Chapter I. General
- Transports and cargo ships.--
- In this pamphlet naval vessels which have been specially converted for transportation and landing of assault troops (Army or Marine Corps) will be referred to as "combat unit loaded transports" in order to differentiate them from other naval transports.
- Combat unit loaded transports (APA's) and combat unit loaded cargo ships (AKA's) are normally assigned to the Amphibious Forces, United States Fleet.
- Purpose.--APA's and AKA's are designed to furnish transportation to assault troops and their equipment and to disembark them on hostile shores in the face of enemy resistance in the least possible time.
- Troop personnel usually assigned to combat unit loaded transports.--
- Troop personnel usually assigned to a combat unit loaded transport will consist of a battalion of infantry with reinforcing units suitable for the accomplishment of a given task. Reinforcing units usually consist of artillery, tanks, antiaircraft weapons, antitank weapons, shore party, medical unit, motor transport unit.
- The transport division of several APA's and one or two AKA's should normally carry a reinforced regiment plus a proportion of division troops.
- Landing boats.--As used herein, the term "landing boats" includes all craft designed for landing operations which are ship-borne. The term "landing craft" is used for all craft designed for landing operations which are less than 200 feet in length and not ship-borne.
Chapter II. Characteristics of Landing Boats
- Characteristics table.--A table of characteristics will be found on the following pages. Paragraph 202 contains data on fuel consumption.
TABLE OF CHARACTERISTICS Notes: "Speed" is with normal load, average sea.
"Endurance" is at full speed.
"Weight" is light unless otherwise noted.
"Length" is O.A. unless otherwise noted.
|1. Landing craft, rubber (small)||LCR(S)||7 troops||210||None||None||12 feet, 5 inches||5 feet, 8 inches||None|
|2. Landing craft, rubber (large)||LCR(L)||10 troops||1320||None||1 .30 caliber machine gun||4-5 with 91/2 horsepower outboard motor.||16 feet||8 feet||Do.|
|3. Landing craft, personnel (plastic)||LCP(P)||13 troops||10 inches||1,400||None||None||20||32 feet||7 feet, 10 inches|
|4. Landing craft personnel (large)||LCP(L)||30-36 troops; or 6,700-8,100 pounds cargo (depending on fuel load)||3 feet||12,500||3 transverse bulkheads, 1/4-inch||2 .30 caliber machine guns||10||80 or 200||36 feet||10 feet, 8 inches||3|
|5. Landing craft, personnel (ramp)||LCP(R)||30-36 troops; or 6,700-8,100 pounds cargo (depending on fuel load).||3 feet||12,5000||3 transverse bulkheads, 1/4-inch||2 .30 caliber machine guns||10||80 or 200||36 feet||10 feet, 8 inches||3|
|6. Landing craft, vehicle-personnel||LCVP||36 troops or 1 1-ton truck of 8,100 pounds cargo (hold 18 feet, 3 inches x 6 feet, 3 inches)||3 feet, 2 inches||17,850||1/4 sides and ramp||2 .30 caliber machine guns||10||100||36 feet, 4 inches||10 feet, 9 inches||4|
|7. Landing craft, vehicle||LCV||36 troops or, 1 1-ton truck, or, 10,000 pounds cargo (hold 18 feet, 5 inches x 6 feet 3 inches)||3 feet||13,000||None||None||10||80 or 200||36 feet, 4 inches||10 feet 91/2 inches||3|
|8. Landing craft control||LCC||Crew only||4 feet||50,000||1/4 inch bridge||3 twin .50 caliber machine guns||15 knots||500||56 feet||15 feet|
|9. Landing craft support (small)||LSC(S)||3 or 4 persons in addition to crew and gunners||3 feet||20,000||1/4 inch||2 .50 caliber, 3 .30 caliber machine guns||16||60||36 feet 6 inches||10 feet 9 inches||6|
|10. Landing craft mechanized, Mark II||LCM(2)||1 light (131/2-ton tank; or, 30,000-pound cargo; or 100 troops||3 feet||25||Control station, 1/2 inch||2 .50 caliber machine guns||8.5||75||45 feet||14 feet||4|
|11. Landing craft,2 mechanized, Mark III||LCM(3)||1 medium (30-ton) tank; or 60,000-pound cargo or 120 troops. (Cargo area 32 feet x 9 feet 7 inches, average)||3 feet 6 inches||22||Control station, 1/4 inch||2 .50 caliber machine guns||10||125||50 feet||14 feet||4|
|12. Landing craft tank, Mark V||LCT(5)||3 heavy (50-ton) tanks; or 5 medium (30-ton) tanks||3 feet 1 inch fwd., 3 feet 9 inches aft||124||Control station, 1/4 inch||2 20-mm. guns||10||500||108 feet, O.A.; 105 B.P.||32 feet||1 officer, 10 enlisted|
|13. Landing craft, infantry (large)||LCI(L)||192 troops or 75 tons cargo||2 feet 6 inches fwd., 4 feet 6 inches aft||216||1/4 inch sides fwd., 3/8 bridge shield||4 20-mm. guns||17 knots||4,000 (ocean) (500 landing)||158 feet 4 inches O.A.||23 feet 3 inches||2 officers, 21 enlisted|
|14. Landing ship, dock||LSD||195 troops and 14 LCM(3) loaded (or 3 LCT(5) loaded) and 10 trucks on deck; or 1,500 longs tons cargo||14 feet 6 inches||5,850||Splinter||1 3"/.50 gun; 8 20-mm. guns||16 knots||8,000 at 15 knots||457 feet 9 inches||72 feet||200|
|15. Landing ship, tank||LST||186 troops and 10 heavy (50-ton) or 20 medium (30-ton) tanks or 39 light tanks (13-ton)||3 feet fwd., 9 feet 4 inches aft||1,412||do||6 20-mm. guns||11 knots||5,000||328 feet||50 feet||7 officers, 57 enlisted|
1. Without motor.
2. Higgins Type.
- Fuel consumption.--Gallons per hour (top speed)
Hall-Scott Gray Superior Chrysler LCP(L); LCP(R); LCV 24.5 15.6 7.6 11.3 LCS(S) 24.5 LCM(3) (note 3) 31.2 LCC (note 4)
Gallons per miles (top speed)
Hall-Scott Gray Superior Chrysler LCP(L); LCP(R); LCV 1.76 1.26 0.73 1.08 LCS(S) 2.82 1.73 LCM(3) (note 3) 2.52
Note 1.--Speed Maximum:
Miles per hour Hall-Scott 14.0 Gray 12.5 Superior 10.5 Chrysler 10.5 Speed of boats equipped with Superior Diesel estimated. Other speeds taken from actual tests with full power and full load.
Note 2.--Radius loaded:
Fuel capacity, 300 gallons Engine Fuel capacity, 180 gallons 206 miles Hall-Scott 100 miles +. 242 miles Gray 100 miles +. 417 miles Superior 100 miles +. 333 miles Chrysler 100 miles +.
Note 3.--Powered with Gray Diesel engine. These tank lighters will probably be powered with other types of engines in immediate future.
Note 4.--No information as to fuel consumption--maximum speed, at least 15 knots.
Chapter III. Debarkation
- General.--The ship-to-shore movement covering the planning and execution of the movement of troops from the beginning of their debarkation from transports until they are landed on the beach is well covered in chapter IV of FTP 167. This chapter is concerned with the task organization composed of the landing boats in which the landing force is to move ashore in assault. The following instructions are intended to supplement FTP 167, with which all persons connected with the ship-to-shore movement must be familiar.
- Battle condition.--
- Upon approaching the transport area all APA's and AKA's will go to general quarters. When the transport area is reached, set Condition One ABLE for the debarkation.
- Condition One ABLE (1A) is that condition of readiness in APA's and AKA's when all stations are fully manned for debarkation and unloading while at the same time the vessel is maintained in Condition One, insofar as available personnel permit. Services of the embarked troops will be made available to augment the ship's company, not to interfere with debarkation schedules.
- Transport area positions.--A position in the transport area is assigned each transport and cargo vessel. upon arrival at designated positions, transports and cargo vessels will anchor or lie to underway depending on wind and sea conditions prevailing at the time. See articles 142, 219-233 of FTP 167.
- Boat assignments.--
- It is the duty of the commander of the transports in a task group to furnish is corresponding troop commander with a boat availability table. This should indicated clearly which boats can be rail-loaded.
- If it can be accomplished, the dispatching of boats to another transport should be limited to an adjacent vessel under conditions of reduced visibility.
- If it can be accomplished, it is sound practice for a transport carrying a reserve battalion, to retain its boats for instant use by that battalion, augmented as required from the transport carrying the regimental headquarters.
- Experience has indicated that the average APA and AKA paired have sufficient boats for landing a reinforced battalion in assault. After providing for two assault battalions in this manner, the normal transport division would therefore rely on the two remaining APA's for prompt landing of the reserve battalion.
- Lowering boats.--
- Upon arrival at designated points in the transport area, APA's are stopped and, when directed, all boats are put over as expeditiously as possible. Sea conditions permitting, this should be by simultaneous lowering on both sides. If sea conditions are such as to require a lee, port boats will be lowered first. As a matter of policy, vessels which can lower tank lighters and heavy equipment from but one side will use the starboard side for this operation.
- Those vessels equipped with suitable davits and landing craft approved for lowering in loaded condition will habitually debark troops by lowering loaded from the rail.
- The purpose of loading at the rail and lowering loaded is to shorten the debarkation time. This purpose will be defeated unless all measures for coordination and speed are carefully undertaken. Troops and equipment of the first boats to be lowered from the multiple bank davits may, when desirable, be loaded while the transports are still underway so that the lowering of this group may commence immediately on arrival in the transport area. Troops in the first boats so lowered should include, if possible, all those intended for the first wave. Subsequent boats lowered from the multiple bank davits should likewise be preloaded and include troops and equipment which follow in normal sequence the order of landing. Arrival in the transport area should be so timed as to ensure the minimum interval between the commencement of lowering
boats and arrival at the beach at the prescribed H-hour, in accordance with the landing force commander's plan of attack. These are matters of arrangement between the appropriate naval and military commanders but smart execution by transport personnel of the loading and lowering is essential in order to meet the agreed time schedule with the minimum interval. Attention is directed to the necessity for troop units to be on station and in all respects prepared for immediate debarkation when assigned landing boats are ready. In some cases it may be desirable to retard the unloading of the troops (as, for instance, while heavy equipment is being unloaded to accompany the assault troops) in order to shorten the time spent in boats on the water.
- Stations for rail-loaded davit boats.--
- Troops assigned to a davit boat will assemble inboard of the boat, when possible.
- Ladders or gangplanks must be provided as necessary to expedite the loading of boats.
- Immediately on being lowered, loaded boats will proceed to the rendezvous area where they will join up by boat divisions and form the landing waves.
- Lowering details.--Each APA and AKA will organize permanent details for lowering all landing craft. See paragraphs 426 and 429(a) of FTP 167.
- Loading alongside.--
- Boat assembly areas.--As soon as unloaded boats are in the water, they proceed to the boat assembly areas. The location of these areas is as follows:
- When debarking simultaneously from both sides.--For LCP, LCV, and LCVP, two boat assembly areas, one on each quarter at 250 yards distance. These boats take station in the area corresponding to the side from which they were lowered, either from the parent or another vessel. For LCM and any larger craft assigned, astern, clear of the quarter assembly areas but within effective visual signal distance.
- When debarking from one side only.--For LCP, LCV and LCVP, one assembly area 250 yards distant on the starboard quarter. For LCM, one assembly area on the starboard beam. Any larger craft assigned, astern.
- Boats will circle at reduced speed in the following directions:
- Boats on starboard quarter and astern will circle in a clockwise direction while waiting to be called alongside.
- Boat on the port quarter will circle in a counterclockwise direction while waiting to be called alongside.
- Boats on the starboard beam will circle in a counterclockwise direction.
- An officer will be designated to take charge of the assembly circles. He will see that assembly circles are properly formed and maintained and that signals received from the ship's debarkation officer are promptly obeyed.
- All boats in the assembly areas will maintain a sharp watch on the after signal station for signals to come alongside.
- When boats from other vessels are assigned to an APA, they will join the appropriate assembly areas and assume automatically the status of the parent transport's own boats. Any boat officer from other vessels will act only as assistants to the assault wave commanders.
- Debarkation stations.--Troops (other than those lowered in boats) debark by debarkation nets over the side of the ship at debarkation stations. Each APA should have not less than four debarkation stations on each side. Each AKA should have not less than two per side. Debarkation stations are designated by number and color from forward to aft as follows:
Starboard Port Color Debarkation station No. 1 No. 2 Red. Do No. 3 No. 4 White. Do No. 5 No. 6 Blue. Do No. 7 No. 8 Yellow. Do No. 9 No. 10 Green.
- The following considerations govern the location and rigging of debarkation stations.
- Deck adjacent to station as spacious and free of obstructions as possible to facilitate standing-by and passage of troops over the side.
- Ship's side to be approximately vertical and without excessive flare such as exists under the bow or counter.
- Stations should be separated as necessary in order that routes for troops moving from "boat load" assembling places below decks do not cross.
- Afford proper securings for the nets.
- Provide handrail for the troops to grasp when climbing on the net.
- Sea painters and boat lines should be provided for each station.
- The foot of the cargo net should extend to one foot below the load water line.
- The head of the debarkation net should be neatly secured at the edge of the deck without bulkiness, doubling or folding.
- Nets should be held spread by 4x4 beams lashed in place between the net and the side of the ship. The lowest spreader should be about seven feet above the foot of the net. Additional spreaders should be inserted as necessary to maintain the net at uniform width throughout its length.
