November–December 2000

November–December 2000

F e a t u r e s

Flagship Publication of Naval Aviation

F e a t u r e s

C o n t e n t s

The U.S. Navy’s Oldest Periodical, Established 1917

Volume 83, No. 1

November–December 2000







10 Frozen Chosin: The Naval Air War in Korea,

November–December 1950

20 Osprey: New Wings for Amphibious Warfare

24 Clipper Joins the Reserve Force

26 In Search of Sunken Aircraft

28 A Blackshoe’s Graduation Test aboard Antietam

40 2000 Index

De p a r t m e n t s De p a r t m e n t s

COVERS—Front: this painting by Art Director Morgan Wilbur depicts

the future SH-60R Seahawk helicopter several years from now engaged

with hostile patrol boats. Back: Ted Carlson’s photo captures an unusual

perspective of the MV-22B Osprey at NAWS China Lake, Calif., in June.

This page: Ted Carlson caught 1st Lts. Ted Shackleton, front cockpit,

and Christine Westrich of VMFAT-101 preparing for a mission in their

F/A-18D Hornet.





2 Honoring the Crew of USS Cole

4 Grampaw Pettibone

6 Airscoop

30 People–Planes–Places

38 Professional Reading

39 Flightbag

It wasn’t until a few days ago that we started doing

something I feel may be the first thing I’ve seen in my

short naval career that has truly made a difference.

Right now, we’re supporting USS Cole and her crew in

Aden. When the attack occurred, we were a day away. Just

by luck we happened to be on our way out of the gulf,

headed towards the Suez and could get here in a relatively

short amount of time. I know what you all have seen on

CNN, because we have seen it, too. I just want you all to

know that what you see doesn’t even scratch the surface.

I’m not going to get into it for obvious reasons, but I will

tell you that right now there are 250+ Sailors just a few

miles away living in hell on earth. I’m sitting in a nice airconditioned

stateroom; they’re sleeping out on the decks

at night.

You can’t even imagine the conditions they’re living in,

2 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

On 19 October aboard NS Norfolk, Va., the nation

saluted the 17 personnel killed and 39 injured on board

Cole (DDG 67), damaged by a terrorist bomb in Yemen

a week before. Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen

summed up: “No one should ever pass an American in

uniform without saying, ‘Thank you, we’re grateful,’

always mindful that they are prepared to risk all their

dreams so that all of us can reach and realize ours.”

Lt. Brandon Floyd, of HSL-42 aboard Hawes (FFG

PH2 Leland Comer

PH2 Chris Pastol

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 3

RAdm. Mike McCabe

Director, Air Warfare

Published by the Naval Historical Center under the

auspices of the Chief of Naval Operations

Dr. William S. Dudley

Director, Naval Historical Center


Cdr. Jim Carlton Editor

Sandy Russell Managing Editor

Morgan I. Wilbur Art Director

Wendy Leland Associate Editor

JO3 Amy L. Pittmann Assistant Editor


Harold Andrews Technical Advisor

Cdr. Peter Mersky, USNR (Ret.) Book Review Editor

Capt. Ted Wilbur, USNR (Ret.) Contributing Artist

Capt. R. Rausa, USNR (Ret.) Contributing Editor

LCdr. Richard R. Burgess, USN (Ret.) Contributing Editor

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yet they are still fighting 24 hours a day to save their ship and free

the bodies of those still trapped and send them home. As bad as it is,

they’re doing an incredible job. The very fact that these people are still

functioning is beyond my comprehension. Whatever you imagine as the

worst, multiply it by 10 and you might get there. Today, I was tasked to

photo rig the ship and surrounding area. It looked so much worse than I

had imagined, unbelievable really, with debris and disarray everywhere,

the ship listing, the hole in her side. I wish I had the power to relay to

you all of what I have seen, but words just won’t do it. I do want to tell

you the first thing that jumped out at me: the Stars and Stripes flying. I

can’t tell you how that made me feel . . . even in this God forsaken hell

hole, our flag was more beautiful than words can describe. Then I started

to notice the mass of activity going on below, scores of people working

nonstop in 90-plus-degree weather to save this ship. They’re doing

it with almost no electrical power and they’re sleeping (when they can

sleep) outside on the decks, because they can’t stand the smell or the

heat or the darkness inside. They only want to eat what we bring them

because they’re all scared of eating something brought by the local vendors.

Even with all that, the Cole and her crew is sending a message,

guys, and it’s that even acts of cowardice and hate can do nothing to the

spirit and pride of the United States. I have never been so proud of what

I do, or of the men and women that I serve with, as I was today. There

are [17] confirmed dead Sailors who put it on the line for all of us.

Please take a minute to pray for their families and say a word of thanks

for their sacrifice—one made so that we can live the lives that we do.

All of you who serve with me, thank you. All of you who have loved

ones that serve, thank you.

Opposite, clockwise from top, Cole(DDG 67) is moored to a platform

after the terrorist attack on 12 October in the industrial harbor of

Aden, Yemen, during a scheduled refueling; one of the injured Sailors

is assisted from a C-141 Starliftertransport on the tarmac at Naval

Station Norfolk, Va., by CINCLANTFLT Adm. Robert J. Natter, who,

along with families and friends, welcomed the personnel as they

were flown home from Germany;

this poignant scene was typical

during the homecoming as an

injured Sailor shares a tearful

reunion with her mother. Above, an

aerial view of the port of Aden

shows the activity around the disabled

Cole(foreground). Left, during

a memorial service on Pier 12 at NS

Norfolk, a member of the Disabled

Veterans of America places

American flags on wreaths honoring

the 17 Sailors killed on board Cole.

PH2 Joshua Treadwell

Refueling Fiasco

A pair of F/A-18

Hornets launched on an airto-

air refueling flight with

an Air Force tanker. The

wingman joined on the

leader’s right wing in

spread formation, in which

the wingman flies one

nautical mile abeam the

lead at the same altitude.

The flight sighted the

tanker and began a

descending, left-hand turn

to arrive three miles in trail

of the tanker.

During the turn the

wingman positioned

himself in loose cruise in

right echelon in

anticipation of establishing

a “starboard observation”

position off the tanker. The

Hornets accelerated to

close on the tanker. The

leader asked the tanker to

start a left turn to expedite

the join-up. The tanker then

cleared the flight to port

observation (a position on

the left side of the tanker

from which the pilots could

clearly see the tanker

before moving in for inflight

refueling) and began

a turn to the left.

The wingman did not

hear the tanker’s transmission

directing the flight to the port side.

Using nonstandard language, the

leader told the wingman to “Match

me on the left.” The wingman

assumed this meant the leader

wanted him in the spread position,

one mile abeam the leader and on

his left.

The leader, meanwhile, assumed

the wingman was moving to a loose

cruise position off his left wing to

rendezvous and to establish port

observation. In fact, the wingman

moved to a slightly acute position .6

miles off the leader’s left wing. As

the flight leader began a left turn,

the wingman realized he was acute

and out of position. He began

reducing power to work himself into

a loose cruise position in left


The wingman came back to idle

power and used the speed brake to

continue to work to a position left

and aft of the flight leader at his

altitude. Midway through the turn,

the sun moved to a position behind

the leader, which degraded

the wingman’s ability to

judge distance and closure


The wingman did not

attempt to break plane with

the sun because he was

attempting to maintain the

same altitude as the flight

leader. The leader was in

the port observation

position while still in the

turn and reported to the

tanker, “Port observation

position achieved.” The

tanker cleared the flight to

switch to the boom

operator’s frequency. The

wingman changed

frequencies, saw the leader

starting to roll wings level

and began a roll to wings

level himself.

The wingman glanced at

the tanker and then looked

at the leader. He noticed

excessive closure and

constant bearing with the

leader. The wingman pulled

full aft on the stick thinking

he would pass above the

leader. The aircraft collided

causing damage to the left

wing, left side fuselage and

left vertical stabilizer on the

leader’s Hornet.

The wingman’s aircraft

sustained damage to its

underside and to the left trailing

edge flap and left horizontal

stabilizer. The planes separated and

headed toward home base. The

leader landed safely, making a

short field arrestment. The

wingman proceeded to an alternate

airfield but while slowing the

aircraft through 170 knots, with the

gear down, the aircraft rolled

rapidly right and the pilot ejected.

The pilot was picked up by a

search and rescue helo and was not


4 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

Grampaw Pettibone says:

Great horned toads. What’s

“Match me on the left” supposed

to mean? Here the Hornets are, in

a critical phase of the mission

closing in on the tanker, and the

leader fails to give clear-cut

instructions to the wingman.

You’ve got one huge bird up there

plus the Hornets, all in a relatively

confined space. This is no time for

creative, nonstandard language.

Wingmen on the receiving end

of such transmissions have every

right to challenge them. But they

oughta remember another

cardinal rule: Whatever you do,

fly your airplane safely—and that

means avoid risky proximity to

other birds in the same section of

sky. Basic airmanship, folks.

Fatal Fatigue

An SH-60F Seahawk launched at

twilight as part of a two-helicopter

sea-air-land team insertion mission.

The flight was also assigned to make

unaided (without night vision

devices, or NVDs) landings on a

guided missile frigate for an

intermediate fuel stop on both the

outbound and return legs of the

mission. Both aircraft conducted

uneventful, unaided landings aboard

the frigate on the outbound leg. On

the post-insertion return leg, the

crew transitioned from aided (with

NVDs) to unaided flight and began

an approach to the frigate. The

aircraft commander in the left seat

was at the controls.

During the approach the aircraft

drifted left of centerline, eventually

regained lineup, but went high on

glideslope. The aircraft then crossed

the stern of the ship extremely high,

flew over the hangar bay and

crashed in the water approximately

100 feet off the starboard bow. The

impact occurred four hours and 46

minutes from the time of takeoff.

The two pilots and two aircrewmen

were killed, the aircraft lost.

Grampaw Pettibone says:

For starters, the pilot in

command of the Seahawk was not

currently qualified for night,

clear-deck landings on small

combatants. That’s like starting a

game and being 7 points behind

before kickoff. This was a tough,

long mission and it could be that

all the crew members were

suffering from some degree of

fatigue. This could have led to

their not allowing enough time to

transition from NVD-aided flight

to unaided flight for

the demanding night

approach to the ship.

There’s no question

that landing a helicopter

on a small

section of deck at

night on a moving ship

is one of the most

challenging evolutions

in Naval Aviation. Not

having the necessary

qualifications, being

tired and changing

from one mode of

vision to another make

it that much more

difficult—and unforgiving.


risk management

would have highlighted

the scheduling

shortfalls of this flight.

What a terrible loss.

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 5

In the Works

The Joint Precision Approach

and Landing System technology

demonstrator, manufactured by the

Raytheon Co., successfully

demonstrated both pilot-controlled

and fully coupled approaches at

NAS Patuxent River, Md.

Shipboard trials aboard Enterprise

(CVN 65) in November will test

the system’s capabilities using the

differential Global Positioning

System to compensate for a flight

deck’s inherent roll and yaw.

In July the Naval Air Systems

Command awarded four concept

exploration study contracts for the

Multi-mission Maritime

Aircraft/Broad Area Surveillance

program. The contractors—Northrop

Grumman Corp., the Boeing Co.,

Raytheon Aircraft, and Lockheed

Martin Aeronautics Co.—will

explore various options for eventual

replacement of the fleet’s P-3 Orions

and EP-3E Aries IIs.

The Defense Advanced Research

Projects Agency and the Navy

awarded contracts to the Northrop

Grumman Corp. and the Boeing Co.

for analysis and preliminary design

of a Naval Unmanned Combat Air


The first KC-130J aircraft

made its maiden flight on 9 June,

6 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000


Edited by Wendy Leland


The F/A-18 community celebrated the 4

millionth flight hour of the Hornet in a

unique commemoration on 14 September.

Rather than a single aircraft marking the

milestone, the Navy designated a specific

time for the ceremonial flight hour, enabling

any F/A-18A, B, C or D Hornet or F/A-18E/F

Super Hornet airborne at that time to be part

of the event.

A 25 August ceremony at the Boeing

Company’s St. Louis, Mo., facilities marked

the end of F/A-18 Hornet production.

Marine Aircraft Group 11 accepted D-model

number 161, the last of more than 1,400

Hornets delivered to the Navy and Marines

Ted Carlson captured these F/A-18Ds from VMFA(AW)-

121 over the Salton Sea.

and the Navy and manufacturer

Lockheed Martin have begun

testing the new tanker/transport

aircraft. Improvements include an

electronically controlled refueling

pod that can pump up to 300

gallons of fuel per minute, glass

cockpit instrumentation

compatible with night vision

goggles, twin head-up displays,

more powerful engines and allcomposite

six-blade propellers.

Eight KC-130Js are on order for

the Marine Corps, with the first

expected to arrive at MCAS

Cherry Point, N.C., in late 2001.

For the Record

The Naval Force Aircraft Test

Squadron, NAS Patuxent River,

Md., is testing an avionics upgrade

package for the C-2A Greyhound.

