Chronology of Service
6 July - Born at Arbigland, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland, on the shore of Solway Firth.
Apprenticed. Went to sea on the Friendship. Visited his brother, William Paul, in Virginia. Made voyage as third mate of slaver King George.
Chief mate of the Two Friends, of Kingston, Jamaica.
Returned to Scotland in the John; sailed for the West Indies. Made supercargo of the John.
5 Aug. - Wrote from St. George, Granada, to Mr. Craik regarding his private business, his ship, and the care of his mother.
27 Nov. - Made a freemason (entered apprentice) St. Bernard's Lodge, Kilwinning No. 122, Kirkcudbright, Scotland.
1 Apr. - Date of certificate of high approval from owners of the John. Same year visited family in Scotland for the last time.
30 June - Date of affidavit sworn to before Governor Young, of Tobago, exonerating Jones from charges made against him.
24 Sep. - In London. Wrote to his mother and sisters; enclosed copy of affidavits establishing his innocence in the case of Mungo Maxwell.
- Commanded the Betsey. (Day and month not given)
30 Jan. - Evidence in Jones' behalf given before Mayor of London.
- In Virginia. (Day and month not given)
- Assumed the name of Jones in North Carolina. (Day and month not given)
Jones' brother, William Paul, died. Date taken from tombstone in St. George's Churchyard, Fredericksburg, Va. William Paul's will dated 1772. (Day and month not given)
25 Apr. - Wrote to Joseph Hewes, Robert Morris, and Thomas Jefferson desiring a naval appointment.
May - Visited French ship Terpischore, Commander Kersaint, in Hampton Roads. Met Louis Philippe Egalite. (Day of month not given)
24 Jun. - Marine Committee desired Jones' view on naval affairs.
18 Jul. - Appeared before Committee at Philadelphia.
25 Aug. - Requested by Marine Committee to fit out the Alfred.
14 Sep. or 3 Oct. - Sent, through Hon. Joseph Hewes, replies to inquiries on naval affairs from Congress.
3 Dec. - "B.P." wrote to Earl Dartmouth that the "Continental flag was this day hoisted on the Black Prince" (later called the Alfred). At Philadelphia.
7 Dec. - Jones appointed first of the first lieutenants in the Continental Navy by Congress. Ordered to the Alfred.
22 Dec. - Appointments of 7 Dec. confirmed by Congress.
Dec. - Offered command of the Providence or Fly. Preferred remain on the Alfred. (Day of month not given)
Dec. - Hoisted American Flag on the Alfred, flagship of Commander-in-Chief Esek Hopkins. (Earl Dartmouth letter indicates 3 Dec. as date)
9 Feb. - Commodore Hopkins' fleet sailed from Philadelphia under the "Union Flag" as used by General Washington at Cambridge. Jones First Lieutenant of flagship, Alfred.
17 Feb. - Fleet left the Delaware on expedition.
1 Mar. - Fleet anchored off Abaco. Jones piloted the Alfred into New Providence.
17 Mar. - Fleet sailed from New Providence with captured military stores and the governor and other important prisoners.
4-5 Apr. - Schooner Hawk and bomb brig Bolton captured.
6 Apr. - Alfred and Cabot engaged the Glasgow. She escaped. Hopkins' squadron put into New London.
14 Apr. - Jones wrote Honorable Mr. Hewes account of the expedition.
1 May - Ordered to attend the court-martial of Captain Whipple, Captain of the Alfred.
10 May - Jones ordered by Hopkins to command the Providence.
18 May - Providence arrived in New York.
19 May - Jones explained to Honorable Mr. Hewes reasons for declining the command of the Fly; said new commission had not been sent him.
6 June - Desired command of one of the new ships being constructed by order of Congress.
10 June - In obedience to Commodore Hopkins' order, pursued an armed sloop in sight of New London. She escaped.
13 June - Ordered to convoy the Fly and other vessels carrying government supplies.
18 June - Ordered to Boston by Commodore Hopkins.
20 June - Colonel Tillinghast requested by Jones to get his private log of the Alfred from that ship and send it to him.
1 Aug. - Arrived in the Delaware with convoy from Boston.
8 Aug. - Received a Captain's commission from the President of Congress. "The first naval commission under the United States" or "since the Declaration of Independence." Marine Committee proposed to Jones to command the Hampden; he chose to remain on the Providence.
16 Aug. - Ordered to watch for French vessel with supplies.
21 Aug. - Sailed from the Delaware with orders to "cruise against the enemy for six weeks or more."
1 Sep. - After a sharp action, escaped from the British frigate Solebay near Bermuda. Later encountered and escaped from the Milford off Cape Sable.
3 Sep. to 28 Sep. - Captured off northeast coast of America 16 vessels, destroyed fishery at Canso and shipping at Isle Madame. Sent in 8 prizes, burned 8.
7 Oct. - Arrived at Newport, Rhode Island, in the Providence.
10 Oct. - Commissioned Captain in the Continental Navy.
17 Oct. - Wrote Robert Morris account of cruise. Made suggestions for improvement of the navy, plans for expedition against enemy's African trade.
22 Oct. - Took command of expedition to Cape Breton.
27 Oct. - The Hampden disabled, had to put back.
2 Nov. - Jones sailed with the Alfred and the Providence.
10 Nov. - Captured brig Active off Louisburg.
13 Nov. - Captured transport Mellish, with 10,000 suits of uniform; 150 prisoners.
16 Nov. - Captured brig Hetty.
24 Nov. to 30 Nov. - Captured 5 vessels, one a privateer of 16 guns. Destroyed a transport, ashore at Canso Straits. Burned buildings at Isle Royale.
7 Dec. - Chased by frigate Milford; escaped, lost one prize.
10 Dec. or 15 Dec. - Arrived in Boston.
12 Jan. - Explained to Honorable Mr. Hewes failure to release Americans at Cape Breton coal mines.
14 Jan. - Superseded by Hinman in command of Alfred, by order of Commodore Hopkins.
21 Jan. - Protested to Marine Committee against this injustice.
5 Feb. - Marine Committee ordered Jones to command fleet of six vessels for expedition to Pensacola.
17 Mar. - Appointed by Congress to command one of the three ships purchased "until a better can be had."
25 Mar. - Ordered to Boston to select and fit out a ship.
7 Apr. - At request of President of Congress submitted plans for organization and government of the Navy.
19 Apr. - Met Lafayette in Alexandria, Virginia.
4 May - Letter to Mr. Mawley concerning the money due him and care of his mother. Letter written from Boston.
9 May - Ordered to proceed to France in the Amphitrite. To take the officers and men to man a fine ship to be purchased for him in Europe. Letter to Commissioners in Paris.