- Two lines to the lower corners of the debarkation net, tended on deck, will facilitate debarkation and prevent the fouling of boat's propellers. This is accomplished by raising the bottom of nets prior to arrival and departure of boats.
- The location of stations for the unloading of vehicles and cargo will be governed by the following factors:
- Station must be located adjacent to hatches.
- The radius of the cargo booms.
- Vehicles crews must debark at their loading stations.
- Loading boats.--
- As long as any man is on the net, either debarking or embarking, the bottom end of the net will be tended in the boat by the boat crew or troops and the net be kept free of slack as the boat rises or falls with the sea, in order to form a ladder direct from the ship's deck to the bottom of the boat.
- In addition to the nets rigged at the debarkation stations, a net or ladder will be rigged abeam of each hatch from which troop equipment and supplies are to be discharged. This net or ladder will provide a means of debarkation for working parties handling equipment or supplies in the boat.
- Debarkation stations operating instructions.--
- Special details.--
- A ship's officer, trained as debarkation officer, will be stationed on the bridge. He will be in general charge of the unloading and his primary task is to have the proper type of boat at a debarkation station ready for loading of boat when required. He is furnished by the commanding officer of the embarked battalion, a debarkation schedule, which indicates what type boat is to be at debarkation station at any time. He also keeps a check-off list of boats loaded and dispatched.
- A ship's officer will be stationed at the after signal station which is so located as to be clearly visible to all boats in the assembly areas. His duty is to order boats from the assembly areas to debarkation stations.
- A ship's officer or qualified petty officer and a troop officer will be stationed at each debarkation station. In addition to the duties given in paragraph 429d(1) of FTP 167, the ship's officer or petty officer is responsible for keeping the debarkation officer informed of the following:
When ready for a boat.
When boat is almost loaded.
When the loaded boat departs and its number.
- An enlisted man trained in debarkation signals will be stationed at each debarkation station, and a signalman at the after signal station.
- A radioman who is in communication with the boat group commander and assistant boat group commander will be stationed with the debarkation officer.
- The debarkation officer will maintain direct communication with the after signal station and with each debarkation station.
- Calling alongside.--The following designating letters and numbers shall be used for calling the various types of boats alongside:
LCP(L) Love. LCP(R) Roger. LCV Victor. LCVP Peter. LCS(S) Sugar. LCC Charlie. LCM(2) Two flag. LCM(3) Three flag. LCT and LVT(A) Zebra.
- At each debarkation station:
- A flag (semaphore size) and a flashlight of the color assigned to the debarkation station.
- A sound-powered telephone connected with the debarkation officer and the after signal station.
- At the after signal station:
- A set of flags corresponding to the flags designating types of landing boats (should be size No. 6 or larger).
- A set of flags with colors corresponding to the colors of the debarkation stations (size No. 6 or larger).
- A set of colored lights with colors corresponding to the colors of the debarkation stations.
- A sound-powered telephone connected with the debarkation officer and each debarkation station.
- When debarking from both sides two sets of signaling apparatus will be provided.
- At the debarkation officer's station:
- A portable loud speaker with which to communicate directly with boats alongside or lying to close aboard.
- Sound-powered telephone connected with the after signal station and with each debarkation station.
- The intensity of lights will be the minimum necessary to accomplish their purpose.
- Debarkation system in operation.--
- By day, landing boats are called alongside by the after signal station on orders from the debarkation officer by the use of flags. For example: Station No. 5 informs the debarkation officer that the boat alongside that station is almost loaded. the debarkation officer looks at his list and sees that the next boat required at Station No. 5 is an LCP(R). He then directs the after signal station to send and LCP(R) to No. 5 (Blue) debarkation station. The after Signal Station displays a ROGER flag and a BLUE flag on the starboard side. The nearest LCP(R) in the corresponding assembly area leaves the circle land goes alongside No. 5 debarkation station when clear.
- During darkness, the after signal station calls boats alongside by making on the appropriate side the Morse symbol corresponding to the type of boat desired, using the colored light corresponding to the color of the station at which the craft is desired. For example: In the case cited in the above paragraph, the after signal station would make ROGER with a blue colored light on the starboard side indication that an LCP(R) was desired at No. 5 (BLUE) station.
- Larger vessels, such as LST's, LCI(L) and LCT(5), will be ordered to debarkation stations by flashing light. These craft will be called individually.
- Boat identification.-- A designated member of each boat load of debarking troops carries with him into the boat a board, provided by the APA, on which has been painted the designated number of the boat. This board will be displayed prominently during the loading and while in the boat. The number indicates two things, the boat division and the boat number in that boat division. The first digit or digits indicates the boat division and the last digit the boat number within the boat division. The lowest numbered boat within the boat division indicates the boat division commander. Each coxswain is also furnished a copy of the landing diagram showing the number of the wave in which he belongs and his position in that wave.
- Stadiameter.--In order to ensure proper distances between landing craft are maintained during ship to shore movements, each boat will be provided with a stadiameter of design as indicated in figure 19, FTP 167.
- Unloading vehicles and equipment.--
- Troop equipment, other than individual equipment, will be loaded in the rail-loaded boats before arrival in the transport area.
- In loading boats in the water, equipment will be loaded in the boat before the troops embark. The boat crew, and such troops as necessary, will be in the boat to handle equipment as it is lowered into the boat.
- Vehicles must be loaded with great care to insure that they are headed toward the bow of the boat.
- Crews of vehicles will embark in the boats immediately before the vehicles are loaded. These crews, with the aid of the boat crew, will insure proper loading.
If possible, a vehicle that is not self-propelled will be loaded with the vehicle furnishing its motive power.
See paragraphs 429, 430, 804 to 810, 821, 823, 824, 930, 935, 937 of FTP 167.
- Rendezvous areas.--
- Immediatelyb on being loaded, boats will proceed to the rendezvous area.
- Definition.--A rendezvous area is an area designated for the assembly of loaded boat waves preparatory to their departure for the line of departure.
- The rendezvous area is located between 500 and 1,500 yards (depending upon the visibility) from the APA on the line between the APA and the center of the line of departure. The rendezvous area is a fixed position.
- The rendezvous area is marked by the presence of the control vessel which is responsible for the correct location of this area.
- The control vessel will, if possible, stay on the line between the APA and the center of the line of departure with its bow headed toward the center of the line of departure. By observing the control vessel, boats in the rendezvous area can determine the direction to the center of the line of departure and can also check the compass course.
- The formation of waves in the rendezvous area will be prescribed by commander transport group according to the attending circumstances. (See par. 427, FTP 167.)
- Operating instructions.--
- Coxswains of loaded boats will obtain the position of the control vessel from the debarkation station while being loaded.
- Waves will assemble in the rendezvous area under the direction of the wave commanders. Odd numbered waves will circle slowly in a clockwise direction while even numbered waves will circle in a counterclockwise direction.
- See subparagraph 411(b) for identification.
- Movement from the rendezvous area to the line of departure.--
- Wave commanders are responsible for leading their waves from the rendezvous area at the correct time interval behind the wave preceding them.
- A distance of at least 50 yards shall be kept between boats in a wave.
- See paragraphs 419, 424, 428(5), and 431
- During darkness or poor visibility.--
- Boat waves must proceed to the line of departure in a group, leading wave following closely the control vessel, in a formation suitable to conditions of visibility. Waves will follow each other in their numerical order. See paragraph 445 of FTP 167.
- Wave commanders are responsible for their waves and will not lose sight of the control vessel or the wave ahead, if not in the first wave.
- The interval between waves will be determined by the visibility. The maximum interval practicable will be maintained. See paragraph 412 of FTP 167.
- Distances between individual boats in a wave will be determined by the visibility but all units will keep closed up enough to insure their seeing the unit ahead of them at all times.
- Movements on arrival at the line of departure.--
- During daylight, waves will take assault formation just prior to arrival at the line of departure and will start for the beach on signal by the control vessel.
- During darkness, waves will form circles on a line to seaward of the control vessel on the beach-control vessel axis. The first waves takes the assault formation and proceeds to the beach on signal from the control vessel. As the first wave departs for the beach, the second wave moves in close to the control vessel. As the second wave leaves, the third wave moves up and so on.
- To minimize the danger for aerial bombing or strafing, shell fire from the beach or from enemy surface craft, waves and boats in waves, must be kept separated and staggered as much as possible. This is particularly important during periods of good visibility when the boat group is extremely vulnerable.
- See paragraphs 412, 413, 419, 424, 427, 428, and 431 of FTP 167.
- From the line of departure to the beach.--
- Wave commanders will be particularly vigilant in keeping boats at the proper distances. There exists a very strong tendency to bunch and this must be overcome. Use the stadiameter.
- Best speed consistent with maintaining the assault formation will be used in the dash to the beach.
- Over the last 1,000 yards, individual boats use full speed.
- See paragraphs 412 to 418; 420 (2), (3); 422 to 425; 428; 432 to 434 of FTP 167.
- Movements of landing craft subsequent to initial landing.--
- Retraction.--Each boat must retract immediately after its load is on the beach.
- Return to the ship.--
- After retracting all boats will return to their assigned vessel unless otherwise directed.
- At night, landing boats should take advantage of the control vessel, the traffic control boat, incoming waves and individual beach-bound boats, to find their way back to their ships.
- Wave commanders will aid boats returning to their ships as much as possible but non attempt will be made to reform waves.
- See paragraph 435, FTP 167.
- Rules of the road for landing boats.--
- All coxswains of boats will have a working knowledge of the Rules of the Road as they apply to their boats.
- The following general rules will be observed to avoid collisions between boats during an operation.
- Boats will keep to the right in meeting.
- Empty boats will keep clear of loaded boats by moving to the nearest flank except in the following instances when it becomes the loaded boat's duty to keep clear:
While an empty boat in retraction still has its bow toward the beach.
While an empty boat is towing another boat.
- A beach-bound assault wave shall have the right of way over all other boats which will be careful not to interfere in any manner.
- Transport identification.--If the attack force commander prescribes transport identification, the following system will be used. When debarkation commences, each transport (APA) will display its transport number in the form of a colored panel and a colored signal light will be used in conjunction with the panel display. This panel may be a sectional wooden panel, if deck space permits, or colored fabric rigged awning-fashion. Colored oilcloth should be used if available because of its light-reflecting properties. Transports on which an initial assault battalion of infantry is embarked will display the number of the ship in color of the beach on which the embarked battalion is to land. All transports not landing an initial assault battalion will display white numbers. Colored numbers will be on a white background, white numbers on a black background.
- Boat group identification for aviation.--Each boat group will display, in each boat of its leading wave, a panel of the color of the beach at which the boat group has been ordered to land. A signal light of the same color will be used in conjunction with the panel display. The panel will be of rectangular form 8 feet long and 4 feet wide. The panel will be made of fabric and will be displayed over the engine hood or other conspicuous part of the boat, and the heads of troops so as to be clearly visible to aircraft. Colored oilcloth is recommended for the reasons stated in paragraph 316. This panel will be furnished by the troops embarked in the boats of the leading wave. In the event that troops are to be landed on two or more beaches of the same color the boat group will identify itself to the aircraft by indicating the number of the beach by signaling with appropriate colored signal light.
- Guide plane identification.--Each guide plane and boat group will be provided by the Navy with a colored signal lamp. To establish and maintain communication with the boat group, the guide plane will employ the color of the beach toward which it is to guide the designated boat group.
Chapter IV. Landing Boat Organization--
Duties of Landing Boat Commanders--
Tactical Control of Troops
- General.--The organization and command of boats and duties of the boat unit commanders, are covered in chapter IV of FTP 167. The following instructions are intended to supplement the instructions of FTP 167, with which all landing craft unit commanders should be familiar.
- Task organization.--
- The boat flotilla.
- The boat group.
- The boat division.
- The boat wave.
- To move the landing group from ship to shore in order that it may initiate the fight.
- To move equipment, stores, and material required by the landing group from ship to shore.
- To reembark the landing group if so directed.
- To evacuate casualties from shore to ship.
- The boat flotilla.--
- The boat flotilla is a task organization consisting of two or more boat groups.
- The boat flotilla will be used only when the operation of two or more boat groups in a restricted area demands the actual presence of a commander.
- The senior naval officer of the transport group will appoint the boat flotilla commander who should be of suitable rank and experience.
- The boat flotilla commander is embarked in a fast boat and proceeds so as best to exercise command during the movement from ship to shore.
See paragraph 405a(4) FTP 167.
- The boat group.--The boat group is a basic organization of boats used for transporting a reinforced battalion from ship to shore. It is divided into boat divisions which land in boat waves. The landing boats of a boat group are the boats carried on the transport on which the battalion is embarked supplemented as required by additional boats from other ships. See paragraph 405a(2), FTP 167.
- The boat division.--
- The boat division is an organization of two or more boats within a boat group. The boat division operates as a unit commanded by a boat division commander.
- The boat division is used to land a small tactical unit.
- Deployment within the boat division will be carried out by odd numbered boats deploying to the right and even numbered boats to the left, guiding on the boat division commander.
- See paragraph 405a(3), FTP 167.
- The boat wave.--The boat wave consists of one or more boat divisions which land simultaneously. Boat waves are designated by number in the order of their landing. The senior boat division commander of each wave is the wave commander. Provision should be made to insure that the senior troop commander of the tactical unit comprising the wave is embarked in the same boat as the wave commander.
- The boat group commander and his duties.--
- When his boat group has landed the boat group commander becomes the traffic control officer at the beach where the boats of his group have landed.
- The boat group commander will be embarked in a fast boat equipped with navigational aids, communication equipment, and necessary personnel. The equipment carried should include the following items:
Portable radio equipment.
Portable signal lamp.
Electric hand lanterns and flashlights.
Electric and hand megaphones.
best compass available.