The upgrade includes a terrain

avoidance warning system, terminal

collision avoidance system and

multifunction digital radios.

The guided missile destroyer

McCampbell (DDG 85) was

christened on 2 July at Bath Iron

Works, Maine. The ship is named

for Navy ace and Medal of Honor

recipient Capt. David McCampbell.

The Standoff Land

Attack–Expanded Response

missile began full-rate production.

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 7


Following testing at NAWS China Lake, Calif., the LITENING II

targeting pod for the AV-8B Harrier will make its way to the fleet. The pod

provides an air-to-ground laser target designation capability, enhanced day

and night target acquisition, and improved low-level night flight and air-toair


Marine Corps Harrier pilots at MCAS Yuma, Ariz., have an

upgraded simulator which incorporates the AV-8B Harrier II’s

APG-65 radar. Augmenting the existing night simulator at

Yuma, this new version’s flat-panel projection system

provides realistic imagery that can be projected to a headup

display and used with a simulated night vision

goggle system. When the operational flight trainer at

MCAS Cherry Point, N.C., is upgraded to the

new system in FY 2002, both AV-8B bases will

have two radar night attack trainers.

Left, Ted Carlson captured a VMA-

513 Harrierdischarging infrared

decoys over California.


An F/A-18D Hornet of Marine

All-Weather Attack Squadron 533,

MCAS Beaufort, S.C., crashed into

the water off Beaufort on 7 July.

Both aircrew members were rescued.

A T-38A Talon of the U.S. Naval

Test Pilot School, NAS Patuxent

River, Md., crashed at Pax on 11

July, killing both occupants.

Both crew members of an F-14B

Tomcat of Fighter Squadron 11,

NAS Oceana, Va., operating from

Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69)

ejected safely over Saudi Arabia on

26 July.

A T-45B Goshawk of the Naval

Strike Aircraft Test Squadron, NAS

Patuxent River, Md., was damaged

by an uncommanded extension of

the starboard landing gear during a

high-G turn. The aircraft landed

safely at Pax.

A Navy-contracted Piper Navajo

Chieftan on a routine shuttle flight

from NAES Lakehurst, N.J., to NAS

Patuxent River, Md., crashed in New

Jersey on 9 August, killing all 9

passengers aboard.

An MH-53E Sea Dragon of

Helicopter Mine Countermeasures

Squadron 15, NAS Corpus Christi,

Texas, crashed in the Gulf of

Mexico on 10 August. All 6

occupants were killed.

Two F/A-18D Hornets of Marine

All-Weather Attack Squadron 242,

MCAS Miramar, Calif., collided in

midair near MCAS Yuma, Ariz., on

11 September. One plane crashed,

killing both aircrew members; the

other landed safely.

A T-34C Turbo-Mentor of

Training Squadron 10, NAS

Pensacola, Fla., crashed in Alabama

on 27 September, killing the

instructor pilot and student.

The pilot perished when a Strike

Fighter Squadron 25 F/A-18C

Hornet crashed in the Arabian Gulf

following takeoff from Abraham

Lincoln (CVN 72) on 29 September.


The web address in the Sep–Oct

00 issue referencing Navy policy on

corrective eye surgery was incorrect.

It is



Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 9

The Naval Force Aircraft Test Squadron, NAS Patuxent River, Md., is testing a new eight-blade propeller for

the E-2C Hawkeye and C-2 Greyhound. A replacement prop was needed because the original prop is no

longer manufactured and there are not enough in the inventory to last until 2015, the projected date for the

replacement of both aircraft.

The new design includes technologies that were not available when the original item was created. Narrower,

more aerodynamic composite blades are designed to incur less stress damage; the hub is made from a modern

steel composite that does not sacrifice strength for weight; and the electronic prop system, versus the old

hydromechanical system, allows for less maintenance. Eight blades may look out of place on a relatively small

aircraft, but keeping the number of blades in a multiple of the original four allows the aircraft’s electronics to

remain the same, rather than be changed to compensate for different harmonic frequency vibrations emitted by

the prop. After fleet introduction in late 2001, all C-2s and E-2s are expected to have the new prop by 2006.



10 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

By late October 1950, the Korean War

was considered over. North Korea’s

invasion had been defeated, the shattered

North Korean People’s Army (NKPA) was

fleeing north toward the Yalu River pursued by

victorious United Nations (UN) troops, and

talk of Christmas homecomings raised hopes

for a swift peace. One newspaper summarized

the prevailing feelings: “Except for unexpected

developments, we can now be easy in our

minds as to the military outcome.” Tragically

prophetic, “unexpected developments”

exploded upon the scene.

Despite East Bloc warnings since August

1950 that any UN advance north toward China

would be considered an act of war, allied

forces continued their drive north (see “The

Navy’s Air War in Korea, September–October

1950,” Sep–Oct 00). Hoping to end the war

before the onset of the fierce Korean winter,

on 24 October General Douglas MacArthur

ordered his commanders to push northward as

rapidly as possible. Unfortunately, the East

Bloc carried through on its threats, and within

days pilots were spotting signs of an offensive

By Mark L. Evans

During heavy fighting near Chosin in December

1950 F4U-5 Corsairs,one of which is visible in

the midst of the smoke rising from the strike,

blast the enemy for the hard-pressed Marines.

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 11

buildup by Chinese “volunteers.” There would be no

more Christmas homecomings until after the cease-fire of

27 July 1953.

The Yalu River winds almost 500 miles to the Yellow

Sea, marking the borders between China and North Korea

for much of its length. In 1950 the river’s size restricted

large troop movements to one of 17 bridges. Of the six

major ones, the twin spans (one railway, one highway)

connecting Antung, Manchuria, with Sinuiju, North

Korea, were the two most important. The Chinese were

pouring across these bridges and they had to be stopped.

It was the fleet’s job to drop the bridges,

which meant a 225-mile flight from the

carriers operating in the Sea of Japan off

Korea’s east coast all the way across the

peninsula to their targets on the west coast.

On station were Leyte (CV 32) with

Carrier Air Group (CVG) 3 embarked,

Philippine Sea (CV 47) carrying CVG-11

and Valley Forge (CV 45) with CVG-5.

Launching primarily close air support

missions were two smaller carriers, Badoeng

Strait (CVE 116) with the embarked Marine

Fighter Squadron (VMF) 323 Death Rattlers

and a Helicopter Utility

Squadron (HU) 1

detachment operating

HO3S-1 helicopters. Sicily

(CVE 118) carried the

VMF-214 Blacksheep, Air

Antisubmarine Squadron

(VS) 21 and another HU-1


Each ship’s strike group

numbered from 24 to 40

aircraft, comprising 8

bridge-busting AD

Skyraiders carrying either

two 1,000-pound bombs or

one 2,000-pounder; 8 to 16

flak-suppressing F4U

Corsairs with a mixed

package of eight 5-inch

rockets or eight 100-pound

bombs, or a 500-pounder and six 5-inch rockets (some

carried an 11.75-inch Tiny Tim rocket); and 8 to 16 F9F

Panthers as high cover.

Split-second timing was crucial, since the high fuel

consumption of the jets required special considerations.

The Panthers took off in three intervals, the first wave 50

minutes after the initial “props,” and the second and third

at succeeding 15-minute intervals. This way, the first

Panthers took the strike in, the second were over the

targets, and the third brought them home. It was a

planning nightmare, but it worked.

The realities of the tactical situation added to the

difficulty in attacking the Yalu bridges. Due to the high

escarpments rising along both sides of the river, the

approach to Sinuiju had to be made parallel to the river,

making aircraft predictable targets for enemy gunners.

Normally, the gunners had to make educated guesses at

the pilots’ altitudes and set the fuses of their shells

accordingly. This prompted pilots to vary their approach

altitudes. Unfortunately, the topographic setting for the

Yalu bridges did not allow such niceties. Expecting pilots

to fly the gauntlet of this shooting gallery was harsh, but

necessary if the ground war was to be properly supported.

Not being able to fly over Manchuria, then under

Soviet guarantees of

protection, further

complicated the scenario.

The Fighter Squadron (VF)

51 Screaming Eagles’

command history report

described the scene.

“During all attacks,

antiaircraft fire was heaviest

from the Manchurian side

due, no doubt, to the fact

that they, unlike Korean

gunners, were unhampered

by aerial attack.” VF-33’s

report noted: “Our


revealed that the enemy

guns were being moved from the south side

of the Yalu River where we could hit them

to the north side where we couldn’t. The

Reds were alert to recognize and take

advantage of our self-imposed restriction.

We even noticed that while the guns on the

Korean side of the river were well

camouflaged, the ones on the Chinese side

were not.”

During the initial strike against the

Sinuiju bridges on 9 November, VF-111 Sun

Downers CO Lieutenant Commander

William Thomas Amen made the Navy’s

first MiG kill. Amen’s group of F9F-2B

Panthers was flying cover for the strike

force of Corsairs and Skyraiders when they

were attacked by at least five MiGs flying from Antung.

Losing no time, the Panthers screamed in to protect the

strike force, the battle raging from just above ground

level up to 18,000 feet. Turning inside of a tight loop on

the tail of a MiG-15, Amen closed the gap and opened

fire, downing his opponent with a quick burst.

Like many pilots, Amen had already chalked up quite a

record and numerous medals during WW II and the

earlier strikes over Korea. Following no less than 35

missions over Korea, Amen was further awarded the

Distinguished Flying Cross “for extraordinary heroism

and meritorious achievement in aerial flight in operations

against the enemy in the Korean Theater from 5 August

12 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

Top, LCdr. William T. Amen was the first

Navy pilot to down a MiG-15. Above, one

of the MiG-15s encountered on 23

November. Opposite, Leyte’s strike drops

three spans from the highway bridge at

Sinuiju on 18 November 1950.

1950 to 1 February 1951.”

ADs of the Attack Squadron (VA) 115 Arabs scored

three direct hits and five near-misses on the Sinuiju

bridges during the first strike, and at 1400 went after the

railroad bridge at Manpojin with 2,000-pounders, scoring

four hits. Not a single Skyraider was lost, though the

squadron reported that the ground fire was “heavy,

intense and accurate over the target.”

For all the horror and fear of war, this first tangle with

the dreaded MiGs produced its own comedy. Upon

returning to the ready room on board Valley Forge (CV

45), VF-51 CO Commander Albert D. Pollack was

surrounded by his admiring Panther pilots. “Were you

nervous about those MiGs?” they asked. “No, I was just

keeping an eye on them,” Pollack replied. “Then, why did

you report 20,000 MiGs coming in at five feet?” his

pilots quipped.

Tragically, the grim realities of war returned on 11

November when more strikes by Leyte and Valley Forge

against the Yalu bridges encountered fierce opposition

from both Yaks and MiGs as well as flak, and a Skyraider

was lost over the target. Altogether, 19 MiGs were

spotted on the 10th and 15 on the 12th, a bleak portent of

things to come, though VA-115 did drop one span on the

southwestern bridge, as well as damaging the approach to

the northeastern one.

On the 14th and 15th snow-covered decks and heavy

seas severely hampered operations and gave the enemy

the chance to repair the bridges, so on 16 November VF-

54 conducted a reconnaissance flight to photograph the

targets. Both aircraft barely made it back through some of

the most intense and accurate flak of the war, confirming

the hard way that most of the guns had been transferred

to the Manchurian side.

The enemy’s supply lines had to be cut, however, so

between 1325 and 1645 on the 18th one of the toughest

fights of the month occurred when the carriers had

another go at the Sinuiju bridges. Just as the F4U-4B

Corsairs of VF-54 rendezvoused at 31,000 feet with F9F-

2 and F9F-3 Panthers a few minutes prior to the attack,

the strike group was jumped by no less than 12 MiGs. As

the jets tangled it up in a wild melee, the Corsairs went

after the guns with 500-pound bombs, giving the AD-4

Skyraiders of VA-55 a chance to tackle the bridges.

Unfortunately, hitting the dug-in guns was difficult, and

intense flak riddled a couple of Skyraiders.

Nevertheless, the twisting dogfight gave the fleet the

chance to even up the score as two VF-52 aircrews each

downed a MiG-15, while VF-31 blasted a third out of the

sky. Though some guns were knocked out, the bridges

were only damaged, and a VF-54 pilot had a close call

when forced to make an emergency landing at Wonsan

with hung wing bombs. The men were learning in the

toughest school of all. In the unforgiving strikes over

Korea, pilots did not get a second chance.

The failure to drop the bridges became a matter of life

or death for the men on the ground as the Chinese

stragglers suddenly burst into a horde. Two Chinese

People’s Liberation Army (PLA) divisions, numbering

over 300,000 men, entered Korea practically undetected

and began closing the jaws of a giant trap.

