Regulations
for the
Uniform of the United States Navy.

December 1, 1866.

Washington:
Government Printing Office.
1866.











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Uniform for the United States Navy.

General Regulations.

Full dress uniform for occasions of special ceremony. - Body coat as prescribed, epaulets, cocked hat, sword with sword knot, and blue or white drilling pantaloons to suit the season of the year, weather, or climate, as may be directed by the senior officer present.

Full dress uniform for general duty and official visits on shore. - Frock coat as prescribed, epaulets, cocked hat or cap, sword with sword knot, and blue cloth or white drilling pantaloons to suit the season of the year, weather, or climate, as may be directed by the senior officer present.

Service dress and undress uniform. - Frock coat as prescribed, with shoulder straps, cap, and with or without sword and sword knot; pantaloons, blue or white, to suit the season of the year, weather, or climate, as may be directed by the senior officer present.

Officers will wear either the prescribed full dress uniform for "occasions of special ceremony," or the full dress uniform for "general duty" (according to time and circumstances) whenever they make special official visits of ceremony to the President, Secretary of the Navy, heads of other departments, or to foreign authorities and vessels-of-war.

Officers will wear either the prescribed full dress uniform for "general duty" or the "undress uniform" whenever they make official visits to the President, Secretary of the Navy, heads of other departments, or to foreign authorities and vessels-of-war.

Officers serving on courts-martial, courts of inquiry, boards of examinations or special boards, or when attending as witnesses before the courts-martial or courts of inquiry, or in any other capacity, will wear the undress uniform, unless otherwise specially directed by competent authority.

It is not obligatory upon officers to procure or use the full dress body coat and cocked hat unless they are upon foreign service. Officers in their social intercourse within the United States, (upon occasions requiring them to appear in evening dress,) may wear a body coat made according to the prevailing fashion, of navy blue cloth, with five navy buttons on each breast, and with the devices of rank and grade on the ends of the collar, as authorized for sack and overcoats, but without shoulder straps, epaulets, cocked hat, or sleeve ornaments.

It is optional with officers to wear their uniform while on duty in the Navy Department, at the Observatory, Hydrographic Office, or on Light-House duty ashore.

Uniform is to be worn by all officer when attached to any vessel of the navy or coast survey, to any navy yard or station, or to any hospital or other naval establishment, for duty, unless when absent on leave.


Swords are always to be worn at quarters, and on leaving a vessel, navy yard, or station, on military duty.

Officers on furlough will not wear their uniform, and officers are strictly prohibited from wearing any part of it while suspended from duty by sentence of court-martial.

Chaplains, when performing divine service, may wear either the vestments of the church to which they belong or the uniform prescribed in the regulations.

On all occasions of ceremony or duty, abroad or in the United States, when a commanding officer may deem it necessary to order the attendance of the officers under his command, he shall be careful in such order to prescribe the particular dress to be worn.

Officers attached to vessels in foreign ports will not visit the shore without being in uniform.

Officers appointed on temporary service are not required to supply themselves with full dress uniforms, but are required to obtain undress uniforms and side arms, without epaulets or cocked hats.

Before a vessel proceeds to sea there will be a general muster for the purpose of ascertaining whether the officers and crew are provided with the uniform, full and undress, as prescribed by the regulations, and the commanding officer of the vessel will see that all deficiences are supplied.


Dress.


Full Dress Body Coat.

For the Admiral, Vice-Admiral, Rear-Admirals, Commodores, Captains, Commanders, Lieutenant Commanders, Lieutenants, Masters, Ensigns, and all staff officers of relative rank, respectively, shall be of navy blue cloth, double breasted, lined with white silk serge; the waist of the coat to descend to the top of the hip bone; the skirts to begin about one-fifth of the circumference from the front edge and descend four-fifths from the hip bone towards the knee, with one button behind on each hip, and one near the bottom of the pocket in each fold; two rows of large navy buttons on the breast, nine in each row, placed four inches and a half apart from eye to eye at top, and two inches and a half at bottom; the cuffs of the coat to be closed, without buttons, and to be from two and a half to three inches deep; standing collar, to hook in front at bottom, and to slope thence upwards and backwards at an angle of twenty-five degrees over it, to have a strip of navy gold lace one inch wide around the top and down the front for the Admiral, three quarters of an inch wide for the Vice Admiral, Rear Admirals, and Commodores; half an inch wide for Captains, Commanders, and Lieutenants Commanders, and one-quarter of an inch wide for Lieutenants, Masters, and Ensigns.

