Sailors as Infantry in the U.S. Navy

Patrick H. Roth (Captain, U.S. Navy, Ret.)


Sailors as Infantry in the US Navy (main body of text)


Appendices and Footnotes


Appendix A
Thirty-six Illustrative Examples of the Use of Sailors as Infantry
(Note: This is only a partial list)

Event
Year
Description
Force composition
Capture of New Providence Island, Bahamas.59 1776 Continental Navy under Ezek Hopkins captures New Providence Town and two forts. First fleet operation and first amphibious operation by the U.S. Navy 200 marines under Capt Samuel Nichols, 50 sailors under LT Thomas Weaver of Continental Navy ship Cabot.
Defense of Washington and Baltimore.60 1814 Washington: Como Joshua Barney’s Chesapeake flotilla personnel fought ashore at Bladensburg defending the capital. Navy forces ashore commanded by Como David Porter and O.H. Perry engaged the British Potomac River expedition. Baltimore: Navy units including Barney’s flotilla personnel, ships company from USS Guerriere, Essex, Erie, manned the artillery and infantry redoubts defending Baltimore. Barney’s flotilla men engaged the British assault on Fort McHenry. Washington: Como Joshua Barney’s approximate 400 man force, augmented by about 110 marines. Baltimore: eight officers, 387 sailors and about 50 marines from USS Guerriere and Erie ships company under Como John Rogers.

Two engagements with pirates: Cuba.Both are typical operations during the anti-piracy campaign of 1821-29.61

1823 a.) Two cutters from USS Peacock intercepted and drove ashore pirate Pilot capturing it and continuing pursuit ashore.
b.) USS Greyhound and Beagle land parties and assault a pirate base.
Peacock: 36 sailors and marines.
Greyhound/Beagle: Seaman conduct frontal assault while party of marines and sailors attempt to take position from the rear.
Capture of Quallah Battoo, Sumatra (Indonesia)62 1832 Sailors and marines from USS Potomac capture Quallah Battoo against stiff opposition. 250 man marine and bluejacket landing party consisting of one marine and two sailor companies.
Siege of Vera Cruz, Mexico.63 1847 Gunners and artillery from the Home Squadron operated ashore bombarding the city. The naval artillery was the heaviest siege artillery used and fired about twenty-five percent of the munitions expended against the city. Approximately 200 sailors. Vera Cruz surrendered before it was assaulted by infantry. If an infantry assault had been made it was planned that one of the three planned assault columns would be composed of sailors and marines.
Recapture of Los Angeles.64 1847 During the War with Mexico Los Angeles was captured by a Navy-Marine force. It was subsequently retaken by the Californians and then recaptured after an initial unsuccessful try. The recapture involved an infantry march from San Diego to Los Angeles. Battles occurred at San Gabriel and La Mesa Six companies of sailors and marines, two companies of U.S Dragoons (dismounted), two companies of Californian Volunteers under Commodore Robert Stockton
Capture of the Chinese barrier forts.65 1856 Landing parties from USS Portsmouth, Levant, and San Jacinto captured and held the Pearl River forts guarding Canton 237 sailors and 50 marines.
Infantry force organized and trained in order to conduct operations against Paraguay.66 1859 The United States sent a 19 ship expedition to Paraguay to enforce reparations and an apology for firing on the USS Water Witch four years earlier. A 250 man force consisting of 100 marines, 110 sailors in a light infantry role and 40 sailors comprising the artillery (4 guns) was organized. They exercised ashore at Corrientes, Argentina, before the affair ended peaceably.
Reconnaissance at Pittsburg Landing on the Tennessee River.67 1862 Reconnaissance and demolition of Confederate fortifications near Shiloh by gunboats USS Tyler and Lexington landing parties. The landing party consisted of one hundred sailors and Army soldiers. This is one of 46 minor Navy landing operations during the Civil War.
Capture of Fort Fisher, North Carolina 1864 A large Navy infantry force participated in the joint Army-Navy infantry assault of the fort which guarded Wilmington, the last open port of the Confederacy. Approximately 2,000 sailors and marines of the Blockading Squadron under Commodore Porter, Navy-Marine ratio can be estimated from losses: 320 sailors, 61 Marines. This is one of 36 major landings during the Civil War.
Seizure of the pirate ship Forward, Tecapan River Mexico.68 1870 Landing party seized the pirate steamer Forward which was located some 40 miles upriver from the coast. Seizure was conducted under heavy fire.