Retired Marine Lieutenant Colonel Charles A. House

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 13

flew an F4U-4B Corsair with VMF-

323 from Badoeng Strait and

acknowledged just how tough these

Chinese veterans were: “They may

have been poor shots, but they were

highly disciplined. When they heard

us coming, they would kneel in the

snow and hold their rifles close to

their body. Even when we strafed

them with 20mm cannon and rockets,

the survivors would not move. This

made it more difficult to see them.

Only napalm would make the ones on

fire run.”

Now, the PLA rallied the NKPA

and together trapped the outnumbered

allies in a massive double

envelopment. Their revered leader

Mao Tse-tung had prepared them by

ordering every man to memorize one

of his favorite doctrines: “Enemy

advancing, we retreat; enemy

entrenched, we harass; enemy

exhausted, we attack; enemy

retreating, we pursue.” The Chinese

generals further instructed their men in the rudiments of

strategy by expanding upon these orders with a seemingly

innocent Confucian lesson, “The Cat in the Sack”:

Confucius decided to visit his family and introduce his

cat to them. The easiest way to carry his friend was in a

sack. However, when Confucius opened the sack the

obstinate creature refused to jump in. Confucius opened

the sack a little wider and then wider and, finally, the

cat’s curiosity got the better of him and he leapt in.

Singling out the Marines as an example, the Chinese were

perfectly aware of the Corps’ aggressiveness and opened

their sack by cunningly striking at the ends of the UN


The allies never knew what hit them. Deceived by

previous clashes when the enemy slyly disengaged and

retreated, UN intelligence still believed that only a

handful of “volunteers” were

moving toward them. For days,

Navy pilots had reported thousands

of footprints in the snow, and even

when VA-115 knocked out a pair

of medium tanks north of the

Chosin Reservoir on the 14th, the

allies were still unprepared for the

fury that erupted against them

between 25 and 28 November.

There simply were not enough

men to hold the front. Chinese

infiltrators divided into platoons

and companies and slipped through

the gaps at night, breaking the

darkness with terrifying bugle

calls, police whistles and screams

as they struck at the weakest

points. Officers went down so fast

that a Marine platoon commander

found himself in command of the

entire company; in another

instance, after being driven from

his hilltop position three times and

retaking it three more, a company

commander discovered that only

14 of his original 200 men were still standing. Though

badly wounded, another company commander bravely

continued to lead his men from his stretcher. Newspaper

reports of “human wave assaults“ were exaggerated, but

hundreds of Americans vanished in the chaos, and within

days the entire front was crumbling.

For the 1st Marine Division caught in the sack, it was

another race against time. Joined by two Army battalions,

British Royal Marines who had requested the honor of

fighting alongside their U.S. counterparts and some

Republic of Korea (ROK) troops, their only hope was to

fight their way 78 miles down to Hungnam on the east

coast. On 27 November their combined column mustered

25,473 men, but they were pitted against elements of 11

PLA divisions, numbering 60,000 troops.

Time and again the only thing that stood between the

14 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

Left, exhausted Marines struggle

through the snow around Chosin

during the retreat. Below, this map

depicts the enemy’s movement

across the Yalu River to “close the

sack” during November–

December 1950. The only hope for

the Marines was to fight their way

down to the coast where the fleet

could get them out. Opposite,

artist John DeGrasse, Master

Sergeant, USMC, and one of “The

Chosin Few,” captures the

desperation of the beleaguered

Marines as they watch a Corsair

pound dug-in enemy soldiers. The

side panel markings reduced

aerial recognition problems.

W. C. Rockwell

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 15

Marines and the enemy were the aircraft of the fleet, as the

air tempo shifted back to close air support. Sicily CO

Captain John S. “Jimmy” Thach summarized it well: “It’s

like having artillery right over your shoulders.” Philippine

Sea’s pilots were told by their Marine tactical air controller

that their support on 28 November had been “very good. The

enemy has been stopped.” On the 29th alone, 123 aerial

sorties made 1,131 runs over the target, an incredible average

of 9.2 runs per sortie, while the next day Leyte’s aircraft flew

five continuous maximum close air support missions.

VF-33 CO Cdr. Horace H. Epes, Jr., remembered these

flights: “Occasionally we caught white-uniformed

Chinese troops in the open. I vividly recall catching a

couple of Red soldiers hotfooting it down the road

carrying a long pole with a big kettle of what looked like

soup—that no one ever drank.” On 2 December a Chinese

roadblock was blasted out of existence by no less than 22

aircraft. Two days later Major General Field Harris,

Commander 1st Marine Aircraft Wing (MAW), signaled

Commander Task Force 77: “I was up on the hill today

[at Hagaru-ri] and saw the 5th and 7th Marines return.

They thanked God for air. Tell your pilots they are doing

a magnificent job.”

Forward air controllers marched with each battalion

column, while tactical air controllers flew ahead. On 6

December Marine Transport Squadron (VMR) 152

provided the 1st MAW an R5D Skymaster for a unique

conversion into a Tactical Air Direction Center with

situation maps and an extra radio; the aircraft took off just

before dawn and circled the area until after dusk. Air

Force C-119 “Flying Boxcars” also dropped supplies to

the Marines, but on 7 and 8 December the Chinese closed

the sack by blowing the bridge across an otherwise

impassible 1,500-foot-wide gorge south of Koto-ri.

Without help, the Marines would be forced to leave

behind their heavy equipment and make it out on foot, a

trek many of the wounded and frostbitten would not

survive. Air Force C-119s again answered the call and

dropped eight two-ton spans of a treadway bridge for

Marine engineers, who kept the column moving by

bridging the gap under intense fire.

Another fierce fight broke out on 6 December when

the PLA again hit the Marines. Eighteen Corsairs from

VMF-214 clobbered the enemy with rockets and 500-

pounders, but the Chinese refused to budge. Eight F4U-4s

from VF-33 followed, led by Cdr. Epes who recalled: “A

ground controller called me by voice radio. ‘I’m in the

lead jeep; I have a fluorescent panel marker on my hood.

Fly over me and rock your wings.’ Our empty cases fell

among the Marines, our bullets and light bombs landed

on the Chinese 50 yards ahead of them. Then the ground

controller said, ‘Come back with napalm.’ After the first

Corsairs’ napalm dropped, the ground controller snapped,

‘Move it closer.’We dropped napalm bombs on the sides

of the hill, with Marines all along the road directly

beneath. If the temperature hadn’t been 25 degrees below,

I don’t believe the Marines could have stood the heat.”

VF-33’s Corsairs flew so low that Marine 81mm mortar

rounds arced over the planes as they made their passes!

Second Lieutenant Patrick C. Roe, assigned as the

intelligence officer of the 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines,

later recalled what it was like to be a “Mud Marine” on

the other end of the Naval Aviation chain during the

break through from Yudam-ni on 3 December: “That

morning a truck turned off into the courtyard of an

adjoining Korean farmhouse. A detail began unloading

dead Marines from the truck. They were all frozen

solid, some of them in grotesque poses as they had

fallen. The bodies were stacked in a corner of the

courtyard. The earth was so hard it could not be dented

by a pick or shovel. The chaplain read the burial

service. There were tears running down his cheeks.

Then he closed his bible, stepped forward and spoke

again to the few who had stopped for the brief

ceremony. ‘Come and help me cover them with rocks,’

he said. It was all we could do for them.”

The bitter Korean winter had set in with a vengeance,

with foot-deep snow and drifts often above the men’s

heads. The enemy had surrounded the Marines and time

had run out. Roe remembered, “Lt. Morgan, the assistant

forward air controller, was standing next to me scanning

the hills to the north with his field glasses when he froze

in his position and gave me one of the greatest shocks of

my life: ‘Here comes a million of them!’

“About two miles to the north, coming over the crest of

a low hill, was a column of Chinese. I could not see the

head of the column for there was an intervening hill, and

the tail was still below the crest to the north of the hill. I

could only observe about 600 yards, but to me it was one

of those endless columns. Morgan fired up his jeep radio

and requested planes. I pointed out the column to Lt. Col.

William Harris, who immediately called for the mortar

platoon commander: ‘Mr. Caridakis, give them a mortar

barrage.’ George answered, ‘Yes, sir. Both rounds?’

We had to depend on planes.

“It was not long before four Corsairs raced over the

column in a dry run while Morgan gave them directions

on the radio. At the first run of the planes the Chinese

scattered and took cover, disappearing completely from

view in the telescope. But the planes banked around and

commenced several firing runs, strafing and dropping

napalm. When the smoke and flames cleared there was no

more movement on the hill. But more than ever I felt then

that we must not remain another night in that valley.

“It was getting darker, and little black figures showed

themselves along the ridges with ever-increasing

frequency, watching us. Artillery fire support was not

available, and our mortars were out of ammo. Planes were

our only hope again. Morgan was able to get a flight of

four. They came in strafing and dropping napalm. Lt. Col.

Harris wanted Morgan to have the planes work the top of

the ridgeline and Morgan relayed that information to the

planes. The answer he got from them was that there were

a hell of a lot more Chinese on the reverse slope, just over

the top of the ridge, then there were along the crest, and

that the planes would work that area.”

After that frightening revelation, the Marines got out

of there and marched all night in sub-zero cold. Roe

continued, “First light showed the sky gray and overcast.

No planes. The men in the column lifted their filthy faces

upward and scanned the sky, then dropped their eyes to

the ground and shuffled on. Then the column came to a

halt again. The Chinese were across the road ahead of us.

16 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 17

We would have to fight our way through.

“Through my glasses,” Roe said, “I watched Marines

fix bayonets and start up the hill toward the Chinese. At

the same time, we heard the roar of engines and a flight

of Navy ADs dropped down through the thinning overcast

and passed over the column, rocking their wings. We had

never seen them before. They were, to us, magnificent

airplanes. The sight of the planes brought the sting of salt

to the eyes of more than one man in the column. I was

never quite so happy to see planes, especially those big

Navy ADs with their fat load of bombs and rockets—

sudden death for the Chinese. The Chinese must have

seen them at the same time as we did and must have felt

the same way for as those planes roared down upon them,

they gave up the hill.”

The enemy often attacked after dark, and Naval

Aviation did what it could to deny the enemy the night.

But nighttime missions bred their own problems,

especially where recognition was concerned since the

pilots were naturally worried about hitting their own men.

Even when the Marines marked the enemy with “Willie

Peter” (white phosphorus) rounds, it was often a case of

hit and miss. Retired Marine Colonel Lynn Williams

(then a captain in Marine Night Fighter Squadron 513)

described another reason it was dangerous: “It was very

hazardous for the pilot to dive down into the black and

not know where the ground was. Even if there were some

ground fires, you often had to pull up into the black

unknown.” To throw off communist fire, VMF(N)-513

pilots developed the trick of turning off their lights while

making runs and switching them back on as they finished,

presenting a ghostly image that certainly must have

Freezing winds and blinding snow almost shut down

Philippine Sea(CV 47) on 15 November 1950.

rattled the enemy.

Life or death for casualties was often only a matter of

minutes, and the fastest way to save them was by air.

Between 27 November and 10 December, 5,493 men in

the bitter fighting around Chosin owed their lives to the

dedication of air evacuation crews from the Air Force

flying C-47s, along with Marine R4D Skytrains, HO3S-

1s, OY-2 Sentinels and TBM-3E Avengers.

On 4 December Ensign Jesse L. Brown of VF-32

embarked on board Leyte was

hit by antiaircraft fire during a

close support run over Hagaru-ri

and was forced to make an

emergency landing in the rugged

mountains northwest of the

Chosin Reservoir. Pilots circling

overhead observed him to be

alive but apparently pinned by

the wreckage of his F4U-4

Corsair. His plane was burning

and darkness was falling fast,

along with the temperature. The

likelihood of Brown surviving

the night in the subarctic cold

was grim. Without hesitation,

Lieutenant (jg) Thomas J.

Hudner made a successful

wheels-up crash landing and

tried to pull Brown from the

wreck. Unfortunately, Brown’s

legs were pinned in the buckled

fuselage, so Hudner packed

snow around him in an attempt

to extinguish the flames. Going

back to his aircraft he radioed

for a search and rescue helo and

cutting tools. When the helo

arrived, Hudner did everything

he could to cut Brown out of the

plane, but the downed pilot died

before he could be freed. For his

extraordinary efforts to rescue

his squadron mate, Hudner was

awarded the Medal of Honor.

During a run on enemy emplacements near Hagaru-ri

on 7 December, Marine Technical Sergeant Hugh F.

Newell’s Corsair was hit by ground fire and his napalm

tank erupted in midair, causing him to crash into a nearby

hill. On 12 December VA-35 Black Panthers CO LCdr.

Ralph Maxwell Bagwell was downed near a railroad

bridge, where he took refuge. Twenty enemy soldiers

tracked him down, and he spent the rest of the war in a

prison camp.

Whether loading ordnance, maintaining engines or

fueling aircraft, ground crews had some of the grittiest

and least appreciated jobs of the entire campaign, yet

without them there would have been no air support.

