship's stores, ships' service stores, and Marine Corps post exchanges.
Cooperation with other Government agencies and civilian groups which provide welfare and recreational aids to Navy personnel is an important function, and this cooperation has been effected mainly through the Joint Army and Navy Committee on Welfare and Recreation which was formed during the past year for this particular purpose.
An extensive program of physical conditioning is in the process of development, both for officers and enlisted men.
With the expansion of the Navy, the place of libraries as an aid in maintaining a high morale has been emphasized during the past year. The increased number of personnel as well as a larger number of units, both ships and stations, has augmented the importance of careful and adequate book selection and purchase to maintain the high standard set many years ago.
The appropriations for the Naval Reserve for the year were sufficient to accomplish the legislatively established objective of maintaining a maximum numerical strength of trained and qualified officers and men in the several classes of the Naval Reserve. All of the Organized Reserve was ordered to active duty prior to reaching full strength because of the immediate manpower needs of the fleet.
Funds from the regular Naval Reserve appropriation for the year, provided for four major training projects that are needed to satisfy officer requirements of the Naval Establishment during this emergency: The aviation cadet program to provide aviators; the Naval Reserve midshipman program to provide deck and engineering officers; the Merchant Marine training program to train Merchant Marine officers; and the Volunteer training program to train a limited number of officers.
At the close of the last fiscal year, legislation was under consideration and has since become law providing for the appointment each year to the line of the regular Navy of as many naval aviators of the Naval and Marine Corps Reserves as the Secretary of the Navy may deem necessary. As a result of this act, 328 Naval Reserve officers were appointed in the Navy during the year. The above mentioned act, known as the Naval Aviation Personnel Act of 1940, approved August 27, 1940, which made these appointments possible, contained several amendments to the Naval Reserve Act of 1938, beneficial to members of the Naval Reserve. An act approved January 30, 1941, amended the Naval Reserve Act of 1938 by increasing the number of appointments of midshipmen to the Naval Academy from the Naval Reserve from 50 to 100. Administratively, the Navy Department authorized active duty of enlisted Naval Reserve candidates for the Naval Academy to count towards the required drills and also authorized certain of these candidates to attend Naval Academy preparatory schools.
Members and organizations of the Naval Reserve were ordered into active service under authority of Executive orders. No statutory authority was required to order them to active duty, as was the case with the National Guard. Such statutory authority has been a part of the basic Naval Reserve law since its inception. For several years prior to the declaration of the limited national emergency on September 8, 1939, the Navy Department policy prohibited the enlistment or appointment in the Naval Reserve of civilian employees of the Naval Establishment and also barred from membership other persons who were not immediately available for active duty when their services are required in time of national emergency. In spite of all efforts
to make this policy effective, it was found that due to conditions not always under the control of the individual and changes in personal status, a considerable number of Naval Reservists applied for discharge or for deferment in reporting for active duty. A Deferment Board was appointed to consider such requests and to take appropriate action. In general, the Board was guided by the principles established in the Selective Training and Service Act. Those members of the Naval Reserve who were not available for active duty were in most cases discharged or their resignations accepted. In addition, an appreciable number of deferments for various periods of time were authorized. In such cases, the Reservists are still available for active duty when it is determined that their services are required.
The Naval Reserve Policy Board was convened in April 1941, as required by law, and has submitted a report concerning Naval Reserve Policies. The Policy Division of the Office of Naval Operations, which was transferred thereto from the Bureau of Navigation in 1940, was transferred back to the Bureau of Navigation in April 1941. Similar action was also taken in the case of the Naval Reserve Inspection Board.
The Naval Reserve aviation cadet training program has been greatly expanded and new training projects established for the Naval Reserve during the emergency. The normal peacetime training of the Organized Reserve through armory drills was discontinued when a division of the Organized Reserve was placed on active duty. The divisions of the Organized Reserve (surface component) were given annual training duty during the summer of 1940. All training cruises and drills have been discontinued for the duration of the emergency. Special courses have been established for training of officers for diesel engineering, aeronautical engineering, naval architecture, and duties of the supply corps. Schools have been established for the training of enlisted men as aviation machinists' mates, aviation metalsmiths, radiomen, electricians' mates, storekeepers, yeomen, cooks, and bakers. These schools are now available for both Regular and Reserve personnel.
Various special means of increasing the numbers of Naval Reserve officers available for active service have been carried on, and enlisted personnel has been actively recruited through the naval recruiting service and Naval Reserve recruiting activities under the commandants of naval districts. The additional officer personnel was procured by means of the Naval Reserve midshipmen training courses at the Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md.; on the Prairie State, at New York; and at Northwestern University, Chicago, Ill. These were in addition to officers recommended by commandants of naval districts, graduates of Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps, aviation cadets,
and college students procured in a probationary status pending graduation.
All organizations of the Organized Reserve have been ordered into active service. The majority of the members of the Naval Reserve, in addition to those attached to the Organized Reserve, have also been placed on active duty. In March 1941, the peacetime organization and training of the Naval Communication Reserve was suspended in order to facilitate ordering officers and men to active duty. The personnel of the Naval Communication Reserve have been rapidly absorbed into the regular service. Members of the Merchant Marine Reserve, prior to June 1941, were ordered to active duty on a voluntary basis, so as to interfere as little as possible with the operation of the Merchant Marine. Subsequent to June 1941, they have been ordered to active duty with or without their consent, as their services are required. Merchant Marine Reserve training centers at New York and San Francisco gave an 8-week course of instruction in naval subjects to 323 Merchant Marine Reserve officers during the fiscal year.
During the year, $14,755,167 was expended for commercial transportation and $2,477,560 was saved from travel appropriations due to use of Navy and Army transports.
The military agreements with the railroads were renewed for the year, which resulted in considerable savings due to percentage reductions and land-grant equalizations.
The personnel of the Navy are receiving pay and allowances as fixed in 1922, except that by the provisions of the act of October 17, 1940 each enlisted man of the first, second, or third pay grade of the Navy or Naval Reserve, having a dependent, is entitled to receive, for any period during which public quarters are not provided and available for his dependent, money allowances for quarters authorized by law to be granted to each enlisted man not furnished quarters in kind. Such allowance was set by Executive order at 75 cents per day. This rate continued throughout the fiscal year except that on March 4, 1941, the allowance was raised to $1.15 per day for personnel assigned to certain foreign countries and United States possessions outside the continental limits of the United States. This additional compensation is of material assistance to enlisted personnel enumerated above in meeting the greatly increased living costs.
The act of 1922, however, was in itself largely a readjustment of the pay basis throughout the military services and effected but a slight increase, of approximately 10 percent on the average, in the pay of naval personnel under the act of 1908. The pay of Federal and State officials has largely increased and standards of civilian pay and wages have advanced. The present inadequate pay is occa-
sioning discomfort and hardship, and while, to the credit of the Service, the morale and efficiency remain high, nevertheless fairness and equity warrant a proper adjustment of the pay schedule.
As this report goes to press I am happy to state that legislative action has resulted in a measure which will further assist naval enlisted personnel financially. This legislation provides that on and after August 18, 1941, enlisted men of the Navy honorably discharged and reenlisted within 24 hours on board ship, station, or other naval activity from which last discharged, will be entitled to double the amount of enlistment allowance. The double enlistment allowance is also applicable to extension of enlistment effective on and after August 18, 1941, regardless of whether the agreement to extend enlistment or to reenlist was entered into prior or subsequent to above date.
The second remedial legislative act relating to the Army will, if held by the Comptroller General to be applicable to the Navy, provide $10 per month in the nature of a "bonus" to enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and Naval Reserve for each month of service rendered by them in excess of 12 months. This additional pay would commence from the 18th of August 1941 for each man of the Regular Navy or Naval Reserve who will have been on active duty for 12 months on that date.
The chart on the following page graphically shows the increase in cost of living as compared with present pay schedules for officer personnel.
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS
Appropriations for the fiscal year 1941 provided for an average strength of 1,563 officers and 29,500 enlisted men. Due to the requirements of an expanding naval establishment, as a result of the national emergency, the Marine Corps was authorized to increase to an average strength of 2,568 officers and 43,180 enlisted men.
In support of the naval policy the distribution and training of the Marine forces have been effected with a view to accomplishing the following purposes:
(a) To provide adequate and trained Marine detachments on board vessels of the Navy.
(b) To protect naval property and shore establishments within the continental limits of the United States and in outlying possessions.
(c) To maintain the Fleet Marine Force in immediate readiness as a tactical unit of the United States Fleet.
(d) To protect American lives and interests in disturbed areas involving operations ashore.
