Mackay Low Visibility System Contemporary drawing of a camouflage system developed circa 1917 by William A. Mackay to reduce ship visibility at a distance and in varying light conditions. It also was intended to soften ship outlines to make optical rangefinding more difficult. See Photo # 19-N-7572 for a photograph of a ship painted in a variation of this camouflage system. Mackay's description of his camouflage systems is on pages 36 & 37 of The Science of Low Visibility and Deception as an Aid to the Defense of Vessels Against Attack by Submarines, by Lindell T. Bates. Published by the Submarine Defense Association, New York City, 1918. In 1974 the original volume was in Record Group 45 at the U.S. National Archives. This drawing is Figure 11 of that publication. U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph.