Law of Naval Warfare


NWIP 10-2
Department of the Navy
Office of the Chief of Naval Operations
September 1955


APPENDIX G
Ship and Aircraft Papers

I. SHIPS’ PAPERS CARRIED BY U.S. FLAG MERCHANT VESSELS

A. COAST GUARD FORMS
1. Shipping Articles … CG-705 or CG-705A
2. Official Log Book … CG-706B or CG-706C
3. Certificate of Inspection … CG-841
4. Temporary Certificate of Inspection (may be carried in lieu of CG-841) … CG-854
5. Crew list … CG-710A
Merchant vessels of countries which are signatory to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1948,* including those of U.S. registry, are required to carry one or more of the following convention certificates when on an international voyage:
6. Safety Certificate … CGHQ-986
7. Safety Equipment Certificate … CG-3347
8. Safety Radiotelegraphy Certificate … CG-966
9. Safety Radiotelegraphy Certificate … CG-3354
10. Exemption Certificate … CGHQ-967

* Countries signatory to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea:
Belgium
Canada
Denmark
France
Iceland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Pakistan
Portugal
Sweden
United Kingdom
United States
U. of South Africa
Yugoslavia

B. BUREAU OF CUSTOMS FORMS
11. Certificate of Registry … Customs Form No. 1265
12. Special Appendix to Certificate of Registry of American Passenger Vessels … Customs Form No. 1265-A
13. Provisional Certificate of Registry … Customs Form No. 1266-A
14. Consolidated Certificate of Enrollment and License … Customs Form No. 1271
15. License of Vessel Under Twenty Tons … Customs Form No. 1285
16. License of Yacht Under Twenty Tons … Customs Form No. 1288
17. Consolidated Certificate of Enrollment and License … Customs Form No. 1290
18. Outward Foreign Manifest … Customs Form No. 1374
19. Clearance of a Vessel to a Foreign Port … Customs Form No. 1378
20. Application for Permit to Proceed Coastwise and Oath of Master of Vessel in Foreign Trade … Customs Form No. 1385
21. Certificate on Vessel Proceeding to Another District With Foreign Cargo … Customs Form No. 3221
C. FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION FORM
22. Ship Radio Station License … FCC 551
II. AIRCRAFT PAPERS (UNITED STATES)
23. Aircraft Registration Certificate … ACA-500
24. Certificate of Airworthiness … ACA-1362
25. Airline Transport Pilot, Commercial Pilot, and Mechanics Certificate … ACA-1710
26. Radio Station License-Aircraft … FCC-435C
27. Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit … FCC-761
28. Inward Manifest of Airplane, Including List of Passengers
29. Outward Foreign Manifest, Including List of Passengers
30. Certificate When Proceedings to Another District With Foreign Cargo … Customs Form No. 3221
III. MERCHANT SHIPS OF FOREIGN REGISTRY
Merchant vessels of foreign registry carrying passengers from United States ports are required to carry one of the following certificates:
1. Certificate of Inspection … CG-841
2. Temporary Certificate of Inspection … CG-854
3. Certificate of Examination for Foreign Passenger Vessels … CG-989
4. Certificate for Foreign Vessels To Carry Persons in Addition to Crew … CG-3463
Merchant vessels of foreign countries which are signatory to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, are also required to carry forms 6 through 10 listed in part I A of this appendix.

Source: Department of the Navy. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Law of Naval Warfare, NWIP 10-2. September 1955. [see "Appendix G," pp. G-1 to G-2].


APPENDIX H
Forms


The forms in this appendix are general guides only. Care must be exercised that entries in merchant ships’ logs do not disclose information which may be of value to an enemy. The entries should be confined to brief statements of fact. Opinions will not be expressed. The name of the naval ship concerned and the name of the commanding officer will not ordinarily be revealed.

In the event that a merchant ship is sent into port under armed guard for search or further investigation, the entry in the merchant ship’s log should not be signed until after arrival in port.