Training of the First Marine Division in the Caribbean in the fall of 1940 in special landing operations culminated in participation of this unit with the United States Atlantic Fleet in Fleet Landing Exercise No. 7. The First Marine Division also participated in joint maneuvers commencing in June 1941, involving the United States Army and the United States Atlantic Fleet. The Second Defense Battalion took part in minor fleet landing operations on San Clemente Island.
Necessary movements of units of the Fleet Marine Force were effected in accordance with the general plan of naval operations. Marine aircraft groups operated in support of the Fleet and of the Fleet Marine Force. Extensive operations of the First Marine Aircraft Group were conducted during Fleet Landing Exercise No. 7. Marine Scouting Squadron 3, based at St. Thomas, V. I., was temporarily assigned to the First Marine Aircraft Group and participated in these exercises.
The units of the Fleet Marine Force have been maintained ready, within the limitations of personnel and material available, for immediate service with the United States Pacific and United States Atlantic Fleets. Naval activities ashore have been supplied with increases in Marine Corps personnel to provide for additional security of those activities.
During the calendar year 1940, the general health of the Navy was excellent. The principal exception was a major epidemic of influenza which was widespread from September to December. Fortunately, this epidemic was mild. Also, as was expected, there was a sharp increase of the childhood-type of communicable diseases such as measles, mumps, and German measles. This was due to the increase of new, unseasoned personnel in the expanding Navy. Although these respiratory and other communicable diseases caused a 20 percent increase in the general admission rate over that of 1939, they were of minor character, averaging only 6.8 sick days per case and causing no increase of death rates.
As evidence of improvement in the more important aspects of health, the admission rates for venereal diseases decreased 7 percent, and for injuries, 4 percent. Seventy-one percent of the decrease of venereal diseases was due to reduction of syphilis. The general death rate decreased 8 percent.
There were 99,886 new admissions for all causes, giving a rate of 492.99 per 1,000, as compared with 408.37 in 1939, and 453.16, the previous 9-year median.
There were 9,643 new admissions for injuries, giving a rate of 47.59 per 1,000, as compared with 49.38 in 1939, and 60.04, the previous 9-year median.
There were 392 deaths from all causes, giving a rate of 1.93 per 1,000, as compared with 2.10 in 1939, and 2.85, the previous 9-year median. Motor-vehicle accidents caused 85 deaths. There were 32 deaths from drowning.
There were 2,907 persons invalided from the service, giving a rate of 14.35 per 1,000, as compared with 10.37 in 1939, and 12.18, the previous 9-year median.
The total number of sick days was 1,804,116, giving an average of 8.90 per person and 18.06 per admission.
A catastrophe occurred on June 20, 1941, when the submarine U. S. S. 0-9 sank off the Isle of Shoals (Portsmouth, N. H.) while on a trial run. Two officers and 31 enlisted men were lost. None were rescued. There were no disasters of major importance during the calendar year 1940.
Detailed information relative to diseases and injuries in the Navy for the calendar year 1940 is printed as a separate document.
There were under construction on June 30, 1941, the 697 vessels as shown in the following two tables. Of these, 603 were building in private yards and 94 in navy yards.
Ships under construction - Private yards
[As of June 30. 1941]
|South Dakota||New York Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|Indiana||Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Massachusetts||Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River.|
|Hornet||Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Bon Homme Richard||Do.|
|Cabot||Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River.|
|Alaska||New York Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|Baltimore||Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River.|
|Atlanta||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|San Diego||Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River.|
|Oakland||Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco.|
Ships under construction - Private yards - Continued
[As of June 30, 1941]
|CRUISERS - Con.|
|Reno||Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco.|
|Cleveland||New York Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|Birmingham||Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Flint||Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River.|
|New Haven||New York Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|Biloxi||Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Providence||Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River.|
|Fargo||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Miami||Cramp Shipbuilding Co.|
|Buffalo||New York Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|Gato||Electric Boat Co.|
|Hake||Electric Boat Co.|
|Peto||Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co.|
|Bristol||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Emmons||Bath Iron Works.|
|Laffey||Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco.|
|Aaron Ward||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Farenholt||Bethlehem Steel Co., Staten Island.|
|Carmick||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Co.|
|Bancroft||Bethlehem Steel Co., Fore River.|
|Meade||Bethlehem Steel Co., Staten Island.|
|Caldwell||Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco.|
|Kendrick||Bethlehem Steel Co., San Pedro.|
|Davison||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
Ships under construction - Private yards - Continued
[As of June 30, 1941]
|DESTROYERS - Continued|
|Jeffers||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Baldwin||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Co.|
|Stevenson||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Nicholas||Bath Iron Works.|
|Percival||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Strong||Bath Iron Works.|
|Bache||Bethlehem Steel Co., Staten Island.|
|Watson||Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Conway||Bath Iron Works.|
|Brownson||Bethlehem Steel Co., Staten Island.|
|Abner Read||Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco.|
|Boyd||Bethlehem Steel Co., San Pedro.|
|Capps||Gulf Shipbuilding Co.|
|David W. Taylor||Do.|
|John D. Henley||Do.|
|Franks||Seattle Tacoma Shipbuilding Co.|
|Aulick||Consolidated Steel Co., Orange.|
|William D. Porter||Do.|
|Abbot||Bath Iron Works.|
|Piermont||Tampa Shipbuilding Co., Inc.|
|Adroit||Commercial Iron Works.|
|Excel||Jakobson Shipyard, Inc.|
|Fidelity||Nashville Bridge Co.|
|Broadbill||Defoe Boat & Motor Works.|
|Sheldrake||General Engineering & Dry Dock Co.|
Ships under construction - Private yards - Continued
[As of June 30, 1941]
|MINE SWEEPERS - Continued|
|Herald||General Engineering & Dry Dock Co.|
|Pilot||Pennsylvania Shipyards, Inc.|
|Pursuit||Winslow Marine Railway & Shipbuilding Co.|
|Seer||American Shipbuilding Co.|
|Sway||John H. Mathis Co.|
|Symbol||Savannah Machine & Foundry Co.|
|Token||Gulf Shipbuilding Corp.|
|Accentor||W. A. Robinson, Inc.|
|Caracara||Bristol Yacht Building Co.|
|Develin||Gibbs Gas Engine Co.|
|Limpkin||Greenport Basin & Construction Co.|
|Ostrich||Herreshoff Manufacturing Co.|
|Roller||Snow Shipyards, Inc.|
|Acme||Greenport Basin & Construction Co.|
|Assertive||Bristol Yacht Building Co.|
|Bulwark||Hodgdon Bros. & Goudy & Stevens.|
|Conqueror||Warren Fish Co.|
|Courier||Herreshoff Manufacturing Co.|
|Demand||Gibbs Gas Engine Co.|
|Energy||W. A. Robinson, Inc.|
|Governor||Camden Shipbuilding & Marine Ry. Co.|
|Heroic||Warren Boat Yard, Inc.|
|Industry||F. L. Fulton.|
|Paramount||Delaware Bay Shipbuilding Co., Inc.|
|Pluck||Noank Shipbuilding Co.|
|Prestige||Anderson & Cristofani.|
|Security||H. G. Marr|
|Stalwart||Snow Shipyards, Inc.|
|Monitor||Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|Patapsco||Seattle Tacoma Shipbuilding Co.|
|Doyen1||Consolidated Steel Co., Los Angeles.|
|Vulcan||New York Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|Ajax||Los Angeles Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Corporation.|