23 May - In Boston shipped men for Amphitrite.
26 May - Wrote to the "Secret Committee."
14 June - Ordered to command the Ranger, first called the Hampshire, building at Portsmouth, New Hampshire; and Stars and Stripes adopted as National Ensign by Act of Congress.
18 June - Appointed to the Ranger, appointment sent by Marine Committee.
1-2 July - Orders received by Jones at Boston.
4 July - Stars and Stripes hoisted on a United States man-of-war for first time, the Ranger or the Raleigh.
29 July - Directions to Lieutenant Elijah Hall regarding men's pay.
2 Aug. - Advertised for crew of Ranger.
6 Sep. - Ordered by Marine Committee to proceed to France to report to the Commissioners. The Indien, at Amsterdam, promised him.
29 or 30 Oct. - Reported to Marine Committee the many hindrances in fitting the Ranger for the sea. Will sail "with first favorable wind."
1 Nov. - Ranger sailed from Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
26 Nov. - Captured two brigs (Green says 23d and 25th).
2 Dec. - Anchored off Nantes. Forwarded papers to Paris.
5 Dec. - Jones visited the Commissioners at Paris.
11 Dec. - Gave a detailed account of voyage in letter to Jacob Wendell.
10 Jan. - Commissioners directed an advance of 500 louis d'or to be paid Jones for expenses of ship.
16 Jan. - Commissioners gave Jones "unlimited orders".
1 Feb. - Fired 13 guns in honor of Mr. Tomas Morris, Continental agent at Nantes, recently deceased.
12 Feb. - Ranger sailed from Nantes for Quiberon Bay.
13 Feb. - Anchor in Quiberon Bay at 7 p.m. (or 6 p.m.).
14 Feb. - Received from Admiral La Motte Piquet, commanding French squadron, first salute to the Stars and Stripes from a foreign power. Gave 13 and received 9 guns.
15 Feb. - Sailed through the French fleet in the American brig Independence, Captain John Young; saluted the French squadron with 13 guns and received 9 in return.
22 Feb. - Informed the Marine Committee of exchanging salutes.
3 Mar. - Sailed from Quiberon Bay.
8 Mar. - Anchored in Camaret Bay.
23 Mar. - Sailed up to Brest. Exchanged salutes with French Admiral.
25 Mar. - Wrote Silas Dean and John Ross that he was to receive salute of gun for gun leaving Brest.
2 Apr. - Count d'Ovilliers saluted Ranger with 10 or 11 guns when she left Brest, about 5 p.m.
5 Apr. - Ships forced by bad weather to return to Brest.
10 or 11 Apr. - Ranger sailed from Brest in company with French frigate Fortuna.
14 or 15 Apr. - Captured brig Dolphin off Cape Clear.
17 Apr. - Captured ship Lord Chatham; sent her to Brest.
19 or 20 Apr. - Sunk schooner and sloop taken off coast of Ireland.
21 Apr. - Captured a fishing boat. Bad weather prevented surprising and boarding the Drake, 20 guns.
22 Apr. - Captain Jones and 31 volunteers landed at Whitehaven, spiked guns, burnt shipping, including ship Thompsom.
23 Apr. - Jones and 12 men landed at St. Mary's Isle to capture Earl of Selkirk. Selkirk being absent, men took 160 pounds weight of silver.
24 Apr. - After fight of one hour and five minutes, H.B.M.S. Drake surrendered to the Ranger.
25 Apr. - Captured brig Patience. Let fishing boat go. Buried Captain Burden of the Drake, and Lieutenant Wallingsford of the Ranger, with military honors.
26 Apr. - Lieutenant Simpson given command of the Drake. Relieved of command by Jones because of disobedience of orders. A brig captured by the Ranger.
6 May - Lieutenant Elijah Hall sent on board the Drake to supersede Lieutenant Simpson.
7 May - Lieutenant Hall ordered to follow the Ranger and take the Drake into Brest. Letter to Lady Selkirk. Will return silver.
8 May - The Ranger reentered Brest with the Drake.
9 May - Reported the result of expedition to American plenipotentiaries at Paris.
10 May - Hoisted Continental colors on the prize Patience.
11 May - Prisoners sent on board the Patience.
27 May - Reported to Marine Committee action from 10 April to 27 May.
27 May - Informed Doctor Bancroft of need of funds for crew and surprise at the dishonoring of his draft.
28 May - Reported death of Lieutenant Dobbs, R.N., of the Drake.
1 June - Thanked Doctor Franklin for his expressed approval.
3 June - Explained his financial embarrassment; had advanced 1,500 pounds of his own money; received no wages.
5 June - Submitted plans for combined operations against the British to American plenipotentiaries and French Minister of Marine.
6 June - Sailing in company with the Boston, Captain S. Tucker, off Isle Dieu; visited the ship.
10 June - Informed by Doctor Franklin that he is to have the Indien, building at Amsterdam.
4 July - Proposed to plenipotentiaries that Lieutenant Simpson return to America in command of the Ranger. Celebrated anniversary of independence of the Ranger.
12 July - Letter to Mr. Grand regarding qualifications requisite in a Protestant chaplain for his ship.
27 July - Lieutenant Simpson took command of Ranger.
6 Aug. - Informed General Washington that, at the request of French Minister of Marine, he would remain in France. Begged the General's acceptance of a pair of epaulettes he sent. Men of Whitehaven expedition recommended to the plenipotentiaries.
10 Aug. - Informed that the plenipotentiaries will recommend to Congress those who took part in the landing at Whitehaven.
15 Aug. - Requested to the plenipotentiaries to order a court-martial.
18 Aug. - Captain Abr. Whipple of the Providence requested by Jones to summon a court-martial to try Lieutenant Simpson. Recommended to Congress all who landed Whitehaven.
21 Aug. - Ranger ran out with a fine breeze.
22 Aug. - Commissioners order court to try Simpson.
6 Sep. - Charges against Simpson withdrawn.
13 Sep. - Having been informed that he cannot get the Indien and prevented from going on expedition with Count d'Orvilliers, asks Sartine's permission to return to America.