All staff officers will wear the same widths of gold lace around the top and down the front of the collars of their full dress body coats as prescribed for line officers, with whom they have relative rank, respectively.

Midshipmen, Third Assistant Engineers, Boatswains, Gunners, Carpenters and Sailmakers will not wear full dress body coats.

The full dress body coat is to be worn only with epaulets, cocked hat, sword and sword knot.

The dress uniform for Midshipmen after leaving the Naval Academy will be a jacket, the same as that worn at the Academy, with the addiition of a gold cord, one-eighth of an inch in diameter, around the top and down the front of the collar, and a gold cord of the same size on the sleeve.

Full Dress Duty, Undress, and Service Frock Coat.

For all commissioned officers will be of navy-blue cloth, faced with the same, and lined with black silk serge; double breasted, with two rows of large navy buttons on the breast, nine in each row, placed four inches and a half apart from eye to eye at top, and two inches and a half at bottom; rolling collar; skirts to be full, commencing at the hip bone and descending four-fifths thence towards the knee, with one button behind on each hip and one near the bottom of the pocket in each fold; cuffs to be closed, without buttons, and from two and a half to three inches deep.

Frock coats for Midshipmen and Third Assistant Engineers will be the same as for commissioned officers, except that the buttons will be of medium size only.

The "full dress duty" and "undress" uniform coat for Boatswains, Gunners, Carpenters and Sailmakers will be a frock coat similar in every respect to the frock coat of the line and staff commissioned officers.

For Clerks and Mates, a single-breasted frock coat, with nine navy buttons of medium size on the right breast, and in every other respect similar to the frock coat for other officers, but without straps, devices, or ornaments.

Sack-Coats.

Sack-coats of navy-blue flannel or blue cloth may be worn as "service dress" by all officers on board ship and in the United States, except at general muster or upon special occasions of ceremony, when a different dress is prescribed by the commanding officer; but never on shore, nor on board ship on duty in a foreign port. Sack-coats shall be single-breasted, with a row of five medium size buttons on the right breast. Shoulder straps and lace on the sleeve will be dispensed with on sack-coats - retaining the star for line officers - in which case the designations of rank and corps will be worn on the ends of the collar, as follows:

Admiral. - Four silver stars, with gold foul anchor under the two outer ones.

Vice-Admiral. - Three silver stars, with a gold foul anchor under the centre one.

Rear-Admirals. - Two silver stars, with a silver foul anchor between them.

Commodores. - One silver star, with a silver anchor back of it.

Captains. - A silver spread eagle, with a silver anchor back of it.

Commanders. - A silver leaf, with a silver anchor back of it.

Lieutenant Commanders. - A gold leaf, with a silver anchor back of it.

Lieutenants. - Two gold bars, with a silver anchor back of them.

Masters. - One gold bar, with a silver anchor back of it.

Ensigns. - A silver anchor placed horizontally stock up.

Midshipmen. - A gold cord, one-eighth of an inch in diameter and one and one-quarter of an inch long, across the end of the collar.

Staff officers Will wear on the ends of the collars of their sack-coats their respective shoulder strap devices in the same way as the line officers with whom they have relative rank, omitting the duplicate end device.

Mates, Clerks, Boatswains, Gunners, Carpenters and Sailmakers will not wear any devices on the collars of their dack-coats, but Mates, Boatswain and Gunners will wear the star of line officers on their sleeve.

Pantaloons.

For all officers, are to be of navy-blue cloth or white duck or drilling, (or for "service dress," of navy-blue flannel.)

Within the tropics white pantaloons are to be worn at all seasons of the year, unless otherwise ordered by the officer in command.