Sixty man party from USS Mohican in six ships boats

Capture of the Korean Forts.69 1871 In retaliation for the ambush of an American survey party, a force from the Asiatic Squadron captured several Korean forts, spiking their guns. 651 sailors forming a Seaman Brigade, 105 Marines forming a battalion , including seven sailor manned naval field howitzers.
Landing exercise at Cheefo, China70 1882 Screw Sloop-of-war USS Swatara landing party put ashore for training with permission of Chinese Authorities 103 man landing party: including bluejacket company, 34 men; machine-gun section, 13 sailors; 12 pdr. howitzer, 13 sailors; squad of marines, 20 marines; file of pioneers, 4 men.
Protection of the Panama Railroad and U.S. interests.71 1885 Landing parties from North Atlantic and Pacific Squadron ships, along with an expeditionary force formed in the U.S., protect U.S. interests in the Isthmus. 875 man expeditionary force from ships and a force dispatched from the U.S. It included 549 marines and 280 sailors. Sailors acted as infantry and manned the artillery consisting of 3” breach loading canon, boat howitzers, and Gatling guns
Peacekeeping and engagements at Samoa during U.S.-UK protectorate72 1899 Landing party from Armored cruiser No. 4 USS Philadelphia ashore for three months to maintain order in connection with Royal Navy landing parties. Landing party consisted of marine company, sailor company, machine gun detachment (sailors) and artillery (sailors). Majority (36 of 56) of participants in major battle in the interior, are sailors.
Landing at Zumarraga, Philippines.73 1900 Investigation location of possible insurgent stores. 25 sailors from River Gunboat No. 5 USS Panay and Patrol Gunboat No. 39 USS Pampanga under command of LT Frederic R. Payne CO USS Pampanga. One of numerous incidents of use of sailors as infantry during the 1898-1903 Philippines insurrection.
Defense and relief of the Legation Quarter Beijing China74 1900 Navy machinegun detachment from Armored Cruiser No. 1 USS Newark and Battleship No. 3 USS Oregon landing party reaches Beijing and participates in defense of the quarter. Bluejackets are apart of first relief expedition British Admiral Edward Seymore. Machine gun detachment. Sailors and marines make up 112 man contribution to Seymore relief expedition.
Possible landing at Beruit , Lebanon (Syria)75 1903 Armored Cruiser No. 3 USS Brooklyn and Armored Cruiser No. 5 USS San Francisco landing forces prepared to land at Beruit to provide protection of Consulate during instability. One company of marines, one company of bluejackets. A small mixed sailor/marine guard was actually landed.
Operations in Nicaragua.76 1912 Navy and Marine forces operated in the field during the period August-November 1912. 42 officers and 1,030 sailors from seven ships; 43 officers and 1,272 Marines, most of whom were from battalion organizations.
Occupation of Veracruz, Mexico.77 1914 Fleet forces landed and occupied Veracruz against Mexican opposition. Sailors and some Marine forces later relieved by Army units. Forty five Navy personnel were awarded Medals of Honor for infantry action.