21 Sep. - Requested the Duc de Chartres aid him in his effort to get a ship on some active duty.
16 Oct. - Ranger arrived at Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
19 Oct. - Implored King Louis XVI to aid him to get a ship. The Duchess de Chartres presented the letter.
21 Nov. - Explanatory letter replying to Mr. Arthur Lee.
17 Dec. - Jones summoned to audience with the King.
4 Feb. - The King gave Jones the Duras; to be fitted out and named by him. Permission given to change name to Bonhomme Richard, in compliment to Doctor Franklin.
6 Feb. - Jones thanked M. de Sartine for his interest.
10 Feb. - Doctor Franklin and Honorable J. Adams to Jones regarding his giving up the Ranger.
6 Mar. - Jones explained to Benjamin Franklin cause of his trouble before coming to America.
27 Apr. - Informed that La Fayette is to command Jones' expedition. Bonhomme Richard to be ready 7 May.
30 Apr. - Jones wrote to "Father John" (John Mehegan), chaplain to Count d'Orvilliers, that he would require a chaplain for the French on his crew.
1 May - Replied to La Fayette that it would be a great pleasure to serve under his command. Thanked Sartine, La Fayette, and Benjamin Franklin.
1 to 3 May - Jones in command of Bonhomme Richard at L'Orient.
9 May - Informed by Franklin of affairs on the Alliance.
11 May - Captain Landais brings the Alliance from Nantes to L'Orient.
13 May - Ordered Landais to prepare the Alliance for sea.
22 May - La Fayette ordered by King to command a regiment ashore instead of the fleet.
1 June - Jones wrote and sent money to his sister Elizabeth.
10 June - Informed by M. de Chaumont regarding the preparation of the Bonhomme Richard, her officers and crew.
14 June - M. de Chaumont sent Jones the "Concordat."
19 June - Bonhomme Richard, Alliance, Pallas, Cerf, and Vengeance sailed from L'Orient, under command of Captain John Paul Jones. Convoyed French merchant ships and transports with troops.
20 June - At midnight the Alliance "rank afoul" of the Bonhomme Richard; carried away the latter's jib boom.
21 June - The Alliance made prize of a Dutch ship. A privateer captured but abandoned; superior force in sight.
23 June - Jones issued standing orders to the fleet.
29 June - Chased two frigates. Prepared for action; they stood away.
30 June - Consulted with his officers as to chasing.
30 June - Thanked officers and men for effort on 29th. Entered Croix to refit. Ordered to cruise on coast of Ireland.
1 July - Reported to Franklin, cruise from 19 to 30 June.
4 July - Celebrated on board the Bonhomme Richard. Fired two salutes each of 13 guns.
12 July - Franklin informed that the Bonhomme Richard was too old to admit of proposed alterations.
26 July - Would like to have the Monsieur added to fleet. Jamaica fleet, conveyed by a 50-gun ship and two frigates, may be encountered.
28 July - Sent Mr. Lunt and gunner to recruit crew from exchanged prisoners.
30 July - Reported sinking at anchor of prize Three Friends.
3 Aug. - Bonhomme Richard spoken of as having three decks.
7 Aug. - Mr. Lunt returned with 29 men.
10 Aug. - Special orders issued to the fleet.
13 Aug. - Signed the "Concordat" on eve of departure.
14 Aug. - The fleet, under Jones' command, sailed from Croix. Consisted of Bonhomme Richard, Alliance, Pallas, Cerf, Vengeance, Granville, and Monsieur.
16 Aug. - Application made by Jones for affiliation with the lodge of Les Neuf Soeurs, Paris.
18 Aug. - Captured the Verwagting. The Monsieur left the fleet.
22 Aug. to 22 Sep. - Captured Mayflower, Fortune, Betsey, Union, and one ship, five brigs and five sloops.
25 Aug. - The Cerf and Granville left the fleet.
17 Sep. - Letter written to the chief magistrates of Leith. Released captured fisherman; gave him a passport.
Sep. - Liverpool put in state of siege. (Day of month not given)
23 Sep. - Captured H.B.M.S. Serapis and Countess of Scarborough off Flamborough Head, England. After an engagement of nearly four hours, the Serapis, 44 guns, Captain Richard Pearson, R.N., surrendered to the Bonhomme Richard, Captain John Paul Jones. The Countess of Scarborough surrendered to the Pallas and Alliance. When asked by Captain Pearson if he had struck, Jones replied "in a most decided negative;" or, "I've not yet begun to fight."
24 Sep. - Log of the Bonhomme Richard states that the Alliance raked the Bonhomme Richard fore and aft during the latter part of engagement of 23d. Jones transferred his crew to and hoisted his flag of Commodore on the captured Serapis. Note to log of Serapis says: "at half past 12 at night (23d) the Serapis colors were halled down and some of the Bonhomme Richard's officers and men boarded her."
25 Sep. - The Bonhomme Richard sank between 10 and 11 a.m., her flag flying as she went down. Nothing saved but the original flags. Jones's loss "50,000 livres."
26 Sep. - Master-at-arms of the Bonhomme Richard put in irons for liberating prisoners during the fight, 23 September.
3 Oct. - Jones anchored his squadron and prizes in the Texel.
5 Oct. - Reported his arrival to French ambassador at The Hague.
6 Oct. - Captain Pearson, R.N., reported the engagement and his surrender on 23 Sep. to the British Admiralty Office.
7 Oct. - Jones left ship and went to Amsterdam.
9 Oct. - Sir Joseph Yorke, British ambassador, requested the Dutch Government to hold Jones' prizes as English property.
11 Oct. - Franklin informed by Jones that he will hold Captain Pearson as hostage for Captain Conyngham's release.
15 Oct. - Franklin acknowledged receipt of letter of 8th instant. "All Paris and Versailles praising Jones' victory." Directions giving regarding Landais. Anxiety regarding prisoners Jones has taken. The prizes sent into Norway arrived safely.
19 Oct. - Captain Pearson complained to Jones of his not having visited him and wished to know what had been done towards exchange of prisoners.
20 Oct. - Jones replied to Pearson and referred to treatment of Captain Conyngham in England. Sick and wounded British to have all the care given to American.
24 Oct. - Jones wrote to M. de Chaumont regarding the unaccountable conduct of Landais, 23d Sep. Thanked M. de Chaumont for his kindness.
25 Oct. - Holland refused to agree to Sir J. Yorke's demands regarding Jones' prizes; "will observe a strict neutrality."