North of the tropics blue pantaloons are to be worn from the 1st of October to the 15th of May, and white ones from the 15th of May to the 1st of October when the weather is suitable; and south of the tropics vice versa, subject, however, to such exceptions as may be directed or authorized by the senior officer present in command.

Vests.

For all officers, will be single-breasted, standing collar, with nine small navy buttons in front, and made of navy-blue cloth, fine blue flannel, or of suitable white material.

Jackets and Flannel Coats.

Jackts may be worn as "service dress" by all officers, except at general muster, or upon special occasions of ceremony when a different dress is prescribed by the commanding officer; to be of navy-blue cloth, faced with the same, and lined with black silk serge; double or single-breasted, as in the coat; rolling collar, with the same number of small sized buttons on the breast as for the coat, and with the same arrangement of lace on the cuffs, and the same shoulder straps.

In mild climates or seasons, offciers in "service dress" may wear the uniform made of navy-blue fine flannel. Coats to be lined with black silk serge, and furnished with navy buttons of medium size. The same may be worn on ship-board at sea, except at general muster; also on board ship in port, except at general muster, when on watch with the colors hoisted, or on occasions of ceremony, when a different dress is prescribed by the commanding officer.

White linen or grass jackets, to be made like the cloth ones, but without straps or sleeve ornaments, may be worn within the tropics, at sea and in port, with white straw hats, when the weather, in the opinion of the commanding officer, is such as to require it. They must not, however, be worn ashore in foreign ports, nor by the officer of the deck, for the time being, in ports where the vessel may be visited by strangers.

Overcoats.

Shall be a caban overcoat and cape, of dark blue beaver or pilot cloth, skirt to extend below the knee; cape to be ten inches shorter; double-breasted, with pockets in side seam, and five navy buttons on each breast. The cape to be made so that it can be removed at pleasure, so as to form a separate garment. On each end of the collar of the overcoat the same devices of rank and corps shall be worn, respectively, as authorized for sack-coats.

Mates, Clerks, Boatswains, Gunners, Carpenters, and Sailmakers will not wear any devices on the collars of their overcoats.

Cravat.

For all officers, to be of black silk or satin, with a white shirt collar showing above it.


Sleeve Ornaments.


Full Dress Body and Frock Coats.

The lace on the sleeves is to be navy gold lace of the widths, respectively, of two inches, one inch, and one-quarter of an inch.

For the Admiral, two strips of gold lace, each two inches wide, and one strip of gold lace an inch wide, with the lower strip one inch and a half from the edge of the sleeve; the one-inch strip to be placed in the middle between the two wide strips, with a space of half an inch between each of the strips.

For the Vice-Admiral, one strip of gold lace, two inches wide, with the lower edge one inch and a half from the edge of the sleeve, and two strips of gold lace above it, each one inch wide, with a space of three-quarters of an inch between each of the strips.

ForRear-Admirals, one strip of gold lace, two inches wide, with the lower edge one and a half inches from the edge of the sleeve, and one strip of gold lace one inch wide, with a space of three-quarters of an inch between the two strips.

For Commodores, one strip of gold lace, two inches wide, one inch and a half from the edge of the sleeve.

For the following ranks and grades, the lace on the sleeves is to be navy gold lace, a quarter of an inch wide, and to be placed a quarter of an inch apart, except where a half is hereinafter designated, the lower strip one inch and a half from the edge of the sleeve, and the others distributed in groups upwardly:

For a Captain, six strips, with half an inch space between third and fourth.

For a Commander, five strips, with half an inch space between first and second, fourth and fifth.

For a Lieutenant Commander, four strips, with half an inch space between third and fourth.

For a Lieutenant, three strips; for a Master, two strips; and for an Ensign, one strip.

On the outer side of each sleeve above the upper strip of lace, and midway the seams, a gold star of five rays, two inches in diameter, with a steam frigate in silver, raised in the centre, with one of the rays of the star pointing directly downwards, and the point one-fourth of an inch from the upper edge of the strip of lace, will be worn by the Admiral.

