(AP-55: dp. 18,000; l. 489'; b. 69'9"; dr. 27'4"; s. 18.4 k.; cpl. 530; a. 43", 440mm., 1020mm.; cl. Arthur Middleton; T. C3-P)
Arthur Middleton was born on 26 June 1742 on his family's estate, Middleton Place, near Charleston, S.C. He was educated in England and, upon returning to South Carolina, became active in local politics. Middleton was elected to the colonial House of Assembly in 1764; served until 1768; and, after a four-year absence, was reelected to the House in 1772. He sat in the first provincial congress and served on the secret committee of five people that arranged and directed the seizure of powder and weapons from the public storehouses in Charleston on the night of 21 April 1776. On 14 June, he became a member of the first Council of Safety, which assumed the executive power of the colony.
On 11 February 1776, Middleton was appointed to a committee of 11 to draft a constitution for South Carolina. A few days later, he was elected to the Continental Congress and, still later, signed the Declaration of Independence on behalf of South Carolina. He continued serving in the Congress until October 1777. While he was reelected three more times between 1778 and 1780, Middleton did not actually serve in Congress during these years.
During the siege of Charleston in 1780, Middleton was a member of the militia. He was taken prisoner when the British captured the city and was sent to St. Augustine, Fla., as a prisoner of war. He was exchanged in July 1781 and sat in the session of Congress of 1782. After the war ended, Middleton devoted himself to managing his plantation. He died at Goose Creek, S.C., on 1 January 1787.
African Comet was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 106) on 1 July 1940 at Pascagoula, Miss., by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corp.; launched on 28 June 1941; sponsored by Miss Mary Maud Farrell; acquired by the Navy from the American South African Lines, Inc., on 6 January 1942; renamed Arthur Middleton (AP-55) on 7 January 1942; converted for naval service by the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Calif.; and placed in commission on 7 September 1942, Comdr. P. K. Perry, USCG, in command.
Manned by a combined Coast Guard and Navy crew, the transport held shakedown training off San Diego, Calif., and sailed for the Aleutian Islands on 23 December. She reached Amchitka on 12 January 1943 and, later that day, took on board 175 survivors from Worden (DD-352), which had run aground and broken up while covering the transport during the debarkation of her troops. However, before the day ended, Arthur Middleton herself ran aground after dragging anchor. Salvage operations involved completely unloading, blasting and removing the rocks from under the ship's port side, and patching the holes which they had pierced in her hull. During this work, Arthur Middleton's boats operated in Amchitak harbor unloading supply ships and moving Army barges. On eight different occasions, the grounded ship repulsed enemy float-plane attacks and was straddled by four bombs.
While in Alaskan waters, Arthur Middleton was reclassified an attack transport and redesignated APA-25 on 1 February 1943. The ship was finally refloated and got underway on 9 April in tow of Ute (AT-76) and Tatnuck (AT-27) for Dutch Harbor, Unalaska. There, work making temporary repairs continued through 17 June. She was then towed by the merchant ship James Griffiths and Cree (AT-84) to the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Wash., for correction of the damage.
Arthur Middleton departed Seattle, Wash., on 6 September, bound for New Zealand. She arrived at Wellington on 12 October, via Suva, Fiji Islands. The ship took on marines and cargo and sailed to Efate, New Hebrides, for staging operations. She then steamed to the Gilbert Islands for the landings on Tarawa on 20 November. The ship remained off that bitterly contested atoll debarking troops and taking casualties on board until the 29th, when she got underway for Hawaii.
On 7 December, Arthur Middleton reached Pearl Harbor and began training operations. She sortied from Oahu on 23 January 1944 with Task Group (TG) 51.1, carrying marine reserves for the assault on the Marshall Islands. The transport remained in waters east of Kwajalein Atoll from 31 January through 15 February awaiting orders to disembark her troops; but, as part of the reserve force, they were not needed. During her time steaming off Kwajalein, she provided stores and fresh water to destroyers and smaller vessels, dispatched her boats on various assignments, and repaired damaged boats. On 15 February, Arthur Middleton sailed with the task group charged with invading Eniwetok.
Arriving off that atoll on the 17th, Arthur Middleton landed assault troops on Engebi Island and unloaded her cargo as needed by forces ashore. Two days later, she took marines on board for an assault on Parry Island. The landing there took place on the 21st and 22d and, the next day, the ship sailed for Pearl Harbor with American casualties and Japanese prisoners of war embarked. She paused en route at Kwajalein on the 26th to embark more troops and then resumed her voyage to Hawaii, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 8 March.
The attack transport held training exercises off Hawaii through late May. On the 30th, she sailed with TG 52.3 for the invasion of the Marianas. The ship arrived off Saipan on 15 June and debarked her passengers later that day at Charan Kanoa. She then began taking casualties on board while unloading her cargo. Although there were frequent air raid alerts during these operations, no Japanese planes came within range of the transport guns. She departed Saipan on 23 June, stopped at Eniwetok and Tarawa to pick up Army troops and Japanese prisoners, and continued on to Pearl Harbor where she arrived on 9 July.
After disembarking her passengers, she began the first of two voyages between San Diego and Hilq, Hawaii, carrying troops and equipment between the two points. At the end of these shuttle runs, the transport sailed for the Admiralty Islands. She arrived at Manus on 3 October and began preparations for the long awaited operations to liberate the Philippine Islands. On 14 October, Arthur Middleton sortied with TG 79.2 and arrived in Leyte Gulf on the 20th. The ship remained in the area unloading troops until 24 October, when she headed for Hollandia, New Guinea.
The attack transport returned to Leyte on 14 November, carrying personnel and supplies from Hollandia and Morotai, Netherlands East Indies. The next day, she sailed back to New Guinea and conducted training exercises in conjunction with Marine Corps units. On 31 December, the ship sailed with TG 79.4 for the invasion of Luzon and arrived in the transport area in the Lingayen Gulf on 9 January 1945 and landed her troops in the face of enemy air attack. During the operation, fifteen members of her crew were wounded by flying shrapnel from the guns of other vessels firing at the Japanese planes. The transport left Lingayen Gulf later that day to take on more supplies at Leyte and returned to Lingayen Gulf on 27 January.
During February and early March, Arthur Middleton carried out training exercises at Guadalcanal. On 16 March, the transport sailed with TG 53.1 for Ulithi, where staging operations were held for the Ryukyu campaign. The ship discharged troops and cargo at Okinawa during the first five days of April and then returned via Saipan to Pearl Harbor. She was routed on to the west coast and arrived at San Pedro, Calif., on 30 April to begin a period of overhaul.
While the ship was still in the yard, Japan capitulated on 14 August 1945. The repair work was completed on 4 September, and Arthur Middleton was assigned to duty transporting relief forces to the Philippines and returning veterans to the United States. By the end of 1945, the ship had made two voyages to the Philippines. In January 1946, she underwent repairs at Terminal Island, Calif. Following the detachment of her Coast Guard personnel, Arthur Middleton was transferred to the Naval Transportation Service on 1 February 1946.
During the next four months, the transport made six round-trips between San Francisco and Pearl Harbor. She then steamed through the Panama Canal and continued on to Norfolk, Va., where she arrived on 19 July 1946. The ship was placed out of commission at Norfolk on 21 October 1946 and placed in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. At the end of a dozen years in reserve, her name was struck from the Navy list on 1 October 1958; and the ship was transferred to the Maritime Administration for layup in the James River. She was placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet on 3 March 1959. The vessel was sold on 9 May 1973 to the Consolidated Steel Corp., Brownsville, Tex., and was later scrapped.
Arthur Middleton won six battle stars for her World War II service.