|Orion||Moore Dry Dock Co.|
|SUBMARINE RESCUE VESSELS|
|Chanticleer||Moore Dry Dock Co.|
1 Awarded through Maritime Commission.
Ships under construction - Private yards - Continued
[As of June 30, 1941]
|Apache||Charleston Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.|
|Menominee||United Engineering Co.|
|Currituck||New York Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|Norton Sound||Los Angeles Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Corporation.|
|Absecon||Lake Washington Shipyards|
|Rockaway||Associated Shipbuilders, Inc.|
|Catskill||Willamette Iron & Steel Corporation.|
|PC453||Fisher Boat Works.|
|PC497||Westergard Boat Works, Inc.|
|PC499||Fisher Boat Works, Inc.|
|PC501||Seabrook Yacht Corporation.|
|PC503||Rice Brothers Corporation.|
|PC505||Luders Marine Construction Co.|
|PC507||Mathis Yacht Building Co.|
|PC511||American Cruiser Co.|
|PC513||Quincy Adams Yacht Yard, Inc.|
|PC515||Elizabeth City Shipyards.|
|PC519||Vinyard Shipbuilding Co.|
|PC521||Annapolis Yacht Yard, Inc.|
|PC524||Mathis Yacht Building Co.|
|PC530||Westergard Boat Works, Inc.|
|PC532||Luders Marine Construction Co.|
|PC536||Peterson Boat Works.|
|PC540||Robinson Marine Construction Co.|
|PC452||Defoe Boat & Motor Works.|
|PC461||George Lawley & Sons, Inc.|
|PC471||Defoe Boat & Motor Works.|
|PC483||Consolidated Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|PC488||Sullivan Dry Dock & Repair Corporation.|
|PC496||Leathem Smith Coal & Shipbuilding Co.|
|PC542||Defoe Boat & Motor Works.|
|PC550||Leathem Smith Coal & Shipbuilding Co.|
|PC552||Sullivan Dry Dock & Repair Co.|
|PC556||Luders Marine Construction Co.|
|PC559||Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co.|
Ships under construction - Private yards - Continued
[As of June 30, 1941]
|SUBMARINE CHASERS - Con.|
|PC561||Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Co.|
|PC563||Consolidated Shipbuilding Corp.|
|PC565||Platzer Boat Works.|
|PC569||Albina Engine & Machine Works, Inc.|
|PTC25||Electric Boat Co., Elco Works.|
|MOTOR TORPEDO BOATS|
|PT1||Miami Shipbuilding Corporation.|
|PT29||Electric Boat Co., Elco Works.|
Ships under construction - Navy yards
[As of June 30, 1941]
|North Carolina||New York.|
Ships under construction -Navy yards - Continued
[As of June 30, 1941]
|DESTROYERS - Continued|
During the year July 1, 1940 to June 30, 1941 the following vessels under construction were delivered to the Government by private yards, a total of 62 vessels.
|Name of ship||Type||Date delivered|
|Benson||Destroyer||July 25, 1940|
|Mayo||do||Set. 18, 40|
|Niblack||do||Aug. 1, 1940|
|Livermore||do||Oct. 7, 1940|
|Eberle||do||Dec. 4, 1940|
|Plunkett||do||July 15, 1940|
|Kearny||do||Sept. 12, 1940|
|Woolsey||do||May 7, 1941|
|Ludlow||do||Mar. 5, 1941|
|Edison||do||Jan. 30, 1941|
|Ericsson||do||Mar. 11, 1941|
|Tautog||Submarine||July 3, 1940|
|Thresher||do||Aug. 27, 1940|
|Mackerel||do||Mar. 31, 1941|
|Gar||do||Apr. 14, 1941|
|Grampus||do||May 23, 1941|
|Grayback||do||June 30, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 449||Sept. 19, 1940|
|Submarine Chaser No. 451||Aug. 11, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 5||Mar. 17, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 6||Feb. 15, 1911|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 10||Nov. 4, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 11||Nov. 12, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 12||Nov. 14, 1910|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 13||Nov. 26, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 14||Nov. 29, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 15||Dec. 5, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 16||Dec. 31, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 17||Dec. 16, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 18||Dec. 30, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 19||Dec. 31, 1940|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 20||June 20, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 21||June 13, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 22||June 24, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 23||June 25, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 24||June 26, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 25||June 11, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 26||June 18, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 27||June 27, 1941|
|Motor Torpedo Boat No. 28||June 30, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 1||Feb. 20, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 2||Do.|
|Name of ship||Type||Date delivered|
|Submarine Chaser No. 3||Mar. 3, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 4||Mar. 11, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 5||Feb. 21, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 6||Feb. 26, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 7||Mar. 12, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 8||Do.|
|Submarine Chaser No. 9||Mar. 14, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 10||Mar. 20, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 11||Mar. 27, 1941|
|Submarine Chaser No. 12||Mar. 31, 1941|
|Prairie||Destroyer Tender||Aug. 5, 1941|
|Chimango||Minesweeper||May 30, 1941|
|Cotinga||do||June 12, 1941|
|Courlan||do||June 27, 1941|
|Fulmar||do||May 8, 1941|
|Jacamar||do||May 19, 1941|
|Marabout||do||June 2, 1941|
|Vulcan||Repair Ship||June 16, 1941|
|Curtiss||Seaplane Tender||Nov. 15, 1940|
|Albemarle||do||Dec. 20, 1940|
The following 17 vessels which were built in Government navy yards were completed during the period from July 1, 1940, to June 30, 1941:
|Name of ship||Type||Completed|
|Madison||Destroyer||Oct. 30, 1940|
|Lansdale||do||Oct. 21, 1940|
|Hilary P. Jones||do||Oct. 30, 1940|
|Charles F. Hughes||do||Oct. 18, 1940|
|Gwin||do||Mar. 1, 1941|
|Meredith||do||Apr. 13, 1941|
|Grayson||do||Apr. 1, 1941|
|Monssen||do||May 1, 1941|
|Destroyer||June 12, 1941|
|Triton||Submarine||Nov. 11, 1940|
|Trout||do||Dec. 31, 1940|
|Tuna||do||Mar. 1, 1941|
|Grenadier||do||June 14, 1941|
|Gudgeon||do||June 21, 1941|
|Raven||Minesweeper||Apr. 5, 1941|
|Osprey||do||Apr. 13, 1941|
To provide machinery for the several vessels for which separate construction awards had been made, contracts were placed with the following companies for Diesel propulsion machinery.
|Award made to||Type and number of vessels|
|General Motors Corporation, Cleveland (Diesel Engine Division).||28 submarines.|
|34 submarine chasers.|
|4 submarine tenders.|
|5 fleet tugs.|
|Busch-Sulzer Bros. (Diesel Engine Division)||17 minesweepers.|
|Enterprise Engine & Foundry Co||12 minesweepers.|
|Atlas Imperial Diesel Engine Co||11 minesweepers.|
|National Supply Co. (Superior Engine Division)||12 minesweepers.|
|12 seaplane wrecking derricks.|
|Union Diesel Engine Co||3 minesweepers.|
|Atlas Diesel Engine Co||1 ferryboat.|
|Electromotive Corporation||50 submarine chasers.|
|Packard Motor Co||12 motor torpedo boats.|
|12 submarine chasers.|
|Cooper Bessemer Corporation||45 minesweepers.|
|1 range tender.|
|2 harbor tugs.|
|Fairbanks Morse & Co||19 submarines.|
|2 submarines (reengining).|
|American Locomotive Co||9 minesweepers.|
|5 submarine rescue vessels.|
|Hooven, Owens, Rentschler Co||12 submarines.|
|13 submarine chasers.|
RESEARCH - DEVELOPMENT - TESTS
The research program which the Bureau has sponsored is very broad in character. Problems have been placed at 9 navy yards, 6 naval laboratories and other government and private research organizations. The total number of research and development projects listed is 341 and 276 respectively. Among these the most important, according to subject, are the following: Paints and other coatings, 60 to 70; ventilation, 39; welding, 32; armor, 19, and steels, 8.
Cooperative research has continued to be a most active basic principle. Manufacturers, universities, and associations furthering technical research have all cooperated most enthusiastically and efficiently in advancing the various research programs.
No mechanisms or records now exist through which comparisons of ship performance may be made except by long and tedious manual computations.
A statistical system of research is being set up to accumulate on punch cards, all data pertaining to ship operations now forwarded to the Bureau by the forces afloat in the following established reports: Quarterly synopsis, derangement reports, steady run data, at anchor data, boiler data, docking reports, and official and preliminary trials.
A mathematical approach has been made to the problem of the rate of bottom-fouling and propeller-fouling. It is an attempt to bridge the gap between full-scale tests and model predictions based on the resistance of flat plates.
Details of ships structure, largely from the standpoint of strength under various stresses and loads have received continued investigation during the year. Among the parts which have been accorded especial attention and on which effective improvements have resulted are: Aircraft carrier bents, gun and torpedo foundations of destroyers, strength of welded joints and fatigue tests of various parts, and welded armor bolts.
Fatigue studies have been made in conjunction with a large cooperative program utilizing government and private facilities to provide valuable information as to the behavior under repetitive loading of the materials used and the methods of joining them in current ship construction.
In view of the large number of contracts for airplane carriers, the design of the supporting structure for flight decks becomes of increased importance. Elaborate strength calculations have been carried out and these have been supplemented by some actual tests. As a result, a simple and lighter design was prepared for the bents of these ships.
In developing the structural design of a ship, certain important supporting members must of necessity be joined by rivets. The
behavior and strength of these rivets were investigated after they had been driven, when they are subjected to a violent application of tensile-loading, induced by an explosion or shell impact. To test the desired large rivets, it was necessary to construct a high-energy tensile-impact machine, which though having a much lower velocity than that of a projectile or an explosive pressure wave, should provide a fairly reliable indication of the relative merits of various rivets.
All available information concerning the effect of chemical composition on the physical properties of rivets has been correlated.
A study of the metallurgical and chemical properties of various steels was made and the influence of special alloying elements and of the requirements for a high-grade riveting steel was considered. A comparison of tensile and yield strength, percent elongation, Brinell hardness and single- and double-shear strengths of these rivets was undertaken.