Naval Brigade consisting of First Seaman Regiment (57 off, 1,146 men) and Second Seaman Regiment (64 off, 1,301 men) plus Navy artillery battalion.Marine Advanced Base Brigade: 2nd Provisional Regiment (28 off, 715 men), and 3rd Provisional Regiment (29 off, 608 men)

Occupation of Port au Prince Haiti.78 1915 Naval force occupied Port au Prince to maintain order and protect property. This landing begins a 19 year occupation of Haiti. During the first months of the occupation Navy landing parties were very active in conduct of operations against Coco opposition ashore. Battleship No. 18 USS Connecticut sailors formed a detachment of the assault force on Fort Riviere, capture of which essentially ended the first Caco war. Throughout the 19 year occupation Navy personnel performed key functions in the civil government including finance, public works, and medical services. 2 companies Marines (2 officers, 162 marines); 3 companies of seamen (7 officers, 215 men) from Armored Cruiser No. 11 USS Washington. Two bluejackets were killed.
Capture of Fort Riviére, Haiti 1915 This engagement ended the first Caco War. Three marines won the Medal of Honor including Major Smedley Butler who won his second award. Detachment of sailors from Battleship No. 18 USS Connecticut, Connecticut marines, units from the 5th, 13th, and 24th companies of marines.
Five batteries of 14 inch Naval Railway guns involved in combat operations in France.79 1918 Five batteries are deployed under command of Radm C.P. Plunkett providing allies largest caliber gunnery support. Supported by 458 Navy officers and men. (20,000 volunteered)
Sailors acting as infantry at Murmansk and Archangel, Russia.80 1918 At Murmansk they relieved British marines who were dispatched to the South. At Archangel they participated in the pursuit of the enemy on the Volgda Railroad Front and on the Northern Dvina River Front. Murmansk: Eight officers and 100 seamen from Protected Cruiser No. 6 USS Olympia. Archangel: 54 sailors from Olympia.
Landing near Vladivistock, Russia81 1919 Combined Protected Cruiser USS Albany - White Russian landing party put ashore to protect the Suchun mines from the Bolsheviks. One hundred Protected Cruiser USS Albany men participated in the landing party.
Demonstration in front of the city of Trau, Dalmatia (Croatia)83 1919 A Navy landing party force is sent to the city of Trau in U.S. occupied Dalmatia in order to demonstrate that Italian government backed filibusterers who has seized the city that they would not be allowed to enter U.S. occupied territory during September 1919. Landing parties from Protected Cruiser No. 6 USS Olympia and Destroyer No. 167 USS Cowell under command of Captain (USN) Boyd.
Protection of refugees at Smyrna (Izmir) Turkey84 1922 Sailors were landed in September to protect American lives and property and to assist in the evacuation of Greek refugees as Turkish troops took over the city. Landing parties from destroyers USS Litchfield (DD-336), Simpson (DD-221), and Lawrence (DD-250).
Taking of the Standard Oil Company vessel Meifoo XIV at Hangchow, China85 A Standard Oil vessel that had been seized by Chinese troops was re-taken by sailors and marines. Two squads of sailors and two squads of marines from the USS Pittsburgh (CA-4).
Landing at Nanking, China82 1927 Sailors from destroyers USS Noa (DD-343) and William B. Preston (DD-344) put a small landing party ashore to protect refugees at the American consulate and later, with the British, put a 250 man landing party ashore to protect escaping refugees from marauding Kuomintang regulars. Squad of bluejackets at the consulate and larger number with Anglo-American force.
Bluejacket Expeditionary Battalion service in Nicaragua.86 1928 Sailors provided armed security for polling stations during Nicaraguan elections. 37 officers and 265 bluejackets.
Securing of oil facilities and protection of Americans at Hankow, China.87 1937 USS Guam’ s (PR-43) landing party provides security ashore while Japanese and Chinese forces fought. USS Guam (PR-43) landing party.
Navy infantry participation in the defense of Bataan and Corregidor, the Philippines88 1941-42 Bataan: Navy Battalion action prevented Japanese severing only road supporting I Corps. With assistance Philippine Scouts destroyed the Japanese landing force.
Corregidor. Navy battalion made the last attempt to stop Japanese landings.
Navy Battalion Bataan: approx 480 sailors from various units, 120 marine anti-aircraft gunners.
Corregidor: 1,750 sailors, most organized as a provisional battalion of the 4th Marines.
USS Philadelphia (CL-41) landings during Operation Torch.89 1942 a.) Landing party put ashore 8 November at Mirs-el-Kebir Algeria to prevent installations from being damaged by French. b.) Landing party put ashore 10-11 November near Safi, Morocco to assist 47th Infantry in capturing airport at Loa Senia.