30 Oct. - Charges preferred against Landais, signed by "officers of the American of the squadron in the Texel." Sent to plenipotentiaries at Paris.
4 Nov. - Jones informed the French minister at The Hague of need of water and squadron supplies. Wrote to French ambassador explaining position. Loss of French commission and intention to leave the Texel. British squadron watching for him.
15 Nov. - Directed by Franklin to turn over to French ambassador at The Hague all prizes and ships of his fleet except the Alliance.
21 Nov. - All American officers and men transferred to the Alliance. Command of the Serapis turned over to the Captain Cottineau by Jones. Captain Pearson exchanged for Captain Conyngham, who was taken on the Alliance.
1 Dec. - The Alliance ready, waiting favorable weather to sail.
5 Dec. - Informed Robert Morris of desire to return to America. Number on 10 October 1776, unsatisfactory.
13 Dec. - Indignantly declined "letter of marque" commission from the French ambassador at The Hague.
16 Dec - Declined to visit Dutch admiral on his ship.
17 Dec. - Refused to hoist other than American colors on the Alliance. Waiting for pilot.
27 Dec. - The Alliance sailed from the Texel. Escaped the British fleet outside.
28 Dec. - Sailed past British fleets in the Downs and off Spithead, showing American colors.
1 Jan. - Got clear of British Channel. Jones wrote some "Lines" in reply to Miss Dumas.
8-12 Jan. - Took two prizes; sunk one and sent one to America.
16 Jan. - Put into Corunna, Spain, for anchor.
28 Jan. - Sailed from Corruna, French frigate, La Sensible, bound for Brest, in company. Before sailing visited by governor; saluted him with 13 guns.
5 Feb. - Recaptured a French bark from a Guernsey privateer.
10 Feb. - Alliance arrived at Croix. Conveyed the American merchant ship Livingston into port. Notified Franklin of his arrival and repairs needed to the Alliance.
13 Feb. - Reported to Franklin from L'Orient.
19 Feb. - Great economy ordered to be observed in refitting the Alliance. Four gentlemen have permission to return to the United States on her. She is to carry arms and ammunition for the United States government.
25 Feb. - Jones replied to Franklin that his wishes shall be complied with as far as possible.
12 Mar. - Franklin informed Landais that he would not give him a ship if he had twenty.
11 Apr. - Alliance ready to sail for America. Arms and supplies for the American Army all on board. Jones visited Paris.
1 May - Festival in Jones' honor given by the Masonic Lodge of Les Neuf Soeurs, Paris. This lodge ordered Jones' bust to be made by Jean Houdon.
May - Informed that King Louis had awarded him the Order of Military Merit and a gold sword. (Day of month not given)
30 May - The King, through M. de Sartine, commended Jones to the Continental Congress.
1 June - Letter received by Franklin from the American Board of Admiralty dated 28 March 1780, desiring the immediate return of the Alliance. Franklin recommended Jones to Congress.
13 June - Jones read his orders to command the Alliance to the crew. Left for Paris. Landais assumed command of the Alliance against Franklin's orders. Arthur Lee supported Landais' action.
16 June - Officers and men desiring to remain with Jones went from the Alliance to the Ariel, loaned to America by France.
20 June - Jones returned from Versailles. Alliance dropped down to Port Louis.
21 June - Jones informed Franklin of Landais' refusal to obey orders. Stated that he had prevented the French forts from firing on the Alliance, and that she had been towed out. Rouel, Parisian artist, desired Jones to sit to him for his portrait.
22 June - The Serapis sold at L'Orient for 240,000 livres to the King of France.
24 June - The Alliance sailed for Croix.
25 June - Commodore Gillen, of South Carolina, visited Jones in regard to men from South Carolina who had been on the Bonhomme Richard.
28 June - M. de Sartine notified Jones that the King would present him a gold sword, and the French decoration of the Order of Military Merit. A packet for Chevalier de Luzerne intrusted to Jones' care for transportation to America. Landais ordered not to sail for America without instructions. Requested to send 80 men to assist in equipping the Ariel. He sent 22.
29 June - An officer sent the Alliance for more men contemptuously treated by Landais.
3 July - Jones wrote to crew of Alliance.
8 July - Alliance sailed for America.
21 July - The gold sword presented to Jones. He is received by the French King at Versailles. Asked Countess de la Vendahl to be custodian of sword while he was at sea.
24 July - Wrote to Madame de T. explaining affair between him and Landais at L'Orient.
2 Aug. - The Ariel nearly ready for sea. Jones solicited the interest of the Count de Maurepas and the Count de Vergennes in his plans for active operations.
13 Aug. - The Alliance made Cape Ann, 38 days from land to land.
15 Aug. - Jones informed that Count de Maurepas would endeavor to secure vessels and aid for an expedition.
25 Aug. - Birthday of Louis XVI celebrated on board the Ariel at L'Orient. Two royal salutes fired.
2 Sep. - Jones gave a grand entertainment on the Ariel.
5 Sep. - Ariel move to outer harbor of Croix.
8 Sep. - Jones wrote M. Dumas that at next meeting with Captain Pearson he would make "him a count." (Most biographers say "make a lord of him.")
21 Sep. - Replied to letter (5 July) in which the Countess de la Vendahl declined to be custodian of his sword.
7 Oct. - The Ariel put to sea.
12 Oct. - The Ariel returned, disabled by storm.
13 Oct - Statement of Ariel's officers of disasters caused by storm of the 8th and 9th.
26 Oct. - Franklin notified that all haste will be used to refit Ariel, and of correspondence with Captain Thomas Truxtun, of US privateer Independence, regarding his right to fly a broad pennant, contrary to act of Congress 29 Oct. 1776.
Dec. - Superb entertainment given on the Ariel. Fight between the Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis represented. (Day of month not given)
Dec. - In latitude of 26 degrees, longitude of Barbados (60 degrees), the Ariel engaged and received the surrender of the British frigate Triumph, Captain John Pindar. She escaped after striking her colors.(Day of month not given)
4 Dec. - Ordered by Franklin to proceed to America with dispatches for Congress. Franklin will use best endeavours to secure a prompt payment of prize money.
18 Dec. - The Ariel sailed for Philadelphia.
4 Feb. - Ariel reached Delaware Bay. Colonel Henry Fisher, Continental Army, loaned money to Jones for his officers and crew.