For all other line officers, (including boatswains and gunners,) the star will be of five rays, embroidered in gold, one inch in diameter, and worn as prescribed for the admiral.

Midshipmen, after graduating at the Naval Academy, will wear, on the sleeves of their frock coats and jackets, the gold star prescribed for other line officers, and a gold cord one-eighth of an inch wide, placed in the same manner as the lace and star for ensigns.

Third Assistant Engineers will wear on the sleeves of their frock coats the same gold cord as prescribed for midshipmen, but without the star.

The sleeve ornaments of the staff officers are to be the same as for the line officers with whom they have relative rank respectively; except the gold star, which is to be worn by line officers only.

No other officers are entitled to wear the above-described ornaments.


Epaulets, Shoulder Straps, &c.


Epaulets.

All commissioned officers, except naval constructors, chaplains, and professors of mathematics, will wear two gold bullion epaulets with their respective strap ornaments on the frogs, to be of the following dimensions, and finished as per pattern:

For the Admiral, Vice-Admiral, Rear-Admirals, and Commodores, the strap to be two and three-quarters of an inch wide, and six inches long; frog four and three-eighths of an inch wide; crescent eleven-sixteenths of an inch in the broadest part; bullion three and one-half inches long, and five-eighths of an inch in diamter. Staff officers of relative rank to wear the same.

For Captains, Commanders, Lieutenant Commanders, and Staff officers of relative rank, the strap to be two and three-quarters of an inch wide and six inches long; frog four and three-eighths of an inch wide; crescent eleven-sixteenths of an inch in the broadest part; bullion three inches long and half an inch in diameter.

For Lieutenants, Masters, Ensigns, and staff officers of relative rank, the strap to be two and one-half inches wide and six inches long; frog four and three-eighths of an inch wide; crescent nine-sixteenths of an inch in the broadest part; bullion three inches long, and three-eighths of an inch in diameter.

Shoulder Straps.

All shoulder straps, except for gunners, boatswains, carpenters, and sailmakers, are to be of navy-blue cloth, four inches and a quarter long, and one inch and a half wide, including the border, which is to be a quarter of an inch wide and embroidered in gold, except for the Admiral, which will be four and seven-eighths inches long and one and five-eighths of an inch wide, including the border which is to be one-quarter of an inch wide.

The centre and end ornaments, or distinctions of the line and staff, and indications of rank, are to be embroidered in gold or in silver, as hereinafter designated, and are to be as follows:

Devices for Shoulder Straps and Frogs of Epaulets.

For the Admiral, four silver stars, of five rays each, placed equidistant from each other, in the middle of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, with a gold foul anchor one and one-eighth of an inch long under the two outer stars, as per pattern.

For the Vice-Admiral, three silver stars, of five rays each, place equidistant on the strap, or frog of the epaulet, with a gold foul anchor one and one-eighth of an inch long under the centre star, as per pattern.

For Rear-Admirals, two silver stars, of five rays each, one near each end of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, with a silver foul anchor seven-eighths of an inch long, in the centre, as per pattern.

For Commodores, a silver star of five rays, placed in the centre, with a silver foul anchor at each end of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, as per pattern.

For Captians, a silver spread eagle in the centre, with a silver foul anchor at each end of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, as per pattern.

For Commanders, a silver oak leaf at each end, with a silver foul anchor in the centre of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, as per pattern.

ForLieutenant Commanders, a gold oak leaf at each end, with a silver foul anchor in the centre of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, as per pattern.

ForLieutenants, two gold bars at each end, with a silver foul anchor in the centre of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, as per pattern.

For Masters, one gold bar at each end, with a silver foul anchor in the centre of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, as per pattern.

For Ensigns, a silver foul anchor in the centre of the strap, or frog of the epaulet, as per pattern.

Midshipmen, after graduating at the Naval Academy, will wear a plain strap, without end or centre devices, as per pattern.

Third Assistant Engineers will wear the same straps as Midshipmen.