Philadelphia (CL-41) landing party (Navy-Marines). Mirs-el-Kebir also involved Royal Marines.

Occupation of Yokosuka Naval Base, Japan, and vicinity and rescue of prisoners of war.90 1945 Three battalions of Navy infantry landed at Yokosuka Naval Base, Japan, August 30, 1945. Part of a larger force commanded by Radm Oscar C. Badger. 1,200 sailors from 3rd Fleet ships organized into three battalions; 9,000 U.S. Marines about half Third Fleet ship’s marines organized into a provisional regiment and the remainder a regiment from Guam; and 450 Royal Marines.
Watts Riots, Los Angeles.91 1965 A Navy Battalion was formed for possible federal involvement during the riots. The brigade was formed from sailors/marines from ships in port. Personnel were disembarked and the battalion spent a night encamped on the Long Beach Naval Station mole before being disbanded following drills. Landing parties from ships import Long Beach.
Defense and reoccupation of Naval Support Activity Saigon Vinh Long facility, Vietnam.92 1968 Navy personnel were withdrawn on 1 February while under attack during the Tet offensive. The next day Navy personnel, assisted by Navy SEALs, reoccupied the facility NSA Saigon sailors acting as infantry.



Appendix B
Landing Party Manual United States Navy 1960
OPNAV P 34-03
With Change 1
93

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Section I. Scope of Manual
II. Organization of Naval landing Party
III. Organization of Units Within Naval landing Party
Chapter 2 DRILL
Section I General
II Instruction Without Arms
III Instruction With Arms
IV Squad Drill
V Platoon Drill
VI Company Drill
VII Formation of the Battalion
VIII Formation of the regiment
Chapter 3 CEREMONIES
Section I General
II Reviews
III Presentation of Decorations
IV Parades
V National and Organizational Flags
VI Escort of Honor
VII Honors
VIII Funerals
IX Inspections
X Loading and Ceremonial Firing of the Rifle
XI Marine Corps Birthday Celebration
XII Relief and Appointment of the Sergeant Major (Leading Chief Petty Officer)
Chapter 4 EQUIPMENT AND UNIFORMS
Section I Individual Equipment
II Individual Clothing and Uniforms
III The Marine Corps Pack, M1941
IV Wearing of Equipment
V Display of Equipment
VI Display of Clothing on the Bunk
Chapter 5 INTERIOR GUARD DUTY
Section I General
II Duties of Personnel
III Orders and Countersigns
IV Guard Mounting
V Relief of Personnel
VI Relieving the Old Guard
VII Guard Aboard Ship
Chapter 6 SHELTER
Section I General
II Selection of Camp and Bivouac Site
III Establishing Camp or Bivouac
IV Pitching and Striking Shelter Tents
V Pitching, Striking, and Folding Wall and Pyramidal Tents
Chapter 7 FIELD SANITATION, VECTOR CONTROL, PERSONAL HYGIENE AND FIRST AID
Section I Field Sanitation
II Vector Control
III Personal Hygiene
IV First Aid
Chapter 8 MARCHES, SECURITY ON THE MARCH, AND OUTPOSTS
Section I Marches
II Advance Guards
III Rear Guards
IV Flank Guards
V Outposts
Chapter 9 BASIC COMBAT TECHNIQUES
Section I General
II Combat Formations
III Combat Signals
IV Techniques of Fire—Rifles and Machine Gun
V Use of Grenades
VI Tactical Training of the Individual
VII Hand to hand Combat
VIII Operations orders
IX Supply and Evacuation
Chapter 10 COMBAT PRINCIPLES
Section I General
II Offensive Combat, General
III The Rifle Squad in Offensive Combat
IV The Rifle Platoon in Offensive Combat
V The Machine Gun Platoon in Offensive Combat
VI The Naval Landing Party Battalion in Offensive Combat
VII Defensive Combat, General
VIII Field Fortifications and Camouflage
IX The Rifle Squad in Defense Combat
X The Rifle Platoon in Defense Combat
XI The Machine Gun Platoon in Defense Combat
XII The Rifle Company in Defense Combat
XIII The Naval Landing Party Battalion in Defense Combat
XIV Naval Gunfire Support
XV Aviation
Chapter 11 SPECIAL OPERATIONS
Section I General
II Night Combat
III Patrolling
IV Retrograde Movements
V Raids
VI Combat in Built-Up Areas
VII Police Functions
VIII Riot Duty
IX National Disasters
Chapter 12 PHYSICAL DRILLS
Section I General
II Formations
III Physical Drill Without Arms
IV Physical Drill With Arms
Chapter 13 SMALL ARMS MARKSMANSHIP
Section I General
II Preliminary Marksmanship Training--Rifle
III Range Firing--Rifle
IV Marksmanship Training--Pistol
V Miscellaneous Small Arms
VI Qualification Courses
VII Competitions, Trophies and Awards
VIII Reports, record, and Forms
IX Target Materials and Shooting Equipment
Chapter 14 GLOSSARY

Appendix C
Landing-Force Manual United States Navy, 1927
94

Table of Contents
(Detail provided only for sections related to infantry and artillery operations)


Part I
Chapter 1 Drill Regulations
Chapter 2 Instructions without arms and with rifle, automatic rifle, and pistol
Chapter 3 Drill, the rifle squad, platoon, and company
Chapter 4 Drill, the infantry battalion, regiment, brigade, and headquarters company
Chapter 5 Ceremonies and inspections
Chapter 6 Manuals (color, band, sword, guidon)
Chapter 7 Physical drill with arms
Chapter 8 Drill and combat signals
Chapter 9 Extended order, the rifle squad, section, and platoon
Section I Introduction
II Instruction of the rifle squad and skirmisher
III Rules for deployment of the rifle section and platoon
IV The Assembly
V Movements of the rifle section and platoon
Chapter 10 Bayonet training and wall scaling
Chapter 11 Small arms nomenclature, care, and training
Chapter 12 Artillery
A. Drill
B. Artillery in the field
Section I Definitions
II Preparation of fire
III The determination of firing data
IV The method of fire
V Summary
VI Special situations
VII Conduct of fire
VIII Notes on ‘spotting’ or observation of fire
IX Fire for adjustment
X Fire for effect
XI Operations in the field
XII Combat
Chapter 13 Machine guns
Section I General principles
II The Cole cart
III Extended order, the machine gun squad, section and platoon
IV Machine-gun fire—Direct laying
V Automatic rifle (Browning), model of 1918
VI Range cards