Working in freezing temperatures, struggling against the

Manchurian winds that penetrated every layer of clothing,

they kept the birds aloft. It was hard enough for the men

ashore, but on board the carriers a wrong step on an icy,

pitching deck could be the last a man took, disappearing

into the frigid waters of the North Pacific. On 25

November heavy seas, high winds and low visibility

forced Leyte to cancel flight operations, and on the 27th a

fierce snowstorm forced 19 aircraft to land at Wonsan

when they could not make it back to the ship. VMF-214

cancelled operations when 68-

knot winds, sub-zero

temperatures and heavy seas

combined to cover Sicily and

her aircraft with a thick

coating of ice.

VMF-212 pilots Capt.

Irving J. Barney and

Technical Sgt. Charles L.

Radford were returning to

their field after hitting targets

at Apungsan. Running into

brutal weather among 6,000-

foot peaks, Radford’s gyro

went out, his pitot tube froze

and a pair of hung rockets

would not shake off. Breaking

through the clouds, they

sighted Badoeng Strait and

decided to try an emergency

landing rather than ditch in

the freezing water. The alarm

brought Marines racing on

deck to taxi their aircraft

forward to make room; with

only a minute’s gas left

Barney just made it aboard.

Coming in out of gas on his

second try Radford caught the

final wire, nicking the barrier

with his prop. It was his first

accident in 120 landings, but

he was understandably not


It took the Marines 12 days of bitter fighting to reach

Chinhung-ni, where they linked up with other UN troops

on 9 December, just as MacArthur authorized the

evacuation of the X Corps by sea. Some of the men were

to go through Wonsan, but the main effort was to be made

out of Hungnam, an ideal choice because it was a

protected port with a tidal range of less than a foot; the

Eighth Army was to go via Inchon and Chinnampo.

Besides getting the men out, Commander Naval Forces,

Far East Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy was also concerned

over possible Soviet intervention or a Chinese invasion of

Taiwan, and he ordered the evacuations hurried.

Allied vessels rescued 105,000 troops and 91,000

civilians from Hungnam, 3,800 men and 7,009 civilians

escaped from Wonsan, while 68,913 men were rescued

18 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

A detailed view of Chinese attempts to “close the

sack” as the column fought its way through

continual attacks to freedom.

from Inchon and 7,700 from Chinnampo. In addition,

between 14 and 17 December, 112 aircraft from the Air

Force’s Combat Cargo Command supported by 10 from

VMR-152 flew over 400 sorties from Yonpo airfield,

lifting out 228 wounded and 3,891 more men, as well as

hundreds of Korean refugees. British Fireflies and Sea

Furies from HMS Theseus

covered the Eighth Army

evacuations, while the

carriers operating in the Sea

of Japan were joined by two


Princeton (CV 37) with

CVG-19 embarked began

operations on 5 December,

joined by Bataan (CVL 29)

carrying the VMF-212 Devil

Cats and VMF-312

Checkerboards, both

equipped with F4U-4

Corsairs, and HU-1 Det 8

flying HO3S-1s. The

exhausted men of Valley

Forge departed Yokosuka,

Japan, on 23 November,

arriving home in San Diego

only to suffer the heartbreak

of having all Christmas

leaves cancelled by their

recall. The carrier left on 6 December, this time

embarking CVG-2.

Naval Aviation again proved indispensable, flying over

1,700 sorties. Naval gunfire support kept the enemy at

bay, while radar picket destroyers patrolled 50 miles out

to provide early warning for MiGs, though the enemy had

learned their lesson and declined the invitation. Because

so many evacuees were taken off, not all the ordnance

(including 400 tons of frozen dynamite and 500 1,000-

pound bombs) could be removed, so to deny its use to the

enemy it was blown up. The entire Hungnam waterfront

was ripped apart by the ensuing mushroom cloud and

after the smoke cleared the PLA began moving in. The

last pilot overhead was Lt. R. B. Mack of VC-3’s Det F

from Princeton, who flew over the city that night in his

F4U-5N. He recalled, “There were fires everywhere

throughout the area, and flames broke out around the

docks, growing and spreading until the whole waterfront

seemed ablaze. As I took departure for Princeton, I called

for Mount McKinley (AGC 7) and we exchanged

[holiday] greetings—for it was Christmas Eve 1950.”

Every effort was made to rescue Korean civilians who

the Communists had designated “enemies,” since no one

who had experienced communist methods doubted the

fate of these people if left behind. When they began

loading them at 0500 on 7 December, the crew of the

transport SS Lane Victory expected to receive 1,000. By

midnight, 7,009 were packed on board. The men of the

fleet did everything they could for the refugees, and at

Hungnam kept fires going around the clock to warm them

as well as distributing pallet loads of rice. Following the

evacuation, Rear Admiral James H. Doyle, Commander

Amphibious Group 1, recalled that “two civilian

representatives from the ROK government came to thank

[Vice] Admiral Joy and me

with tears in their eyes for

our compassion toward

their fellow countrymen

during the Hungnam


To this day, the Marines

of the 1st Division who

survived the retreat

proudly call themselves

“The Chosin Few,” and

most will unhesitatingly

say that only through the

support they received from

the air did any of them

come home.

Some years after the

war, Cdr. Guy Bordelon,

the Navy’s top Korean ace,

was asked who he thought

was the best pilot he ever

met. After carefully

considering the question,

he responded with a laugh: “Every Navy pilot thinks he’s

the best.” That confidence, combined with tremendous

skills and bravery, enabled Naval Aviation’s success.

Mr. Evans is a historian in the Naval Historical Center’s Aviation

History Branch. Special thanks to Patrick C. Roe for his stirring accounts

from The Dragon Strikes, Presidio Press, 2000, and to W. Stephen Hill,

Marine Corps Historical Center, and members of “The Chosin Few” for

their contributions to this article.

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 19

A VF-32 ready room scene aboard Leyte(CV 32) in 1949

includes Ens. Jesse L. Brown, left, the first African

American to complete the Navy’s basic flight training

program for pilot qualification and become a Naval


Begor(APD 127) stands by as the Hungnam waterfront

erupts on 24 December 1950.

Photos by Ted Carlson

The U.S. Marine Corps MV-22B completed

operational evaluation (OPEVAL) in July at

Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) New River,

N.C., after eight months of extensive flight testing to

evaluate its suitability for operational use. As with most

new aircraft, the Osprey has gone through some

teething problems, including an unfortunate mishap in

April during the operational evaluation phase.

However, after a thorough investigation, the aircraft

was cleared to fly again two months later.

The Multi-service Operational Test Team—

comprising Marine and Air Force pilots, aircrew,

maintenance personnel, operations analysts and flight

engineers—put the aircraft through rigorous tests to

evaluate the MV-22’s readiness to join the fleet. Navy,

Marine Corps and Air Force test sites were chosen for

their diverse climates, altitudes and supporting assets.

The aircraft conducted operationally representative

missions from air-capable ships, airfields, remote sites,

confined areas and major range and test facilities. This

allowed the team to determine how the Osprey operates

with other aircraft, including the CH-46 Sea Knight,

CH-53 Sea Stallion, F/A-18 Hornet, AV-8B Harrier II

and Marine Corps and Air Force tankers.

Earlier this year, the Osprey was integrated into a

Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron 1

exercise at MCAS Yuma, Ariz., to gain valuable

feedback from the Marine Corps before the MV-22

enters full-rate production, scheduled for late 2000.

In June, the Marine Corps’ four MV-22Bs resumed

OPEVAL at Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons

Division China Lake, Calif. To demonstrate his

20 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

O S P R E Y :





confidence in and support of the aircraft, General

James L. Jones, Commandant of the Marine Corps,

flew as a passenger in the first MV-22 cleared to

carry passengers since the mishap. Gen. Jones

remarked, “Marines pioneered the military use of

helicopters [during the Korean War], creating the

conditions for a new form of maneuver that radically

altered the nature of tactics, with global military

implications. The MV-22 is another such innovation. It

represents a major step in a new direction, and it is the

best aircraft available today for the missions of


The MV-22B’s tilt-rotor design offers some

significant advantages over traditional helicopters. It o

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 21

Capable of cruising in excess of 300 mph, the MV-22B offers the Marines greater speed and range than the

aircraft it will replace, the CH-46 Sea Knightand CH-53 Sea Stallion.This dramatic photo won the bimonthly ANA

photo contest. Next page: an Ospreytaxies at MCAS Yuma, Ariz.

It can go into hostile areas at higher speeds, yet in

hover mode can offload troops without having to land

on a runway. With its range, the Osprey is able to fly

around threats rather than through them, giving the

Marines greater flexibility during sorties. Conversion

from the helicopter hovering mode to forward airplane

22 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

flight takes only 12 seconds. The wings become lift

effective between 100 and 120 knots.

With OPEVAL completed, the low-rate initial

production aircraft used during the critical flight test

phase have been turned over to Marine Medium Tilt-

Rotor Training Squadron 204, the new MV-22 training

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 23

unit. Located at MCAS New River, N.C., VMMT-204

will train both Marine and Air Force Osprey pilots.

The Marines are planning to purchase 360 MV-22s,

the Air Force 50 special operations CV-22s, and the

Navy 48 search and rescue HV-22s.

The MV-22B’s unique capabilities constitute an

exciting platform for the future. “The Osprey,” Gen.

Jones said, “will provide our Marines with a needed

edge in the complex operations they will face while

defending Americans and American interests in the

21st century.”

Ted Carlson is a professional photographer whose work regularly appears

in Naval Aviation News. The author acknowledges Gen. James Jones,

Maj. David Lapan, Capt. Aisha Bakkar-Poe and Mr. Barry MacDonald

for their assistance. Special thanks to Ms. Gidge Dady of the V-22 Public

Affairs Integrated Product Team.

The Clipper has arrived. No, it’s not a Pan Am Clipper

that flew in the late 1930s arriving

through a time warp. This Clipper

is the Navy’s new C-40A transport. The

only thing it has in common with its

historic namesake is the manufacturer,


During a 9 September ceremony at Boeing Field in

Seattle, Wash., the first new Navy aircraft to bear the

name Clipper was rolled out in front of several hundred

visitors. This newest edition to the Navy’s inventory will

eventually replace the Naval Reserve’s aging fleet of C-9

and DC-9 Skytrain IIs.

“Close to 25 percent of our C-9s are more than 30

years old,” said Rear Admiral John B. Totushek,

Commander of Naval Reserve Forces. “The Clipper will

take over their mission of providing all of the Navy’s

intra-theater medium and heavy airlift.” With a greater

range and larger payload capacity, more

efficient engines and state-of-the-art

avionics and cockpit equipment, the C-

40A represents a significant boost in

capability over the C-9.

The Clipper is a version of Boeing’s

next-generation 737-700, the 737-700C, modified with a

large cargo door and the strengthened wings and landing

gear of the 737-800. Five aircraft have been ordered; a

sixth aircraft was funded in the FY 2001 budget.

The Naval Reserve currently has seven squadrons that

operate its 27 C-9 and DC-9 aircraft, and the Marine

Corps operates two C-9s of its own. The oldest of these

aircraft are 12 DC-9s that were purchased secondhand

from various airlines in the early 1980s and then

converted to fit the Navy’s needs. A large cargo door was

24 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

Story and Photos by JO1 Mark Faram

Inset, RAdm. Totushek talks with

Boeing’s David Spong at the

rollout in Seattle,Wash., where the

C-40A Clipper, above, made its


added to each aircraft, which made it possible to convert

from a passenger to a cargo configuration easily or to have

a mix of both.

Fifteen C-9s were built for the Navy in the 1970s, the

last of them purchased during the early 1980s just as

McDonnell Douglas was shutting down its production

line. In the early mid-1990s, when the oldest C-9 was

approaching 30 years of service life, the Navy started to

look for a replacement.

Upgrading the aging Skytrain II airframe with new

engines and avionics was considered, “but then we’d have

new equipment in a 30-year-old airframe,” said

Commander Vic Van Heest, Branch Head for Naval

Reserve Air Logistics. “That didn’t make sense.” The

Navy also wanted to increase the range of its logistics

aircraft to make nonstop flights from such places as

Hawaii to Japan and back to the United States, as base

closures had eliminated previously available refueling

stops. In addition, tougher

noise controls being

instituted in many locations

in Europe and the United

States further limited the

usefulness of the C-9. A

new aircraft was needed to

take Navy air logistics


Congress approved

funding for the first four

aircraft in 1997. The 737-

700 design was chosen

based on the success of the

737’s reliable airframe in service since 1967. In addition,

decision makers provided wording in the law that would

eventually allow the Navy to sell some of its DC-9s to

commercial carriers to help offset the costs. To help the

Navy keep the C-9s up to snuff during the transition,

many of them are receiving upgraded cockpits and

avionics that will make them safer and more viable until

they are replaced.

The C-40A is able to carry 121 passengers or 40,000

pounds of cargo, compared with 90 passengers or 30,000

pounds for the C-9. In addition, the maximum range for

the Clipper is approximately 1,500 miles more than the

C-9. The redesigned wings of the C-40A are stronger and

have an advanced-technology airfoil that provides greater

efficiency in flight. Under the wings, its General Electric

CFM-56 engines are very fuel efficient and quiet.