18 Feb. - Ariel arrived at Philadelphia.
19 Feb. - Jones ordered to attend Congress on 26 February.
20 Feb. - Required by the Board of Admiralty to reply to 47 questions.
27 Feb. - Congress passed resolutions commending Jones. Praised for his brilliant victory. Authorized his acceptance of decoration of Order of Military Merit from Louis XVI.
1 Mar. - Ariel took part in celebration of ratification of confederation of the States, held at Philadelphia.
17 Mar. - Franklin replied to Board of Admiralty, explaining the "Concordat."
21 Mar. - Jones sent replies to the 47 questions from the Board of Admiralty. About the time he was invested with the Order of Military Merit, became a "Chevalier" and was permitted to wear the decoration. The Chevalier de la Luzerne gave, at Philadelphia, a grand entertainment in honor the event. Board of Admiralty desired Jones' opinion regarding exchange of prisoners on prison ship at New York.
28 Mar. - Board of Admiralty satisfied with Jones' replies; commended him to Congress.
14 Apr. - Thanks of Congress given to Captain John Paul Jones, his officers and men.
15 May - Letter of congratulation from General George Washington.
28 May - Jones sent memorial to Congress requesting he be given his right number on list of Captains.
26 June - Made statement to Board of Admiralty of amount due him as pay from 7 Dec. 1775 (1,400 pound 5 shillings). Jones unanimously elected by Congress to command the US ship-of-the-line America, building at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Rank of Admiral proposed.
28 June - Petitioned Congress for an advance on pay due him, to enable him to pay his debts and proceed to Portsmouth in obedience to orders.
18 July - Wrote certificate of merit for Lieutenant Richard Dale.
25 July - Congress approved accounts; referred him to the Treasury Board for payment.
Aug. - Left Philadelphia. Visited General Washington at White Plains. Reached Portsmouth late in August. (Day of month not given)
29 Nov. - Jones addressed a public meeting in the town hall, Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
13 Dec. - Appointed by Congress Day of Thanksgiving.
22 Dec. - Farewell letter from La Fayette to Jones.
25 Dec. - Jones wrote to "Delia" from Philadelphia.
13 May - Birth of the Dauphin announced (France). All commanding officers ordered by Congress to celebrate it.
June - Jones celebrated the birth of the French Dauphin on board the USS America. Supplied guns and powder at own expense. (Day of month not given)
4 July - Celebrated the Declaration of Independence on board the America.
29 July - Highly praised and commended by Chevalier de la Luzerne.
4 Sep. - Robert Morris enclosed resolution of Congress 3 September, presenting the America to France.
22 Sep. - Memorial from Jones to Congress regarding his position. Made suggestions for the betterment of the Navy. Through Robert Morris asked permission to join French expedition to West Indies with the Marquis de Vaudreuil.
9 Oct. - Robert Morris commended his sentiments.
5 Nov. - The America launched and delivered to Chevalier de Martigne for France. Jones ordered to superintend her fitting out. Jones about this time made another effort to get the Indien, then at Philadelphia.
29 Nov. - Jones' request to join the French squadron presented to Congress.
4 Dec. - Request granted. Congress commended his zeal and recommended him to the Marquis de Vaudreuil.
24 Dec. - French fleet sailed for the West Indies. Jones on the Triomphante.
18 Feb. - French fleet at Port Cabello, waiting for Spanish.
8 Apr. - Notice of the declaration of peace received by French fleet.
20 Apr. - Jones ill. He sailed from Cape Francois for Philadelphia. Highly praised by French officers.
18 May - Jones arrived at Philadelphia.
17 Aug. - Attended religious services of Moravians at Bethlehem, PA. Quieted a disturbance.
21 Aug. - At Bernam, Pennsylvania. Wrote to Major J.S. Sherburne at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, that his health was restored and he might visit that city.
10 Oct. - Letter to Robert Morris reviewing his naval career and injustice done him.
13 Oct. - Applied for position as United States prize agent in Europe.
1 Nov. - Appointed United States prize agent by Congress; to act under minister plenipotentiary at Paris.
10 Nov. - Sailed from Philadelphia for Havre on the packet Washington.
30 Nov. - Bad weather forced the packet to put into Plymouth, England. Jones went to London with despatches.
6 Dec. - Arrived at Paris.
17 Dec. - Franklin authorized Jones to receive all prize money due to officers and men of squadron lately under his command in European waters.
20 Dec. - In Paris. Presented to Louis XVI by the Marechal de Castries.
- "Life of Louis XVI" by John Paul Jones published in London. (Day and month not given)
1 Feb. - Jones transmitted his credential to Marechal de Castries; hoped for immediate settlement of prize cases.
10 Feb. - Informed that amount of prize money due, after all expense are paid, will be "283,631 1. 13s."
25 Mar. - Letter from Franklin regarding prisoners.
June - Prepared to return to America with La Fayette. Delayed by settlement of prizes; papers not ready. (Day of month not given)
23 Oct. - Marechal de Castries signed prize case papers. Payment delayed.
8 Nov. - Lady Selkirk informed by Jones that her silver, taken 23 Apr. 1778, had been shipped to London.
23 June - De Castries urged to settle prize cases. Jones referred to royal auditor at L'Orient.
15 July - Order for payment of prize money issued.
29 July - Thomas Jefferson, minister to France, informed of difficulties in settling prize cases.
31 July - Jones informed Jefferson of actions of Algerines against the United States.
1 Aug. - Alliance sold at Philadelphia for $9,750.
4 Aug. - Lord Selkirk acknowledged receipt of silver taken 23 Apr. 1778.
Sep. - Prize money amounting to "181,039 livres 1 sou 10 deniers" paid to Jones for the United States. (Day of month not given.)
8 Oct. - Proposed to Jefferson that Doctor Bancroft take his place as prize agent to Denmark.
18 Dec. - Letter from Count d'Estaing praising Jones' "Journal." Refers to his joining the Society of the Cincinnati. One of the original members of the Society of Cincinnati.
1 Jan. - Jones presented his "Journal" to King Louis XVI. Thanked his Majesty for honors conferred upon him.
28 Feb. - Jefferson acknowledged receipt of Jones' bust by Houdon.
12 Aug. - Balance of prize money after deducting Jones' share, "112,172 1. 2-4," placed with Jefferson.
29 Aug. - Jones sent his miniature done in wax to Mrs. Belches, Edinburgh, Scotland.
3 Sep. - Informed Jefferson that "bad health" has prevented his setting out for Denmark.
Spring - Left Paris for Copenhagen to settle prize claims in Denmark. Turned back from Brussels and sailed for the United States. (Day and month not given)
18 July - In New York. Wrote John Jay that he would soon return to Copenhagen. Spent summer in Pennsylvania. Urged Congress to do something for relief of Americans in Algiers.