Part II
Chapter 14 The landing force
Section I Organization
II Special details
III Arms and equipment
Chapter 15 Preparations, embarkation, and landing
Section I Preparations for landing
II The embarkation and landing
III Training and shore drills
IV Miscellaneous data
Chapter 16 Interior guard duty
Section VI Prisoners and prisoner guards
X Exterior guards
Chapter 17 Security in position warfare and marches
Section I Security in position warfare
II Patrols
III March protection
Chapter 18 Marches and Camps
Section I Marches
II Conduct of the march
III Rate and length of marches
IV Camps, bivouacs, and cantonments
V Billeting
VI Care of troops
VII Daily routine in camp
VIII Tent drill
Chapter 19 Combat
Section I General
II Offensive combat
III Leadership
IV Combat principles
V Combat reconnaissance
VI Deployment
VII Advancing the attack
VIII The assault
IX Position warfare
X The platoon
XI Grenades, 1-pounders and light mortars
XII Service of supply
XIII Intercommunications
XIV Supporting artillery
XV Infantry and airplanes
XVI Meeting engagements
Chapter 20 Defensive combat
Section I General principles
II Selection of position
III Deployment for defense
IV Tactical organization on the ground
V Conduct of the defense
VI Counterattack
VII Delaying action
VIII Position warfare
IX Antitank defense
Chapter 21 Special operations and minor warfare
Section I Night operations
II Combat in woods
III Withdraw
IV Minor operations
V Street fighting—Occupation of cities
VI Riot duty
VII Fire, flood, and national disaster
Chapter 22 Field engineering
Section I Field fortifications
II Execution of field works
III Accessories of trenches
IV Hasty entrenchment under fire
V Obstacles
VI Wire entanglements
VII Defense of towns and villages
VIII Demolitions
IX Camouflage
X Pioneer platoon
Chapter 23 Medical tactics ashore, field hygiene, sanitation, and first aid
Chapter 24 Mapping and sketching
Chapter 25 Bugle calls and signals
Part III Combat Principles, United States Army
TR 420-10095 Development of Offensive Combat
TR 420-105 Combat principles—The rifle squad
Section I Squad in attack and defense
II Squad in service of security
III Estimate of the situation, orders, and messages
TR 420-110 Combat principles—The rifle section
Section I Organization and route march
II Section in attack
III Section in defense
IV Night operations
V Security on the march
VI Security at rest
VII Flank combat group
TR 420-115 Combat principles—The rifle platoon
Section I Assault platoon in attack
II Platoon in defense
III Support platoon
IV Night operations
V Security on the march
VI Security at rest
VII Convoy escort
TR 420-120 Combat principles—The rifle company
Section I General
II Assault company in attack
III Reserve company in attack
IV Company attacking alone in attack
V Combat company in defense
VI Reserve company in defense
VII Company in a stabilized position
TR-420-125 Combat principles—The machine-gun section
Section I General considerations
II The machine-gun section in attack
III The machine-gun section in defense
TR-420-130 Combat principles—The machine-gun platoon
Section I General considerations
II The machine-gun platoon in attack
III The machine-gun platoon in defense
TR 420-135 Combat principles—the machine-gun company
Section I General
II In attack
III In advance guard
IV In defense
V In outpost
VI In rear guard
VII In withdraw
VIII In flank guard
TR 420-160 Combat principles—The Infantry battalion
Section I The assault battalion in attack
II The reserve battalion in attack
III The battalion in defense
TR 420-170 Combat principles—The Infantry regiment
Section I The regiment in attack
II The regiment in defense
TR 420-180 Combat principles—The service company, Infantry regiment
Section I Introduction
II Operations of the regimental supply system in combat
III The execution of the administration and personnel work of the regimental headquarters
IV The bad section in combat
V Duties of personnel in combat
TR 420-185 Combat principles—The Infantry brigade
Section I Introduction
II The brigade in attack
III The brigade in defense


Appendix D
The Landing-Force and Small-Arms Instructions United States Navy, 1907
96