- Combat troops will not be embarked in the boat group commander's boat except in an emergency.
- The communication equipment in the boat group commanders' boat must provide for communication with the commanding officer of the parent transport, the control officer, the assistant boat group commanders, the wave commanders of his boat group, and with the beachmaster after the latter is established ashore.
- In the event troops are reembarked, he assumes command of the landing boats of his group during the return to the transports.
- He displays the Zero flag in his boat at all times when by such a display he does not invite hostile fire.
- He is responsible for the organization of the boat group and the boat assembly areas, and insures that division and wave commanders organize their units and take proper stations in the rendezvous area.
- He supervises landing boats going alongside, loading, and clearing the debarkation stations.
- He locates the control vessel, insures that the control officer is provided with approach schedule and landing diagrams, keeps the waves properly stationed in the rendezvous area and acts as liaison between the transports, the boat group and the control vessel.
- He assists the wave commanders in maintaining their stations during movement from the rendezvous area to the line of departure and in the dash to the beach.
- He assists the control officer in forming waves at the line of departure and dispatching them for the beach at the proper time.
- The boat group commander may be assisted by one or more assistant boat group commanders.
- Assistant boat group commander and his duties.--
- The assistant boat group commander is embarked in a fast boat equipped with salvage gear, fire-fighting equipment, first-aid kit and communication equipment. His boat flies the Mike flag when it will not attract hostile fire.
- He assists in organizing the trailing boat waves and in conducting them to the beach. He then acts as a patrol between the transport and the beach speeding traffic and standing by for salvage and rescue.
- He may carry troops in his boat provided they do not restrict him in the performance of his primary duties.
- The assistant boat group commander is responsible, under the direction of the boat group commander, for:
- Keeping boat assembly areas organized and in their proper location.
- Expediting boats leaving assembly areas when called and going alongside, loading, and clearing transport debarkation stations.
- Checking up on stragglers from the assembly areas.
- Towing disabled boats back to the ship.
- Acting as a fire-fighting boat.
- Acting as a first aid and rescue boat.
- Assuming boat group commander's duties if required.
- The boat division commander and his duties.--
- The duties of the boat division commander are set forth in chapter IV, FTP 167. Particular attention is called to paragraph 405a(3) and 414-417.
- Sufficient officers are not usually available on transports to provide an officer for each boat division. In view of the fact that a boat division commander is usually needed only during the initial trip from the transport area to the beach, this duty may be performed by personnel attached to the naval platoon of the shore party and by naval enlisted personnel. Regardless of the rank of the officer detailed as boat division commander, and in view of his temporary status as such, the boat group commander will command the boat group during the entire operation.
- The boat wave commander and his duties.--
- General duties.--
- He organizes his wave in the rendezvous area.
- He leads his wave to the line of departure and thence to the beach.
- He controls the speed of his wave in order that it may keep in contact with the control vessel, or the lower numbered wave ahead, and arrive at the beach at the exact time designated.
- He speeds the debarkation of troops from the boats and the withdrawal of boats from the beach and return to the transport.
- Identification duties.--
- During daylight he displays the numeral flag or flags corresponding to the wave number.
- At night he displays shaded lights intermittently as follows:
Sixth wave--2 Red.
Seventh wave--2 White.
Eighth wave--2 Blue.
Additional waves will employ a continuation of the above system of lights.
- Communication duties.--
- Communication equipment in the boat wave commander's boat will provide for communication with the commanding officer of the parent transport, the boat group commander and assistant boat group commanders, control officer, other wave commanders, and, as the operation progresses, the beach.
- He directs the boats of his wave by hand semaphore, screened blinker and voice (see System of Signals, sec. VII, ch. IV, FTP 167.)
- Formation duties.--
- The boat wave commander and his communication team should embark in the first boat of his wave to be loaded. In the approach to the beach, his boat should be the leading boat. See section III, chapter IV, FTP 167.
- Training of boat crews.--Training of landing boat crews should include the following:
- Proper technique in preparation for and being lowered or hoisted aboard.
- The general instructions for coxswains as outlined in chapter XI of this pamphlet.
- Methods of calling boats alongside and loaded them with troops and material.
- Location and purpose of the boat assembly area and rendezvous area.
- Maintenance and operation of standard landing boat armament including both surface and antiaircraft gunnery.
- The various signals used for maneuvering boats as outlined in section VII, chapter IV, FTP 167.
- Recognition of hydrographic and beach markings (ch. IX, this pamphlet).
- First aid.
- Salvage procedure.
- Tactical control of troops.--
- Responsibilities defined.--Tactical control of troops in the ship to shore movement is the responsibility of troop commanders. The primary responsibility of naval personnel attached to transports is to land troops and their equipment and supplies in accordance with the tactical plans of embarked troops.
- Guiding rules.--Naval personnel concerned will be guided by the following rules during the ship to shore movement:
- Original plans or orders prescribing boat formations and times and places for the landing of troops will be strictly complied with, unless cancelled or modified by competent authority.
- Competent authority to cancel or modify such plans or orders shall be one of the following only:
- The task force commander.
- The troop commander who originated the plan or order concerned.
- A troop commander senior in the regular chain of command to the originator of the plane or order concerned.
- The senior troop commander present.
- The above is subject to the general rule that the commander of any unit of troops is the final authority as to where and when his unit shall land.
- Tactical control of troops in the ship to shore movement is executed according to plans prescribing boat formations which correspond to the tactical dispositions of troop units; and by prescribing times and places at which these units shall land. These plans constitute the essence of landing force tactics, and are contained in the following annexes which are issued prior to beginning the ship to shore movement:
- Landing schedule.
Boat assignment table.
debarkation and approach schedule.
- Naval personnel concerned will thoroughly familiarize themselves with the plans contained in the above annexes for each landing, and will exercise vigilant care to insure compliance therewith.
- Troop reserves are normally landed "on order" at times and places depending on the development of the tactical situation. Again, because of unforeseen circumstances, a troop commander may be compelled to change his orders on his own initiative.
- A representative of the landing force commander with authority to make tactical decisions may be embarked in the control vessel to assist in matters involving tactical situations.
- The above instructions are designed to insure tactical control of troops to the landing force during the ship to shore movement. They shall not be interpreted as impairing the authority of boat officers or coxswains concerned in the purely naval function of proper operation of their boats.
Chapter V. Control Vessels
- General.--The tasks of control vessels in the movement from ship to shore are covered in paragraphs 208, and 427 to 433, inclusive, of FTP 167. The following instructions are intended to supplement the above references.
- Control the movement of landing boats from the rendezvous area to the beach through the line of departure.
- Protect the landing boats from attack.
- Assist the control of naval gunfire.
- Act as a fire support group if armament permits.
- Act as communication relay vessel to boat group commanders and beaches.
- Control vessels should be equipped with efficient navigational equipment, including reliable gyrocompass and range-finding (both optical and radar) equipment; sufficient radio and visual signaling equipment, either permanently installed or portable, for guarding all communication channels assigned to the control vessel for the operation; reliable sonic or supersonic depth finder; suitable armament to afford additional protection to landing boats from minor vessels and aircraft; dead-reckoning tracer for overnight or point to point voyages of landing boats not carried by APA's or AKA's. Control vessels should be of shallow draft, possess low silhouette, and have good speed regulation characteristics.
- There should be at least one control vessel for each beach on which landings are to be made. In addition, it is desirable that there be assigned a vessel of lesser type to assist each control vessel. This latter type should be a support boat or landing boat depending on availability.
- Communications.--Each control vessel must be equipped to communicate directly or with relay with attack force commander, transport group commander, assault transport, boat group, wave and boat division commanders, beachmaster, fire support groups, and other control vessels. It should also have a loudspeaker announcing system with one of the speakers located on the stern of the vessel and a screened light signal apparatus.
- Duties of control vessels.--
- Take station in boat rendezvous area approximately 1,000 yards from the assault transport to which assigned on a line between that transport and the center of the line of departure, as soon as the transport stops in the transport area and begins lowering boats.
- Display panel of beach designation color where it can be seen by aircraft. By day, hoist guide flag (Zero) over flag of the same color as the designated beach. By night, show screened light of beach designation color toward the boat group.
- Act as a marker vessel in the boat rendezvous area on which the loaded boats can assemble by waves preparatory to leaving for the line of departure.
- Receive reports from the boat group commander as to the state of readiness of the group for departure from the rendezvous area.
- Report to the attack force commander if the state of readiness of the boat group is such as to make a change of H-hour practical or necessary.
- Depart from the rendezvous area at scheduled time or at time designated, leading the boat group to the line of departure, at such speed as to meet the landing schedule but slow enough to permit leading waves to keep in touch.
- Make such signals to the boat group as are necessary to indicate:
- Dispatch waves from the line of departure in accordance with the landing schedule.
- Prior to arrival at the line of departure, by day, hoist the ONE flag at the yardarm toward the leading boat wave as signal for this wave to take station in attack formation abeam of the control vessel. By night, make single short dashes on colored light mentioned in (b) above.
- Dispatch leading wave by day by hauling down the ONE flag; by night, by making "space sign" and 10-second dash on colored light.
- Call succeeding waves to the line of departure by day by hoisting numeral flag corresponding to the wave number; by night, by making short dashes on colored light equal to wave number.
- Dispatch succeeding waves in a manner similar to (j) above.
- If communication security in effect permits, notify attack force commander when the first wave leaves the line of departure, and, if practicable, when the first wave lands.
- Modify the landing schedule as directed by competent authority. (See par. 413).
- Maintain communications by visual, radio or messenger boat with the boat group commander.
- Protect landing boats.
- Assist in the control of naval gunfire support.
- Provide naval gunfire support.
- Drop marker buoy at the far end of the line of departure if no assistant control vessel is available to mark that point, if required.
- The landing schedule is contained in the landing attack order.
- Boat landing schedules and diagrams are supplied by the assault transport.
- It is not practical for each boat or boat division to report to the control vessel when it is loaded and in the rendezvous area especially during night operations. Reports of boat divisions and waves arriving and forming up in the rendezvous area must be transmitted by boat group and assistant boat group commanders to the control vessel.
Chapter VI. Traffic Control During Landing Operations
- Designation.--As stated in paragraph 408 (b) the boat group commander becomes the traffic control officer after his group has landed.
- Duties.--The duties of the traffic control officer are:
- To regulate traffic to and from the beach to which his boat group is assigned.
- To provide an emergency boat for the beachmaster in charge of the beach whose traffic he is controlling.
- To assist in the salvage of boats.
- The traffic control party will consist of the following personnel:
Traffic control officer.
- Each transport landing an assault battalion will furnish a traffic control party. If more than one party is present off any particular beach, the senior traffic control officer present will take charge.
- After the initial landing, the ships to furnish the traffic control party will be designated by commander transport group.
- Station.--The traffic control officer will take station in the most advantageous position from which to control traffic. He should stay outside of the first line of breakers. If the depth of water permits, the boat may be anchored.
- Equipment.--Equipment will be that listed in paragraph 408 (c).
Chapter VII. Naval Platoon of the Shore Party
- General.--The basic organization and tasks of the shore party are defined in section II, chapter 2, of FTP 167. The following paragraphs are intended to supplement the provisions of that section.
- Organization of shore party.--In an amphibious operation, to handle the supplies and equipment during the ship-to-shore movement, a shore party unit is furnished for each reinforced battalion of infantry. This unit consists of a headquarters, shore platoon, service platoon, ship platoon, attached naval platoon (beach party), and communications section. The personnel of these platoons and section are as follows:
Headquarters 2 officers, 41 enlisted men. Shore platoon 1 officers, 45 enlisted men. Service platoon 1 officers, 45 enlisted men. Ship platoon 1 officers, 45 enlisted men. Naval platoon (beach party) 3 officers, 43 enlisted men. Communication section 1 officers, 19 enlisted men.
- General duties.--The general duties of these platoons and sections are given below:
- The headquarters furnishes the command section, as well as various specialists needed for the work on the beach.
- The shore platoon furnishes the weapons section, responsible for local security, and the road, demolition, and other necessary details for operation of the beach.
- The service platoon furnishes the carrying parties and is responsible for unloading boats and moving supplies to dumps inland of the beach.
- The ship platoon furnishes the details for unloading the transport. This platoon does not land until the ship is entirely unloaded.
- The naval platoon or beach party directs boat traffic, salvages boats, provides emergency medical treatment for the shore party, evacuates casualties and repairs broken down and damaged boats. It also provides shore-to-ship communications.
- The communication section (military) provides lateral communication between beaches and communication with combat troops ahead.
- Specific tasks of shore party.--The specific tasks of the military and naval components of the shore party are listed in paragraph 212(a) of FTP 167.
- Training.--The military components of the shore party will be organized, trained, and operated by the military authorities. The naval platoon of the shore party will be organized, trained, and operated by the naval authorities. Combined training of both components of the shore party will be conducted as directed by higher authority. The remainder of this chapter will concern the organization, training, and operation of the naval platoon of the shore party.
- The beach party.--The responsibility for the execution of the various tasks given in paragraph 212(a), FTP 167, is defined therein.
- It must not be inferred that these are the only duties, or that at some time the military and naval components do not assist each other in their particular tasks. All must bear in mind that the success of any operation depends upon the maximum use of all available boats.
- The primary mission of a combat unit loaded transport is to put combat troops ashore, over a beach, with their supplies and equipment, in the face of opposition. From the naval standpoint the landing boats may be considered as the main battery of the ship, and the troops and their supplies as the ammunition for that battery. Every effort must be made to increase the amount of work that each individual boat performs. The beach party is the agency, on the
beach, to carry this out. It is its mission to reduce the time it is necessary for a boat to be on the beach. All the duties of the beach party, with the exception of the evacuation of wounded, directly or indirectly contribute to this.