4 Sep. - Wrote to Madame de T. Sent letter through Thomas Jefferson, 24 Oct. 1787.
11 Oct. - Settlement of prize claims in France approved by Congress. Treasury to pay money "as soon as may be among the captors."
16 Oct. - Gold Medal ordered by Congress for Jones. To be made in Paris under Jefferson's supervision. King of France to be informed. Jones to be bearer of a letter to King of France. To proceed to Denmark as prize agent.
26 Oct. - Notified by Congress that Jefferson is to manage Danish prize cases, but can appoint Jones or other agent.
11 Nov. - Sailed from New York; vessel bound for Holland; captain of vessel promised to land him in France. Landed him at Dover. Passed some days in London.
12 Dec. - Jefferson informed of his being in Paris. Jones desired this may not be made known until after an interview with him.
20 Dec. - Announced his arrival at Paris. Was informed that Russia would like to have him command Black Sea Fleet. Would not deliver his letters for King until return from Denmark.
24 Jan. - Received from Jefferson credentials as agent to Denmark.
1 Feb. - Interview by M. Simolin, minister from Russia to France, at house of Chevalier Littlepage.
4 Mar. - Cordially welcomed upon arrival at Copenhagen.
11 Mar. - Reported to Jefferson his arrival and illness.
18 Mar. - Informed Jefferson of presentation at Danish court.
24 Mar. - Count Bernstorff informed of his mission to Denmark.
25 Mar. - Informed Jefferson regarding Russian offer.
30 Mar. - Prompt reply asked from Denmark as to payment of prize money due United States.
4 Apr. - Informed by Count Berstorff that he has not full powers needful for a full agreement. Jones awarded a pension of 1500 crowns a year by Denmark in recognition of respect shown Danish flag when in the North Sea.
5 Apr. - Count Bernstorff informed that prize claims will be negotiated and settled by Baron de Blome with Jefferson in Paris.
18 Apr. - Jefferson informed of termination of the Danish mission and that Jones has decided to enter the Russian service.
Mar. or Apr. - Grade of captain commandant with rank of major-general offered Jones by Empress of Russia through Baron Krudner. (Confusion as to actual dates)
23 Apr. - Arrived at St. Petersburg after dangerous journey.
25 Apr. - First meeting with Empress Catherine II of Russia.
2 May - Jefferson informed General Washington of the invitation to Jones to enter the Russian service.
7 May - Jones left Catherine's palace with a letter from her to Prince Potemkin at St. Elizabeth.
19 May - Arrived at St. Elizabeth; was ordered to command of Russian fleet of Liman.
20 May - Left St. Elizabeth to take command of the naval force at the mouth of Dnieper River. Set out for Cherson.
26 May - Hoisted his flag as Rear Admiral on the Wolodimir.
28 May - Reenforced the fleet of the Prince of Nassau with one of his ships.
29 May - The Russian squadron commanded the passage of the Liman.
6-7 June - Successful engagement with the Turkish fleet. Turks driven back. Jones commanded in person the flotilla of the Prince of Nassau and his own ships.
8 June - Potemkin thanked Jones for his victory of 7 June over the Turks. The Order of St. Anne presented him in recognition of his service to Russia in this instance.
10 June - Thanked Prince Potemkin for his recommendation.
16 June - Turks reenforced; advanced to the attack.
17 June - Jones engaged Turks. Captain Pacha driven back.
18 June - Renewed attack by the Turks; their vessels driven ashore and burned.
20 June - Potemkin thanked for letter of 19 June. Referred to engagement of the 16th.
28 June - Jones cut off communication between Oczakow and Beresane. Captured two chaloupes and one batteau laden with powder and shot.
29 June - Jones received a warning letter from Prince Potemkin.
1 July - Jones withdrew frigates by order of Prince Potemkin.
10 July - Ordered by Potemkin to establish blockade between Oczakow and Beresane.
14 July - Jones inspected entrance to the Liman.
17 July - Flotilla to be added to Jones' command.
18 July - Jones to send five frigates to be refitted at Glouboca.
19 July - Vessels sent off at daybreak. Thanked by Potemkin.
21-31 July - Operated against Turkish gunboats. Ran close in under Fort Hassan under heavy fire from Turks. Secured one of their gunboats with aid from Lieutenant Edwards.
28 July - Jefferson informed Mr. Cutting of Jones' brilliant victory over the Turks.
1 Aug. - Jones neglected to salute flag of Vice-Admiral Prince of Nassau-Siegen.
19 Aug. - Potemkin proposed by letter that Jones take command of the Sebastapol fleet.
29 Aug. - Requested Jefferson to attend to some private affairs in Paris. Busts to be sent to General St. Clair, Mr. Ross, of Philadelphia, John Jay, General Irvine, Secretary Thompson, Colonel Wadsworth, of New York, Mr. Madison, and Colonel Carrington, of Virginia.
30 Aug. - Unsuccessful attack upon Turkish flotilla.
18 Sep. - Potemkin gave secret order to attack Turks. Preparations made. Jones ordered to defer operations.
10 Oct. - Jones to relinquish command of the fleet. Lieutenant Edwards, one of his officers, failed in attempt to dislodge a gun from one of enemy's ships.
13 Oct. - Ordered by Potemkin to drive back Captain Pachia. Insinuations in wording of letter resented by Jones.
18 Oct. - Informed that Admiral Mordwinoff had been ordered to supersede him in command of squadron. Ordered by Empress Catherine to proceed to St. Petersburg for service in the North Sea. Order addressed to Jones as vice-admiral.
31 Oct. - Recommended by Potemkin to Empress Catherine for zeal in her service.
9 Nov. - Embarked in open galley for Cherson. Suffered greatly on the journey.
12 Nov. - Arrived at Cherson; detained there by illness.
6 Dec. - Proceeded to St. Elizabeth.
28 Dec. - Arrived at St. Petersburg. Ordered to appear at court.
31 Dec. - Audience with Empress Catherine II of Russia.
15 Jan. - Informed Jefferson of return to St. Petersburg.
20 Jan. - Proposed alliance between Russia and America against Algerines and for defense of Mediterranean. Would like command of the combined fleet.