Table of Contents


Part I The Landing-Force and Its Employment on Shore
The landing-Force
Organization
Equipment
Landing
First Aid
Notes on Military Hygiene
Camping, Bivouacs, and Cantonments
Outposts and Patrols
Scouting
Advance- and Rear-Guards
Marches
Formations for Street Riots
Wall-Scaling
Field-Fortifications
Part II Manual of Guard-Duty and Guard-Mounting
Rosters
The Commanding Officer
The Officer of the Day
The Commander of the Guard
The 1 P.O. of the Guard
The P.Os. of the Guard
Musicians of the Guard
Orderly for the Commanding Officer
Orders for Sentinels on Post
Fire or Disorder
Orders for Sentinels at the Post of the Guard
Compliments from Sentinels
Color-Line and Sentinels
Guard-Patrols
Miscellaneous
Police and Fatigue Duty
Flags and Colors
Reveille and Retreat Gun
Guard Mounting
Part III Extended Order
General Principles
Instructions for Skirmishers
The Squad in Extended Order
The Company in Extended Order
The Battalion in Extended Order
The Naval Brigade in Extended Order
Part IV Drill regulations for Artillery
General Rules
School of the Section
Service of the Piece in Boats
School of the Battery
School of the Battalion
Artillery in the Field
Part V Firing Regulations for Small Arms, Boat-Guns and Field Pieces, U.S. Navy, 1905
Sighting-Drills
Position and Aiming Drill
Estimating-Distance Drill
Artillery Practice
Individual Range-Firing, Rifle and Pistol
Collective Firing, Squads and Companies
Supplementary Forms of Rifle Practice
Boat-Crews, Extended Order Long-Range Firing
Range and Pit Regulations
Boat-Guns and Field Pieces
General Regulations (Prizes, Competition, Reports, Definitions, and Ammunition Allowance)
Part VI Infantry Drill Regulations (Close Order) United States Navy, 1905
Definitions
Abbreviations
General Principles
School of the Recruit
School of the Squad
Manual of Arms
Loadings and Firings
Modifications of the Manual for U.S. Army Rifle
Description of U.S Army Rifle, Model 1903
Manual of the Sword
Manual of the Color
School of the Company
School of the Battalion
Evolutions of the Naval Brigade
Parade, Reviews, and Inspections
Escorts of Honor
Honors and Salutes
Funeral Escort
The Band


Footnotes:

59. Letter, “Commodore Ezek Hopkins to John Hancock,” April 9, 1776. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. Vol. 4 (Washington DC, Naval History Division, 1969): 735-36.

60. Crawford, Michael J., ed. The Naval War of 1812, A Documentary History. Vol. 3. Washington DC. Naval Historical Center, 2002. [Specific Baltimore figures from Letter Como John Rogers to Secretary Jones. Sept 27, 1814 are on pages 298-303.

61. Letter, “C.K. Stribling to Captain S. Cassin.” April 8, 1823; Letter, Lt Kearney to Como David Porter. August 10, 1823. Quoted in its entirety in Caspar F. Goodrich. “Our Navy and the West Indian Pirates, A Documentary History.” US Naval Institute Proceedings 43, no. 4-5 (April, May 1917): 635-36, 972-977.

62. Ellsworth, Harry Allanson. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States marines 1800-1934. (Washington, DC: Headquarters and Museums Division, Headquarters USMC, 1974): 151-154.

63. Bauer, K. Jack. Surfboats and Horse Marines, U.S. Naval Operations in the Mexican War. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute, 1969.

64. Bauer, K. Jack. Surfboats and Horse Marines, U. S. Naval Operations in the Mexican War, 1846-48. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute, 1969.

65. Millet, Allan. Semper Fidelis, The History of the Marine Corps (New York: The Free Press, 1991): 85

66.

67. Veit, Chuck. “First Shiloh.” www.navyandmarine.org

68. Brownson, William H. “The Pirate Ship Forward”. In Clayton R. Barrow, Jr. America Spreads Her Sails, U. S. Seapower in the 19th Century. Annapolis, MD:. Naval Institute Press, 1973): 138-152. Admiral Brownson’s commanded the expedition. A memorial plaque in honor of Ens Jonathan Wainwright Jr. who was killed during this incident is found to the right of the altar at the Naval Academy Chapel.

69. Report of Rear Admiral John Rogers, July 5, 1871. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy on the Operations of the Department for the Year 1871 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office): 275-318. Harry Ellsworth. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines 1800-1934. (History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1974): 57-59.

70. Ordnance Instructions for the United States Navy, 1880. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1880): 3.

