Torpedo History

 REFERENCES

1. V. Albers, Passive Acoustic Torpedoes, (U), ORL Report 7958-128,  Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, 1 March 1949 (SECRET).

2. "Evolution of the Torpedo: Newport Torpedo Station's Role in the Development of the U.S. Navy Torpedoes," vol. VI, Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

3. "Notes on Movable Torpedoes," U.S. Navy Publication, 1873 (UNCLASSIFIED).

4. Bucknell, J. T., "Submarine Mines and Torpedoes," Engineering,  London, 1889 (UNCLASSIFIED).

5. "Principles and Application of Underwater Sound," NAVMAT P-9674,  Naval Material Command, Washington, D. C., 1968 (UNCLASSIFIED).

122


 BIBLIOGRAPHY

 Armstrong, G. E., Torpedoes and Torpedo Vessels, Bill & Sons, London, 1896 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Beggs, J. M., and T. H. Campbell, Jr., "Underseas Missiles at Westinghouse," Missiles and Rockets (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Beloshitskiy, V. P., and Y. M. Baguisky, Underwater Weapons, Military Publishing House, Moscow, 1960 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Bethell, P., "Development of the Torpedo," Engineering, London,  1945-1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Blair, C., Jr., Silent Victory, Lippincott & Co., New York, 1975 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Bliss-Leavitt 5.2 m x 45 cm Torpedo Mk VII and U.S. Navy Torpedo 12 ft x 45 cm Type D, OP 436, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., January 1914 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Bradford, R. B., "History of Torpedo Warfare," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1882 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Bureau of Ordnance Demonstration of Phase A Rocket-Assisted Torpedo,  (U), NAVORD Report 4979, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena,  Calif., 2 September 1955 (CONFIDENTIAL).

 Cavanaugh, C. C., The Evolution of the U.S. Navy Torpedo Exploder  Mechanism, (U), Torpedo Station Consecutive Report 62, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 7 March 1946 (CONFIDENTIAL).

 "Chronological Record 1869-1945," vol. I, Torpedo Station Publication,  Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Coggeshall, W. J., and J. E. McCarthy, "History of the Naval Torpedo  Station, Newport, R. I. (1858-1925)," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., circa 1925 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Destroyers in the United States Navy, Naval History Division,  Washington, D. C., Government Printing Office, 1962 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Ellis, W. A. "Torpedoes," A List of References in the New York Public Library, circa 1917 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Evaluation of the Petrel Missile, (U), Final Report on Project OP/V181/X11, Commander Operational Development Force, 23 April  1956 (SECRET).

Final Report on the Development of the Torpedo Mk 42, (U), NAVORD Report 2050, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 17 August 1943 (CONFIDENTIAL).

123


 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd)

 Gray, E., The Devil's Device, Seeley, Service, and Co. Ltd., London, 1975  (UNCLASSIFIED).

Howell Torpedo, Honeywell, Inc., circa 1972 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Inventory Notes, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 17 July 1913  (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Kiby, G. J., "History of the Torpedo," Journal of the Royal Scientific  Service, circa 1973 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Maxwell, F. H., "Torpedo Propulsion Systems," Journal of American Rocket Society, December 1949 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Miklowitz, G. D., "Physical and Operational Characteristics of Torpedoes  Mk 13 Through Mk 43X," (U), NOTS Technical Memorandum 571, Naval  Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 1 October 1951 (SECRET).

 Morison, S. E., Two-Ocean War, Ballantine Books, Inc., New York, 1972 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Mueser, R. E., "Tabulation and Description of 84 American and Foreign Torpedoes," (U), ORL Technical Note 9.0000-12, Ordnance Research  Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, 7 October 1947 (SECRET).

 "New Designation for Torpedoes," BuOrd Document 21622-(G)-6/28 (revision of Ordnance Pamphlet No. 316), Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 18 June 1913 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 "The Newport Torpedo Station's Role in the Development of U.S. Navy Torpedoes, Electric - Chemical - Aircraft Torpedoes; Exploders," vol. VII, Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport,  R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Norlin, F. E., Evolution of the Torpedo, Torpedo Station Consecutive  Report 99, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 30 September 1946  (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Pawlowski, G. L., Flattops and Fledglings, Cusette Books, New York, 1971  (UNCLASSIFIED).