Early experiments, using bare electrodes, indicated that the use of longitudinal welded joints was not desirable in ship construction. The development of covered electrodes resulting in deposited metal having ductility equivalent to medium steel ship plates, has indicated that welded longitudinal joints would be satisfactory. Preliminary tests of longitudinal welds made on high-tensile steel show that such welds have satisfactory properties. Additional tests are being conducted on longitudinal welds in medium steel, special-treatment steel, and high-tensile steel, to verify this conclusion.
Boilers, propelling and auxiliary machinery and electric plant have all received extensive attention.
For many years there has been a lack of unanimity among major gear manufacturers regarding safe tooth pressures which may be carried by main propulsion reduction gears. Finally, the five leading gear makers have agreed to a common formula for the safe loading of marine gears. This formula was dependent upon constants being established by the Bureau for each of the five classes of naval vessels, based upon the service record of all vessels. Accepted by the gear manufacturers, gear calculations have been placed on a uniform plane.
With the increase in horsepower transmitted through each shaft of modern warships, it is advisable to test the main drive machinery prior to installation.
The Bureau is constructing a turbine laboratory with sufficient capacity regarding steam pressure, temperature, circulating water and calibrating devices to conduct full-power testing of the largest propelling machinery installation now under construction or contemplated.
Work is progressing to find materials offering promise for application as nozzles and blades in gas turbines operating at temperatures of 1,350° to 1,500° F.
Diesel engine development has progressed in particular along the lines of decreased weight and increased power.
Considerable work has been accomplished in standardizing electric motors for submarines for the purpose of decreasing the number of spare parts to be carried on board the submarine and by its tender.
New specifications for synchronous motors have been developed to more closely coordinate electrically and mechanically the units used in ordnance and machinery installations.
In the manufacture of propeller shafting, it has been found that by using certain vanadium-molybdenum steels, the preforging heat-treatment to prevent flaking is not required and thereby 250 hours of heat-treatment per shaft are saved.
Protective measures such as coatings (nonmetallic and metallic) and wrapper plates were investigated to eliminate or retard deterioration of propeller shafts and struts.
Thirteen propeller designs have been completed during the fiscal year. In addition, preliminary designs have been completed for propellers for all current ship designs. Experimental designs for the controllable pitch propellers on several ships have been completed. Investigation of propeller materials has been continued. The copper-nickel-silicon alloy gives excellent promise.
Much research has been assigned to equipment associated with heat transfer, such as condensers, pumps and piping, and refrigerating machinery. Among the research and development relating to piping which have been followed are: Flow characteristics of steam in piping; friction losses in fuel-oil bends; valves and fittings; metal gaskets for high-temperature steam piping joints; valves for high-temperature steam piping; hydraulically controlled valves for damage control operation; welded flanges for large sized piping for high pressure and temperature; and high-pressure air fittings.
Among the items of ship equipment that have been subjected to detailed research and development are: Ground-tackle, fire-fighting equipment, landing boats, mine-sweeping gear, and safety and rescue apparatus.
Welding is rapidly replacing much riveted construction in ships and much research has been assigned to its techniques and results.
The subject of deck coverings of all types has been under continuous and vigorous investigation. These deck coverings include the whole range of woods and other alternates for teak as well as rubber and rubber-like materials for inside spaces such as washrooms, etc.
Theoretical considerations and some scattered experimental evidence indicate zinc chromate paint to be satisfactory for an all-purpose primer on naval construction. If the investigations prove zinc chromate paint to be a good all-purpose primer, it will be possible to eliminate two red lead paints, aluminum paint as a primer, and metallic brown as an after-pickling paint, thus simplifying painting practice.
The Bureau of Ships has prosecuted a vigorous program of investigation of lubricants of all types; particularly, heavy duty lubricating oils for Diesel engines and other applications. In this connection, at least two heavy duty lubricating oils have been developed under the sponsorship and with the aid of the Bureau of Ships and which are entirely suitable for use in Diesel engines of submarines and surface craft.
Sound and air problems have been subjected to most intensive research during the last year. These include methods of noise elimination and studies of ventilation, heating, air conditioning, and dehumidification.
The magnitude of the tasks which have been met by the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts and the field activities under its cognizance during the fiscal year have been fully commensurate with the huge increase observed in every other phase of naval activity. The Bureau and the various supply organizations throughout the Naval Establishment have endeavored to insure that the volume of work and the complexity of the resultant problems should in no way diminish the quality of the service rendered. Efforts toward this end on the part of the officers of the Supply Corps, their warrant and enlisted assistants, and the civilian personnel have been cheerfully and untiringly put forth. Examination of reports, forms, and procedure, with a view toward expedition, simplification, and reduction of paperwork, has continued.
The demands for supplies and materials for the prosecution of the shipbuilding and aircraft program and the promotion of national defense continued to increase over previous years. The money values of the contracts executed in the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts aggregated $2,196,980,630.51, which represents an increase of about 800 percent over the previous year. The largest purchases occurred in the month of November 1940, when the contracts aggregated in money value $521,732,922.68. These transactions involved 8,593 schedules and 23,001 separate lots of material.
The large increase in the volume of purchases and the need for
speedy procurement made it necessary to employ the most direct procedures of procurement with some relaxation of the newspaper advertisement method. However, advantage was taken of the time-tried methods of procurement through advertisement for competitive bids to the fullest extent when this method of procurement would produce the material within the time required. When time would not permit of newspaper advertisement, advantage was taken of the telephone, telegraph, and other methods of circularizing notices of proposed purchases, as a means of securing competition. The industry has responded heartily to these appeals and many materials have been procured under emergencies without a complete relaxation of the rule of advertising.
The most important change in methods of procurement was brought about by the act of June 28, 1940, "To Expedite Naval Shipbuilding, and for Other Purposes," which contained legislation of much value in the execution of contracts in prosecution of the national-defense program. In addition to the authority contained in the law for the negotiation of contracts with or without competition, it authorized the advance of funds to contractors as an aid in financing the contracts. Other provisions of the law carrying authority for the execution of cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contracts, for the modification of contracts, and for the procurement of facilities, proved to be valuable aids in the promotion of the national-defense program. Notwithstanding the broad authority contained in the act for the acquisition, construction, repair, or alteration of complete naval vessels or aircraft, or any portion thereof, including plans, spare parts, and equipment therefor, that have been or may be authorized, and also for machine tools and other similar equipment, the Secretary of the Navy prescribed as a policy the method of procurement by negotiation without competition only when resort to advertising would be detrimental to the interests of the Government. Under this policy, the provisions of the law have been used to supplement, but not displace, the time-tried method of procurement by advertisement for competitive bids.
Acting under the foregoing authority, about 580 contracts were extended, covering vessels' machinery and equipment identical with that required for other vessels of recent construction. The money value of the materials procured in this manner amounted to about $275,000,000. Aside from the more expeditious procurement, there was an inestimable saving in design, drafting, and plan approval work. About 220 commercial vessels of various types were procured by the same method.
The authority contained in the act of June 28, 1940, for the advance of funds to contractors has been used with care and safeguards. The Navy. Department has pursued the policy of making advance pay-
merits only when private or public financing seemed impracticable. As a broad general rule, advance payment as a method of financing performance of a contract has been authorized whenever (a) the contractor required financing in order to enable him to perform a contract required in the interests of national defense, and (b) financing of the contractor through private sources either was not available, or would result in a disproportionate increase in the price of the product to the Government, or would involve delay in getting started on production. Any increase in price in excess of interest at a reasonable rate on the advance payment is regarded as disproportionate.
The rapidly increasing needs for materials for national defense and the growing evidence of shortages in many lines made it necessary to apply priorities to an increasing number of items. For like reasons, it has been necessary to make changes in the relative priorities of some items to meet changing industrial conditions. By the assignment of priorities and with the cooperation of industry, the urgent necessities have been supplied without undue interference with the manufacturing schedules of production.
The value of the Naval Supply Account Fund on June 30, 1940, was $90,543,763.91. This reflected a net increase in the fund during the first 10 months of the limited national emergency of approximately $19,500,000. The total value of the fund on April 30, 1941, was $178,726,763.73, an increase during the second 10 months of the emergency of $88,182,999.82. This latter total value of the fund included a cash balance of $20,081,509.36. The fund had been augmented by appropriations of $5,000,000 in the regular 1941 appropriation act available July 1, 1941, and $75,000,000 in the fifth supplemental National Defense Appropriation Act, 1941.