71. McCalla, Bowman H. Report of Commander McCalla upon the Naval Expedition to the Isthmus of Panama, April, 1885. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1885.

72. Ellsworth, Harry. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines 1800-1934. (Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1974): 146-149.

73. Sawyer, Frederick. Sons of Gunboats (Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute, 1946): 65.

74. Ellsworth, Harry. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines 1800-1934 (Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1974): 34. Millet. Semper Fidelis, The History of the Marine Corps (New York: The Free Press, 1991): 159.

75. Ellsworth, Harry. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines 1800-1934. (Washington, DC: Headquarters and Museums Division, Headquarters USMC, 1974): 155.

76. Farquharon, R.B. A Study…of Expeditions Formed and Landings Effected By U.S. Naval Forces in Central America, Mexico, and West Indies, from 1901 to 1 May 1929. Office of Naval Intelligence, 1929. Located in the Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center.

77. Sweetman, Jack. The Landing at Veracruz: 1914. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1968.

78. Caperton, William B. "History of Flag Career of Rear Admiral William B. Caperton, U.S. Navy, Commencing January 5, 1915." National Archives. Record Group 45, circa 1919. [Photocopy available at the Navy Department Library, Washington DC. An extract is available online.]


79. “The United States Naval Railway Batteries in France.” Washington, DC: Navy Department US Office of Naval Records and Library, 1922.

80. Beers, Henry P. "U.S. Naval Forces in Northern Russia (Archangel and Murmansk) 1918-1919.” Administrative Reference Service Report No. 5. Washington, DC: Navy Department, Office of Records Administration, 1943.

81. Braisted, William Reynolds. The United States Navy in the Pacific, 1909-1922. (Austin, TX. University of Texas Press, 1971): 394.

82. Cole, Bernard D. Gunboats and Marines, The United States Navy in China, 1925-1928. Newark, DE. University of Delaware Press, 1983. [See chapter 6.]

83. Davidonis, A.C. “The American Naval Mission in the Adriatic, 1918-1921.” (Washington, DC: Navy Department, Office of Records Administration, 1943): 89-90.

84. Beers, Henry. “American Naval Detachment—Turkey, 1919-1924. Warship International 13, no. 3 (1976): 221.

85. Ellsworth, Harry. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines 1800-1934. (Washington, DC: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1974): 43.

86. Farquharon, R.B. A Study…of Expeditions Formed and Landings Effected By U.S. Naval Forces in Central America, Mexico, and West Indies, from 1901 to 1 May 1929. Office of Naval Intelligence, 1929. Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center.

87. “United States Navy Yangtze Patrol & South China Patrol, A brief Historical Chronology.” http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/5047/yangpathistory.hmtl

88. Morton, Larry. The Fall of the Philippines. Washington, DC: US Army Center for Military History, 1959. Prickett, William F. "Naval Battalion at Marveles.” Marine Corps Gazette, June, 1950.

89. Nofi, Albert. The Marine Corps Book of Lists. (Original data from Morison History per Nofi)

90. Morison, Samuel Elliot. Victory in the Pacific, 1945. (Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company, 1960): 357-8. Tompkins, Tom. Yokosuka, Base of an Empire (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1981): 50

91. Captain Patrick Roth, USN (Ret). Captain Roth was assigned as a junior officer on board USS Topeka CLG-8 during the event.

92. Commander, US Naval Forces Vietnam. Monthly Historical Supplement, February, 1968. pp. 103-5. This report may be found and downloaded from a list of reports dating from 1966 to 1974.

93. Navy Department, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1960

94. Navy Department, Bureau of Navigation. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1927

95. “These combat principles have been incorporated bodily from the Army Training regulations and their T.R. section and paragraph number have been retained”—Landing-Force Manual 1927

96. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1907. (“Prepared under the direction of the Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department.”)


Acknowledgement: The Navy Department Library gratefully acknowledges the permission of Patrick H. Roth to post this paper on the Naval History & Heritage Command website. All rights reserved by the author.


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