Even after many upgrades, C-9s still have an analog

cockpit, but the Clipper has a fully digital “glass” cockpit

that will allow for future growth. The cockpit is also fitted

with a heads-up display, allowing pilots to keep their eyes

up and outside in low-visibility approaches. One major

improvement is the C-40A’s navigation system based on

satellite global positioning, which will aid in approaches

to airports in Third World countries with older, less

reliable ground systems.

The cargo area in the C-40A will be available in three

variations: all passenger with a capacity of 121, all cargo

with a carrying capability of eight pallets totaling 40,000

pounds, and a combination rig that will allow for 70

passengers and three pallets. In this mode, the cargo

compartment is sealed to protect passengers and crews

from the potential danger of hazardous cargo.

The 737-700 is assembled from 375,000 parts, which

could be a nightmare for the Navy’s supply system if

required to purchase and order spares for the fleet. But,

according to Cdr. Van Heest, “We will be able to partner

with private industry—airline and cargo carriers—to

purchase parts under a Contract Logistics Supply system.

A pool of parts will be created that all partners can access

quickly, and this will lower costs because we won’t have

to stock millions of dollars of parts.” But this is for parts

only, he added, “it is not contract maintenance. We’ll still

have our Navy personnel maintaining these aircraft.”

The first Clipper has been certified by the Federal

Aviation Administration,

much like civilian cargo

and passenger aircraft.

Because this is a


aircraft, and because the

value for potential resale is

higher, it made sense to

accept FAA certification.

The first C-40A will be

delivered in April 2001 to

Fleet Logistics Support

Squadron (VR) 59, NAS

JRB Fort Worth, Texas.

Delivery of the first four aircraft to VR-59 is planned for

completion by August 2001. The squadron ceased

operating C-9s on 1 October and began transition training.

Although limited operations will begin shortly after

delivery of the first aircraft, VR-59 will not be fully

operational until April 2002. The fifth aircraft, scheduled

for completion in June 2002, will go to VR-58, NAS

Jacksonville, Fla., along with one of VR-59’s Clippers.

VRs 59 and 58 will operate three and two aircraft,

respectively, until more are procured. Eventually, each

squadron will have four C-40As. At that time, a third site

will be selected to receive Clippers.

Although the Naval Reserve believes that a one-for-one

replacement of the C-9 is the best way to continue to

accomplish the Navy’s medium- and heavy-lift mission,

plans have not been finalized. A study is underway to

determine future needs, and aircraft buys will be based on

those results.

No matter what the number turns out to be, the new

Clipper has the right stuff to perform the Navy’s logistics

mission well into the future.

JO1 Mark Faram is a reservist whose civilian job is Content Manager/Photo

Editor at in Arlington, Va. The author extends special thanks

to LCdr. T. M. Boulay, Director of Naval Reserve Public Affairs Officer, for

his assistance with this article.

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 25

C-40A Specifications

Length: 110' 4" (33.63 m)

Height: 41' 2" (12.55 m)

Span: 112' 7"

Max. takeoff weight: 171,000 lb

Fuel capacity: 6,875 gal

Engines: Two General Electric CFM56-7

Thrust (max. sea level static): 24,000 lb each

Cruise speed: 0.78 to 0.82 Mach

Max. altitude: 41,000'

Max. range: 3,800 nm

Max. load: 121 passengers or 40,000 lb

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 1

The side-scan transmitter sends

out acoustic signals which bounce

off the seabed or any object on the

bottom. A computer system receives

the acoustic signal, analyzes the

information and produces an image

of the sea floor. A remote sensing

specialist, who can differentiate

between manmade objects and

naturally occurring objects, analyzes

the resulting image. But this system

can only tell the specialist what is

visible above the sediment, and

perhaps indicate its shape and

relative size. A magnetometer is

needed to determine if the object is

made of ferrous metals, such as steel

or iron. Unfortunately, since aircraft

are made up of mostly nonferrous

materials, magnetometry has limited

use. However, it can eliminate

certain targets depending on the size

and intensity of the signal.

When joined together, side-scan

sonar and the magnetometer indicate

an object of a specific size and

ferrous material at a specific location.

All types of remote sensing

equipment are correlated with a

global positioning system, which

gathers precise information from

satellites to pinpoint a location. In

this way the target can be revisited

and marked on a map, sometimes

indicating a pattern of wreckage that

helps the investigators. By using this

equipment the archaeologist has

already learned a great deal about the

area without ever having to get wet.

Once identified, targets require

visual inspection, and the

archaeologist must physically visit

the site. This is where the long,

tedious hours pay off. The Kaneohe

Bay field school produced many

targets. The students spent two of

their five weeks visually

investigating targets and recording

the measurements and

characteristics of the objects

encountered. Preliminary analysis

suggests they found a portion of a

PBY wing along with other

scattered and disfigured wreckage.

Photographs taken just after the

attack indicate that this plane

burned for some time, leaving few

remnants. In addition to the pieces

of possible wreckage, the students

identified mooring blocks for the

three patrol squadrons (VPs 11, 12

and 14) at Naval Air Station

Kaneohe Bay prior to the attack,

confirming the validity of their

search area.

The sector most likely containing

the remaining two seaplanes is in a

dangerous zone still used by the

military, and therefore could not be

visually inspected. However, the

side-scan sonar and magnetometer

data from this zone will remain on

file to enhance future investigation

when conditions permit.

Although one of the four planes

retains some structural integrity, it

can reasonably be stated that the

other three do not. This means that

the aircraft will not be threatened by

illegal salvage should the base ever

close and the area become

nonrestricted. Little remains of these

aircraft that would be worthy of

display, and the costs of retrieval

and conservation prohibit their

removal. Therefore, there are no

plans to revisit or retrieve any of the

patrol plane wrecks found in

Kaneohe Bay. Instead, they will

continue to serve as testimony to a

devastating attack, as they have for

more than 50 years.

Ms. Coble is the aviation issues specialist in the

Naval Historical Center’s Underwater

Archaeology Branch.

For full details on the field school, please

Above, an underwater archaeologist

prepares to submerge to visually

inspect a target of interest in

Kaneohe Bay. Opposite, a student

archaeologist takes measurements of

the cockpit area of a PBY, being

careful not to disturb tenant lobsters.

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 27

Execute,” a signalman aboard the destroyer Aylwin (DD

355) yelled as he watched the flag signal hoisted on

Yorktown (CV 5). Immediately, the task force turned

into the wind. We had to quickly land our planes aboard

Yorktown and Lexington (CV 2) before any more enemy

bombers appeared. We had safely survived an attack by

aircraft out of Rabaul, New Britain, in the South Pacific.

The date was February 1942.

Our fighter pilots had created havoc among the enemy

bombers. One pilot shot down five Mitsubishi G4M

“Bettys,” becoming the first naval ace of WW II. The folks

back home in Chicago, Ill., later named an airport after

him. His name was Butch O’Hare.

Fortunately, none of our pilots were lost, but some of

their planes had been damaged so badly that the tailhooks

wouldn’t catch the arresting wires on the flight deck. These

planes had to crash into the “barrier,” a screen of cables

that would pop up from the flight deck. The barrier also

protected other aircraft parked on the deck.

Crashing into a barrier could be devastating to the pilot

and the plane. Surely, there must be a better way, and there

was. But it took the Royal Navy to come up with the idea.

Years later, in 1953, I was Chief Engineer of the first, and

at that time the only, “canted” deck aircraft carrier in the

world, Antietam (CVA 36). We were in Portsmouth, England,

to let the Royal Navy fly their fighter jets on and off an

angled-deck carrier, because this brilliant idea originated with

the British (see “Angled Flight Deck Inventor Dies,” Jul–Aug

00, p. 46). Now, if the tailhook missed the arresting wires, the

plane didn’t have to crash into the barrier; the pilot just

gunned the engine and came around for another try.

The day came for the first Royal Navy touch-and-go

practice. It was a lovely day, but there was no natural wind.

The sea was flat. In order to get the 30-knot wind over the

flight deck required for landing and taking off jets, all of

Antietam’s eight boilers had to be “on the line.” With those

old boilers huffing and puffing, I offered a silent prayer

that Murphy’s Law would not apply. But, midway through

the exercise, one of the two forced-draft blowers on one

boiler locked up. We had to lower the fires on the boiler to

keep from making smoke that would blind the pilots while

landing, but by doing so the ship’s speed was decreased.

After I explained the problem, the captain made the

decision to send the Royal Navy jets to the beach. He then

summoned me to the bridge, where I assured him the entire

engineering force would work around the clock to find the

trouble. “Chief, we are going to sea on Monday, and that

blower had better be working,” the captain said. “I don’t want

my command to be the laughing stock of the Royal Navy.

This is your ‘graduation test.’ Do I make myself clear?”

“Yes, sir,” I replied, fully aware that failure would result

in something ominous.

We tore that blower down and found that an internal

helical gear had broken. I was shaking after we learned that

the gear was not on our spare parts list. We handed the

ship’s top machinist the blueprints and broken gear and

asked him if he could make a replacement by Sunday

morning. He took one look and said he couldn’t make the

helical cut. I was crushed. Would failure of my graduation

test mean that I would get transferred? Almost as bad, I had

my heart set on seeing Paris, France. Would I have to

cancel my leave?

Early Saturday morning, I headed into Her Majesty’s

Dockyard in Portsmouth carrying a heavy heart, blueprints and

28 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000



By Capt. George W. Folta, USN (Ret.)

the broken gear. When I found the

machine shop, I explained the

problem and played up its

importance to the Royal Navy.

The men were all old, and even

their tools looked ancient. The

leading man examined the gear

and blueprints, then called over a

coworker. They must have

spoken in Old English because

I couldn’t understand a word of

their conversation. Finally, he

turned to me and said, “Son,

you come back this afternoon.

We will have your gear for

you. After all, we built a

battleship in one year. We

can certainly turn out a small

gear in one day.” I thought as

I left, “A battleship in one

year! Is the old man


When I returned and

looked at the gear, I saw my

graduation test go down the drain. The gear was not helical.

The old man put his hand on my shoulder and said, “Not to

worry. This gear will work perfectly. It may be a little

noisier, but your blower will never know the difference.”

How could he tell that by looking at the blueprints? At the

Naval Academy I had done well in mechanical drawing, but

it wasn’t clear to me that a straight-cut gear would work.

We had no other choice, so we put the gear in the blower

and, holding our collective breath, lit it off while we hid behind

the boiler. It ran like a Swiss watch—and not a bit noisier.

On Monday

morning, we put to sea

with the Royal Navy

jets. No smoke. The

pilots were happy, the

captain was happy and I

was invited to watch the

flight operations. I knew I

had passed the test and

would get to Paris!

Several mornings later

before I was to go on leave, I

returned to the machine shop

to thank the people there.

Under my arm I carried a

large can of coffee and a

framed picture of Royal Navy

jets taking off from Antietam.

The men were delighted and

asked me to tarry over a cup of

coffee. It was then that I asked the

leading man, “By the way, what

battleship did this dockyard build

in one year?”

“The Dreadnought in 1906,” he answered. I was in awe.

These men had not only been the key to my passing my

graduation test, but they had helped build the forerunner of

WW I and WW II battle cruisers and battleships.

I passed around American cigarettes, and we had some

more coffee while they regaled me with stories of building that

great ship. Paris, not as important now, would have to wait.

Later in his career, Capt. Folta commanded John Hood (DD 655) and

Monticello (LSD 35). He retired from naval service in 1969.

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 29



36) underway in 1953. Above,

this page from the carrier’s 1952–1953

cruise book shows the purpose of the visit to

England: to demonstrate the canted deck to the British and

invite them to participate in flight operations.


Several EA-6B community

awards were presented at NAS

Whidbey Island, Wash., during

Prowler Week 2000 in July:

The Bud White Outstanding

Civilian of the Year was Sherrie

McDaniel of Commander Electronic

Attack Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet. The

award recognizes the government

civilian who has made the most

significant contributions to the

operation or support of the Prowler


The ALQ-99 Excellence Award

went to LCdr. Davis Goodman of

the Electronic Attack Weapons

School for contributing the most to

the technical development and

improvement of the ALQ-99 tactical

jamming system.

VAQ-141 was recognized as the

squadron with the best overall

maintenance department, receiving

the Ground Maintenance

Squadron of the Year (Golden

Wrench) Award.

Lt. Thomas Gibbons of VAQ-129

received the award for Ground

Maintenance Officer of the Year,

given to the EA-6B officer who

demonstrated the best performance

in the field of aircraft maintenance

over the past year.

Lt. Lesley Fierst was awarded the

Northrop Grumman Prowler Tactics

Instructor of the Year, which

recognizes the Prowler tactics

instructor who has contributed the

most in EA-6B tactics training.

The Northrop Grumman

Intelligence Officer of the Year

was Lt. Don Furukawa of VAQ-137.