The impetus of stock procurement to meet the spiraling issue rate, with the necessarily larger monetary value of stock inventories to provide adequate balances, resulted in a preliminary showing on May 31, 1941, of a "Credit" cash balance of $4,946,861.69, indicating a stock expansion of approximately $25,000,000 in the month of May. There had been an average increase in total value of Naval Supply Account stock during the fiscal year of about $11,000,000 a month, at an increasing monthly rate. As of May 31, the need for further immediate expansion of the fund was imperative. A deficiency estimate for 1941 of $49,000,000 was submitted and was appropriated by the Congress in the Second Deficiency Appropriation Act, 1941. The total value of the fund on June 30, 1941, is therefore indicated as about $228,000,000. It is apparent that this total will be almost entirely converted into stock, and the value of the inventories will be about three and one-half times the value as of July 1, 1940. Additional steps were taken to augment the fund by inclusion of $20,000,000 in the 1942 appropriation
act and $100,000,000 submitted to Congress as a 1942 supplemental estimate.
In an effort to keep pace with the rapid increase in stocks of all categories, expansion of storage and stores handling facilities throughout the Naval Shore Establishment went forward during the fiscal year at an unprecedented rate. The principal developments concern the various naval supply depots. Prosecution of the first increment of development at the Naval Supply Depot, Oakland, continued in a satisfactory manner. In the third supplemental National Defense Appropriation Act of 1941, the sum of $5,000,000 was appropriated permitting acquisition of the Bayonne Port Terminal, Bayonne, N. J., for the development of a naval supply depot at that point. At the Naval Supply Depot, Norfolk, appropriations for extensive supply facilities were made during the fiscal year. While certain temporary storage facilities were completed on the site of the future Naval Supply Depot, Pearl Harbor, on Kuahua Island, commencement of the permanent development of the site was undertaken with the allocation of approximately $1,000,000 for facilities for storage of aviation materials, and $1,900,000 for extension of quay wall, pier, dredging, and for initial portions of a cold-storage plant and a dry-provisions storehouse.
Action was initiated in the case of all of the above supply depots toward the securing of additional appropriations for further development in varying degrees.
In addition to the expansion of the naval supply depots, action toward extensive augmentation of storage facilities at navy yards was also undertaken. Several sizeable appropriations were received permitting to some degree relief from the congestion obtaining in every case. Progress was made throughout the year on augmentation of existing fuel storages at various locations and particularly on the extensive projects for underground storage at Pearl Harbor and at Middle-Orchard Point, Puget Sound. At Pearl Harbor it is contemplated to store eventually the entire stock of fuel oil underground. At Middle-Orchard Point funds now available provide for the storage underground of fuel oil and Diesel oil.
During the year oil played a more important part in Fleet movement than ever before. The enlarged Fleet, operating over wider and more distant areas, had to be adequately supplied. In addition to Fleet fuel oil, motor boats, motor vehicles, and aircraft required large quantities of gasoline to permit them to carry out operating programs. While the Navy's fuel needs represent only a small portion of the country's production of oil, its requirements are, how-
ever, vital and must be met. There have been no actual shortages of oil through the year.
During the year an extensive study was made of provisions with a view to utilizing storage space aboard ship to the fullest extent and effecting improvements in ration items. These studies developed that boneless beef could be used in lieu of beef in quarters without any impairment of quality, and considerable space could be saved thereby. Other items of meat products and canned fruits and vegetables are being considered for use as supplementary ration items.
Stocks of provisions maintained at distributing points were increased during the year to meet requirements as a result of the national emergency and will be increased further during the coming fiscal year to provide adequate stocks for the subsistence of the authorized personnel.
To safeguard further the interests of the Navy, supervising audits of the work of field cost inspection offices are conducted under the direction of a specially chosen civilian assistant to the Paymaster General, a senior partner in a well-known accounting firm, whose force is made up of highly skilled accountants. These audits are intended as a check on procedures employed, the quality of the technical field supervision, the suitability of personnel employed, and the effectiveness of audit programs.
The Assistant Secretary of the Navy, the Director of Shore Establishments, and their assistants have participated in Congressional hearings which have enabled legislative action to facilitate and to stimulate effective progress. They have participated in conferences with, furnished information to, and otherwise cooperated with many other Government departments, offices, and agencies. These efforts have improved internal understandings and expedited the defense task.
Particular attention has been given to labor relations in order that dealings with the citizens who make up the force of employees may be based upon enlightened policies in accord with the spirit of the times. The cooperation of labor organizations has been invited to assist in formulating proper policy, in recruitment of qualified artisans, in the prevention of evils of labor migration, wage competition, and in procedures wherever they may be indicated to conduct labor negotiations in order to eliminate interruptions to the national-defense work.
A new schedule of wages governing the pay of civil employees in the field service of the Navy Department was issued effective as of November 18, 1940. This superseded the previous schedule established in 1929 and revised to March 1, 1936. During the year various conferences have been held between shipbuilding management and labor with observers from the Navy, the Maritime Commission and other governmental agencies present in an effort to stabilize conditions in the shipbuilding industry. Agreements have been reached for the West Coast and the Atlantic Coast. The Gulf Coast and the Great Lakes region have ratifications now pending.
The procurement and training of civilian employees in the field service of the Navy has kept pace with the expanding work load of the various stations. Probable shortages in essential trades and occupations were foreseen, and training courses were set up well in advance to insure the availability of competent men when needed.
Visits to the industrial establishments by officers of experience have been continued. These visits have been valuable in synchronizing field procedure with the Navy Department's efforts to expedite the national defense by eliminating unnecessary routine, stimulating labor recruitment, and training.
During the past year, both the frequency and severity of accidents have increased slightly over the previous year. Every effort is being made to correct this trend which is attributed to the large influx of new and inexperienced workers.
The study of occupational effects from dust and fumes continues, and as fast as safe operating practices are developed they are promptly adopted.
The safety competition between shipbuilding activities conducted by the National Safety Council has been continued this year. For the seventh consecutive year the navy yards took the first three places in the shipbuilding and repair section of the contest.
The motor vehicle fleets (trucks and passenger cars) of the various yards and stations were again entered in the National Fleet Safety Contest with gratifying results. Navy truck fleets won first and second places in competition with 20 truck fleets; the performance of the passenger-car fleets has been such as to win honorable mention.
The office of the Assistant Secretary, Shore Establishments Division, through its representatives on the Executive Committee, and Machine Tool Committee of the Army and Navy Munitions Board has worked in close collaboration with the War Department and the Office of Production Management to coordinate requirements and distribute production of machine tools to most effectively further the defense program.
The increased work load has been so great that it has been difficult to keep pace in the acquisition of new tools and equipment. It
has, therefore, not been possible to discard the worn and obsolete equipment that has been the source of reduced efficiency for many years. The actual tool equipment of navy yards in terms of total capacity exceeds the maximum of any previous date.
The Navy Department Board on Awards to Civil Employees, composed of an officer from each bureau in the Navy Department and from the Marine Corps Headquarters, has been continued.
Of the 14 beneficial suggestions and devices received during the past year, 10 were found to be of practical application and the Secretary of the Navy recommended awards in the amount of $990. This is little more than one-tenth the amount recommended during the preceding year, this great decrease in the evidence of inventive activity is probably indicative of the greatly heightened pressure of current work.
The Accounting Section of the Shore Establishments Division checks the monthly statements of expenditures submitted by the industrial navy yards and analyzes comparative data on the number of employees engaged at principal naval activities and the number employed in shipbuilding at the site, on average man-day cost of productive labor, overhead rates, under and over absorbed expenses, and on other miscellaneous data for use of the Navy Department and the industrial navy yards. During the past year these studies have contributed to the promotion of efficiency and economy at industrial navy yards.
Effective July 1, 1941, all industrial navy yards with the exception of the navy yard, Washington, D. C, and the naval aircraft factory, navy yard, Philadelphia, Pa., were directed to use a single yard indeterminate shop appropriation rate instead of an individual rate for each productive shop. The rendering of expense statements was changed from monthly to quarterly. These changes were effected in the interest of reducing paper work and expediting the accounting procedure in individual navy yards during the present emergency.
Civil employees of the Naval Establishment were distributed June 30, 1941, approximately as follows:
|Navy Department and headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps||8,628|
|Field services of Navy Department and Marine Corps||218, 382|
The fiscal year 1941 has seen an unprecedented expansion of the Naval Shore Establishment, made necessary by the large expansion of the forces afloat and in the air. The total funds authorized for obligations during the fiscal year amounted to approximately $1,100,000,000. Many important items of naval shore development were completed during the year, and excellent progress is being made
toward the completion of other projects urgently needed to meet the requirements of the striking forces.