 "Plates of Whitehead Torpedoes, Torpedo Directors, and Above-Water  Launching Apparatus," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1901 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Preston, A., Submarines, Octopus Books, Ltd., London, 1975 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Report of the Bureau of Ordnance Committee on Torpedo Research and Development, (U), NAVORD Report 1760, part II, sec. 8, Naval Ordnance Systems Command, Washington, D. C., 29 December 1950  (CONFIDENTIAL).

124


 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd)

Report on Technical Phase of BuWeps/Optevfor Concurrent Evaluation of  ASROC Weapon System, (U), NAVWEPS Report 7595, NOTS T2585, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 21 November 1960 (CONFIDENTIAL).

 Roscoe, T., On the Sea and in the Skies, Hawthorne Books, Inc., New York, 1970 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Rowland, B., and W.B. Boyd, U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II,  Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1953 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Sleeman, C. W., Torpedoes and Torpedo Warfare, Griffin & Co., Portsmouth, England, 1880 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Sleeman, C. W., Torpedoes and Torpedo Warfare, Griffin & Co., Portsmouth, England, 1889 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Stockard, J. M., "Torpedo Scrap Book," Bureau of Ordnance, Washington,  D. C., circa 1910 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 "Summary Report on the Present and Probable Development of Torpedoes,"  Prepared by the Torpedo Survey Panel of the Office of Scientific  Research and Development, under assignment to the Navy Department,  NAVEYOS P-416, Government Printing Office, 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Surface-Borne, Thrown Torpedo Anti-Submarine Weapon, (U), Evaluation and  Analysis Staff Report 165, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 23 November 1953 (CONFIDENTIAL).

 "Swedish Torpedo, 100 Years, 1876-1976," (Torpedem 100 ar 1976), Royal  Swedish Navy, 1976 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Thrown Torpedo Program Technical Progress Report Summary to 30 April 1954,  (U), NOTS Report 60, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif.,  1954 (CONFIDENTIAL).

Torpedo and Mine Warhead Characteristics, OD 3823, Second Revision, Naval  Ordnance Systems Command, Washington, D. C., 19 March 1951 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Torpedo Mk VIII Mods 4 and 5, OP 321, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., circa 1913 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Torpedo Mk 18, OP 436, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., circa 1943  (UNCLASSIFIED).

 Torpedo Register Number Assignment Records, Naval Underwater Systems Center,  Newport, R. I., 1978 (UNCLASSIFIED).

125


 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd)

 "Torpedoes - United States Navy," Ordnance Pamphlet 320, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., Government Printing Office, October 1915 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 "Undersea Thunder," General Electric Review, General Electric Corp.,  March, May 1958 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 "Underwater Ordnance Data Book, (U)," (U), Naval Underwater Ordnance  Station, Newport, R. I., 1960 (SECRET).

U.S. Navy Torpedo General Data, OP 1604, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 15 October 1945 (UNCLASSIFIED).

U.S. Navy Underwater Weapons Operational Characteristics and Tactical Data, (U), OD 16086, Naval Underwater Systems Center, Newport, R. I., 1 January 1973 (CONFIDENTIAL).

 Watts, A. J., Allied Submarines, ARCO Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1977 (UNCLASSIFIED).

 "Whitehead Torpedo, U.S.N., 3.55 m x 45 cm Mk I, Mk II, Mk III, and 5 m x 45 cm Mk I, Mk II," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1901 (UNCLASSIFIED).

126


APPENDIX A

 CHRONOLOGY OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

A-1/A-2
Reverse Blank


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1862-
1866

Development and manufacture of the the first Whitehead Auto-mobile "Fish" Torpedo.

7

1869

U.S. Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., established. Intended to be an experimental station for the U.S. Navy for development of torpedoes, torpedo equipment, explosives and electrical equipment

9

1870

Development of the first U.S. Navy "Fish" Torpedo, USNTS, Newport, R.I.

9

1870

Royal Navy (U.K.) receives first delivery of Whitehead Torpedoes.

8

1870

Germany (Schwartzkopff) purchases rights to manufacture Whitehead Torpedoes.

8

1871

Royal Navy (U.K.) purchases manufacturing rights for Whitehead Torpedo.

8

1871

LCDR John Howell, U.S.N., granted Patent No. 121052 for Howell Torpedo.

17

1871

Rendel granted patent for counter-rotating propellers for torpedo propulsion.

20

1871

Test of first U.S.N. "Fish" Torpedo.

10

1873

A Lay Torpedo purchased by U.S. for experimental purposes.

1874

Development of second U.S.N. "Fish" Torpedo.