Staff officers will wear shoulder straps of the same description as prescribed for line offciers with whom they have relative rank respectively, with the following exceptions, as per patterns, viz:

In the Medical Corps the anchor is omitted.

In the Paymasters Corps an oak sprig is substituted for the anchor.

In the Engineers Corps a device of four oak leaves in the form of a cross is substituted.

In the Naval Constructors Corps two live oak leaves and an acorn are substituted.

For Chaplains, a silver cross is substituted.

For Professors of Mathematics, a live oak leaf and an acorn are substituted.

For Secretaries to commanders of fleets and squadrons, the letter S, in silver, is substituted.

Mates and Clerks are not authorized to wear straps.

Gunners, Boatswains, Carpenters, and Sailmakers are to have shoulder straps of plain gold lace, four inches long and three-quarters of an inch wide, the Boatswains to have the letter B, and the Carpenter the letter C, embroidered in silver, midway upon their straps.

For the exact dimensions and form of the devices and the manner of arranging them, see plates, by which the officers will be guided.


Cocked Hat, Cap, &c.

Cocked Hat.

All commissioned officers, except Naval Constructors, Chaplains, and Professors of Mathematics, will wear a black cocked hat of the following dimensions:

To be not more than six, nor less than five and a half inches on the back fan; and not more than five and a half, nor less than five inches on the front fan; and not more than eighteen, nor less than sixteen inches long from peak to peak. The hat to be bound with black silk lace, to show one inch and a quarter on each side. In the fold, at each end of the hat, a tassel will be worn, formed of five gold and five blue bullions; and on the front or right fan, a black silk cockade four and a half inches in diameter.

The Admiral, Vice-Admiral, Rear-Admirals, Commodores, and staff offciers of relative rank, will wear over the cockade a loop of six bullions, half an inch in diameter, the two inner bullions to be twisted together, with a small navy button in the lower end of the loop.

All other officers entitled to wear cocked hats, will wear over the cockade a loop formed of four gold bullions, three-eighths of an inch in diameter, not twisted, with a small navy button in the lower end of the loop.

Secretaries, Midhispmen, Third Assistant Engineers, Mates, Clerks, Boatswains, Gunners, Carpenters, and Sailmakers, will not wear cocked hats.

Cap.

To be of dark blue cloth; diameter of the top to be the same as the base; quarters not less than one and a quarter nor more than one inch and a half wide in front, sloping gradually; and to be not less than one-half nor more than three-quarters of an inch wide at the back of the cap. The seam around the tip to be without a welt, and neatly stitched on each side. Band to be one inch and a half wide, with a welt one eighth of an inch in diameter at the top, and a welt one-eighth of an inch in diameter one-quarter of an inch from the base of the cap. A plain black ribbed silk band will be worn between the upper and lower welts. Visor to be of black patent leather, bound, green underneath, and not less than one and a half nor more than one and three-quarters of an inch wide in front, and rounded, as per pattern. The inside band to be of stout paste-board, and to extend from the base of the cap to within one-quarter of an inch of the tip. The sweat and inside linings to be of uncolored moroco. The sliding strap to be of patent leather, one-half an inch wide, and fastened by two small navy buttons. The cap in front is to be not less than two and a half nor more than three inches in height, according to size, with four black metal eyelets inserted in the top for ventilation.

During rainy weather only a black glazed silk cover may be worn over the cap.

Cap Ornaments.

The cap ornament for all commissioned officers, except naval constructors, chaplains, and professors of mathematics, shall consist of a silver embroidered spread eagle, standing on a gold embroidered foul anchor in an inclined position, as per pattern. Length of ornament to be one inch and a half from the lower part of the palm of the anchor to the crest of the eagle; distance between the tips of the eagle's wings two and a half inches. The anchor, including the ring, to be one inch and a half in length.

The ornament is to be worn in front, with the crest of the eagle nearly in a line with the top of the cap.

Midshipmen, after graduating at the Naval Academy, will wear the same cap and cap ornament as prescribed for other line officers, with the addition of the gold cord, looped, for sliding strap, as worn at the academy.