Naval air stations have been completed or advanced to such a stage as to permit operations at 11 continental and 13 island and overseas bases. Construction work is actually underway for additional overseas bases. The geographic positions of the chain of air bases in the Atlantic make them of great strategic importance. As they control important routes to the United States, the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and guard the approaches to the Panama Canal; every effort is being made to expedite their completion. In the Pacific, the strategic importance of the air bases in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, together with development of the islands guarding the approach to the Navy's defenses in the Hawaiian area with the resultant safety of the Pacific Coast, are obvious.
Large expansions have been made in the provision of industrial facilities urgently needed to provide adequate shipbuilding and repair facilities. All of the industrial navy yards within the continental limits of the United States have been expanded and miscellaneous shipbuilding facilities installed to meet the needs of the shipbuilding and ship repair program. Shipways have been improved and extended to meet the demands of ship construction in sizes and capacities in excess of any heretofore contemplated. Miscellaneous cranes and weight-handling equipment have been provided in large quantities. Two graving dry docks were completed during the year; 15 new graving dry docks, 5 floating dry docks, and 3 marine railways are in the process of construction. Action has been taken by the Navy Department to acquire title to a graving dry dock in San Juan Harbor, which was originally constructed by the Navy for the Puerto Rican Government. Three of the dry docks mentioned above are outside the continental limits of the United States. The industrial development in general has included buildings and improvements of a diversified nature, embracing shops for miscellaneous purposes, expansion of berthing facilities, piers, wharves, quay walls, etc.
New storehouses and expansion of existing storage facilities have been provided at practically all naval activities. Excellent progress has been made on the construction of the new naval supply depot at Oakland, Calif., and work is well underway on a similar naval supply depot on the Atlantic Coast at Bayonne, N. J. Both of these are essential to meet the needs of a two-ocean Navy. The submarine base facilities at New London, Conn.; St. Thomas, V. I.; Coco Solo, C. Z.; and Pearl Harbor, T. H., have been materially expanded. Emergency mooring facilities have been purchased and installed at miscellaneous locations throughout the Atlantic and
Pacific operating areas to meet the needs for mooring facilities for the expanded and continually active vessels of the fleet.
New personnel buildings have been provided at the Naval Academy to meet the needs of the additional midshipmen, and miscellaneous housing and messing facilities for enlisted men have been undertaken and substantially completed at practically all of the existing naval shore establishments. Expanded facilities are being constructed at the naval training stations at Newport, R. I.; Norfolk, Va.; Great Lakes, Ill.; and San Diego, Calif., to take care of the greatly increased recruiting program.
Radio facilities have been established at the new air bases, as well as at several of the older air stations, and at many other existing naval activities. Fuel oil facilities have been materially expanded and new fuel depots established both within the continental limits of the United States and in the outlying possessions. Work is under way and a large part has been completed in the expansion of existing power plants and facilities and in construction of new power plants to meet the needs of the expanded shore establishment. A policy has been established of making interconnections, wherever possible, between naval and outside power sources to provide break-down service, and in many locations standby break-down equipment is being installed. The constantly increasing demands for electric current at many of the yards and stations have made it necessary to change to a higher distribution voltage and to increase greatly the capacity of the outside power connection. Increased needs for services have correspondingly necessitated improvements to, and the rehabilitation of, practically all distributing systems, including electricity, power, gas, compressed air, water, etc. Sewerage systems have been enlarged to meet the increased needs, and storm drainage systems have been expanded or installed at many activities. Special emphasis has been placed on the need for adequate fire prevention and protection, and careful studies and reports leading to the taking of such action as may be necessary to provide these precautions as safety measures are under way. Telephone systems have been appreciably expanded and new refrigerating plants installed. A large increase in charging facilities for storage batteries for submarines, and additional electrical services and equipment to serve vessels under repair from shore circuits has been required.
Three new naval ammunition depots are under construction, and existing ammunition depots have been considerably expanded to meet the needs of the national defense program.
Emergency expansion of naval hospitals has been carried on, and new hospitals have been constructed. Work on the new Naval Medi-
cal Center, Washington, D. C., is progressing rapidly, and buildings are scheduled for completion prior to the end of the calendar year. Contracts have been awarded for new permanent hospitals at Long Beach, Calif.; Pearl Harbor, T. H.; and Key West, Fla. Considerable expansion of structures and facilities to house increased Marine Corps personnel has occurred at the marine barracks at Parris Island, S. C.; Quantico, Va.; and San Diego, Calif. A new Marine Corps operating and training base is under construction at New River, N. C., and a new Marine Corps aviation base has been contracted for, to be located on Neuse River, N. C., approximately 40 miles north of the new Marine Corps operating base.
The Navy has substantially completed the low-cost defense housing program allocated to it by the President. During the fiscal year approximately 17,583 family housing units, together with dormitories for 2,000 single men, were completed at a cost of approximately $62,000,000.
Section bases have been completed and placed in operation at many localities within the continental limits of the United States and outlying possessions, and others have been authorized and appropriated for which are now under construction and will be in operation before the end of the calendar year.
Funds have been appropriated to start the initial development of a new fleet repair and operating base at Roosevelt Roads lying between the eastern end of Puerto Rico and Vieques Island. The provision of necessary anchorage for the fleet will require extensive breakwater installation. Studies are now in progress at the United States Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss., to determine the location and design of the breakwater. Quarries are now being opened on Vieques Island to provide the rock necessary for construction purposes. Preliminary work is in progress for the graving drydock and shore facilities included in the initial program. Excellent progress in the construction of the Roosevelt Base on Terminal Island in San Pedro Harbor, Calif., has been made during the past year to provide fleet operating facilities in this area. A breakwater and quay wall have been installed and dredging and filling operations are under way. A graving drydock of maximum capacity is being constructed, and action is being initiated for the construction of the miscellaneous repair facilities needed to place the base in full operation to service and repair vessels of the fleet.
During the fiscal year, the Navy Department awarded a total of 712 contracts involving naval shore construction at a cost of $603,199,632.
OFFICES, BOARDS, AND OTHER ACTIVITIES
OFFICE OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL.
The work of the Office of the Judge Advocate General during the year has included the following: Questions on military law, including review of all courts, courts of inquiry, and investigations held in the naval service; legal matters relating to examination, appointment, rank, precedence, promotion, and retirement of officers; interpretation of personnel legislation and regulations made pursuant thereto; naval reserve legal matters; determination of misconduct and line of duty; legal matters pertaining to insular possessions under naval government and leased naval bases; veterans' legislation, including World War adjusted compensation; drafting opinions on pay and allowances of personnel; handling claims growing out of marine and aircraft disasters; admiralty law; international law; official bonds; drafting, submitting, and following up legislation; legal matters relating to acquisition, perfection of title, and disposal of real estate of the naval establishment; legal matters growing out of the administration of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves; contracts under the national defense and lease-lend programs; administration of naval prisons; handling legal matters with the Bureau of the Budget, the Attorney General, and the Comptroller General; and patents.
The scope of this report does not permit the summarizing of these activities, but a complete report will be found on file in the Office of the Judge Advocate General.
The emergency has resulted in a tremendous increase in production of the Hydrographic Office. In last year's annual report, an increase of about 70 percent above normal was reported. For the past year the increase has approximated 400 percent. Despite this great increase, it has been possible to meet the demands of the Fleet and it is believed the situation is well in hand. Unfortunately, the supply of world-wide charts to the Merchant Marine is not satisfactory. There are a number of charts not produced by the Hydrographic Office which merchant ships must purchase from British Admiralty agents. It has become increasingly difficult for agents to obtain British Admiralty charts. It is necessary, therefore, that the Hydrographic Office become, in the future, independent of foreign sources for a world-wide chart coverage.
New equipment, urgently needed during the past year, has been purchased and will be used as soon as the larger space in a new building is available. There has been a shortage of personnel, and
the office has been handicapped by the difficulty in getting technical personnel who are adequately trained.
The Bowditch and Sumner were removed from the survey of the coast of Ecuador to survey various new bases. Six of these bases have been surveyed and, in addition, other strategic areas in the Caribbean area have been covered.
The Naval Observatory completed its ninety-seventh year of continuous operation.
Important changes were made during the year. One of the most important was necessitated by the reorganization of the Navy Department, putting all material under the Bureau of Ships. As a result, the Compass Division and the Equipage Division were transferred in their entirety to the Bureau of Ships. The Naval Observatory, including the Nautical Almanac Office and the Time Service, remains under the Bureau of Navigation. The Instrument Repair Shop, although an agency of the Bureau of Ships, was placed under the Naval Observatory for administrative purposes. This change necessitated the setting up of an organization similar to that in a navy yard. Funds for the performance of Bureau of Navigation functions remain under that Bureau; funds covering all the other activities of the Observatory were transferred to the Bureau of Ships, including salaries of the personnel performing duty exclusively under that Bureau.