10

A-3


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1874

Test of second U.S.N. "Fish" Torpedo.

10

1877

First Whitehead Torpedo ever fired against a hostile ship by HMS SHAH (U.K.) on Peruvian ironclad HUASCAR, in operation as a pirate. Unsuccessful, due to extreme range.

10

1878

(Russo-Turkish War 1877-1878) Attack on Turkish ships by two Russian torpedo boats with Whitehead Torpedoes. Successful. Turkish revenue steamer INTIBAKH sunk.

1880

Whitehead Torpedo, employing engine developed by Peter Brotherhood, Royal Laboratories, Woolrich, England, adopts counterrotating propellers and shaft exhaust.

20

1880

U.S.N. discontinues issue of towing torpedoes to ships.

1886

U.S.N. purchases USS STILLETTO, prototype torpedo boat from Herreshoff, Bristol, R.I.

28

1888

Hotchkiss Ordnance Co., Providence, R.I., purchases manufacturing rights for Howell Torpedo.

61

1889

Hotchkiss receives order for 30 Howell Torpedoes for U.S.N. First U.S.N. quantity purchase of torpedoes.

61

1890

First U.S.N. torpedo boat, USS CUSHING, commissioned. Two 18-inch torpedo tubes installed.

28

A-4


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1890

First capital ship sunk by Whitehead Torpedo under wartime conditions -- Chilean battleship "BLANCO ENCALADA" -- 3500 tons.

19

1892

E. W. Bliss Co. negotiates manufacturing rights for U.S. manufacture of Whitehead Torpedo.

19

1892

U.S. Navy orders 100 Whitehead 3.55-meter Mk 1 torpedoes from E. W. Bliss Co.

19

1893

Trainable mounts installed on USS CUSHING torpedo tubes. Design attributed to Lt. F. F. Fletcher, U.S.N.

28

1894

L. Obry granted patent for steering gyro. Similar devices -- Kaselowski (Schwartzkopff), Petrovich (Whitehead).

19

1898

12 Schwartzkopff Torpedoes purchased by U.S.N.

21

1898

Development of Whitehead 5-meter Torpedo Mk 1 with gyro (Obry gear) control in azimuth.

19

1899

Development of Whitehead 5-meter Torpedo Mk 2.

20

1900

USS HOLLAND, first U.S.N. submarine to USNTS, Newport, R.I., for demonstration and test.

28

1901

USS HOLLAND operated by U.S. Navy crew from USNTS, Newport, R.I. successfully gained USS KEARSARGE (BB 5) without detection. Three Whitehead Torpedoes Mk 2 carried in HOLLAND.

28

A-5


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1901

Development of use of smokeless powder for impulse launching from surface tubes, USNTS, Newport, R.I.

1901

Development of Whitehead hot-running Torpedo Mk 5 with three-speed/range adjustment.

21

1901

First U.S. Navy torpedo boat destroyer, USS BAINBRIDGE (DD 1) launched. Outfitted with two 18-inch torpedo tubes.

28

1904

Development of Bliss-Leavitt vertical turbine, hot-running Torpedo Mk 1 completed.

22

1904

Development of anticircular-run (ACR) device started at USNTS, Newport, R.I.

25

1905-

Development of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedoes 1908 Mk 2, Mk 3, and Mk 4; two-stage vertical turbine driven, hot-running.

22

1907

Construction of factory at USNTS, Newport, R.I.

25

1908

First order for torpedoes to USNTS, Newport, R.I. -- Whitehead Torpedoes Mk 5.

25

1900-
1908

Austrian Capt. J. Giszetsky experiments with hot air device with water cooling.

22

1910

Seaman Gunner rating in U.S. Navy replaced by Torpedoman rating.

A-6


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1911

Development of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 6 -- horizontal turbine driven.

26

1911

Development of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 7 -- first steam torpedo.

26

1911

Development of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 8 for use in destroyer standard 21-inch torpedo tube.

28

1914

ACR mechanism installed in warhead adopted.

25

1915

Development of Bliss-Leavitt Torpedo Mk 9 and Mk 10.

29

1915-

Development of Sperry Electric 1918 Torpedo (unsuccessful).

30

1917

USS CALDWELL (DD 69) first flush deck, four-stack destroyer with 12 21-inch torpedo tubes. First standard 21-inch torpedo tube installation.

28

1917

Development of type "D" torpedo -- Washington Navy Yard (Short Mk 7).