- The military component accomplishes its part of the mission by unloading boats and moving supplies and equipment off the beach so that more may be landed.
- Instructions for the beach party.--
- Beach party sections.--To carry out its tasks properly, the beach party is divided into various sections, namely: Command, hydrographic, boat repair, communication, and medical. The names of these sections are descriptive of their duties. They are composed as follows:
- Command section.--
Two commissioned line officers--senior will be designated beachmaster.
One medical officer.
One chief boatswain's mate, assistant to the beachmaster.
- Hydrographic section.--
One boatswain's mate, first or second class, in charge of section.
One boatswain's mate, second or coxswain, assistant in charge of section.
Eight seamen, first class: Various duties including emergency boat crews.
Eight seamen, second class: Various duties including emergency boat crews.
- Boat repair section.--
Two carpenter's mates, first class, in charge and assistant.
One shipfitter, first class, repair boats.
Two motor machinist's mates, first class, repair boats.
On electrician's mate, third class, repair boats.
One fireman, first class: Assist repair boats and enginemen for emergency crews.
One fireman, second class: Assist repair boats and enginemen for emergency crews.
- Communication section.--
One signalman, second class, in charge; men beach signal light.
Two signalmen, third class; one man beach signal flags; one with beachmaster.
One radioman, second class, man beach radio.
Four radiomen, third class, three man beach radio; one man portable radio with beachmaster.
- Medical section.--
One pharmacist's mate, first class, in charge evacuation station.
One pharmacist's mate, second class, assist in charge evacuation station.
Six hospital apprentices, first or second class, evacuation station.
- The beachmaster.--
- The commander of the naval platoon (beach party) of a shore party is known as the beachmaster. He acts as assistant to the shore party commander, commands naval personnel in the performance of strictly naval tasks, and acts as advisor on naval matters. He succeeds to command in the shore party as a whole in accordance with seniority.
- The beachmaster exercises control and supervision over all beach party activities. He controls boat traffic in vicinity of beaches. He issues instructions to the coxswains, either directly or through the traffic control officer, with regard to destination, changes in supply plans effective beaches and landing points for particular classes of supply, etc. He directs the salvage boats in the performance of their duties.
- He signals boats to come in or lie to off the beach. At night, a light moved in a vertical line means boats should land at the point the light is displayed. A light moved in a horizontal line means boats should stop and lie to off the beach.
- He directs boat traffic off the beach to insure that no more boats are on the beach than can be unloaded simultaneously. When no more boats can be unloaded at one time, other boats should be directed to lie to off the beach until directed to come in. To assist him at this task, the beachmaster uses the traffic control boat.
- He will make recommendations to the shore party commander for location of beach limits and landing points within the beach.
- During the early phase of a landing operation, the movement of troops to and across the beach is of primary importance. To facilitate this movement, he will see that the beach is kept as clear as possible so that subsequent waves of landing boats will have sufficient space to land. Landing boats will and must be unloaded promptly and retracted immediately from the beach. During this phase, efforts should not be wasted on hopelessly stranded or damaged boats. Pull off first the boat which appears easiest to refloat. To assist in clearing the beach of damaged and stranded landing boats each beachmaster has at his disposal one or more salvage boats. When necessary he may use any boat at or near his beach for this purpose.
- He will insure that as soon as possible after landing a reconnaissance is made to locate hazards to navigation in the seaward approaches to the beach and that all such hazards are marked. See ch. IX.) As further hazards develop, they will be marked.
- As soon as possible after landing, he will direct that a detailed reconnaissance be made to determine the location of all suitable landing points. Due consideration must be given to the effect of the tide. Upon completion of this reconnaissance, he will advise the shore party commander who can then establish unloading points for the various classes of equipment and supply.
- He will direct the replacement of boat crew casualties from crews of damaged boats or from his beach party.
- He will secure from the shore party commander suitable bivouac areas and command post locations.
- Prior the drawing up of the boat assignment table, the beachmaster should confer with his shore party commander as to the boat spaces to be allocated to the several members of his beach party. Normally no members of the beach party will be landed prior to the third assault wave and it should be so arranged that the entire party will be landed a soon as practicable thereafter. The beachmaster and the shore party commander should be landed in the same wave but not in the same boat.
- The beachmaster must arrange for the collection, stowage, and transportation to the beach of all equipment to be provided for the use of his beach party.
- The beachmaster must insure that by thorough indoctrination and training the members of his beach party carry out most effectively their assigned tasks. This can be accomplished by having a full knowledge of his task and by the closest cooperation and understanding with his shore party commander and the military component. An orderly procedure is vital and this must be integrated with a keen cognizance of the attending situation with regard to priorities of effort.
- Hydrographic section.--
- The hydrographic section has the following duties:
- Keep beach clear of boats.
- Make hydrographic reconnaissance.
- Assist in removing underwater obstructions.
- Act as stretcher bearers.
- Furnish relief boat crews.
- Members of the hydrographic section will be landed with the initial group of the beach party.
- Because the most important factor in the success of a landing is with the continued operation of the maximum number of boats, this section will subordinate all other duties to maintaining a clear beach and minimum damage to boats. Under some circumstances of wind,
tide, and sea, it will be necessary to tend every boat landing on the beach. Normally, only those broaching, stranding, or breaking down will require assistance.
- As soon as conditions permit they should make a reconnaissance to locate and mark hazards to navigation in the seaward approaches to the beach. If a channel through a bar or reef is found it should be marked at this time. Otherwise, channel marking is accomplished later.
- The first members of this section to land will carry with them the necessary markers and equipment to execute the task described in the preceding subparagraph.
- This section will remove any casualties found on the beach and deliver them to the beach evacuation station. If possible, every casualty should be examined and treated by a Hospital Corps man before being moved.
- Boat repair section.--
- The boat repair section has the following duties:
- Repair broken down and damaged boats and boat motors on the beach.
- Assist the hydrographic section in retracting boats.
- Assist the hydrographic section in the evacuation of casualties from the beach to the evacuation station.
- Strip abandoned boats of guns and equipment.
- The repair of boats is the paramount duty of this section but timely assistance in the retraction of a temporarily stranded boat will in all probability reduce the aggregate subsequent repair work necessary.
- The artificer ratings of this section shall be given every opportunity on board ship to familiarize themselves thoroughly with the maintenance and repair of the boats and their appurtenances.
- Upon landing, this section will immediately locate its equipment under cover and when this is accomplished it will be available to other sections of the beach party until its services in boat repair are required.
- Designated members of this section will be landed with the initial group of the beach party and will carry only such selected tools as will not retard their freedom of action.
- The communication section.--
- This section has the following duties:
- Maintain necessary communication channels for the beachmaster.
- Repair and maintain equipment.
- Assist the troop communication center as required.
- Provide the beachmaster with local security.
- Immediately upon landing the communication section will seek cover with its equipment and set up the communication center as soon as a suitable site is selected.
- In general the beachmaster must have continuous radio and visual communication with the parent transport and with the traffic control officer.
- Normally, one signalman and one radioman accompany the beachmaster at all times. The radioman carries a portable radio set for communication with the traffic control officer and the command post, and the signalman carries necessary signaling equipment plus a carbine or other suitable weapon for local security.
- The main radio and signal stations for the beach party are set up in conjunction with and as an integral part of the shore party station unless special considerations render this procedure inadvisable.
- In the conduct of its duties, the communication section will be guided by the provisions of chapter VIII of this publication and by the standard communication publications and annexes to operation orders for the particular operation.
- The medical section.--
- The medical section has the following duties:
- Establish beach evacuation station (temporary facilities to care for casualties awaiting transportation to ships).
- Operate beach emergency stations on all beaches to care for all beach casualties.
- Transportation of all casualties from the beach evacuation station to the boats.
- Maintain liaison with the senior medical officer of the unit responsible for supply and evacuation.
- Keep the senior medical officer of the unit responsible for supply and evacuation ashore informed of the rate that casualties can be evacuated to ships, in order to maintain the flow of casualties to ships at the maximum rate while at the same time preventing congestion at beach evacuation stations.
- The medical section is charged with the evacuation of all casualties to ships. The actual evacuation is carried out under the direction of the beachmaster. The medical plan of any operation will give directions as to detailed procedure.
- This section provides emergency treatment to any casualties on the beach.
- The following instructions govern the medical section:
- Upon landing remove equipment to a location under cover and be available to carry out task prescribed in subparagaph (c) above.
- Set up the beach evacuation station. Selection of the site for this station should provide that it--
Be near a road where vehicles return to the beach.
Be near a dump where sand sleds are operating.
Take maximum advantage of natural protection.
Has the maximum dispersion possible.
- Casualties occurring inland which are to be evacuated to the ships will be delivered to the breach evacuation station by the troops.
- Casualties occurring on the beach will be taken care of by this section.
- Present doctrine states that no casualties will be evacuated from the beach until the assault troops have landed. However, casualties which have occurred in the boats will remain in the boats and be returned to the parent vessel.
- The beachmaster must be kept informed of the number of casualties on hand for evacuation and the location of the evacuation station.
- Casualties to be evacuated to different ships should not be evacuated in the same boat.
- An accurate record of the casualties evacuated will be kept.
- Cover for the beach party.--
- The nature of the duties of the beach party requires that they operate in positions exposed to strafing attack from airplanes, to the fire of snipers, and to the effects of bombs or heavy artillery. It is mandatory that when not actively engaged in their duties they remain under cover.
- Provision must be made for instant cover in case of sudden or unexpected attack. The best cover yet devised on an open beach is a foxhole or a slit trench. Every man must provide himself with such cover as early in the operation as his duties permit.
- Foxholes and slit trenches provide concealment, protection from small arms fire, reduce exposure to fire from aircraft, and reduce the effects of concussion from heavy shells or bombs. The foxhole is better than the slit trench in sand, due to less tendency for the sides to cave in.
- Foxholes should be dug deep enough to give the necessary protection, but not so deep as to impair visibility. The waste earth if piled on the land side will help protect against the greatest danger.
- Slit trenches should be deep enough to conceal a prone man and normal to the expected line of advance of any tanks. They may be rendered nearly invisible by carefully spreading the waste earth.
- Weapons.--The beach party must be proficient in the use of all the standard Army and Navy small arms, including bayonet and trench knife.
- Casualties on the beach.--
- In handling casualties the following principles apply:
- In placing a wounded man on a litter, avoid changing his position more than necessary.
- A wounded man should not be moved until he has been examined by a Hospital Corps man provided a Hospital Corps man is available.
- Most boats are fitted as ambulance boats to increase their capacities for carrying litters, but casualties may be evacuated in any boat up to its capacity.
- Troop and Navy litters should be standard and should be interchanged as necessary.
A casualty should never be moved from one litter to another.
- Organization of the beach party.--
Boat spaces Total Pers-
Command and traffic control: Beachmaster 1 1 1 1 2 Assistant beachmaster 1 1 1 1 2 Medical officer 1 1 1 2 Chief boatswain's mate 1 1 1 1 Hydrographic section: Boatswain's mate, first or second class 1 1 1 1 Boatswain's mate, second class or coxswain 1 1 1 5 6 Seaman first class 8 8 8 8 Seaman second class 8 8 8 8 Boat repair section: Carpenter's mate, first class 2 1 1 2 1 3 Shipfitter, first class 1 1 1 1 Motor machinist's mate, first class 2 2 2 1 3 Electrician's mate, third class 1 1 1 1 2 Fireman, first class 1 1 1 1 Fireman, second class 1 1 1 1 Communication section: Signalman, second class 1 1 3 4 Signalman, third class 2 1 1 2 2 Radioman, second class 1 1 1 1 Radioman, third class 4 4 4 4 Medical section: Pharmacist's mate, first class 1 1 4 5 Pharmacist's mate, second class 1 1 1 Hospital apprentice, first or second class 6 6 6 Totals 3 43 31 1 4 46 18 64
- Individual equipment of beach party.--
Bag, canvas, field, OD, M-1936 1 per officer. Bar, mosquito, OD Do. 1 per each 2 individuals. Belt, cartridge, Caliber .30 dismounted M-1923 1 per individual armed with rifle M-1903. Belt, pistol or revolver, M-1936 1 per individual armed with pistol, revolver, submachine gun, or carbine. Belt, life, pneumatic, dual tube 1 per individual. Blankets, wool, OD 2 per individual. Carrier, pack, M-1928 1 per enlisted man. Carrier, pickmattock, intrenching 1 per pickmattock intrenching. Carrier, shovel, intrenching 1 per shovel, intrenching. Can, meat, M-1923 1 per individual. Canteen, M-1910 2 per individual.
Case, dispatch, canvas 1 per officer. Case, web, for 30-round magazine, submachine gun 3 per submachine gun. Cover, canteen, dismounted, M-1910 2 per individual. Cup, M-1910 Do. Fork, M-01926 Do. Haversack, M-1926 1 per enlisted man. Headnet, mosquito 1 per individual. Helmet, steel M-1 Do. Holster, pistol 1 per individual armed with pistol. Jacket, field, OD 1 per individual Knife, M-1926 Do. Knife, trench M-1 Do. Mask, gas, service Do. Packet, first-aid Do. Pickmattock, intrenching 1 per each 6 enlisted men. Pin, tent, shelter, wood 5 per tent shelter half. Pocket, magazine, double web, EM M-1923 1 per individual armed with pistol. Pocket, magazine, for carbine 2 per individual armed with carbine. Pouch, first-aid packet, M-1924 1 per individual. Pole, tent, shelter 1 per tent shelter half. Shovel, intrenching, M-1910 5 per 6 enlisted men. Roll, bedding, waterproof, M-1935 complete 1 per officer. Shoes, field 1 per individual. Slicker Do. Spoon, M-1926 Do. Suit, 1-piece herringbone Do. Tent, shelter-half 1 per enlisted man; 2 per officer. Waders, rubber 1 per member Hydrographic and boat repair section.