A modern, much larger and better equipped shop was constructed between October 15, 1940 and May 19, 1941, when the shop force began operations in the new building. With the additional space available, it has been possible to inaugurate a long desired apprentice system both for instrument makers and chronometer repairers. Much difficulty has been experienced in obtaining qualified candidates to expand our small corps to meet current demands. It is hoped to train our men under this apprentice system.
During the year, the Naval Observatory computed and published its first American Air Almanac, consisting of three volumes, known as the Red, White and Blue Almanacs. The Red volume covers the period from January 1 to April 30; the White volume from May 1 to August 31; and the Blue volume from September 1 to December 31. Reports received from the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard and commercial aviators have been universally complimentary. Next year, a distinct modification in the process of handling these books, insuring greater accuracy, greater economy, and the saving of many hours of proofreading is planned. Attention is invited to the successful completion of this heavy task in addition
to all previously undertaken tasks, without requiring any additional theoretical astronomers in the Nautical Almanac Office.
Due to the necessity of transferring all junior officers to sea duty, it became necessary to employ three additional young astronomers in the Time Service. This precautionary measure was taken as it was feared the junior officers might be detached suddenly and before replacements could be trained. As soon as the three young astronomers were trained, the Department was notified that the junior officers were available for sea duty.
The present European situation again emphasizes the importance of the United States being able to carry on the entire astronomical load for all friendly nations independent of all foreign sources of information and irrespective of developments abroad.
Prior to 1939, by international agreement, all large nations of the world pooled their astronomical data, each nation exchanging the results of its own work with the other nations. As long as international friendship continued, this exchange represented quite an economy. Each nation could publish its annual Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac without performing all the astronomical and computation work itself. Under the present conditions, there is no assurance that during the next 5 or 6 years it will be possible to have a free exchange of astronomical data. Since September 1939, it has been increasingly difficult to send our astronomical data abroad or to receive return data. As long as Great Britain and the United States can continue to exchange data, it will be possible to carry on without great inconvenience. If the present conflict continues 4 or 5 years, the difficulties will increase.
The present situation emphasizes the vital necessity of concentrating all national observatories on positional astronomy. The necessity for uninterrupted fundamental astronomical observations, now of such vital importance, cannot be too strongly emphasized. Because our astronomical effort has not been disturbed by the chaotic conditions in Europe, many requests have been received for our tabulated fundamental data from those who are not in a position to collect it themselves.
The usual number of commendatory letters and resolutions have been received during the year from various scientific organizations thanking the Naval Observatory for its efficient service and for its complete cooperation. Both the national convention of the Geophysical Union and the Seismological Society of America particularly stressed the value of the Naval Observatory's excellent time service broadcast through the Naval Communication Service. The Horological Institute of America, at its annual convention, again
stressed its appreciation of the Naval Observatory's great assistance in horology.
The automatic time service has now been in continuous operation for 7 years. Experiments have been continued throughout the year to improve the crystal oscillator.
Since September 7, 1939, when hostilities commenced in Europe, the Naval Observatory has been closed to visitors, except for those specially authorized by the Secretary of the Navy.
Owing to the increase in the number of appointments from 4 to 5 for Senators, Representatives and Delegates in Congress, from 50 to 100 from the Naval Reserve, and from 15 to 25 annually for appointments at large by the President, the authorized quota of midshipmen has been raised from 2,927 to 3,702. Under this quota it is estimated that there will be about 1,100 in the Fourth Class on October 1, 1941, with a regiment of about 3,100, the largest in the history of the Academy. The shortening of the course of instruction from 4 to 3 years until August 1945, and the filling of vacancies at the end of the 3-year course will result in further increasing the number of midshipmen at the Academy.
The annual inspection of the Naval Academy by the Board of Visitors, composed of Senators and Representatives and heads of several prominent educational institutions, was made in April 1941. The following extracts are quoted from the report of the Board of Visitors to the President:
The Board was gratified to learn that shortening of the course has resulted in a relatively small reduction of time devoted to academic instruction.
The morale, discipline, and health of all persons connected with the Academy continue to be excellent and give the greatest satisfaction to the Board, who realize the basic importance of these factors at the present time.
The Board feels that the whole system of training in force at the Academy, with particular reference to age at entrance, mental and physical entrance requirements, courses of study and training, represents a satisfactory solution to the problem of providing career officers for the Fleet.
The Naval Home, Philadelphia, is administered by a staff of five officers of the Navy, at the head of which is a retired rear admiral as governor.
Changes during the year have occurred among the beneficiaries as follows:
|Number on roll June 30, 1940||242|
|Admissions during the year||23|
|Remaining on roll June 30, 1941||234|
The veterans of the various campaigns on the rolls at the close of the year were as follows:
|Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection||93|
|Aspinwall landing party||1|
|Vera Cruz Expedition||24|
|Nicaraguan, 1912, 1926, 1928, and 1930||15|
|Bombardment of Alexandria (1892)||1|
|China, 1927 and 1932||2|
|Panama, 1904 and 1908||3|
Note. - Some veterans served in more than one campaign.
The average age of the beneficiaries is 62 years; the youngest is 32, and the oldest is 83.
The beneficiaries are quartered in separate rooms, receive quarterly issues of clothing and monthly issues of tobacco, medical attention, reading glasses, and dental work. All nonpensioners receive $3 monthly pocket money.
A number of beneficiaries are employed in the minor capacities about the Home, such as watchmen and mechanical orderlies; kitchen, lavatory and bathroom attendants, etc., with pay ranging from $15 to $25 per month. Assignments to these ratings which are entirely voluntary add to their contentment, giving those able to perform the light duties something with which profitably and usefully to occupy their spare time.
Excellent, well-balanced menus with abundant food of fine quality and variety are furnished to the beneficiaries. The ration rate was 53.2 cents per man per day for the year, as compared with 52.4 cents for 1940.
The health of the beneficiary personnel has been generally excellent, considering that they all suffer from some chronic disease or disability as a condition precedent to their admission. There were no epidemic diseases during the year.
Services are held each Sunday in the assembly hall of the Home by the Chaplain. Motion pictures are shown two evenings of each week. Groups of beneficiaries are taken each week during the season to baseball games in the city of Philadelphia, and outings and entertainments are often given by various civic organizations.
There were several discharges during the year of undesirable beneficiaries, due to repeated offenses of intoxication. The deportment of
the men as a whole is all that can be desired, and complaints have been negligible.
The General Board, the Joint Army and Navy Boards, the Examining Board, and the Compensation Board have all continued to perform their duties in accordance with existing laws and regulations. The cooperation between the Army and Navy effected by the several joint boards has been highly satisfactory.
BOARD OF INSPECTION AND SURVEY.
The Board of Inspection and Survey is charged with conducting all preliminary and final acceptance trials of new vessels built for the Navy, including aircraft. For aircraft, it is the practice to conduct trials of the type aircraft. Under the act of August 5, 1882, the Board is required to inspect all vessels upon their return from foreign stations, or as often as once in every 3 years, when practicable. Due to the unavailability of ships during the present emergency and the large number of trials incident to the shipbuilding program, it has not been practicable to conduct all material inspections which normally would have been accomplished.
The following is a brief summary of the work completed by the Board during the fiscal year 1941:
|Preliminary trials (Pacific coast)||1|
|Preliminary trials (subboards)||1|
|Official trials (subboards)||31|
|Final trials (Pacific Coast Section)||1|
|Material inspections (Pacific coast)||69|
|Material Inspections (subboards)||25|
NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVE.
During the past year the Secretary of the Navy has continued under his direct supervision all matters in connection with the naval petroleum and oil-shale reserves and all general policies relative to the Navy's future fuel-oil supply.
The Navy oil office, under the Director of Naval Petroleum and Oil-Shale Reserves, has continued the study of the petroleum situation and its problems, has kept in touch with the various Government activities regarding conservation of the Government's oil, and has had charge of the operation, maintenance, and protection of the naval petroleum and oil-shale reserves.
Naval petroleum reserves Nos. 1 and 2 in California are administered locally by a naval inspector with offices in Los Angeles, Calif. Naval petroleum reserve No. 3 in Wyoming, and the naval oil-shale reserves in Colorado and Utah are under the direct charge of a naval inspector with offices at Casper, Wyo.
Both inspectors maintain contact with the local situation and with other matters affecting their respective reserves.
