(SS-280: dp. 1,525 (surf.), 2,415 (subm.); l. 311'8"; b. 27'3"; dr. 15'3"; s. 20 k. (surf.), 8.75 k. (subm.); cpl. 80; a. 10 21' tt., 1 5", 1 40mm.; cl. Gato)
A North American trout found from California to Alaska.
Steelhead (SS-280) was laid down on 1 June 1942 by the Portsmouth (N.H.) Navy Yard; launched on 11 September 1942; sponsored by Mrs. Marguerite Brown; and commissioned on 7 December 1942, Lt. Comdr. David L. Whelchel in command.
Steelhead held her shakedown off Long Island in December 1942 and January 1943. In February, she sailed for the Pacific and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 8 April. After intensive training, she sailed for Midway Island; topped off her fuel there on the 25th; and began her first war patrol. She planted 12 mines off the Japanese mainland near Erimo Saki and then bombarded a steel plant and iron foundry near Muroran, Hokkaido. She fired no torpedoes, and the submarine returned to Midway in early June.
On her second patrol, 30 June to 6 August, Steel-head fired 10 torpedoes at a Japanese task force on 10 July. Explosions were heard, but specific damage could not be ascertained. After refitting at Pearl Harbor, the ship sailed on 13 September for the Gilbert Islands where she operated as a lifeguard submarine off Tarawa during bombardment by Army aircraft. She called at Johnston Island for fuel and provisions and departed on the 25th to resume her patrol which took her into the Palau Islands. On 6 October off the Carolines, she damaged tanker Kazahaya, which Tinosa (SS-283) sank later that day. All her torpedoes expended, Steelhead sighted a large convoy which she trailed, while sending information to other submarines in the area.
On her next patrol, Steelhead operated off Bungo Suido from late December 1943 to early March 1944. On 10 January 1945, she torpedoed and sank the 6,795-ton converted salvage vessel, Yamabiko Mo.ru. Her fourth patrol, off Formosa from early April to 23 May, provided no targets worthy of torpedo fire; but she sank a trawler by gunfire. On 17 June, she sortied from Midway Island with Hammerhead (SS-364) and Parche (SS-384) to patrol south of Formosa. On 31 July, the submarine made three successful attacks in which one ship was damaged and two were sunk. Parche also sank two from the convoy. Upon concluding the patrol when she arrived at Pearl Harbor on 16 August, Steelhead was routed to the west coast for a much needed overhaul.
While in drydock, on 1 October 1944, Steelhead suffered a serious fire which required the installation of a new conning tower. After a long repair period, the submarine stood out of San Francisco on 16 April 1945, en route to Pearl Harbor. Steelliead began her last war patrol on 13 May. She performed lifeguard duty in the Caroline Islands and later patrolled in the Tokyo Bay area. She made no torpedo attacks but sank two trawlers by gunfire. The patrol ended at Midway Island on 5 August and, 20 days later, she sailed for the west coast.
Steelhead arrived at San Francisco on 5 September 1945 and provided services for the West Coast Sonar School until 2 January 1946. She sailed to Pearl Harbor and operated from there until March when she steamed back to San Francisco for inactivation. The submarine was placed in reserve, out of commission, on 29 June 1946 and attached to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. In May 1947, Steelhead was placed in service, in reserve, and used as a reserve training ship until struck from the Navy list on 1 April 1960.
Steelhead received six battle stars for World War II service.