- Organization equipment, beach party.--
Remarks First aid kit, complete 1 Subpar. (a). Boat repair kit, consisting of-- Electrician's mate's kit 1 Subpar. (b). Carpenter's mate's and shipfitter's kit 1 Subpar. (c). Motor machinist's mate's kit 1 Subpar. (d). Communication equipment 1 Subpar. (e). Drag rope 1 Fig. 1. Flashlights 6 Hydrographic marking pennants: Obstruction 6 See ch. 9. Red channel marker 6 Do. Black channel marker 6 Do.
- Aid kit, complete.--
80 triangular bandages. 8 cotton, quarter pound. 120 battle dressings, large. 96 cotton applicators. 120 battle dressings, small. 16 tourniquets. 40 head dressings. 96 tongue depressors. 160 4x4 gauze flats. 10 yards muslin, in strips, 6 inches by 6 feet. 30 band-aids. 8 yards muslin in 4 pieces of 6 feet each. 96 2-inch gauze bandages. 56 litters, army type. 48 3-inch gauze bandages. 8 flashlights. 8 2 inches by 5 yards spool adhesive. 24 flashlight cells. 24 basswood splints. 1 package Dixie cups. 8 3-inch elastic bandages. 2 rubber sheets.
4 pairs surgeons gloves, size 8. 2 pints tincture merthiolate. 4 5-cc. syringes. 8 pints alcohol 2 20-cc. syringes. 16 ampoules sterile water (10 cc.). 8 Thomas splints, with footrests, bars and ankle-straps. 40 tubes tannic acid jelly or equivalent. 4 Thomas arm splints. 20 units plasma 2 bandage shears. 8 water canteens. 2 handbrushes. 48 blankets. 2 emesis basins. 24 mosquito bars. 2 empty pocket kits, for medical officer, with total of 8 hemostats. 1,000 tablets atobrine. 24 threaded sutures, No. 1 chromic. 100 cc. Tetanus toxoid. 2 surgical scissors. 8 hypo needles 2 pairs rat tooth forceps. 8 intramuscular needles. 2 scalpels and 6 blades. 8 intravenous needles. 400 small safety pins. 8 eye patches. 400 large safety pins 2 doses, antivenom. 160 diagnosis tags (casualty). 1 course, rabies. 4 small memo books. 2 pints detergent emulsion. 1 large memo book. 2 pints 8 percent hydrogen peroxide. 8 soft lead pencils. 4 cartons cigarettes and matches. 20 sulfanilamide power, 1/4 pound. 4 pints whiskey. 1,000 sulfathiazole. 4 tubes No. 2 chornic. 400 syrettes, morphine tartrate. 4 hot-water bags. 32 coramine ampoules.
Eight canvas pouches, to be carried on back, will be supplied each APA which is to furnish a beach party. Most items listed are in quantities easily divisible in eight parts for purpose of dispersion.
- Electrician's mate's kit.--
Item: Quantity Item: Quantity Flashlights, complete 6 Pliers, long nose 1 Wire, rubber covered, No. 14. feet 25 Screwdriver, 8-inch 1 Tape, friction, roll 2 Bulbs, assorted Solder, wire, spool, pound 1 Fuses, assorted Tape, rubber, roll 1 Lamp, test, 6-volt 1 Torch, alcohol, small 1 Switches, starter 6 Pliers, side cutter 1 Switches, pole 6
- Carpenter's and shipfitter's kit.--
Item: Quantity Item: Quantity Hand saw, 24-inch, cross cut 1 Canvas, 2 feet x 6 feet, piece 1 Hacksaw and blades 1 Lead, sheet, 18 x 36 inches 1 Tin snips, 1-inch, pair 1 Nails, galvanized, HD, pound 3 Machinist hammer 1 Nails, cut, 8 penny, pound 3 Claw hammer 1 Tacks, copper, 1 inch, pound 1 Pliers, pair 1 Staples, 1 inch, pound 1 Chisel, cold 1 Lead, white, pound 5 Caulking tool 1 Hamps, wick, ball 1 Caulking, cotton, pound 1 Plugs, wooden, 1 inch to 4 inch 2
- Motor machinist mate's kit.--
Item: Quantity Item: Quantity Hammer, machine, 11/4-pound 1 Wrench, stillson, 10-inch 1 Screwdriver, 6-inch 1 Hook, pump packing 1 Screwdriver, 4-inch 1 Tape, adhesive, wall 1 Wrench, crescent, 10-inch 1 Shellac, can, small 1 Wrench, crescent, 8-inch 1 Packing 1 Pliers, 6-inch 1 Oil can, small 1 Wrench, end, 7/16 x 1/2 1 Oil can, medium 1 Wrench, end, 9/16 x 5/8 1
- Beach party communication equipment.--
1 radio set TBX consisting of--
1 transmitter receiver unit.
1 accessory box serial containing:
1 canvas carrying case.1 D.C. hand generator with canvas case.
1 pair headphones.
1 battery cable.
1 generator cable.
1 hand microphone.
1 antenna lead-in.
2 cranks for hand generator.
1 telegraph key.
1 large antenna and counterpoise.
3 45-volt B batteries.
2 1.5-volt A batteries.
2 7.5-volt C batteries.
1 small antenna assembly (Flagelliform type) with canvas case.
1 set station spares.
1 gasoline engine in shipping chest serial containing:
1 gas can.
1 oil can.
1 tool kit.
1 set station spares for gas engine.
1 radio set SCR-511, complete with 6 tuning units, 7 spare batteries type BA-43 (substitute, TBY). If TBY is used it shall consist of:
1 canvas carrying case, Navy type 10039.1 instruction book for TBY.
1 battery pack, Navy type 19018A.
1 key, cord and plug assembly, Navy type CRH-26013.
1 transmitter, receiver unit, Navy type CRI-43007, including complete set of vacuum tubes consisting of:
2 Navy type 30.2 headphone and microphone assemblies, Navy type CTF-51022.
2 Navy type 1E7G.
4 Navy type 958A.
2 Navy type 959.
1 antenna, Navy type 66025.
1 set of mobile spare parts consisting of:
1 antenna, Navy type 66025.2 indicator light bulbs.
1 set antenna supports.
2 battery packs, Navy type 19018A.
1 set of spare vacuum tubes, consisting of:
2 Navy type 30.1 tuning chart.
1 Navy type 1E7G.
3 Navy type 958A.
1 Navy type 959.
2 sets semaphore flags.
12 batteries, BA-30, spares for flashlights.
2 signal lamps, Aldis, EL-084, or multipurpose signaling.
3 electric megaphones (mfg. Guided radio Corp., New York, N.Y.)
1 portable loud speaker system (similar to British Ardente)
1 portable 12-inch signal searchlight.
1 power supply for signal searchlight.
Figure 1.--Drag rope for beach party use, 4-inch Manila
Chapter VIII. Communications(This chapter is a reprint of "Joint U.S. Air-Amphibious Communication Instructions"
as approved by the Joint Communication Board)
Section 1. Definitions and assumptions 29 Section 2. Planning 31 Section 3. Training 33 Section 4. Preembarkation phase 33 Section 5. Embarkation 34 Section 6. Movement to theater of operations 35 Section 7. Approach 36 Section 8. Debarkation and assault 37 Section 9. Consolidation 62 Section 10. Check list 62 Section 11. Basic communication plan 66 Appendix A. Joint shore party communication team 70 Appendix B. Air support 71 Appendix C. Air defense 74
Section 1. Definitions and Assumptions
Air group.--Aircraft to support an operation.
Air liaison party.--Air suypport parties attached to landing teams, combat teams, or higher headquarters, to link air support with ground requirements.
AKA.--Cargo vessel capable of combat unit loading.
APA.--Combat unit loaded transport for a landing team.
Artillery spotting plane.--Aircraft to observe for ground artillery.
Beach.--Shore line of a landing area assigned a landing team.
Beachhead.--A position organized in depth with a view to offensive or defensive operations which protects the beach initially from light artillery fire; eventually, from medium artillery fire.
Beachmaster.--Naval officer responsible for beaching and unloading boats.
Boat flotilla.--Boat groups for a transport division.
Boat group.--Boats requried for one landing team.
Boat wave.--Boat formation for landing simultaneously on a given beach.
Combat loaded.--Embarkation to facilitate immediate assault on a hostile shore.
Combat team.--Reinforced infantry regiment.
Commander landing force.--Commander of ground forces committed in an assault on a hostile shore.
Commander naval force.--Commander of naval force in an assault on a hostile shore; normally, the Task Force Commander.
Commander air force.--Commander of air group or force assigned to support an assault on a hostile shore.
Communication officer.--Army or Marine line officer in regiments and battalions assigned signal communication specialty; or, Navy officer in charge of all visual and radio communications for a ship, unit, task group or force.
Control vessel.--Vessel to guide and assist boat traffic.
Demonstration group.--Vessels assigned the task of making demonstration outside the designated landing area.
Direct support aircraft.--Aircraft (carrier or land based) of the air group designated in close support of ground forces.
Fire support group.--Combatant vessels designated to support landing and subsequent operations by gunfire missions.
Guide flags.--Visual markers to aid navigation.
Guide plane.--Aircraft designated to assist in navigation of boat groups.
Gunnery observation spotting plane.--Aircraft to observe and direct naval gunfire.
Headquarters ship.--Vessel (preferably noncombatant) from which task, naval, landing, and air commanders exercise control in landing operations.
Joint shore party communications team.--Army/Marine and Navy detachments to establish communications seaward, landward, and laterally in support of a landing.
Landing area.--Air, ground, and sea areas involved in an amphibious operation.
Landing force.--Military organization to execute landing operations from the transports of a task force.
Landing team.--Reinforced infantry battalion to assault an hostile shore.
Line of departure.--Coordinating line at sea suitably marked to assist the various waves to land on designated beaches at the proper time.
Military.--Army and/or Marine.
Mine group.--Vessels designated for mine sweeping and mine laying.
Naval force.--Naval organization for landing operations.
Naval support area.--Sea area assigned combatant naval support vessels.
Opposite numbers.--Military and naval officers of similar command and staff assignment.
Reconnaissance group.--Vessels designated to reconnoiter a landing area preliminary to the landing.
Screening group.--Vessels designated to protect the naval force.
Salvage group.--Vessels designated to rescue personnel, equipment and matériel.
Shore fire control party.--Naval and artillery liaison party with signal communication personnel, supporting a landing team.
Shore party.--Special military detachment to organize logistic operations on the beach.
Signal communications.--Comprise all methods and means employed to transmit messages and telephone conversations. Messages include all written official messages, reports and instructions.
Signal officer.--Army/Marine staff officer of large units (division, higher or equivalent) specializing in signal communications; Navy officer in charge of visual communications for a ship or flag officers staff.
SOP.--Standing operating procedure. (Naval use defines SOP as "Senior Officer Present".)
SOI.--Signal operation instructions.
Task force.--Joint overseas expedition for operation against an hostile shore.
Task group.--Subdivision of a task force.
Transport area.--Water area assigned for debarking troops from the transports.
Transport division.--Vessels designated to transport one combat team.
- Basis of analysis: Reinforced infantry division supported by air and sea forces.
- It is imperative, immediately upon establishment of the beachhead, that the landing force or an advanced naval base unit establish external communications. Safety of the naval vessels may require a sudden departure from the area. It is necessary to prescribe this responsibility as early as possible in the planning phase.
- Landing teams are reinforced infantry battalions.
- Combat teams are reinforced infantry regiments.
- Concentration of forces should be effected within 72 hours of embarkation; or, by infiltration into dispersed areas.
- Approach and assault should be effected under cover of darkness with due consideration for tide.
- Concentration should be concluded within 15 miles of the embarkation points.
- A transport area will be from 6,000 to 18,000 yards offshore.
- The line of departure is from 3,000 to 6,000 yards offshore.
- Normal ground objectives: Landing team, 1 square mile; combat team, 2 square miles; division, 6 square miles; with landing areas for one corps approximating 15 square miles; and army, 30 square miles.
- Boats: For centralized control, boats are limited to 200 yards interval by 100 yards depth; boat group, 1 by 5 miles; boat flotilla, 3 by 30 miles; a division afloat, 6 by 75 miles; task group or force afloat, 30 by 100 miles.
- Ship-to-shore, shore-to-shore and air-borne-sea-borne are fundamentally similar.
- Assault is on a broad front with the reinforced infantry division as the task group, minimum in assault and maximum in reserve, the latter to be committed dependent upon maneuver room.
- Planning phase during which plans and training culminate with a rehearsal and review of plans.
- Preembarkation during which preparations are completed for embarkation.
- Embarkation phase wherein the landing force is embarked preparatory to sailing.
- Voyage phase of sea convoy to a theatre of operation culminating in the approach.
The approach is that part of the voyage wherein the naval force divides into task groups to proceed to respective transport areas preparatory to debarkation.
- Landing operations phase is the assault against an hostile shore. This is subdivided into the following assault phases:
Assault landing teams en route to beach.
Establishment of landing teams ashore.
Establishment of combat teams ashore.
Establishment of the division headquarters ashore.
- Consolidation phase is the transition from the amphibious operations phase to normal operations.
Section 2. Planning
- The Joint Communications Board is the supporting agency of the Joint U.S. Chiefs of Staff on communication matters; and, is responsible for coordinating methods, procedures, operations, equipment and all communication matters of joint U.S. application.
- The Army Communications Board is the supporting agency of the U.S. Army Chief of Staff on communication matters; and, is responsible for coordinating communication methods, procedures, operations, equipment and all communication matters applicable to the U.S. Army.