Lt. Dodd Wambers of VAQ-138

received the Landing Signal

Officer of the Year award as the

first-tour fleet LSO whose waving

skills and dedication to duty had the

greatest benefit to their squadron

and air wing.

VAQ-140 was awarded the

Prowler Tactical Excellence Award

as the squadron that demonstrated

the best overall tactical expertise

over the past year.

Lt. Michael Orr of VAQ-139 was

named the Fleet Replacement

Squadron (FRS) Pilot of the Year.

Lt. Davis Rutter of VAQ-132 was

cited as FRS Replacement

30 Naval Aviation News November December 2000

Edited by JO3 Amy L. Pittmann Above, QM3 Michael Alvarez uses a sextant as a tool for

navigational positioning aboard Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72)

on 3 September as the carrier steams toward the Arabian

Gulf for a six-month deployment in support of Operation

Southern Watch.




PHAA Mason Cavazos

Electronic Countermeasures

Officer (ECMO) of the Year.

Lt. Gregory Davis was designated

Instructor Pilot of the Year and Lt.

Johnathan Jackson Instructor

ECMO of the Year. These awards

recognize the best instructors at

VAQ-129. Winners are chosen by

their peers for their professionalism

and effectiveness in the classroom

and cockpit.

Lt. Matthew Vandersluis received

the “Seadog” Fodor Memorial

Award recognizing the individual

who best exemplifies the

outstanding leadership traits, loyalty

and dedication to duty and

camaraderie exhibited by the late

Cdr. Fodor.

The Admiral John Perry Award

went to Capt. Donald Duinn of

CVW-9. This award honors the EA-

6B officer who has demonstrated

superior abilities in airborne, tactical

and electronic warfare.

The Navy and Marine Corps

recipients for the 2000 Secretary of

Defense Maintenance Awards are

Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare

Squadron 2, MCAS Cherry Point,

N.C. (small category); NAS

Whidbey Island, Wash., Aircraft

Intermediate Maintenance

Department (medium category); and

Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71) (large


Scan Pattern

VP-65 can be proud of its

victories against narcotics trafficking

while patrolling the skies over the

eastern Pacific and Caribbean.

VP-65 interdicted 34 vessels

involved in the movement of illegal

cargo during the squadron’s fourmonth

deployment with the Joint

Interagency Task Force West out of

Belize, South America, which

concluded in mid-June. With 61

missions conducted and more than

480 flight hours logged, the reserve

squadron’s hard work led to the

seizure of more than five metric tons

of cocaine. Flying low and using

digital imagery, VP-65’s P-3 Orions

patrolled more than 2.5 million

square miles of ocean looking for

drug smuggling speedboats and their

supply ships. Three other reserve

units from Point Mugu, Calif.—

the Mobilization, Operational

Command Center; Mobile Maintenance

Facility-A; and VR-55—

assisted in the counternarcotics


Six Naval Air Maintenance

Training Group Detachment

officers in charge became

commanding officers on 29 June

when the NAMTRAGRUs were

elevated to the level of authority

exercised by fleet readiness

squadrons: Cdr. Harry Bryant,

Jacksonville, Fla.; Cdr. James

Wirwille, Norfolk, Va.; Cdr. James

Duke, North Island, Calif.; Cdr.

Robert Crisler, Lemoore, Calif.;

On his last flight before retirement, Commander Naval Air Forces, U.S.

Pacific Fleet VAdm. Mike Bowman flies a VFA-125 F/A-18 Hornet

(foreground) over the Coronado Bay bridge near San Diego, Calif., on 22

August. His son, Ltjg. Geoff Bowman, is flying the other Hornet.

PH1 Dan Smith

Cdr. Luther Kinsey, Oceana, Va.;

and Cdr. Robert Blakley, Whidbey

Island, Wash.

VAQ-128’s Incentive Flight

Program continues to reward

members of the Fighting Phoenix

who exceed goals which contribute

to the success of the squadron. This

time AT1 (AW) Kevin Monaghan

had the chance to ride in the back

seat of an EA-6B Prowler during a

thrilling low-level training flight. A

member of the squadron since

1997, his superb technical and

leadership skills led him to be

considered a prime candidate for

the program.


Units marking safe flying time:

Unit Hours Years

VP-26 278,000 38

VAW-113 112,500 26

VFA-106 90,000 7

VQ-1 79,486 13

VAQ-132 50,000 30

VAW-120 48,000 7

VPU-1 35, 565 18

VAW-115 32,600 15


VP-64 and VP-66 celebrated

their 30th anniversaries on 20 and

21 October, respectively.


While participating in a routine

exercise off the coast of Hawaii

during RIMPAC 2000, the crew of a

VP-1 P-3 Orion became a search

and rescue team on 23 June.

Navigator/communicator Ltjg. Ed

Fahrenkrug received a call relayed

from the Canadian frigate HMCS

Adelaide stating that a Canadian

helicopter intended to ditch at sea.

Lt. Todd Linskey, patrol plane

commander and mission

commander, headed to the area of

the ditching, while AW1 Bill Volk

and AW2 Todd Forest prepared for

possible life raft drops and radar

operator AW2 Paul Mudge passed

range and bearing information to

Adelaide. The victims were rescued

in less than 30 minutes. The Orion

crew’s quick action in assisting

Adelaide helped ensure the survival

and rescue of all five downed crew


On 8 July the NAS Whidbey

Island, Wash., Search and Rescue

(SAR) team answered a call for

assistance with an injured hiker. The

Whatcom County Sheriff’s

Department asked the UH-3H Sea

King crew for help in finding and

rescuing an injured woman with her

husband and son near Mount Ruth,

Wash. The team—aircraft

commander LCdr. Kent

Peckenpaugh, copilot LCdr. Scott

Parrish, crew chief AT2 Jeff

Cornelius, utility crewman/swimmer

ADC Frank Leets and HM1 Mike

Stevens—had limited daylight to

complete the mission. En route, the

helo crew picked up volunteer

spotter Harry Patz of Bellingham

Search and Rescue. When the family

was found, the crew prepared for a

challenging hover close to trees.

Determining they would have to

jettison some fuel to have enough

Left, Airman Frank Brown takes a

moment to contemplate after a busy

round of carrier qualifications aboard

Harry S. Truman (CVN 75) in the

Atlantic Ocean on 29 August.

PH1 Tina M. Ackerman

engine power to hover at 5,100 feet,

there could be no margin for error.

The helicopter was maneuvered near

the injured woman and Stephens and

Leets were lowered to assess her

condition. Severe back injury was

suspected from the fall. The victim

was secured in the litter and

Stephens rode up with her. After

Leets and the family were collected,

the crew transported the victim and

her family to a Bellingham hospital.

To say that the NAS Fallon,

Nev., Search and Rescue (SAR)

team had a busy summer is an

understatement, after seven rescues

in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

between 19 and 31 July. The first of

the action-packed days began with

an 1830 call from the El Dorado

County, Calif., Sheriff’s Department

citing that an injured woman and her

family were stranded near South

Lake Tahoe. The SAR crew of Cdr.

Chris Lindberg, LCdr. Theo

Kulezak, AMS1 Sam Cox, AMS2

Sean Lawson and HM1 Jon Bullman

arrived on scene, and performed a

one-skid landing for rotor clearance

to reach the family on the side of a

steep hill at an elevation of 7,500

feet. A half hour later, the family

was on its way to a nearby medical


On 21 July, Fallon received a call

from the Mono County, Calif.,

Sheriff’s Department to rescue a

woman who injured her ankle

hiking. The SAR crew of Lt. Dave

Cotts, Kulezak, Cox, Lawson and

Bullman left for the victim’s

location at 11,200 feet on the side of

a steep slope. The high altitude

prevented the team from carrying a

full load of crewmen and equipment

to the victim’s position. Cotts flew

to a base camp and dropped off

Bullman and Lawson along with

extra equipment. Once the crew

located the victim, Cotts

maneuvered the helicopter into a

one-skid landing at the top of the

mountain peak in a bowl area. In

one try, the crew picked up the

victim and her companion. The

victim was then flown to a local

hospital for treatment.

On 24 July, the SAR crew

assisted the Mono County Sheriff’s

Department with a woman who had

become ill while camping. The crew

of LCdr. John Freeburg, Kulezak,

AECS Jim Williamson, AMS2 Jason

Claybaugh and Bullman landed in

an area near the victim, loaded her

and transported her to a local airport

for awaiting medical treatment.

The Mono County Sheriff’s

Department again called NAS

Fallon’s SAR team on 26 July to

help rescue a man suffering from

severe back spasms. SAR crewmen

Lt. Rob Schneider, Kulezak, AD2

Nick Wiscons, Claybaugh and

Bullman flew along the rocky

mountain terrain at an elevation of

9,500 feet and landed in a clearing

about a quarter mile away from the

victim. Bullman and Wiscons

carried the man across the distance

to the helicopter. He was taken to

Reno, Nev., for medical treatment.

The SAR crew of Schneider,

Freeburg, Williamson, Wiscons and

Bullman were called out again on 28

July, to locate a 67-year-old man and

his wife who were overdue from a

hike in mountainous Alpine County,

Calif. The team searched the

suspected area for two hours,

finding the victims in a tight canyon

at 9,000 feet. The helo crew

informed the ground crews of the

position, but running low on fuel

and daylight, returned to NAS

Fallon. The next day the ground

crews got bogged down in their

attempts to rescue the victim and

called the Navy to return to the site

to help. Schneider, Kulezac,

Williamson, Wiscons, HM2 Dan

Vandercook and Bullman arrived to

find the victim and ground crews in

a heavily wooded area with 75-foot

trees. Unable to land, Wiscons and

Vandercook rappelled down.

Vandercook assessed the victim and

discovered that he had injured his

artificial knee. The man was placed

into the litter and he and his wife

were taken to the search base camp

for treatment.

On 31 July the SAR crew of

Cotts, Kulezak, AE2 Mike Spleen,

Lawson and Vandercook responded

to a call from the Alpine County

Sherriff’s Department to help find a

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 33

Lt. Matt

Heckemeyer, a flight

instructor with Training

Squadron 10, NAS

Pensacola, Fla., and

wife Kerry bought

Trader Jon’s from the

family of Martin

“Trader Jon”

Weissman. The

legendary bar, which

closed in 1998 after

Weissman suffered a

stroke, reopened under

the same name on 2

September. Right, the

couple poses with a

likeness of “Trader”

sporting trademark

mismatched socks.

New Owners Honor Tradition

Wendy Leland

Continued on p. 36

34 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

Arrrgh . . . thar be

the “Jolly Rogers”

Just as the Skull and Crossbones struck fear

into the hearts of sailors past, VF-103’s Jolly

Rogerscause dread to any potential enemy

today. Above, VF-103’s AT2 Christopher

Chandler and Lt. Andy Walton conduct

preflight checks on 27 June before

commencement of flight operations from

George Washington(CVN 73). Right, a Jolly

Rogers F-14 Tomcatlaunches from the carrier

on 3 September. CVN 73 is operating in

support of Operation Southern Watch.

PH2 Shane McCoy

PH3 Class Andrew Kaeding

PH2 Aaron Favereaux

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 35

Above, an F-14 Tomcatattached to VF-103 rests on

the flight deck of George Washington(CVN 73) on

18 July. Below, an at-the-ramp Tomcatheads for the

three wire on 11 July.

PH2 Shane McCoy

PH3 Andrew Kaeding

hiker who was last seen with

his hiking party two days

earlier. The SAR team inserted

two dog search and rescue

teams before beginning an air

search. After two hours the

hiker was spotted in a ravine.

Lawson rappelled to the victim

using the winch and Spleen

hoisted them back to the helo

before they headed to the

search base camp.

This tempo of search and

rescue activity exemplifies

what a valuable asset SAR

teams are to the communities

they serve.

The dedication of two

aviation machinist’s mates

resulted in saving aircraft and,

ultimately, lives.

AD3 Joachimgerard

Ramos, a troubleshooter with

VAQ-135, was performing a

preflight inspection on an

EA-6B when he noticed two

cracks in the shape of an “X”

on a slat, located on the

leading edge of the wing. The

discovery led him to consult

an airframe specialist, who

confirmed the discrepancy.

The aircraft was grounded

until repairs could be made,

preventing a possible


AD1 Joseph M. Pollock

of VP-45 was awarded the

Navy and Marine Corps

Achievement Medal on 21

June for averting a possible

in-flight mishap. He

determined the cause of a

36 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

Former NANews Editor Dies

Arthur L. Schoeni, editor of Naval Aviation

News from the mid-1940s to the early 1950s,

passed away in July in Dallas, Texas, at the age

of 94. A journalist with the United Press

Association at the onset of WW II, Art came

into the Navy and joined NANews when it was

expanded from newletter to magazine format by

former Life magazine personnel then in

uniform. After leaving the magazine staff and

the Navy as a lieutenant commander in 1953, he

became a technical writer and photographer for

Chance Vought Aircraft in Dallas. He

established a worldwide reputation as an

aviation photographer with the company and its

successor, Ling-Tempco-Vought. The NANews

staff extends sincere sympathy to his family.