74

1917

Development of Jacoby torpedo (German Navy Electric).

30

1918-
1919

R-class submarines commissioned Rl(SS 78) - R20(SS 97). Standard 21-inch submerged torpedo tubes installed.

29

1919

Navy Experiment Station, New London, Conn., abandoned.

30

A-7


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1919

Development of type "EL" electric torpedo transferred from Navy Experiment Station, New London, Conn. to USNTS, Newport, R.I. -- Electric Torpedo Mk 1.

30

1918

Gould Island, R.I., acquired by U.S. Navy as high-explosive storage site.

1920

Experimental torpedo launching from aircraft started at USNAS, Anacostia, D.C., with Torpedo Mk 7 Mod 5.

31

1921

Torpedo Station Air Detail established at Gould Island, R.I.

32

1922

Battleship use of torpedoes discontinued.

29

1922

All torpedoes of design prior to Torpedo Mk 7 condemned and withdrawn from service use.

31

1923

All torpedo work at locations other than Newport, R.I. terminated. (Washington Navy Yard; USNTS, Alexandria, Va.; and E. W. Bliss Co.)

30

1923-
1926

Development of Torpedo Mk 11 started at Washington Navy Yard, completed by USNTS, Newport, R.I. Selectable three-speed capability. First all-Navy design.

31

1927

Air blowing exercise head developed.

1928

Development of Torpedo Mk 12, USNTS, Newport, R.I.

31

A-8


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1930

Electric Torpedo Mk 1, type "EL" changed from 18-inch to 21-inch configuration.

1931

Hammond radio-controlled torpedo patents purchased by BuOrd.

1931

Electric Torpedo Mk 1, type "EL" development cancelled by BuOrd.

1931

Development of Torpedo Mk 14 by USNTS, Newport, R.I.

34

1931-
1937

Development of Torpedo Mk 13 and Mk 15 by USNTS, Newport, R.I.

34

1936

Use of torpedoes on cruisers discontinued.

1940

Development of "Navol" Torpedo Mk 17 by USNTS, Newport, R.I.

39

1940

National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) established by President Roosevelt.

35

1941

Development of Electric Torpedo Mk 1 cancelled in 1938, reactivated by BuOrd as Electric Torpedo Mk 2 at USNTS, Newport, R.I.

30

1942

German G7e Electric Torpedo taken from captured "U 570."

35

1942

Development of Electric Torpedo Mk 18 -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa.

35

A-9


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1942

Development of Torpedo Mk 19, electric control version of Mk 18 -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa.

46

1942-
1943

Development of Mine Mk 24 -- National Defense Research Committee/Bell Telephone Laboratory, Murray Hill, N.J. First acoustic homing ASW weapon.

36

1942-
1943

Development of Mine Mk 30 -- Brush Development Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Parallel/backup development to Mine Mk 24.

36

1942-
1945

Development of Torpedo Mk 32 -- General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. First active acoustic torpedo.

38

1943

Electric Torpedo Mk 2 redesignated Torpedo Mk 20.

42

1943-
1946

Development of Torpedo Mk 33 -- General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass./Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J. Aircraft/ submarine-launched acoustic torpedo.

47

1943

German homing Torpedoes T4 and T5 in operational use.

36

1943

Mine Mk 24 operational. Credited with sinking U 160, July 1943.

37

1943

Development of Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 0 -- Western Electric Co., Kearney, N.J. Submarine-launched version of Mine Mk 24.

37

A-10


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1943

Development of Torpedo Mk 16 ("Navol") -- USNTS, Newport, R.I.

41

1943-
1946

Development of Torpedo Mk 25 -- National Research Defense Committee sponsored development of replacement for Torpedo Mk 13.

41

1943

Development of Torpedo Mk 21 Mod 0 -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa. Aircraft-launched, passive-homing, electric torpedo.

88

1943

Development of Torpedo Mk 23 -- USNTS, Newport, R.I. Single-speed (high) version of Torpedo Mk 14.

35

1943-
1945

Development of Torpedo Mk 21 Mod 2 -- Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University. Passive homing Torpedo Mk 13.

47

1944

Development of Torpedo Mk 22 -- Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J. Fixed-depth, active acoustic homing, electric torpedo.

47

1944

Development of Torpedo Mk 26 -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa. Seawater-activated battery.

46

1944

Development of Torpedo Mk 28 -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa. Passive homing, full-size electric.

38

A-11


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1944-
1947

Development of Torpedo Mk 29 -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa. Improved Mk 28.