- The Director of Naval Communications is the supporting agency of the Chief of Naval Operations on communication matters; and, is responsible for coordinating all communication matters applicable to the U.S. Navy.
- Joint Air-Amphibious Communications Planning board is the supporting agency of the Joint U.S. Chiefs of Staff to specialize on strategic doctrine and tactical plans for air-amphibious operations; and, is responsible for accumulating data on air-amphibious operations for constant liaison with strategic operational planning; and, for preparation to assist specific task force planning.
- The Joint Air-Amphibious Communications Planning Staff is a special joint staff to assist a theatre commander with plans for air-amphibious operations or exercises; and, is responsible to a theatre commander to anticipate air-amphibious possibilities and prepare the plans therefor.
- The Joint Air-Amphibious Communications Plans Conference is a special conference of communication and signal officers to prepare a plan for a specific air-amphibious operation; and, is responsible for planning a specific operation.
- The planning phase is one of the most important phases of the entire operation. Omissions and oversights during this period cannot be remedied later. Detailed study is essential.
- Joint planning conference.--
- Immediately upon receipt of information that a landing exercise or operation is to be conducted the amphibious force communications officer and the senior signal officer will meet and jointly draft an outline plan of communications based upon tactical plans. Types and quantities of special equipment needed will be determined and steps taken to procure such equipment immediately.
- When subordinate naval and military communications officers are given sufficient information, each will confer with his opposite number and prepare orders and annexes.
- As far as practicable, all joint appendices to the communications annex (such as frequency tables, cryptographic instructions, call signs) will be prepared from the same stencil in sufficient quantity to supply naval and military components.
- When orders have been completed, and immediately before departure for exercise or operation, all military and naval communication officers to include battalion communication officers and individual ship communications officers, will confer to jointly study the plans and straighten out any questionable items. A similar conference will be held immediately after exercises to determine causes of any failures and corrective action to be taken.
- In making arrangements for final conferences prior to an actual operation, particular attention will be paid to provisions for preservation of secrecy. Efforts will be made to hold these conferences after departure from base but prior to departure for the theater of operations. Communications officers having attended these conferences must be especially careful during time spent ashore. All communications plans, orders, authenticators, SOI's and other pertinent communication information should be distributed as early as practicable. The purpose of the communication conference possible eventualities and alternate plans will be discussed.
- Military and naval opposites shall maintain close liaison and confer as necessary to insure smooth coordination of effort.
- Time factors for air-amphibious operations relative to normal operations demand emphasis on security.
Section 3. Training
- Preliminary training.--
- Preliminary training is defined as that fundamental air-amphibious training that may be executed by the normal training agencies of the military and naval forces. This will include inculcation of officers and specialists with the doctrines of air-amphibious organizations, operations, and signal communication; and, the inclusion in mobilization training programs of those phases of an air-amphibious operation applicable to intraservice instruction. The latter includes organization of personnel, equipment, and matériel for combat loading; and, instruction on assembly of personnel and dumping of supplies; technique of embarking and debarking from ships; and, general description of the operation.
- Instruction for officers, noncommissioned officers, petty officers, and other communication personnel on the signal communication systems applicable to air-amphibious operation.
- Advance training.--
- Advance training is defined as special training in an air-amphibious training area prior to participation in an air-amphibious operation.
- Initial phase of advanced training will determine the combat efficiency of a given unit; and, complete training to qualify the given unit with the standards of preliminary training.
- The second phase of advanced training will include specialist, special detachment, and unit training to perfect the technique and tactics of landing teams. Night operations will be emphasized. This phase will terminate with tactical tests and signal communication exercises to determine qualifications of landing teams to effect a successful landing.
- Special operations training.--
- Special operations training is defined as that training to condition combat teams and divisions for a specific air-amphibious operation.
- Initial phase will include a test of combat teams in the technique of a landing; the execution of command post exercises to train staffs and special detachments; and, instruction in plans, orders, and executions for a specific operation.
- The second phase will condition an infantry division to concentrate, embark, debark, and assault a hostile shore.
- The third phase will consist of a maneuver to determine the combat efficiency of a given division for an air-amphibious operation.
- The final phase will effect a rehearsal for the special operation under conditions as similar to those in the projected operation as is practicable. This training phase should conclude with a critique of communications plans.
- Review of operations plan.--
- The review of operations plan is defined as a reconsideration of a prepared plan of operation based upon the combat rehearsal.
- In addition to revision of the operational plan, it is essential to expedite special training, to correct faults determined in the rehearsal with specialist, special detachment, or tactical training.
- Training programs, schedules, and observations should be filed for study during the voyage; and, copies forwarded to planning agencies for their information and study.
- Time factors for air-amphibious operations relative to normal operations demand emphasis on security.
Section 4. Preembarkation Phase
- The preembarkation phase is the 72- to 90-hour period immediately preceding the actual embarkation of the landing force, during which final arrangements must be completed.
- Advance parties.--Insofar as practicable, communication and signal officers shall embark three days in advance of the landing force. These officers shall bring sufficient communication personnel to establish advance message centers. The respective military and naval representatives will establish smoothly functioning unit and joint communication agencies on board ship in advance of the arrival of the landing force.
- Ship and staff communication officers will make arrangements for the reception of the foregoing officers and men; and, for the provision of adequate space for unit message centers. This space should be located as near the ship's communication office as is practicable.
- Information regarding communications to be exchanged.--
- Naval communication officers will furnish landing force communication officers with adequate copies for distribution of the following:
- Suitable diagrams showing office and communication spaces.
- Roster of naval officers aboard, showing their official capacities.
- Landing force communication officers will furnish the Navy communication office with:
- List of Army officers aboard and their official capacities.
- Call signs of embarked units, cryptographic systems held, and other information pertinent to communications.
- Military communication personnel for ships carrying a headquarters comparable to a division will be provided from units not participating in the landing phase; and, will remain on board the ship as long as there exists necessity for communicating with the landing force. They will be landed when released by the senior naval communication officer on the ship.
- Representatives of the senior military and naval commanders will, in conference with their respective intelligence sections, determine what special communications will be required for last-minute reconnaissance reports from patrols, agents and aircraft; and, will arrange for such communications.
- In the period prior to embarkation all ship communication officers and unit signal and communication officers shall make a complete test of all communication equipment, including batteries and spare parts. Dial settings of transmitters and receivers for all frequencies on which each equipment may operate shall be determined and recorded.
- Headquarters ship communication personnel.--Well in advance of any projected landing exercise or operation the communication personnel of the headquarters ship shall be embarked and trained in their individual and team duties.
Section 5. Embarkation
- Loading of equipment.--Embarking signal and communication officers will arrange with the transport quartermasters and the transport communication officers to insure that communication equipment is loaded so as to be readily accessible; and, in such a manner as to provide for the correct unloading sequence. Equipment which is to be employed in the assault phase should be stowed in message centers, auxiliary radio rooms, radio spare part stowage, or other spaces under the control of the ship's communication officer so that it can be serviced readily; and, be available for use. spare parts and accessories for communication equipment to be landed shall be stowed with their associated equipment and landed intact.
- All officers responsible for communication equipment shall insure that a liberal supply of batteries and spare parts is on hand and accessible on board ship. Batteries must be stowed in cool, dry spaces.
- Communication equipment to be used subsequent to the assault phase (such as base communication equipment) should be inventoried, tested, and carefully repacked before loading.
- The loading plan for communication personnel and equipment not to be landed with assault units (including advance base and 90-day replenishment equipment) must be coordinated with the transport quartermasters to provide for distribution between ships to avoid excessive loss in case of sinkings. Furthermore, priority of unloading should be such that equipment to establish advance base communications will be unloaded as soon as the assault permits.
- Pyrotechnic supplies of the landing force will be stowed in the ship's pyrotechnic locker or locker with similar specifications.
- It must be borne in mind that this period may be the last opportunity for distribution of plans, maps, and other documents. Navy guard mail service is available for this purpose and embarked units should utilize it to the utmost.
- The ship's communication officer is responsible for the receipt of all messages addressed to embarked units and for the expeditious delivery of these messages to the unit message centers.
- Message centers will begin full operation at the hour designated for the start of embarkation and operate thereafter on a 24-hour basis.
- Use of telephones.--During the embarkation period ships, which are along side of docks, will have connections ordinarily with the commercial telephone system. The use of such telephone service must be supervised from the view point of security for classified information.
- It must be borne in mind by all landing force personnel that administrative matters must be completed prior to sailing of the convoy. Visual signalling during daylight hours and limited dispatch boat service will be the only means of handling traffic between elements of the landing force during the voyage. Tactical traffic pertaining to the control and movement of the convoy will have priority on all visual channels and it may be impossible to handle any other class.
- Embarked units will detail messengers to the ship's communication office, the radio room, and the signal bridge as may be necessary for the expeditious handling of messages for the landing force.
Section 6. Movement to Theater of Operations
- The Navy will provide all exterior and intership communications enroute to the theater of operations. Naval cryptographic channels will normally be used. All traffic originated by the landing force is subject to approval for release by the naval communication origination. In many cases it will be necessary to prohibit the release of this traffic in order to keep communication channels open for tactical traffic essential to convoy maneuvering.
- Visual communications.--Communications will normally be restricted to daylight visual means. Even then, the use of searchlights may be prohibited in areas where enemy air search is probable.
- Use of landing force equipment at sea prohibited.--No landing force radio equipment may be operated at sea enroute to the theater of operations without approval of the naval force commander. This includes all electrical apparatus with radiating characteristics.
- Inspection of equipment.--Accessible communication equipment shall be kept in efficient operating condition at all times, ready for immediate use. Such equipment, both ship and unit, shall be inspected frequently; and, serviced as necessary. This inspection shall include batteries and spare parts. Radio equipment shall not be turned on.
- Dispatch boats for the delivery of maps, photographs, operation orders and similar matter between elements of the convoy may be provided during long voyages. This service will be dependent on the availability of suitable ships and the tactical situation.
- Radio silence shall be maintained during the voyage unless this condition is officially modified by the naval force commander. Radio silence prohibits all transmissions, of whatever nature, including tuning.
- During the passage to the theater of operations communications personnel must utilize all available time for intensive training and study of orders. Such training will include the following:
- Study or orders and instructions by officers and enlisted men.
- Practice in handling effective cryptographic systems.
- Communication drills in which prepared drill messages will be completely enciphered, deciphered, recorded and delivered. Accuracy and speed are the objectives.
- Training messengers in delivery of traffic to all parts of the ship under darkened ship conditions.
- Training of messengers in the recognition and identification of staff officers.
- Duty assignment cards.--Communication and signal officers will prepare a duty assignment card for each member of their respective communication units participating in the ship-to-shore assault. In general such details as follow are shown thereon:
Name and grade.......................................................
Duty to which assigned.............................................
Your NCO is.............................................................
Your officer is..........................................................
Your debarking station is.........................................
Your abandon ship station is....................................
Your fire station is...................................................
Your general quarters station is...............................
You will be landing on..............................................beach
Your are responsible for the following communication equipment:
Section 7. Approach
- General.--At some stage during the voyage it will become necessary for the naval force to divide into several task groups, for the approach to the various transport areas opposite their respective beaches. At this time the communication plan must provide necessary links between the several task groups and the force commander; and, at the same time, provide the task group commanders with the necessary communications to exercise control for the assault.
- Preparation of equipment for landing.--During this phase communication equipment to be landed must be broken out and prepared in every respect for landing. Particular attention should be given to the condition of batteries and to waterproofing provisions for the equipment not designed for this employment.
- Tuning of portable radio equipment.--Portable radio equipment shall be checked carefully to see that dials are set properly for the frequency on which these sets are to be operated; and, for those so provided, tuning dials shall be locked. Nonradiating receivers should be tested for operation. Until the restrictions imposed by radio silence permit the tuning and netting of the equipment, the difficulties arising from security restrictions cannot be wholly overcome, but will have been minimized by:
- Constant netting drill and practice to including training at night.
- Careful netting before embarkation; recording of exact dial readings.
- Use of frequency meters and built-in crystal calibrators.
- Careful instruction in the use of calibration curves and charts.
- All units must synchronize watches with ship's time immediately prior to debarkation. Provisions will be made for daily time checks.
- During the approach, communication and signal officers must reexamine the details of the communication plans for debarkation and assault in the light of the then existing conditions. Casualties to personnel and equipment and/or late intelligence undoubtedly will require a readjustment of personnel assignments, boat assignment tables and allocation of equipment. Alternate plans must likewise be revised.
- Forward and rear echelons.--The communication personnel will be divided into two echelons. The first goes ashore with the forward echelon of the unit headquarters to establish the initial command post on land. The rear echelon aboard ship remains in operation until ordered ashore.
- It is the responsibility of the signal or communication officer to insure that debarkation tables provide for the dispersal of personnel and equipment of his unit between two boats.
Section 8. Debarkation and Assault
- The debarkation and assault phase may be logically subdivided into four phases.
- Phase I.--
- This phase covers the following evolutions: Debarkation of troops, loading of boats, organization of boat waves, movement by waves to rendezvous area, movement of boat group to line of departure and the final movement to the beach.
- During this phase radio silence is normal and communications are restricted to voice and visual means (arm and flag signals during daylight; carefully screened lights, in darkness). However, military tactical radio nets are manned in readiness for instant use should the element of surprise be lost; or, emergency arise. Continuous listening watches are maintained.
- The communication plan will enumerate the specific conditions under which radio silence may be broken during the ship-to-shore movement. No dogmatic determination of the specific time when radio silence may be broken can be set forth.