We’ll miss our long association and his annual

Christmas cards adorned with one of his classic

photos of a naval aircraft.

Bon Homme Richard (LHD 6):

Capt. Jeff Connelly relieved Capt.

Douglas W. Keith, 24 Apr.

CVW-2: Capt. Gerald R.

Beaman relieved Capt. Thomas W.

Trotter, 17 Apr.

CVW-7: Capt. George B. Dom

relieved Capt. Richard D. Jaskot,

21 Jul.

CVW-11: Capt. Thomas C.

Bennett relieved William A.

Pokorny, Jr., 8 Sep.


Matthew T. Scassero relieved Cdr.

Mark L. Nold, 3 Aug.

Essex (LHD 2): Capt. Robert J.

Gilman relieved Capt. Stephen D.

Gilmore, 18 May.


N. Clemente relieved Capt. Gene

W. Garrett, 13 Jul.

HS-75: Cdr. James McGovern

relieved Cdr. Jeffery Funderburk,

22 Jul.

HSL-41: Cdr. Earl L. Gay

relieved Capt. Charles B. Key III,

22 Jun.

HSL-44: Cdr. Michael Brooks

relieved Cdr. Michael Walley, 29


HSL-48: Cdr. Patrick Crotzer

relieved Cdr. Stephen Senteio, 14


HT-18: Cdr. Paul A. Grosklags

relieved LtCol. Frank D. Mazur, 13


NADEP Jacksonville, Fla.:

Capt. Christopher J. Roum relieved

Capt. Gary S. O’Neill, 22 Jun.

NAR San Diego, Calif.: Capt.

R. Kent Hudgens relieved Capt.

Thomas G. Bauer, 6 Aug.

NAS Kingsville, Texas: Capt.

John J. Morrow relieved Capt.

Patrick J. Twomey, Jul.

NAS Patuxent River, Md.:

Capt. Patrick J. Hovatter relieved

Capt. Paul Roberts, 27 Jul.


Joseph W. Dyer relieved VAdm.

John A. Lockard, 27 Jun.

NAWS China Lake, Calif.:

Capt. Jim Seaman relieved Capt.

John Langford, 28 Jul.

VAQ-128: Cdr. Joseph Kuzmick

relieved Cdr. Matthew Straughan,

4 Aug.

VAQ-141: Cdr. Sterling G.

Gilliam relieved Cdr. David T. Ott,

10 Aug.

VAW-123: Cdr. Eric R. Hinger

relieved Cdr. Gerald L. Hehe, 14 Jul.

VF-2: Cdr. Kelly B. Baragar

relieved Cdr. Randy O. Parrish, 25


VFA-27: Cdr. Robert P.

McLaughlin relieved Cdr. Kevin C.

Hutcheson, 12 May.

VFA-87: Cdr. Thomas Huff

relieved Cdr. Patrick Hall, 22 Jun.

VP-5: Cdr. Tim Boothe relieved

Timothy S. Tibbits, 23 Jun.

VP-47: Cdr. Gregory Wittman

relieved Cdr. James Tanner, 30 Jun.

VS-21: Cdr. Gary Sandala

relieved Cdr. Mike Warriner, 15


VS-38: Cdr. Justin Cooper

relieved Cdr. Paul Hennes, 8 Jun.

VT-2: Cdr. Kevin J. Hogan

relieved Cdr. Lloyd E. Gilham,

29 Jun.

VT-10: Cdr. Brian R. Toon

relieved Lt. Col. Richard L.

Anderson III, 7 Jul.

VT-22: Cdr. Jay M. Chestnut

relieved Cdr. P. Fedyschyn, 8 Sep.

VT-28: Cdr. Ross L. Kirkpatrick

relieved Cdr. Christopher J. Schulz,

1 Sep.

C h a n g e o f C o m m a n d

recurring malfunction in

one of the squadron’s

aircraft. On two separate

routine training missions,

the aircraft experienced fire

warning light indications

that led to the shutdown of

the engine each time. After

two post-flight maintenance

inspections were

performed, AD1 Pollack

discovered the swirl vane

straightener clamp was

warped, allowing hot air to

blow by the turbine casing

and activate the fire

warning system. Pollack

was recognized for

displaying superior

commitment and

knowledge in discovering

the problem.

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 37

By AA Jennifer Lewis

The “Boneyard” is a place of antiques and historic

symbolism, a burial ground for aircraft. On 6

December 1999, P-3 Orion side number PR-44 (BuNo

153433), inset, one of many aircraft used by Fleet Air

Reconnaissance Squadron

(VQ) 1, brought to a close its

life as a logistics support


When VQ-1 received PR-44

on 20 August 1991, the aircraft

had already accumulated

15,614.8 flight hours, and served

well in VQ-1’s tactical reconnaissance mission.

The Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration

Center (AMARC) aboard Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz.,

is the location of the “Boneyard” and PR-44’s final

resting place after logging 3,532 flight hours and 9,426

landings at VQ-1. The facility was created in 1946 for

storage purposes, and the Air Force used it first to

preserve its B-29 bombers. It wasn’t until 18 years

later that the Navy began using the facility for aircraft


After an aging or retired aircraft is inducted into the

inventory at AMARC, it goes through a complete

system check. This involves removing or setting

safeties for all explosive devices and removal of all

classified gear, which is stored in a vault on site.

AMARC personnel eventually put in 10/10 oil, give it

a power turn and spray preservative on the exterior.

“The aircraft is like a person in the military. It lives

and works for 20 years or longer

and when it gets too old, it

retires,” said AMARC’s Senior

Chief Brooks. But to some, the

place is more than a retirement

community for aircraft. It holds

sentimental value. “There are

many things one remembers by

just looking at an old airplane,” Brooks added, “such

as a squadron you were in or people you knew. There

are many memories attached to just one bird.”

Now PR-44 waits with 5,000 other aircraft to be

used again, either for war reserves, foreign military

sales or government agency purposes. About 25

percent of such aircraft actually return to the fleet.

When the last crew members of PR-44 said

goodbye, they left their signatures for posterity,

demonstrating that wherever the aircraft ends up they

are grateful for the part it played in accomplishing the


Airman Apprentice Lewis is assigned to VQ-1.

If These Planes Could Talk

Once known as the

“Queens of the Pacific,”

Martin Mars aircraft are still

flying after retiring from U.S. Navy service nearly 50 years ago. In 1999 the

California Department of Forestry rented the Hawaii Mars from Forest Industries

Flying Tankers Ltd., British Columbia, to help extinguish fires in the Sequoia

National Forest. The Hawaii Mars is one of two remaining Mars aircraft that once

belonged to the Navy and were attatched to VR-2. Four Mars aircraft—Marianas,

Philippine, Hawaii and Caroline—were delivered to VR-2 during 1945 and 1946

and were operated between California and Hawaii

until 1956.

Above, the largest flying boats ever operated by the

Navy, Mars aircraft set several records before being

retired and sold. Right, today, the Caroline and Hawaii

Mars fitted with 7,200 gallon water tanks provide an

unmatched force against forest fires.




38 Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000

By Cdr. Peter B. Mersky, USNR (Ret.)

Holland, W. J., Jr., Rear

Admiral, USN (Ret.), Editorin-

Chief. The Navy. Naval

Historical Foundation, 1306

Dahlgren Ave. SE,

Washington Navy Yard, DC

20374-5055. 2000. 352 pp.

Ill. The book is available at

the Navy Museum gift shop

for $70 (minus a discount for

foundation members). For an

order form, see the

foundation’s website at

or call 202-678-4333.

Acompanion to a

previously published

volume on the U.S.

Marine Corps and to an

upcoming effort on U.S. Naval

Aviation, this book is a truly

fine effort that uses the writing

talents, operational experience,

knowledge and decades-long

dedication of many well-known

and not-so-well-known

veterans. Its large format allows

a spacious layout for graphics

and type. With this luxurious

coffee table book, as well as the

Marine Corps volume, good

things come in big packages.

Juggling the weighty tome

might be considered good


That said, this is one of the

best overviews of the American

Navy I have ever seen. It is

impressive in every respect, and

I highly recommend it for

anyone with an interest in the

subject. It’s a great ready reference as well as a fine gift for

any occasion. The chapters are essays on a full range of

topics, from the earliest history to today’s fleet and the

people who man it. Well-chosen photos, paintings and

illustrations complement the text.

The early chapters detail America’s emergence as a world

naval power, with interesting sidelights on the “society” of

the Navy. There is a particularly poignant assessment of the

Civil War and its effect on American history on page 45.

Surprisingly, the otherwise authoritative section on WW I has

nothing on U.S. Naval Aviation, which was very active from

British and Italian bases in the last 15 months of the war.

Succeeding chapters do portray Naval Aviation’s growth and

include a good display of photos.

The conflict between the Navy

and the Army during the 1920s

regarding the Navy’s role,

especially that of its aircraft, is

covered as well as the development

of the aircraft carrier. In that era,

flag officers like William Moffett

and Joseph Reeves took positions as

proponents of naval air, even when

it wasn’t popular to do so.

The book’s lengthy WW II

chapter is appealingly written. U.S.

Naval Institute editor and former

battleship sailor Paul Stillwell

knows his subject and chats away in

his unique, folksy style, pulling

together a huge panorama of the

two-ocean war of the 1940s using

interviews and memories. The

Korean War is well described, and

Naval Aviation enjoys a short

portion of this large chapter dealing

with post-WW II events. Dr. Ed

Marolda does a fine job of covering

the 40-year Cold War, including the

1962 Cuban Missile Crisis and the

Vietnam War. Marolda discusses the

building global confrontation

between the Free World and

communism, and the role U.S. naval

forces played in deterring the

adversaries in Moscow and Peking.

The 1991 Gulf War rounds out this

large essay.

Retired Navy Captain and Naval

Aviator, Rosario “Zip” Rausa, a

former editor of this magazine,

writes the chapter on carrier air. His

personal experience and knowledge

of the subject make it more than

another review of sea-based

aviation’s history. It is a beautifully written description of

what carrier air power has become in the 1990s, developed

from the preceding eight decades.

Other chapters in the book describe various communities

in the Navy, including the judge advocate corps, civil

engineers, medical corps and supply corps. Author and

publisher retired Vice Admiral William P. Mack offers a

special chapter on the traditions that are so much a part of the

Navy. There is even a section on museums and displays that

highlight the sea service and its people and history.

The Navy is a unique, well-done book in which everyone

will find something of interest, and will enjoy as a detailed

overview of our service.

One chapter of The Navy eloquently describes carrier

air power in the 1990s. Above, a Navy aircrewman

mans the door gun of an SH-3 Sea King from HS-9

aboard Theordore Roosevelt(CVN 71) during Operation

Desert Storm in 1991.

Lt. Gerald B. Parsons

Naval Aviation NewsNovember–December 2000 39



U.S. Navy and Marine Corps

operations in Korea during November

and December 1950 will be the subject

of a symposium sponsored by the

Naval Historical Center, Naval

Historical Foundation (NHF), U.S.

Navy Memorial Foundation and the

Marine Corps Heritage Foundation.

The symposium will be held at the

Navy Memorial in Washington, D.C.,

on 12 December, beginning at 1 pm.

For details, contact the NHF, 202-678-


Ramsey Fellowship

The Ramsey Fellowship in Naval

Aviation History is a competitive, inresidence

fellowship in “U.S. Naval

Flight History,” including Navy and

Marine Corps aviation, the history of

rocketry, missile and space activities in

U.S. naval service, biographical

studies of Naval Aviators, and

multinational comparative studies that

include the United States. It is open to

all interested candidates with

demonstrated skills in research and

writing; an advanced degree is not

required. A stipend of $45,000 will be

awarded for a 12-month fellowship,

with limited additional funds for travel

and miscellaneous expenses.

Send requests for fellowship

application packages to: Collette

Williams, Fellowship Coordinator,

Room 3313, National Air and Space

Museum, Smithsonian Institution,

Washington, DC 20560-0312;

Application packages are available on

the museum’s website:


Color Slides Wanted

Author wishes to contact anyone

who took color slides of Navy or

Marine Corps aircraft dating from

WW II through the Vietnam War to be

used in articles and books. Contact

Warren Thompson, 7201 Stamford

Cove, Germantown, TN 38138; 901-


Thank You, Veterans!

Some veterans bear visible signs of their service: a missing limb,

a jagged scar, a certain look in the eye. Others may carry the

evidence inside them: a pin holding a bone together, a piece of

shrapnel in the leg, or perhaps another sort of inner steel—the

soul’s ally forged in the refinery of adversity. Except in parades, the

men and women who have kept America safe wear no badge or

emblem. You can’t tell a vet just by looking.

So, what is a vet? A veteran is . . .

The cop on the beat who spent six months in Saudi Arabia

sweating two gallons a day making sure the armored personnel

carriers didn’t run out of fuel.