47

1944-
1950

Development of Torpedo Mk 30 -- Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State. No torpedo -- investigation of wake homing as torpedo control system.

47

1944-
1946

Torpedo Mk 31 development -- Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory/ORL, Pennsylvania State University. High-speed, acoustic homing version of Mk 18.

47

1944-
1945

Development of Torpedo Mk 34 Mod 1 -- U.S. Mine Warfare Test Station, Solomons, Md. Two-speed Mine Mk 24.

48

1944-
1952

Development of Torpedo Mk 35 -- General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. Universal passive/active acoustic homing electric.

49

1945-
1950

Development of Torpedo Mk 36 -- General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. High-speed, long-range, nonhoming torpedo.

106

1946-
1954

Development of Torpedo Mk 37 -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Sharon, Pa. Active/passive acoustic, electric.

49

1946

Development of Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 4 -- ORL, Pennsylvania State University. Improved version of Torpedo Mk 27 Mod 0.

96

A-12


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1946

Development of Torpedo Mk 38 -- deferred due to development of Torpedo Mk 37.

109

1946-
1951

Development of Torpedo Mk 39 -- Vitro Corp., Silver Spring, Md./ Naval Underwater Ordnance Station, Newport, R.I. Wire-guided (course correction after launch).

54

1946

Development of Torpedo Mk 40 -- Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, Calif. High-speed aircraft torpedo.

111

1949
1952

Development of Torpedo Mk 41 -- General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. Aircraft-launched version of Torpedo Mk 35.

55

1949
1953

Development of Torpedo Mk 42 -- multilab program. Pattern-running torpedo.

55

1950-
1953

Development of Torpedo Mk 43 Mod 0 -- General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. Lightweight, electric, ASW torpedo.

50

1950-
1952

Reactivation of Torpedo Mk 32. Conversion to Torpedo Mk 32 Mod 2 -- Philco Corp., Philadelphia, Pa./NOTS, Pasadena, Calif. Active acoustic ASW torpedo.

102

1950-
1952

Development of Torpedo Mk 43 Mod 1 -- Brush Development Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Lightweight electric, ASW torpedo.

50

A-13


Date

Event

Page Number
Where Discussed


1953-
1957

Development of Torpedo Mk 44 -- General Electric Co., Pittsfield, Mass. Second-generation, light-weight, ASW torpedo.

50

1953-
1957

Development of Rocket Assisted Torpedo (RAT) -- NOTS, Pasadena, Calif. Rocket projected torpedo.

53

1956-

Development of Anti-Submarine Rocket 1962 System (ASROC) -- NOTS, Pasadena, Calif./Minneapolis-Honeywell Ordnance Division, Hopkins, Minn. Follow-on development of RAT.

53

1956

Development of Torpedo Mk 43 Mod 3 -- Clevite Research Corp., Cleveland, Ohio. Improved Mk 43 Mod 1.

115

1957

Development of Torpedo Mk 45 (ASTOR) -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, Md./Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. Electric, seawater-activated battery, nuclear warhead.

54

1960

Development of Torpedo Mk 46 -- Aerojet General Corp., Azusa, Calif./NOTS, Pasadena, Calif. Third-generation, lightweight ASW torpedo.

51

1970

Torpedo Mk 47 proposed and cancelled due to Torpedo Mk 48.

56

1965-
1974

Development of Torpedo Mk 48 -- Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, Md./Gould, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio. Advanced submarine-launched, acoustic, thermal propulsion.

56

A-14


APPENDIX B

 IDENTITY INDEX

 Throughout this report the identities of the participating activities are those which existed at the time of the particular event. Many changes have  occurred in both the Naval establishment and industries. The following  cross-reference list is provided to relate the former identities as noted in the report to the current identities where the change was radical.  Intermediate changes in identities are omitted unless germaine to the report.

B-1/B-2
Reverse Blank


FORMER IDENTITY

CURRENT OR LAST KNOWN IDENTITY

Bureau of Ordnance (BuORD)

Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA)

Sperry Gyroscope Co.

Sperry Division, General Dynamics Corp.

Navy Experiment Station, New London, Conn.

Disestablished - 1919

Naval Torpedo Station, Alexandria, Va.

Disestablished - Post-World War II

Naval Aviation Unit, Gould Island, R.I.

Disestablished - Post-World War II

Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAir)

Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR)

National Defense Research Committee (NDRC)

Disestablished -Post-World War II

Columbia University, Division of War Research

Naval Underwater Sound Lab. (NUSL), New London, Conn.