For Other officers, the cap ornaments shall consists of a gold wreath in front, composed of oak and olive branches, three inches in width, and enclosing the following described devices, viz:

ForNaval Constructors, a sprig composed of two leaves of live oak and an acorn, in silver, in a vertical position, with a spread of one and one-fourth of an inch, as per pattern.

For Professors of Mathematics, an oak leaf and an acorn, in silver, as per pattern.

For Secretaries, the letter S, in silver, one-half an inch in length, as per pattern.

ForThird Assistant Engineers, four oak leaves, in silver, in the form of a cross, one and one-tenth of an inch horizontally, and one-tenths of an inch vertically.

For Mates, Clerks, Boatswains, Gunners, Carpenters, and Sailmakers, the wreath without any device.

Straw Hats.

In tropical climates, or during warm seasons, officers may wear white straw hats, under the same restrictions as in the case of jackets; the body of the hat to be not more than three and a half nor less than two and a half inches in height, and the brim, without lining, not more than three and a half nor less than two inches in width, with a plain band of black ribbon.


Sword, &c.

Sword and Scabbard.

For all officers, shall be a cut-and-thrust blade, not less than twenty-six nor more than twenty-nine inches long; half-basket hilt; grip white. Scabbards of black leather; mountings of yellow gilt; and all as per pattern.

Sword Belt.

For all officers, shall be of black glazed leather, not less than one inch and a half nor more than two inches wide, with slings of the same not less less than one-half nor more than three-quarters of an inch wide, and a hook in the forward ring to suspend the sword. Belt-plate of yellow gilt in front, two inches in diameter, as per pattern. The belt to be worn over the coat.

Sword Knot.

For all officers, except mates, clerks, boatswains, gunners, carpenters, and sailmakers, shall be a strap of gold lace twenty-four inches long, including the tassel, gold slide, tassel of twelve gold bullions, one inch and three-quarters long, enclosing five blue bullions, with basket-worked head.

Buttons.

Shall be gilt, convex, and of three sizes in exterior diameter; large, seven-eighths of an inch; medium, seven-tenths of an inch; and small, nine-sixteenths of an inch. Each size is to have the same device. See drawings.


Midshipmen and Cadet Engineers at the Naval Academy.

Midshipmen.
Jacket.

To have a standing collar, one inch and a quarter high, with a plain anchor, one inch and a quarter in length, embroidered in gold, and placed in a horizontal position, on each end of the collar. To be made of dark navy-blue cloth, double-breasted, with two rows of medium size navy buttons on the breast, nine in each row; cuffs closed, with three small size navy buttons along the seam.

Cap Ornament.

Midshipmen will wear a plain anchor, one inch and a quarter in legth, embroidered in gold, and placed in vertical position. A double gold cord, looped and fastened at each end by a small size navy button, will be worn for the sliding strap.

Pantaloons.

To be dark navy-blue cloth, or white drilling, or duck, according to the season of the year and the state of the weather.

Cadet Engineers.

Will wear the same uniform dress as prescribed for midhispmen, with the exception that the engineers' shoulder strap device, consisting of four oak leaves, in silver, in the form of a cross, will be worn on the caps and collars, as a substitute for the gold anchor worn by the midshipmen.


Watch Marks.

The first part of the watch will wear one bar made of white tape or blue material, according to the color of the frock, one-quarter of an inch wide and one inch and a quarter long, to be placed horizontally on the front part of the sleeve, one inch below the shoulder seam.

The second part of the watch will wear two bars, one-half an inch apart, parallel to each other and placed horizontally, the upper bar to be one inch below the shoulder seam.

The starboard watch will wear the watch marks on the right arm, and the port watch will wear them on the left arm.

Petty officers, with special arm devices indicating starboard and port watches, will not be required to wear other watch marks.

It is strictly enjoined upon commandants of stations and commanding officers of the navy to see that the foregoing regulations are complied with in every respect, and to require all deviations from them to be corrected.

Gideon Wells
Secretary of the Navy
Navy Department, December 1, 1866.


Source: Regulations for the Uniform of the United States Navy. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1866.