F-1 (Submarine No. 20)
(Submarine No. 20: displacement 330; 1ength 142'7"; beam 15'5"; draft 12'2"; complement 22; speed 14 knots; armament 4 18-inch torpedo tubes; class F-1)
Carp (Submarine No. 20) was laid down on 23 August 1909 at San Francisco, Calif., by Union Iron Works (subcontractor for the Electric Boat Co.); launched on 6 September 1911; sponsored by Miss J. Tynan; renamed F-1 on 17 November 1911; and commissioned on 19 June 1912, Lt. (j.g.) James B. Howell in command.
Assigned to the First Submarine Group, Pacific Torpedo Flotilla, F-1 operated in the San Francisco area on trials and tests through 11 January 1913, when she joined the Flotilla for training at sea off the California coast between between San Diego and San Pedro, then in San Diego Harbor. Between 21 July 1914 and 14 November 1915, the Flotilla, towed to their destination by armored cruisers, based at Honolulu for development operations in the Hawaiian Islands.
F-1 lay in ordinary between 15 March 1916 and 13 June 1917. When she returned to full commission, she served with the Patrol Force, Pacific, making surface and submerged runs to continue her part in the development of submarine tactics, basing on San Pedro. On 17 December 1917, while maneuvering in exercises at sea, F-1 and F-3 (Submarine No. 22) collided, the former sinking in 10 seconds, her port side torn forward of the engine room. Nineteen of her men were lost, while the others were rescued by the submarines with which she was operating.
Updated, Robert J. Cressman
18 May 2020