- Loading of equipment in boats.--Signal equipment, such as radio sets and other fragile itees, should be loaded in the boat at the rail; if practicable; otherwise, it will be lowered into boats by means of ropes and guide lines. No unit will plan to land signal equipment too bulky to be justified by the tactical situation. Plans will be made to delay the debarkation of heavy pieces until they can be taken ashore with the proper degree of safety for the equipment.
- Boat assignments.--From the standpoint of efficient communications, it is highly desirable that certain commanders and special communication teams be embarked together in certain boats as follows:
- The boat group commander with the landing team commander.
- The assistant boat group commander with the landing team executive officer.
- The shore fire-control party, in a boat adjacent to that of the landing team commander, in order to be able to call for direct fire while the landing force is water-borne.
- The air liaison party in a boat adjacent to that of the landing team commander if direct air support is provided.
- The shore party commander and the beachmaster should be embarked in an adjacent boat of the same wave.
- Special radio nets.--
- When conditions require the appointment of a boat flotilla commander, a special radio net is provided which will include the flotilla commander, each of his boat group commanders and the transport division commanders. This net is omitted when the flotilla organization is not used.
- The control vessel must be prepared to operate in the boat group commander's circuit, commanders control vessels circuit and with the fire support group supporting the beach.
- Commander of the transport division will listen in on the control vessel circuit. He may put a transmitter on this circuit if he has one available. It is probable that the commander naval force will also listen on this circuit during the initial stages of the ship-to-shore movement. If a guide plane be employed, the boat group commanders and the combat team commanders will be vitally interested in the information and the directions which will come from the guide plane. It is, therefore, essential that the boat group commander operate a set in the combat team net. It is necessary that the frequency for this net be prescribed by the highest echelon.
- List of diagrams.--
FIGURE 1.--Organization chart.
FIGURE 2.--Boat group control circuit.
FIGURE 3.--Combat team net.
FIGURE 4.--Direct support aircraft circuit.
FIGURE 5.--Transport division command circuit.
FIGURE 6.--Boat control circuits.
Figure 1. Organization Chart
Phase I and II--Boat Group Control Circuit
Radio--TBY or SCR-511--Navy Circuit
NOTE.--This figure does not indicate the correct position of the boat relative to the waves, but merely indicates the communication net.
Figure 2. Boat group control circuit.
The boat waves are controlled in their movement by a control vessel, normally a destroyer, which times and directs the movement of the boat waves from the line of departure.
The scout boat, if used, usually a support boat or speedy personnel boat equipped with motor silencers, acts as a beacon or guide to boat waves approaching the beach.
The boat waves depart from the line of departure upon direction by the control vessel. The second wave commander is normally beachmaster.
The third wave carries the shore fire control party which aids in the spotting for naval gunfire by giving essential information such as location, and strength of enemy gun emplacements and batteries. The third wave also carries the air liaison party when attached to a landing team.
The third or fourth wave carries the joint shore party communication team which later establishes shore communications.
The transport must remain in communication with all the units shown in figure 1 in order that it can be prepared to supervise, receive prompt report on the nature of the landings, to alter boat loading priorities, cease unloading or withdraw, if necessary.
The ship may lose contact with the boat group passing out of radio range, in which event the control vessel may act as a relay.
Phase I--Combat Team Net
Radio--TBX or SCR-284--Army or Marine Net
Figure 3.--Combat Team Net.
Each transport carries a battalion landing team. This circuit (net) is between the combat team commander on the Trans Div flagship and the landing team commanders for tactical control. One landing team is normally kept in reserve either in the transport or in boats. Each landing team communication platoon is divided into two echelons, a forward and a rear, the latter maintaining a listening watch on this net. The several landing teams operate on different beaches. A guide plane may be on this circuit in order to assist the boat waves to the beaches. Control vessels should listen for information.
Phase I.--Direct Support Aircraft Circuit
Figure 4. Direct Support Aircraft Circuit.
The purpose of this circuit is to afford communication between the supporting aircraft and the assault troops. The air liaison party may go ashore with a landing team; or later with the CT headquarters.
Phase I-IV.--Transport Division Command Circuit
Radio--Ship's Radio--Navy Circuit
Figure 5. Transport Division Command Circuit.
THIS IS AN EMERGENCY CIRCUIT
This circuit gives the transport division commander control of the ships under his command. In practice two paralleled circuits may be employed, one a voice circuit for emergency use, the second a key circuit for other purposes. Visual signalling is used whenever possible.
Phase I--Boat Control Circuits
Radio--SCR-511 or TBY--Navy Circuit
Figure 6.--Boat Control Circuit.
- Phase II--Introductory statement.--
- The second phase of the landing attack is the period when landing teams are ashore and combat team commanders are still afloat.
- List of diagrams:
FIGURE 7.--Traffic control and salvage vessel circuit.
FIGURE 8.--Combat team command net.
FIGURE 9.--Direct support aircraft circuit.
FIGURE 10.--Air spot and shore fire control nets.
FIGURE 11.--Ship-to-shore administrative circuit.
FIGURE 12.--Shore party lateral net.
FIGURE 13.--Local shore party circuit.
FIGURE 14.--Battalion shore party net.
FIGURE 15.--Naval task force commander's circuit.
FIGURE 16.--Division command net.
FIGURE 17.--Fire support circuit.
FIGURE 18.--Combat air patrol circuit.
- During this phase radio, messenger, visual and sound systems are normal. The use of wire during the early phases of the assault will be dependent on several factors which must be carefully weighed for each particular situation. Track laying vehicles and wheeled transportation preclude the laying and maintenance of wire lines on the ground, in the vicinity of the beach and for a considerable distance inland. Overhead wire lines, when feasible at all, require time and labor, which might better be devoted to other requirements until congestion and traffic abate. Should it be determined that the bulk and weight of wire equipment do not warrant the use of boat spaces in the leading wave, detailed arrangements must be made for the subsequent landing of this type of equipment. Landing teams will plan and make provision for the use of wire as early as practicable after leaving the vicinity of the beach.
Phase II--Traffic Control and Salvage Vessel Circuit
Radio--TBY or SCR-511 (Navy Circuit)--Navy Circuit
Figure 7. Traffic Control and Salvage Vessel Circuit.
The beachmasters are ashore and in communication with the traffic control boats, salvage vessels and transports to regulate and direct the movement of boats to and from the beach. Because of short range of equipment and direct communication between beach and transport may be impossible. In this case, the traffic may be relayed by salvage vessel or sent on the ship-shore circuit.
Figure 8.--Combat team Command Net.
The CT commander aboard the transport is in communication with the LT's which are proceeding inland. A reconnaissance plane assigned to the CT will operate in this net. The rear echelon of the landing teams may, or may not, be operating their radio equipment at this time.
Phase II--Direct Support Aircraft Circuit
Figure 9.--Direct Support Aircraft Circuit.
Air liaison parties will be located at combat team of landing team command posts in accordance with the tactical plan for use of aircraft. Each party is equipped with SCR-193 mounted in a 1/4-ton, 4x4 vehicle. In a situation where land-based aircraft are employed, the circuit shown above as terminating in the carrier (CV) would terminate at the air-support control.
Phase II--Air Spot and Shore Fire Control Nets
Radio--SCR-284 or TBX--Joint Net
Figure 10.--Air Spot and Shore Fire Control Nets.
This circuit provides communications for control of naval gunfire support against shore targets. The NGLnO (naval gunfire liaison officer) reports to and remains with the landing team commander. The SFCP (shore fire control party), equipped with an SCR-284 or TBX, establishes the observation post and is in direct radio contact with the fire support ship. Contact between the SFCP and the NGLnO is by sound-powered telephone.
Phase II--Ship to Shore Administrative Circuit
Radio--SCR-284 or TBX--Joint Circuit
Figure 11.--Ship to Shore Administrative Circuit.
This net provides communication between the transport division and the shore parties for the purpose of controlling the flow of supplies to the beach, the evacuation of personnel, and other administrative matters. Visual and messenger boat communication is used to the maximum extent.
Phase II--Shore Party Lateral Net
Radio--SCR-284 or TBX--Army or Marine Circuit
Figure 12.--Shore Party Lateral Net.
This net provides the naval, air, and landing force commanders with a flow of tactical information as to conditions on the beaches. Shore radio circuits are paralleled by wire as soon as possible.
Phase II--Local Shore Party Circuit
Figure 13.--Local Shore Party Circuit.
Local circuits operated between shore party message centers, shore party commanders, and beachmaster, so that the latter two may move about the beach as required and still remain in constant communication.
Phase II--Battalion Shore Party Net
Radio--SCR-284 or TBX--Army or Marine Net
Figure 14.--Battalion Shore Party Net.
As landing teams proceed inland, communication to shore parties is provided by this net, which is in addition to CT tactical net; radio is supplemented by wire as soon as practicable.
Phased II--Naval Task Force Commander's Circuit
radio--Ship's radio--Navy Circuit
Figure 15.--Naval Task Force Commander's Circuit.
This is a command circuit and provides the commander of the naval force with communications to his subordinate commanders. The number of subordinate commanders on this circuit will vary with the size and composition of the naval force participating.
Phase II--Division Command Net
Radio (Ship's While Afloat, and Army or Marine on Shore) Army or Marine Net
Figure 16.--Division Command Net.
The CT commanders are usually aboard the same ships as the commanders of the transport divisions.
Phase II--Fire Support Circuit
Figure 17--Fire Support Circuit.
This circuit permits the commander of the fire support group to control the several elements of the fire support group.
Phase II--Combat Air Patrol Circuit
Radio--Ship and Aircraft radio--Air Circuit
Figure 18.--Combat Air Patrol Circuit.
The carrier uses this circuit to control its planes on combat air patrol.
Amphibious radio Channels
- Phase III.--
- Introductory statement.--In this phase of the landing attack the several combat team headquarters have been established ashore. The Landing Teams have proceeded farther inland. The shore parties continue in the operation of unloading stores and supplies form the landing boats.
- List of diagrams.--
FIGURE 20.--Division Command Net.
FIGURE 21.--Combat Team Command Net.
FIGURE 22.--Shore Party to Combat Team Headquarters Net.
Phase III--Division Command Net
Radio--Ship's Radio, SCR-284 or TBX--Army or Marine Net
Figure 20.--Division Command Net.
This net is the Army or Marine division command net shown after the combat team headquarters have landed, but division headquarters is still afloat.
Phase III--Combat Team Command Net
Radio--SCR-284--Army or Marine Net
Figure 21.--Combat Team Command Net.
This is the same circuit as Phase II, figure 8, except that the combat team commanders and the reserve landing teams are now ashore.
Phase III--Shore Party to Combat Team Hqs. Net
Radio--SCR-284 or TBX--Army or Marine Net
Figure 22.--Shore Party to Combat Team Headquarters Net.
After CT headquarters have landed, the shore parties maintain radio contact with them.
Amphibious Radio Channels
Figure 23. Consolidation.
- Phase IV--Introductory statement.--
- In the fourth and final phase of the landing attack, the commander of the landing force has established headquarters ashore. The shore party is in visual communication with the unloading transports and cargo ships.
- List of diagrams:
FIGURE 24.--Division Commander's Net.
- In this phase all signal communications will approach intraservice normal systems. Joint shore party systems (wire, radio, messenger, visual and sound) will have been installed and in operation; and, modifications will be initiated in anticipation of the consolidation.
Phase IV--Division Commander's Net
Figure 24.--Division Commander's Net.
The division command net is shown completely manned on shore.
Phase IV--Amphibious Radio Channels
Section 9. Consolidation
- Upon the attainment of the primary objective, that of securing a beachhead, immediate action must be taken relative to the permanent communication set-up. Naval facilities afloat will be available for a limited time as the ships must be unloaded expeditiously and released. At the earliest possible moment, the signal officer must get ashore to make a thorough and an accurate estimate of the situation.
- Pre-operational intelligence will provide a certain amount of information as to existing facilities in the landing area. Communication requirements for tactical purposes will be well indicated. Thus, much of the planning and preparation for these requirements will have been accomplished. The factor that cannot be foretold with any degree of certainty is the amount of damage that the present facilities may suffer during the assault or through sabotage. In planning, liberal allowance must be made for this contingency.
- If the landings have been made in an area including a seaport, it is likely that a naval base will be established. In this circumstance, the division of responsibility between the military and naval commanders for the communications system (to include radar) must be determined. Normally, external communication with higher headquarters in the home country will be the responsibility of the Navy. Internal communications will embrace the task force headquarters and its subordinates (for example: task groups; supply, air, anti-aircraft, harbor and base installations).
- Close liaison between all officers responsible for signal communications must be maintained to coordinate the transition to the land-based system.
- Detailed consideration of the problem will include:
- Estimate of communication requirements.
- Time deadlines.
- Existing facilities:
- Requirements for rehabilitation and extent to which these can be met.
- New installation:
- Labor required.
- Personnel for operation and maintenance:
- Military and naval.
- Alternate plans.
Section 10. Check List
- This check list is furnished as a general aid to the formulation of joint air-amphibious communication plans. A plan may omit items of the check list deemed inappropriate, and may include such additional items as may appear desirable.
- Date and hour when communication order or annex is to become effective.
- Enemy communications and radar.
- Friendly communications available for use.
- Limitations of intercommunication between services.
- Location of headquarters of participating services.
- Time system to be used.
- Time signals.
- Time tables (Sunrise-sunset, moonrise-moonset).
- Precedence (priorities).
- General instructions, including radio silence, radio discipline:
- Use of plain language.
- Alternate arrangements in event of casualties to stations.
- Frequencies--Including time when becoming effective:
- Air-ground liaison (observation and reconnaissance).
- Air support.
- Armored force.
- Boat traffic control.
- Broadcast (for example: Navy Fox).
- Command for transport divisions.
- Control for fighter aircraft.