Harvard Underwater Sound Lab. (HUSL)

Ship's Sonar

Naval Underwater Sound Lab. (NUSL), New London, Conn.

Torpedoes

Ordnance Research Lab, (ORL), Pennsylvania State College

Naval Underwater Sound Lab. (NUSL), New London, Conn.

Naval Underwater Systems Center, New London (Conn.) Lab.

Ordnance Research Lab, (ORL), Pennsylvania State College

Applied Research Lab. (ARL), Pennsylvania State University

Naval Torpedo Station (NTS), Newport, R.I.

Production

Naval Ordnance Plant (NOPF), Forest Park

Research and Development

Naval Underwater Ordnance Station (NUOS), Newport, R.I.

B-3


FORMER IDENTITY

CURRENT OR LAST KNOWN IDENTITY

Naval Ordnance Plant (NOPF), Forest Park

Disestablished - 1971

Naval Underwater Ordnance Station (NUOS), Newport, R.I.

Naval Underwater Systems Center (NUSC), Newport, (R.I.) Lab.

Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS), Pasadena, Calif.

Naval Ocean Systems San Diego, Calif. Center (NOSC),

Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL), White Oak, Md.

Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC), White Oak, Md.

Naval Mine Warfare Test Station, Solomons, Md.

Naval Coastal Systems Lab. (NCSL), Panama City, Fla.

Vitro Laboratories Inc., Silver Springs, Md.

Vitro Laboratories Division, Automation Industries, Inc., Silver Springs, Md.

Brush Development Co., Cleveland, Ohio

Clevite Division, Gould, Inc. Cleveland, Ohio

B-4


 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST

Addressee

No. of Copies

CINCLANTFLT

1

COMNAVAIRLANT

1

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1

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2

SUBFORCE Museum & Library, New London

2

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1

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1

COMOPTEVFOR

1

COMSUBDEVGRU ONE

1

COMSUBDEVRON TWELVE

2

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1

COMNAVLOGPAC

1

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1

CNO (Codes OP-02, -03EG, -098, -095, -951, -953, -981, -224D, -39, 353, -411)

11

CNM (Codes MAT-03, -03L, -0323, PM-4)

4

CHNAVPERS (Codes PERS-516, 551)

2

CNTT (Code N4143)

1

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1

NSRDC, Carderock

1

NUSC AUTEC Detachment, West Palm Beach

1

NSWC, Dahlgren

1

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2

NAVHISCEN

1

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1

NSSF, New London (Attn: Weapons Officer)

2

NSSF, San Diego (Attn: Weapons Officer)

2

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1

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2

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2

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30

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1

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1

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2

NAVELEXSYSCOM (PME-101-1)

1

NWC, China Lake

2

NSRDC, Bethesda

2

NCSL, Panama City

2


 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST (Cont'd)

Addressee

No. of Copies

NSWC, White Oak

2

NOSC, San Diego

6

NAVMAG, Lualualei

1

SPCC, Mechanicsburg

2

NWSC, Crane

1

NAD, McAlester

1

NWS, Concord

1

NWS, Earle (Attn: Weapons Officer, NWHL)

2

NWS, Seal Beach (Attn: Weapons Officer)

1

NWS, Yorktown (Attn: Weapons Officer)

1

NWS, Charleston (Attn: Weapons Officer)

1

NUWES, Keyport

2

NUWES, Keyport (Attn: QEEL)

1

NUWES, Hawaii Detachment (Code 9013)

1

NSWSES

1

NOS, Indian Head

1

NOS, Louisville

1

NAVSEASUPCEN, Atlantic

1

NAVSEASUPCEN, Pacific

1

Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands

1

FBM Submarine Training Center, Charleston

2

NETC, Newport

2

NSSC, Orlando

2

NSTC, Pacific

2

SWOSCOLCOM, Newport

2

Fleet ASW Training Center, Norfolk

2

Fleet ASW Training Center, San Diego

2

NAVSUBCOL, Groton

2

NTEC, Orlando

2

NPS, Monterey

1

Naval War College, Newport

2

APL, University of Washington, Seattle

2

ARL, Pennsylvania State, State College, Penn.

2

APL, John Hopkins University, Silver Spring

2

Chief of Naval Reserve, New Orleans

2

DDC, Alexandria

2

*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1978 - A-1093/219


Underwater Systems Center and Naval Underwater Systems Center logos.


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