The barroom loudmouth whose overgrown frat-boy behavior is

outweighed a hundred times in the cosmic scales by four hours of

exquisite bravery near the 38th parallel.

The nurse who fought against futility and went to sleep sobbing

every night for two solid years in Da Nang.

The prisoner of war who went away one person and came back

another—or didn’t come back at all.

The Quantico, Va., drill instructor who has never seen combat

but has saved countless lives by turning slouchy no-accounts and

gang members into Marines, and by teaching them to watch each

other’s backs.

The parade-riding Legionnaire who pins on his ribbons and

medals with a prosthetic hand.

The career quartermaster who watches the ribbons and medals

pass him by.

The anonymous heroes in The Tomb of the Unknowns, whose

presence at the Arlington National Cemetery must forever preserve

the memory of all the anonymous heroes whose valor dies

unrecognized with them on the battlefield or in the ocean’s depth.

The old guy bagging groceries at the supermarket, palsied now

and aggravatingly slow, who helped liberate a Nazi death camp

and who wishes all day long that his wife were still alive to hold

him when the nightmares come.

An ordinary and yet an extraordinary human being who offered

some of life’s most vital years in the service of country, and who

sacrificed ambitions so others would not have to sacrifice theirs.

A soldier and a savior and a sword against the darkness, and

nothing more than the finest, greatest testimony on behalf of the

finest, greatest nation ever known.

Each time you see someone who has served our country, just

lean over and say, “Thank you.” That’s all most people need, and in

most cases it will mean more than any medals they could receive.

Remember, November 11th is Veterans Day.

— Author unknown

Aerospace Maintenance &

Regeneration Center Nov–Dec 37

AIMD Oceana Mar–Apr 11


AH-1W, mishap Mar–Apr 8

AH-1Z, development Mar–Apr 7


targeting pod Nov–Dec 8

mishap Jul–Aug 9

Sep–Oct 8

night attack simulator Nov–Dec 8

C-2A, mission Jan–Feb 18

C-40A, construction Mar–Apr 8

first flight Jul–Aug 9

named Sep–Oct 6

rollout Nov–Dec 24

CH-46, mishap Jan–Feb 9

CH-46E, mishap May–Jun 8

CH-53E, mishap Sep–Oct 8

CH-60S, first flight Mar–Apr 7

first production Sep–Oct 7

E-2C, mishap Sep–Oct 7

EP-3E, avionics upgrade Sep–Oct 6

F-5E, mishap May–Jun 8

F-14, mishap Sep–Oct 8

F-14A, mishap Sep–Oct 8

F-14B, mishap Jan–Feb 9

May–Jun 8

Nov–Dec 9

F/A-18, 4 millionth flight

hour Nov–Dec 6

final production Nov–Dec 6

new radar May–Jun 6

F/A-18A, mishap Jan–Feb 9

F/A-18C, mishap Jan–Feb 9

Nov–Dec 9

F/A-18D, mishap Mar–Apr 8

Sep–Oct 7

Nov–Dec 9


first to VFA-122 Jan–Feb 6

full-rate initial prod. Sep–Oct 6

OPEVAL concludes May–Jun 6

traps aboard Lincoln Jul–Aug 6

HO5S-1, history Jan–Feb 24

HU-25C, mission May–Jun 30

KC-130J, first flight Nov–Dec 6

Martin Mars, firefighting Nov–Dec 37

MH-53E, mishap Nov–Dec 9

multi-mission maritime

aircraft, contract Nov–Dec 6

MV-22, OPEVAL Jan–Feb 8

mishap May–Jun 8

flights resume Sep–Oct 7

update Nov–Dec 20

naval unmanned combat

air vehicle contract Nov–Dec 6

OE/O-1, history Mar–Apr 26

P-3, mission May–Jun 22

PBM vs. U-boat Jan–Feb 22

S-3, mishap Jan–Feb 9

SH-60R, first prototype Sep–Oct 7

T-34C, mishap Jul–Aug 9

Nov–Dec 9

T-38A, mishap Nov–Dec 9

T-45A, mishap Sep–Oct 7

T-45B, mishap Nov–Dec 9

UH-1Y, development Mar–Apr 7

UH-60A, mishap Jan–Feb 9


ANA Sep–Oct 34

Battle E May–Jun 34

Beacon, SECNAV Mar–Apr 28

Bronze Star Jul–Aug 43

CHINFO, NANews Jul–Aug 42

Collier, Robert J. May–Jun 34

E/A-6B community Nov–Dec 30

Grampaw Pettibone Sep–Oct 32

Helicopter Pilot, CNO Jul–Aug 42

Maintenance, SECDEF Nov–Dec 31

Navy League Jul–Aug 43

Radford, ADM Arthur W.

Electronic Combat Jul–Aug 42

Naval Aviation History

and Literature Jul–Aug 45

Safety, CNO Jul–Aug 43

Safety Ashore, SECNAV Jul–Aug 43

Sailors of the Year, 1999 May–Jun 34

SAR Excellence, CNO Jul–Aug 42

Smith, R. G. Jul–Aug 45

Book Reviews

Aircraft of the United States’

Military Air Transport Service,

1948 to 1966 Mar–Apr 32

Around the World with the

U.S. Navy: A Reporter’s

Travels Jul–Aug 47

Dark Sky, Black Sea: Aircraft

Carrier Night and All-Weather

Operations Jul–Aug 47

F-4 Phantoms, U.S. Navy

and Marine Corps:

Gray Ghosts Sep–Oct 39

Honor Bound: American

Prisoners of War

in Southeast Asia

1961–1973 Jan–Feb 31

John Glenn: A Memoir Jan–Feb 31

Lindbergh Jul–Aug 47

Marine Corps Air Station

El Toro May–Jun 39

Navy, The Nov–Dec 38

75 Years of Inflight

Refueling Highlights,

1923–1998 Mar–Apr 32

Sidewinder; Creative Missile

Development at

China Lake May–Jun 39

Stepan Anastasovich Mikoyan:

Memoirs of Military Test

Flying and Life with the

Kremlin’s Elite May–Jun 39

TBF/TBM Avenger Units

of World War 2 May–Jun 39

U.S. Naval Aviation

1946–1999 Mar–Apr 32

Campbell, RADM Dennis,

dies Jul–Aug 46

Carrier onboard delivery Jan–Feb 18

Caruso, Hank, sketchbook

U.S. Navy in Space Jul–Aug 23

A Show of Force Sep–Oct 20

China Lake, Calif.,

weapons museum Sep–Oct 9

Christensen, Naval Aviation

family Jan–Feb 30

CGAS Miami May–Jun 30

Combat Action Ribbon,

retroactive May–Jun 7

Command history, how to Sep–Oct 30

Distinguished Flying Cross,

belated awards Sep–Oct 32

Eastwood, Clint Jul–Aug 4

Grampaw Pettibone

AD-1Q Jul–Aug 4

AV-8B Jan–Feb 4

CH-53D Sep–Oct 4

EA-6B Jan–Feb 4

F/A-18 Mar–Apr 5

Nov–Dec 4

F-14 Sep–Oct 5

F-14B May–Jun 4

MH-53E Mar–Apr 4

SH-60B May–Jun 4

SH-60F Nov–Dec 5

Hudson, JO1 Joshua M.,

departs NANews May–Jun 36

Joint Precision Approach &

Landing System,

shore tests Nov–Dec 5

Korea, Republic of, Service

Medal Sep–Oct 6

2 0 0 0 I N D E X

Korean War Series

air war Sep–Oct 1950 Sep–Oct 22

Chosin Reservoir,

Nov–Dec 1950 Nov-Dec 10

early days Jun–Sep 1950 Jul–Aug 10

interwar period May–Jun 10

photo essay May–Jun 18

Maintenance, AIMD Oceana Mar–Apr 11

Malin, DM2 Robert A.,

artwork Mar–Apr 22

Midway, Battle of,

commemoration Sep–Oct 38

Moulder, LT Erich, artwork May–Jun 29

Museum of Armament and

Technology, USN Sep–Oct 9

NANews, CHINFO award Jul–Aug 42

Nathman, RADM John N.

Maritime Patrol & Reconnaissance:

A Bright Future May–Jun 2

New Helicopters Enhance

Force Fighting Power Jul–Aug 2

Netting Naval Aviation for the

Information Age Jan–Feb 2

Super Hornet Success Story—

Only the Beginning Mar–Apr 2

Naval Force Aircraft Test

Squadron Sep–Oct 10

Naval Test Pilot School Jan–Feb 10

Operation Bright Star Mar–Apr 19

Patrol mission May–Jun 22


Aviation Career Continuation

Pay for TARs Mar–Apr 6

Aviation Storekeepers become

Storekeepers May–Jun 7

Career Enlisted Flyer Incentive

Pay established Jan–Feb 7

Information Systems Tech

rating Jan–Feb 7

vision correction

approved Jan–Feb 6

Photo Contest, ANA

annual winners Jan–Feb ibc

bimonthly winners Jan–Feb ibc

Jul–Aug ibc

Sep–Oct ibc

Nov–Dec C4

Rausa, Rosario M. “Zip,”

Radford Award Jul–Aug 45

Remains identified Jan–Feb 7

Mar–Apr 7

May–Jun 7

Research & Development

E-2/C2, 8-blade prop Nov–Dec 9

Electromagnetic Aircraft

Launch System Mar–Apr 6

F/A-18 radar May–Jun 6

F/A-18E/F concludes

OPEVAL May–Jun 6

Joint Precision Approach &

Landing System,

shore tests Nov–Dec 5

Joint Strike Fighter May–Jun 7

Jul–Aug 7

LITENING II targeting

pod for AV-8B Nov–Dec 8

multi-mission maritime

aircraft, contract Nov–Dec 6

naval unmanned combat

air vehicle, contract Nov–Dec 6

remotely piloted

helicopter Sep–Oct 7

thrust vectoring short

takeoff and landing May–Jun 6

vertical takeoff and

landing UAV May–Jun 8

Schoeni, Arthur L., dies Nov–Dec 36


Antietam (CVA 36),

anecdote Nov–Dec 28

Cole (DOG 67),

tribute to crew Nov–Dec 2

Iwo Jima (LHD 7),

commissioned May–Jun 6

Langley (CV 1), first

deployment May–Jun 38

McCampbell (DDG 85),

named for aviator Nov–Dec 7

Pinckney (DDG 91),

named for aviator May–Jun 7

Smith, R. G, Smithsonian

exhibition Jul–Aug 40


HC-2, mission Jul–Aug 27

new recruit Jul–Aug 29

Naval Force Aircraft Test

Squadron Sep–Oct 10

VAQ-128, spotlight Jul–Aug ibc

VF-103, spotlight Nov–Dec 34

VFA-122, receives

Super Hornet Jan–Feb 6

VMO-6, Korean War Sep–Oct 29

VP-40, demonstrates

command history Sep–Oct 30

VP-45, mission May–Jun 22

artwork May–Jun 29

VT-10, anniversary Sep–Oct 16

VT-23, deactivated Mar–Apr 9

VT-35, established May–Jun 9

VQ-6, deactivated Jan–Feb 9

VQ-11, deactivated Jul–Aug 9

Stokes, Stan, R.G. Smith

Award Jul–Aug 45


AV-8B night attack

simulator Nov–Dec 8

flight simulator for PCs Mar–Apr 6

night attack AV-8B Nov–Dec 8

T-45, 1,000th student Jul–Aug 6

U.S. Naval Test Pilot

School Jan–Feb 10

gliders Mar–Apr 24

Training Squadron 10,

40th anniversary Sep–Oct 16

Underwater archaeology

PBY-5 wreck, Kaneohe

Bay, HI Nov–Dec 26


AIM-9X Sidewinder,

milestone Jul–Aug 8

testing Sep–Oct 6

ATFLIR, first flight Jan–Feb 7

JDAM, extended range Jul–Aug 8

SLAM/ER, live warhead

launch May–Jun 8

full-rate production Nov–Dec 7

Weissman, Martin “Trader Jon,”

dies Jul–Aug 44

Whitcomb, LTJG Roy S. Jan–Feb 22

Year in review, 1999 Jul–Aug 18

Zumwalt, ADM Elmo R.,

deceased Mar–Apr 29

Watch Your Career

Take Off with


The Navy’s oldest periodical is

looking for a journalist E-5 or

E-6 to work in the best shore

assignment in Naval Aviation!

Affiliated with the Naval

Historical Center and located in

the historic Washington Navy

Yard in Washington, D.C., duty

with Naval Aviation News offers

great opportunity for professional

development. You’ll travel to

interesting locations to write

about some of the most important

people, planes and places in

Naval Aviation—plus report on

the past and document history in

the making.

You’ll earn bylines in a highly

respected magazine distributed

around the world, and work with

Grampaw Pettibone, the most

famous name in Naval Aviation.

If you’re interested in becoming

part of the NANews family,

call the Editor at 202-433-4407,

or email