During the fiscal year 1941 the naval petroleum reserves produced an income to the Government amounting to $812,180.02 which was deposited in the Treasury to the credit of "Miscellaneous receipts." The items making up this total income are as follows:
|(1)||Lease rentals and royalties on oil, gas, and gasoline||$811,738.10|
|(2)||Rental from grazing rights, naval petroleum reserve No. 3||441.92|
On September 18, 1940, the Secretary of the Interior denied claimants' petition for a rehearing and on October 3, 1940, the Government's special counsel filed a complaint, in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California to establish definitely title to section 16 in the United States. On June 28, 1941, a consent decree in favor of the United States was filed in the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of California, Northern Division, in which the defendants, the General Petroleum Corporation of California and others, relinquished all claims to the lands and acknowledged title to be and always to have been in the United States.
With the settlement in this case, the last action involving titles to lands in the naval petroleum reserves was ended, and litigation which has been almost continuous since the naval petroleum reserves were set aside in 1912 was finally brought to a close. The Director of naval petroleum reserves and his assistants have advised with and rendered every possible aid to the Government's attorneys in prosecuting these actions during the year.
The act of June 30, 1938, gives the Secretary of the Navy authority to consolidate the Government's lands in naval petroleum reserve
No. 1 in the interest of conservation and protection from drainage. The evaluation of lands in this reserve looking toward the acquisition of the private lands in the reserve by the Government is continuing.
On June 30, 1941, the native population of American Samoa, including Swain's Island, was 13,273, an increase of 311 during the fiscal year. The present population represents an increase of more that 130 percent since 1900, when it was estimated at 5,679. This increase in population is due to the cessation of internecine warfare, and the sanitary and medical work of the medical officers of the Navy.
The native political situation is considered to be in excellent condition. The Island government continues to maintain and emphasize the policy of "Samoa for the Samoans." The conduct of the government has been carried on through the district governors and the county and village chiefs with complete success and resultant maintenance of their prestige.
During the first 6 months of this year, from July 1, 1940, to December 31, 1940, the economic situation in American Samoa was none too encouraging; the price of copra had dropped to a very low level, making it unprofitable to produce. The income from tourist trade had greatly decreased due to a reduction in tourist traffic. Commencing about January 1941, the economic situation began to change quite rapidly due to income from work on defense projects. On March 1-2, 1941, the Islands were visited by a hurricane of moderate intensity which did a great amount of damage to the banana, breadfruit, and coconut crops. It is expected that normal food production will be resumed in a few months. In April 1941 the price of copra began rising rapidly and the demand for native mats became so large that it took several months to fill orders. As a result, much more copra is now being produced and the native mat industry is thriving, which produces a natural prosperity in addition to the temporary prosperity of income from work on defense projects.
During the period from July 1, 1940 to June 30, 1941, the existing Island government roads were widened and resurfaced, and except for certain areas where construction work is being performed by the contractor the roads on Tutuila are in better condition than at any time in the past.
The educational policy of this government throughout the year has been to give the children of American Samoa an education suitable to this environment. The public school system, private denominational schools and general instruction given by the village pastors have stressed this policy by emphasizing agriculture, native arts,
hygiene, sanitation, the Samoan language and religion. The average enrollment for the year in all schools was about three thousand. There are 41 public schools, 6 private schools, and the Feleti School. During the past school year, the age of children entering the public schools was raised to 7 years in order to give the younger children an extra year with their faifeau (native pastor) teachers to gain a better knowledge of the Samoan language; promotion to upper grades has been based on achievement; and the age for compulsory attendance of girls was reduced 2 years from 14 to 12.
The Bank of American Samoa is in sound financial condition and serves a very useful purpose. The net earnings of the bank for the fiscal year were $4,097.75, as contrasted with the previous year's net earnings of $2,954.81. The accounting year of the government of American Samoa is the calendar year. There is no bonded indebtedness and the law requires the value of the general fund not to be allowed to drop below $37,500.00. The net value of the general fund on June 30, 1941, was $87,330.58, and the value of liquid assets was $107,938.50. Property valued at $269,143.94 is owned by the Island government.
Due to the continued efficient work of the personnel of the Naval Medical Corps in Samoa, the general health conditions during the past year have been very good. Leading causes of death continue to be pneumonia and tuberculosis, but not at a rate any greater than for years past. Continued efforts are being made to improve sanitary conditions existing in the villages and to improve the existing water-supply systems. The Samoan Hospital continues to do excellent service considering the very poor facilities available. It is expected that these conditions will be greatly improved with the completion of the new naval hospital at this station. The school of nurses maintained at the Samoan Hospital is a very valuable institution for the Samoan people. Although many nurses resign after a few years service because of marriage, they continue to spread the doctrine of good health among the people of their villages. The instruction of Samoan boys for service as male nurses, which was conducted as an experiment last year, has been discontinued, as it was soon ascertained that they could not be successfully trained for service as male nurses.
There appears to be no reason to doubt the loyalty of the natives of American Samoa to the Island government and to the United States Government. They show a great interest in the projects now in process of construction for the defense of their islands. Approximately one thousand natives are now being employed on these projects and this source of labor supply has proved to be of great help; in view of the pay which they receive, both for skilled and unskilled labor, their output of work compares very favorably with
the output of labor in the United States. The large increase in their income as a result of the defense projects is and will continue to have some effect on their living conditions, primarily the increased use of imported foods and their ability now to purchase various items of equipment, material and clothing which they have heretofore not had sufficient money to obtain. It is not expected, however, that with the majority of the people of the islands there will be a very noticeable permanent change in their ways of life as a result of the present temporary conditions.
On June 30, 1941 the native population of Guam was 21,994 an increase of 492 over the previous year.
The affairs of the Island and its people have continued to be little affected by the political, economic and industrial problems of the world at large. The economic condition of the Island has improved to a considerable extent during the past year. The native population is generally contented and take pride in their Island.
No drastic changes in the fundamental policies of the naval government have been made; such government is functioning efficiently and successfully; it is solvent and well organized.
The general health conditions of the people have been very good throughout the year, except for a mild epidemic of German measles. Sanitary conditions are maintained at a high standard under the supervision of naval medical officers. One native of Guam, who completed education in the United States and internship for the medical profession, is now actively engaged in private practice on the Island. In addition he has been employed by the naval government to conduct a tuberculosis survey of the entire Island population with the end in view of giving those infected with this disease such treatment as is available locally. This survey will eventually, it is hoped, lead to final stamping out of this dread disease on the Island. Tuberculosis is the leading single cause of death in Guam, exceeding the combined death rate from arterial degenerative diseases and all of its complications, including hypertensive heart disease. It is estimated that this survey will take about 10 months time. The matter is progressing satisfactorily.
The same general educational policy, namely, to enlighten the minds of the people by means of education and to stimulate their development through training and self-discipline, has been followed. The course of study for the academic schools is based on standards of the Office of Education of the United States Department of Interior. All instruction is in English. Industrial training included carpentry, cooking, sewing, weaving, fish-net making, manufacture
of rattan furniture, and agriculture. A sum of $50,689.91 was expended by the naval government during the fiscal year on education, to which was added $15,000 by the Federal Government. On June 30, 1941, there were 32 schools with an average enrollment of 5,084 pupils for the year. All positions in the regular native schools are filled by natives. On November 3, 1940, the Island of Guam was visited by the most severe typhoon on record for this Island. Dwellings were blown away, planted crops were destroyed, natural tree crops were destroyed, poultry were blown away, and in general the normal life of the native farmer on the Island was completely disrupted. The American Red Cross donated $10,000 to help relieve distress among the natives. This amount was soon exhausted and money was sought from other sources. The naval government canceled payment of taxes on rural property for a period of 6 months in an endeavor to help the people reestablish themselves. Much has been done toward rehabilitation, and in some instances improvement over former status is in evidence. However, Guam's largest industry, the production of copra, will not be normal for 4 years, due to considerable destruction of coconut trees. Swine herds on the Island have of necessity been reduced, due to the lack of locally produced feed. It has been necessary to commence importation of copra-cake from the Philippines in order to supply proper feed for poultry raisers. It will be approximately 18 months, from the date of the typhoon, before tree crops, such as breadfruit, avocados, and bananas, can be expected to produce a normal crop.
Curtailment on exportation licenses for rice was encountered in Hong Kong early in the calendar year, necessitating procurement of rice in the Philippines for Guam, which is higher in price. Every possible encouragement is being extended to the population in Guam to increase the area of land under cultivation in order to supplant the loss of natural crops destroyed by the typhoon and to minimize the necessity of importing food.
The damage caused by the typhoon, and the increased cost of rice importation, has not greatly affected the economic conditions of the Island due to the fact that money is being spent in the Island on Federal projects, using local labor, thereby creating a source of income not previously experienced.
One of the Federal projects of most importance to the Island is the Almagosa Springs water project. This project is well advanced, is usably complete, and the stabilization of the water supply is already being experienced.
Secretary of the Navy.