1 Feb. - Further propositions of alliance between America and Russia in the Mediterranean.
23 Mar. - Informed by Jefferson that his letter of 31 January is the only information received from him since he left Copenhagen (about March 1788).
13 Apr. - Forwarded to Prince Potemkin proof of his innocence of slander against him.
17 May - Requested permission of Catherine to return to France or America.
6 June - Requested an interview with Count Besborodko.
27 June - Informed that he has been granted leave for two years, with all appointments belonging to his military rank, by Her Majesty.
7 July - Took leave of Catherine II.
14 July - Made a third application for interview with Besborodko.
29 July - Finished the "Journal of the Liman Campaign," written for the Empress of Russia by Jones.
30 July - Informed of his appointments and arrearages by Count Besborodko.
Sep. - Left St. Petersburg for Warsaw. (Day of month not given)
25 Sep. - Wrote from Warsaw to Empress Catherine. (See letter 25 February-8 March 1791)
2 Nov. - Informed General Kosciusko that he would leave Warsaw "this day for Vienna."
20 Dec. - Wrote to General Washington from Amsterdam.
27 Dec. - Letters to John Ross expressing desire to return to America and purchase a farm, and to Benjamin Franklin enclosing documents from Count de Segur, and recalling the tenth anniversary of sailing of the Alliance from the Texel.
29 Dec. - Justified his conduct in Russia to Baron Krudner.
9 Feb. - All calumny removed by Count de Segur.
26 Mar. - Wrote to sister, Mrs. Taylor.
Apr.-May - In England attending to private business. Received with distinction. Returned to Paris. (Days of months not given)
24 July - Congratulated Potemkin upon Russian success.
1 Feb. - Proposed to Gouveneur Morris a plan for attack upon India should Russian and England engage in war.
25 Feb. - Asked Empress Catherine to cancel his leave if she does not require his service. Sent her his "Journal of the Liman Campaign."
20 Mar. - Asked Jefferson to obtain for him from Congress permission to wear the Russian Order of St. Anne, as it will be on a bust ordered for North Carolina.
23 Mar. - Jefferson informed by Chevalier Littlepage of Jones' brilliant work in Russia.
20 Apr. - Met Lord Daer, son of Lord Selkirk, at dinner.
4 July - Called on Gouverneur Morris.
9 July - Sent copy of his bust to Baron Grimm. Referred to inventions and styles of war vessels.
31 Aug. - Informed by Jefferson that his good conduct required no proof in America. Congress could take no action regarding the wearing of the order.
Nov. - Published "Treatise on the Existing State of the French Navy." (Day of month not given)
7 Dec. - Wrote to La Fayette that he is to be presented to Louis XVI as a Russian admiral. Will later present to his Majesty letters from Congress, given him when last in the United States (Nov. 1787).
14 Mar. - Urged upon the French Minister of Marine the payment of money he advanced for salaries of the Bonhomme Richard's crew.
1 June - "Admiral John Paul Jones"'s appointment as United States Commissioner to treat with the Bey of Algiers for the release of captive Americans, confirmed by Congress. In conformity with act of Congress 8 May 1792.
11 July - Jones attended the meeting of the National Assembly, Paris. Dined at the Café Timon. Toasted as the "coming admiral of France."
18 July - Admiral John Paul Jones died in Paris at his residence, No. 42 Rue de Tournon. Gouverneur Morris had drawn up his will a few hours previous to his death.
19 July - M. Le Brun announced Jones' death to the National Assembly of France. It ordered a deputation of 12 members attend his funeral. Some of the members proposed to "put him in the Pantheon." Members of the National Assembly wore mourning in his honor. Beaupoil, French officer, notified Jones' sisters of his death, told them of his will, and sent a schedule of his property.
20 July - Body put in a leaden coffin to be convenient for removal to the United States when desired. Prominent Americans and French attended funeral. Swiss Protestant "Pasteur" Jules Marron pronounced oration. Gouverneur Morris "desired that he (Jones) might be buried in a private and economical manner." Thomas Waters Griffith, of Baltimore, Maryland, was among those present at Jones' funeral; he stated that there was "no priest, no service." "A volley of muskets was fired by soldiers over his grave," which was in "one of the common cemeteries of Paris." "No priest," probably refers to there being no Roman Catholic Priest. Jones' body deposited in Cemetery for Foreign Protestants at instance of Gouverneur Morris.
Historical Chronology (After Death)
9 Aug. - Colonel Blackden wrote to Mrs. Taylor, John Paul Jones' sister, a full account of his last illness, death, and burial.
20 May - Information published concerning Jones' share in the Ohio Company.
- "Citoyen" [Jean Francois] Andre published in Paris by Chez Louis in French, "Memoires de Paul Jones." (This is the "Journal for the King" so often mentioned.) (Day and month not given)
- A brief, unreliable sketch of the life of Paul Jones, published in New York by [Evert] "Duyckinck." [This publication is possibly: National Portrait Gallery of Eminent Americans Including Orators, Statesmen, Naval and Military Heroes, Jurists, etc, etc, From Original Full Length Paintings by Alonzo Chappel, with Biographical and Historical Narratives by Evert A. Duyckinck, Editor of "Cyclopedia of American Litertaure," etc. vol. 1. (New York: Johnson, Fry & Company, 1802): pp. 157-165.]
June - Niles' Register published first installment of an English translation of Andre's "Memoirs." ["Paul Jones." The Weekly Register 40 (6 June 1812): pp. 230-231; 41 (13 June 1812): pp. 249-251; 43 (27 June 1812): pp. 277-278; 44 (4 July 1812): pp. 296-298; 45 (11 July 1812): pp. 317-318; 46 (18 July 1812): pp. 330-331.]
1 July - Niles' Register published a notice that the New York Historical Society will be furnished, by Jones' neice, with original papers from which to prepare a biography. About the same date Colonel J.H. Sherburne advertised for data for same purpose. ["Paul Jones." Niles' Weekly Register 460 (1 July 1820): pp. 320-321.]
7 Aug. - Niles' Register tells of the finding of 414 of Jones' original letters and documents in a "huckster's shop" in New York. ["Paul Jones." Niles' Weekly Register 673 (7 Aug. 1824): p. 1.] They were placed in the hands of Mr. Wiley; later, through a Mr. Ward, they came into the possession of Colonel J.H.Sherburne.