- Control for commander of naval forces.
- Control for commander task force.
- Control for commander of fire support groups.
- Control and salvage vessels.
- Direct support aircraft.
- D/F for navigational aids.
- Fire spotting planes.
- Infantry division.
- International distress (SOS).
- Instrument landing.
- Scene of action: (is an emergency frequency established by the combined chief of staff).
- Shore fire control parties to firing ships.
- Shore party lateral--used for relaying intelligence and action reports from landing points to the landing force commander still afloat.
- Intra-beach (between beachmaster, shore party commander and shore party message center).
- Call signs:
- Individual and block (group).
- International calls.
- Berne list.
- Joint. (Equipment and units for special purposes such as Navy gunfire liaison parties, shore party command, Army ground liaison with naval aircraft, ship-to-shore signal communications for Army command, air-support parties and controls (Army).)
- Nonmilitary communication systems:
- Allocation of stations to various services; and for propaganda purposes.
- Call signs.
- Procedure radiotelephone (R/t), radiotelegraph (W/T).
- Warning systems.
- Fighter control interception (FCI).
- Ground control interception (GCI).
- Interference with other services.
- Identification, friend or foe. (IFF).
- Aircraft interception. (AI).
- Beam approach beacon systems (BABS).
- Aircraft surface vessel. (ASV).
- Surface search.
- Searchlight and fire control systems. (SL and FC).
- Radio and radar countermeasures.--
- Jamming by own side (deliberate).
- Jamming by enemy.
- Detection and identification.
- Frequency changes in event of jamming or interference.
- Communication and radar intelligence.--
- Information of enemy, radio and radar.
- Enemy stations, intercepting.
- Enemy stations, interfering.
- Reports of enemy sighting us.
- Interception of enemy radio and radar.
- Counter intelligence measures.
- Reports of interference.
- Enemy information reports.
- Monitoring of own transmissions.
- Direction and position finding.
- Dummy traffic.
- General instructions as to use:
- Choice of various means.
- Special pyrotechnic signals.
- Call signs:
- Individual and block (group).
- Time when effective.
- Channels to be set up between services.
- Procedure: Lights, flag hoist, panel and semaphore.
- Responsibility for installation, operation, and maintenance.
- Organization of telephone and telegraph systems.
- To main base.
- Between main headquarters.
- Laterals between elements of different services.
- Antiaircraft requirements.
- Aircraft warning.
- Navy fire liaison parties.
- Air support.
- Air defense.
- Shore parties.
- terminal equipment requirements.
- Utilization of existing facilities.
- Special instructions:
- Telephone code names and numbers.
- Authenticator system, if necessary.
- Teletype, teleprinter, and telegraph systems:
- Call signs.
- Nonmilitary facilities:
- Allocation to services.
- Call signs.
- Modifications to normal procedures.
- Messenger Service.--
- Airplane service--pick up and drop methods.
- Boat service.
- Ground messengers.
- Pigeon service.
- Special messengers.
- Whether officer or other rank.
- Recognition and identification.--
- Types to be used, with effective times:
- Special approach doctrine for friendly aircraft.
- Emergency identification.
- Surface vessels, aircraft, submarines.
- Night fighting lights.
- Instructions regarding communication and radar systems.
- Monitoring and supervision of own transmissions.
- Prompt exchange of technical information between cryptanalytic elements.
- Destruction of equipment when capture is imminent.
- Codes and ciphers.--
- Occasions when plain language may be used.
- Contact reports and methods of reporting positions.
- Systems to be used between various services with effective dates and restrictions, for example:
- Ship-to-ship visual code.
- Local allocation of signals in existing codes.
- Merchant ships.
- Visual codes, air-ground.
- Aircraft codes.
- Type to be used between higher headquarters.
- Fire control code.
- All-service emergency code.
- Emergency destruction of cryptographic aids and classified publications.
- Distribution (Holders).
- Exchange of liaison parties between services.
- joint training for special personnel.
- Action to be taken in connection with captured equipment and matériel.
- Selection of equipment according to climatic conditions and terrain.
- Location of depots for signal stores. provision of special equipment.
- Service and maintenance organizations.
- Combat loading and distribution of equipment and personnel, including dispersal considerations to minimize possible losses.
- Prearranged message forms.
The joint communication plan will in general include the following items, which will be in the sequence indicated below:
Section 11. Basic Communication Plan for Joint Operations
- Such information of enemy communications and radars as may be essential from the point of view of joint operations.
- Such information of friendly communication and radar facilities as may be necessary for the coordinated action of the joint services in joint operations.
- Such information of the communication and radar systems of the participating services as may be necessary for the understanding by each service of the capabilities and limitations of the communication and radar systems of the other services.
- Such information of the aircraft warning service communication system as is necessary to insure the prompt reception and distribution of the information of approach of hostile and friendly aircraft.
- Such information regarding air support (naval and/or military) as may be necessary to insure that requests for air support will be expeditiously handled.
- Such information pertaining to the command "set-up" (that is, locating of the headquarters or command posts) of all services as may be necessary for the effective installation and operation of the communication and radar systems.
- Time.--Designation of the time systems to be used for communication purposes and in heading and text of messages.
- Precedence (priorities).--Establishment of various degrees of precedence (priority) and appropriate methods of indicating them.
- General radio instructions, as necessary, including radio silence restrictions, etc.
- Call signs and frequencies, to include such instructions to cover assignment and distribution of radio call signs and frequencies as may be necessary to--
- Insure coordinated action and avoid interference between the services.
- Provide a guide for all services in distributing the particular items or publications.
- Indicate time when call signs and frequencies become effective.
- Instructions for the establishment and operation of such special channels of radio communication as may be required for joint operations, including--
- Assignment of personnel and special equipment when necessary.
- Operating schedules, etc.
- Authentication instructions.
- Special instructions regarding nonmilitary facilities, including supervision, allocation to various services, and designation of call signs.
- Coordinate inter-service requirements.
- Radar search plans, designation of sectors to be searched by individual stations, based on capabilities and limitations of the equipment.
- Search doctrine (or policy), standard or special.
- Methods of passing Radar information, warning net.
- IFF (identification, friend and foe) instructions.
- Fighter direction procedures, instructions regarding GCI (ground control interception) and AI (aircraft interception).
- Radio intelligence.--Include such information and instructions as may be necessary for--
- Coordinated action of all radio intelligence services.
- Distribution (or exchange) of radio intelligence.
- General instructions as necessary, including:
- Restrictions as to the use of visual signal equipment, daylight and darkness.
- Priority of various means (flags, searchlights, etc.)
- Meanings of special pyrotechnic signals.
- Visual call signs:
- Call signs needed for intercommunication between the services.
- Guide for the distribution of call signs to all interested elements.
- Time when call signs are effective.
- Designation of such visual codes as may be required for joint operations.
- Instructions for the establishment and operation of such special visual channels as may be required between elements of the participating services.
- Instructions for installation, operation, and maintenance of such wire communications as may be needed, including any restrictions.
- Organization of nets.
- Call signs needed for intercommunication between participating services.
- Special instructions regarding nonmilitary facilities, including supervision, allocation to various services, designation of call signs.
- Messenger service.-- Instructions for the operation of a messenger service between various elements which should state schedules, means of transportation, and whether officer or enlisted man.
- Recognition signals.--
- Recognition signals (surface craft, submarines, aircraft, and ground forces):
- Type or types to be used.
- Prescribed signals and maneuvers, including those used by aircraft approaching surface craft.
- Identifying marks on ships, special flags, lights, etc.
- Guide for distribution.
- Communication security and cryptanalytic activities.--Instructions to insure the coordination of the communication security activities, and the prompt exchange of technical information between cryptanalytic elements.
- Codes and ciphers.--
- Systems to be used, effective dates, and restrictions.
- Guide for the distribution of codes and ciphers.
- Equipment and personnel.--
- Instructions concerning liaison between services and the training and assignment of special personnel.
- Considerations of equipment of the various services, the limitations of use in areas of operation, available replacements, interchangeability, and spares.
- Grid system prescribed.--
Sample Radio Channel Chart
Appendix A--Joint Shore Party Communication Teams
- General purpose.--A joint shore party communication team is embarked in each APA. Each team, composed of both Army and Navy personnel, is trained as a unit to function as a unit in establishing communications on the landing beaches.
- Source.--Army Personnel of the joint shore party communication teams are furnished from the signal company, special (T/O 111-517S). Each company is organized to furnish nine teams. Naval communication ratings are assigned by commander amphibious force to complete these teams.
- Composition.--The composition of the joint shore party communication team is as follows:
Team officer (Army or Navy). Tech. Sgt. (Army/Marine). RM 3c (Navy). RM 2c (Navy). Pvt. (Army/Marine). RM 3c (Navy). Pvt. (Army/Marine). RM 3c (Navy). Pvt. (Army/Marine). RM 3c (Navy). Message center and messenger section: Staff Sgt. (Army/Marine). Pvt. (Army/Marine). Cpl. (Army/Marine). Pvt. (Army/Marine). Pvt. (Army/Marine). Traffic control boat: RM 3c (Navy). SM 3c (Navy). Visual and panel section: SM 2c (Navy). SM 3c (Navy). SM 3c (Navy). Wire section: Sgt. (Army/Marine). Pvt. (Army/Marine). Pvt. (Army/Marine). Pvt. Army/Marine). Pvt. (Army/Marine). Pvt. Army/Marine). Pvt. (Army/Marine). Pvt. Army/Marine). Pvt. (Army/Marine). Pvt. Army/Marine).
Appendix B--Air Support
- Bombing and strafing of the beach defenses, vital installations and immediate rear areas is by prearrangement. The number of type of targets so selected will depend upon information gained from intelligence reports, air reconnaissance (including photographic), spies, etc.
- Reconnaissance for an attack will, if practicable, take place during a period of several weeks prior to the actual date of attack. This reconnaissance will be conducted over a wide area in such a manner as not to disclose the proposed point(s) of landing. Bombings which may take place during the same period should be designed to soften and mislead the defense.
- It cannot be expected that missions by prearrangement will neutralize all major points of enemy resistance. To meet this contingency, a system of air support is set up whereby bombing missions are carried out "on call" or by request.
- The communications herein discussed, as they pertain to land based planes, is predicated on the assumption that one air support command will support the landing of one infantry division.
- When carrier based aircraft are used, the air liaison party will consist of one naval air officer, one radioman, one Army air officer, and one radio operator technician. The party will be equipped with an SCR-193, preferably on a one-quarter-ton vehicle.
- Normally this party will be transported in the same ship as the combat team commander, the officers becoming part of his staff. Upon debarkation and movement to shore, the party is transported in a boat adjacent to the combat team commander and, when ashore, operates at the command post of said commander. If the situation demands, this party may be directed by the combat team commander to travel and operate with the headquarters of one of the landing teams.
- An air support control (naval), composed of a naval air officer and staff sufficient to provide communications and to maintain the necessary records (availability of aircraft, losses, situation map, etc.), is set up aboard the headquarters ship.
- During the early phases of the landing operation, it is essential that direct support aircraft be on "air alert," and that requests form air liaison parties be transmitted direct to the commander of the direct support aircraft. The air support control monitors these requests and determines the priority in the event of multiple or conflicting requests. In the event the aircraft detailed for direct air support are equipped with VHF radio only, the requests will be directed to the air support, who will issue the attack order on the proper frequency.
- When there are suitable bases near enough the scene of attack to permit the use of land-based aircraft, these should be used in place of carriers.
- In this case, a control squadron (Avn) will furnish air support parties each consisting of one air officer, one communication officer, two radio operators, two radio operator-mechanics, and one chauffeur. They travel with, serve, and function with the same headquarters as in the case of the air liaison party (Naval). This party is normally equipped with the SCR-299, but in amphibious operations, a more easily transported set such as the SCR-193 mounted in a one-quarter-ton vehicle must be procured.
- The control squadron (Avn) will also provide the personnel for the air support control on the headquarters ship. Composition: one air officer, one communication officer, one chief radio operator, two assistant chief radio operators, four radio operators, and two radio operator-mechanics.
- Functions are the same as outlined in paragraph 8, except that distances will probably be such that the transmission of requests by parties will not reach the bomber airdromes, necessitating
another channel (from control to airdrome) for the repetition of necessary information in the bomb attack order.
- The attack order officially goes to the bomb group headquarters, but the squadrons listen to the transmission from control to group, and can be ready (alerted, armed, briefed) when group gives the order to execute.
- An observation liaison officer is provided and functions at the command post of the ComLanFor, when afloat or ashore. He is provided communication with the land based observation group. He works in close coordination with the ComLanFor, ComNavFor and ComAirFor and controls air observation activities.
- Air support command on the friendly shore keeps informed of the air situation through its own channels and is kept informed of the general situation through ground force channels, thus is able to take over air operations if circumstances demand.
- The air support control aboard ship is equipped with high power VHF in addition to HF for contact with fighter and other aircraft so equipped. It is advisable that air support parties and/or air liaison parties be equipped with low power VHF for the same purpose.
Air Support Nets (Support Group Land Based)
Radio--SCR193 or 284, SCR-299, BC-342 Revrs.)
Appendix C--Air Defense
- Fighter aircraft (AAF and Naval) employed in air defense perform two functions in amphibious operations, namely:
- To provide an escort for air support airplanes. A communication channel must be provided linking fighters, escorted airplanes and fighter control, the latter to be either aboard headquarters ship, aircraft carrier, fighter direction ship or on friendly shore.
- To provide a fighter cover for landing operations in case of an attack by enemy aircraft. Fighters will require communications with fighter control on headquarters ship, aircraft carrier, fighter director ship or friendly shore. Naval radar will provide AWS and direction finding for fighter control.
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