- Colonel John Henry Sherburne published in Washington and New York by Wilder & Campbell the first edition of the "Life and Character of the Chevalier John Paul Jones." (Day and month not given)
28 Apr. - Niles' Register stated that the journal of John Paul Jones would be published in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. ["Journal of Paul Jones." Niles' Weekly Register 32, no. 815 (28 Apr. 1827): p. 151.]
- "Memoirs of Rear Admiral Paul Jones," published by Oliver and Boyd in Edinburgh, from papers in the possession of Jones' family. (Known as the Janet Taylor edition). "Life and Correspondence of John Paul Jones," by Robert Charles Sands published in New York by D. Fanshaw Printer. (Days and months not given)
- Lieutenant A.B. Pinkam, US Navy, while traveling in Scotland, visited the birthplace of Jones, and had the house in which Jones was born restored at his own expense. Miss Janet Taylor, niece of Jones, gave Lieutenant Pinkham the miniature now at the United States Naval Acdemy, in recognition of his kindness. (Days and months not given)
13 June - William P. Taylor, nephew of John Paul Jones, appointed midshipman United States Navy, died 14 Dec 1836.
30 June - Congress authorized that a frigate be named John Paul Jones. Not carried out.
28 Feb. - Colonel J.H. Sherburne discovered an unpaid balance of $50,000 in the United States Treasury due to Jones, his officers, and men for prizes captured.
- Captain Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, US Navy, published a "Life of John Paul Jones" in Boston by Hilliard, Gray and Company. (Day and month not given)
31 Jan. - Heirs of Jones petitioned Congress for land in Virginia that had belonged to him.
- Honorable George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy, asked by Colonel Sherburne to grant permission for the remain of Jones to be brought to the United States in a man-of-war returning from the Mediterranean. No reply given to the request. (Day and month not given)
- James Fenimore Cooper published a brief life of Jones in volume 2 of his Lives of Distinguished American Naval Officers (Auburn, NY: Derby, 1846, pp. 5-112). This was followed by sketches of the naval hero by many authors.
28 Dec. - Colonel Sherburne wrote to Honorable R. Rush, minister to France, with regard to removal of Jones' remains.
3 Jan. - Mr. Rush replied that he would give Colonel Sherburne any aid in his power in the removal, from Paris for interment in Congressional Cemetery, Washington, DC, of Jones' body.
21 Mar. - Congress authorized the payment of arrears of pay and prize money to John Paul Jones' heirs.
6 July - Appropriation for payment of balance of $50,000 to heirs of Jones, his officers and men, and the Danish claim, $150,000, finally made.
27 Jan. - Secretary of the Navy informed that the revolution in France had prevented Colonel Sherburne from bringing back remains. Asked to be allowed to bring them on the US frigate St. Lawrence when she returned to the United States. Americans in Liverpool subscribed $300 toward a fund for reinterment.
30 Jan. - Captain Joshua R. Sands ordered to transport Jones' remains on the St. Lawrence when he returned from Southampton to New York.
20-21 Feb. - Colonel Sherburne to accompany remains on board the St. Lawrence upon her return voyage.
6 May - Captain Sands notified Colonel Sherburne from Southampton that he was ready to receive the remains and to sail. Mr. N. Billing, attorney for F.E. Lowden, legal representative for Jones' heirs in Scotland, notified Colonel Sherburne that he had taken steps to prevent removal of remains.
16 May - Mr. Billings apologized to Colonel Sherburne. Wrote "will be glad to aid in search for remains."
19-27 May - Correspondence between Colonel Sherburne at Paris, and Captain Sands at Lisbon, regarding Mr. Billings' interference. Sands regretted that he could not have the honor of conveying the body of Jones to the United States.
14 Jul. - The Secretary of the Navy, Honorable William A. Graham, informed that Colonel Sherburne's search of the records of Paris and the files of the Moniteur showed that the Protestant Cemetery in the rear of the Hotel Dieu, where John Paul Jones was supposed to have been buried, had been sold and all bones removed to catacombs. Mr. Billings assisted in the search.
Aug. - Colonel John Henry Sherburne in New York, sent to Hon Wm. A Graham a copy of the second edition of his "Life and Character of Jones Paul Jones, a Captain in the United States Navy, during the Revolutionary War" recently published by Adriance, Sherman and Company of New York. (Day of month not given)
5 June - Colonel Sherburne died.
- M. Charles Read, discovered an entry in old burial register, of interment of Jones in (Dutch) Foreign Cemetery in north-east part of Paris. Made copy from register 89, 1799. (Day and month not given)
29 July - Congress requested a statement of proportion of fund due heirs of John Paul Jones.
6 Aug. - Secretary of Treasury submitted to Congress statement of prize money due to officers and seamen of the Bonhomme Richard and the Alliance. To Bonhomme Richard, $91,024.34; to the Alliance, $74,574.03.
3 Jan. - Above statements presented to Congress.
- USS John Paul Jones built and put into service. (Day and month not given)
Dec - Charles Dickens made the erronious statement that the remains of John Paul Jones had been brought to the United States on the St. Lawrence in 1851 for interment in the Congressional Cemetery at Washington, DC. (Day of month not given)
31 July - Honorable John Jay, Secretary of State, informed that Mr. Charles Read (antiquary) had made a copy of the burial register destroyed in 1871.
9 Feb. - General Horace Porter, United States ambassador to France, announced that he had located the burial place John Paul Jones.
14 Feb. - President Roosevelt transmitted General Porter's report to Congress. Recommended appropriation of $35,000 to defray expense of search in cemetery St. Louis (no such appropriation was made). Also recommended appropriation for monuments to John Paul Jones and John Barry.
22 Feb. - At banquet in Paris General Porter stated that after a search of five years he had found the long-sought burial site.
15 June - A silk flag presented to Rear-Admiral Sigsbee by the Daughters of the American Revolution Society to be used in connection with the return of Jones' remains. Afterwards to be hung in Continental Hall, Washington, DC.
18 June - Squadron under command of Rear-Admiral S.D. Sigsbee, sailed for France to bring John Paul Jones' body to the United States.
Note: See James C. Bradford's Guide to the Microfilm Edition of the Papers of John Paul Jones, 1747-1792. Alexandria, VA: Chadwyck-Healey, 1986, for an excellent chronology of Jones' life (pp. 23-33)