This appendix contains the following forms:

Form No.
Subject
1. Declaration of Blockade
2. Notification of the Declaration of Blockade
3. Special Notification of the Declaration of Blockade to Neutral Vessel
4. Declaration of Prohibition (Restriction) of Radio Service
5. Entry Concerning Visit (and Search) in Log of Visited Vessel
6. Log Entry Concerning Seizure
7. Certificate of Captor
8. Certificate as to Money and Valuables Found on Board
9. Entry of Prize Master in Log of Prize
10. Entry in Log of Vessel That Sailed without Knowledge of the Existence of War or a Declaration of Contraband
11. Certificate of Delivery of Contraband Cargo in Accordance with Treaty Provisions
12. Inventory and Receipt for Contraband Goods Delivered in Accordance with Treaty Provisions by a Neutral Vessel, Whether or Not Aware of the Existence of War or of a Declaration Covering Contraband
13. Certificate of Impracticability of Delivery of Contraband Cargo in Accordance with Treaty Provisions
14. Report as to the Destruction of a Private Vessel.

FORM

NO. 1
DECLARATION OF BLOCKADE

I hereby declare that at __________ (give hour and date) the __________ (give exact description of the port or coast blockaded, with limits) is placed in a state of blockade by a naval force under my command, and now is in such state.

All measures authorized by international law and by treaties with neutral powers to which the United States is a party will be enforced on behalf of the United States against vessels which may attempt to, or do, violate the blockade.

Vessels of neutral powers which are in the blockaded region are given a period of grace expiring at __________ (give hour and date) in which to leave the blockaded region. This period of grace is granted only on the express condition that such neutral vessels in leaving the blockaded region do not in any way violate the law of nations.

Given on board the U.S.S. _________, at __________ (give locality), __________ (give hour and date).
(Signed) (Name) _______________,
(Rank) _______________, U.S. Navy,
(Title of officer declaring blockade) _______________.


FORM NO. 2
NOTIFICATION OF THE DECLARATION OF BLOCKADE

(To be sent, under flag of truce, to the local authorities of the blockaded region.)

______________________________ (give name, rank, and title) has the honor to inform the local authorities of _______________ (the blockaded region), by means of this notification, that the blockade declared is now in effect. Copies of the notification of blockade are inclosed.

The local authorities of the blockaded region are requested to notify the blockade immediately to foreign diplomatic and consular officers within the blockaded region, and to furnish each of them with a copy of the declaration.

Given on board the U.S.S. __________ this __________. (give hour and date).

(Signed) (Name) _______________,
(Rank) ________________, U.S. Navy,
(Title of officer declaring blockade) ________________ .


FORM No. 3
SPECIAL NOTIFICATION OF THE DECLARATION OF BLOCKADE TO NEUTRAL VESSEL


(To be written, not pasted, in the log of the neutral vessel and also upon the document fixing her nationality.)
The __________ (give name, nationality, and class of vessel, as steamer or sailing vessel) has this day been visited by me by direction of _________ (give name, rank, and title of commanding officer of the blockading vessel), and her master has been notified of the existence of the blockade by the United States naval forces of _________ (state region and limits of blockade) and has been furnished with a copy of the declaration of blockade.

Entered __________ (give hour, date, and geographical position when entry is made.)

(Signed) (Name) _______________,
(Rank) _______________, U.S. Navy,
Boarding Officer
(Signed) (Name) _______________
Master.1
1 The master should also sign.

FORM NO. 4
DECLARATION OF PROHIBITION (RESTRICTION) OF RADIO SERVICE


I, the undersigned, do hereby declare that from _________ o'clock _____ m. on the _____ day of _____, 19_____, all vessels of whatever nationality provided with radio apparatus are prohibited from using the same apparatus within the immediate area of naval operations from _____ to _____ (or within the area of the sea inside the circle drawn with _____ radius _____ as its center) for the following purposes:
(1) ___________________

(2) ___________________

{(Mention what is to be prohibited or restricted, according to the provisions of article.)
I do further declare that the vessels which knowingly violate this prohibition (restriction) shall be liable to capture.

Given on board U.S.S. _________ this _____ day of _____, 19_____.

______________________,
Commander in Chief of _________ Squadron,
(Commanding U.S.S. __________________
.)

FORM NO. 5
ENTRY CONCERNING VISIT (AND SEARCH) IN LOG OF VISITED VESSEL

(To be written, not pasted, in the log.)

The _______________ (give name, nationality, and class of vessel, as steamer or sailing vessel) has this day been visited by me at _______________ (give hour and date). I have examined the ship's papers concerning the vessel and her cargo, produced by the master, which were found by me to be regular1 and to show that the voyage of the vessel is lawful.

The circumstances have been reported to the commanding officer of the visiting vessel, who has directed that the vessel be allowed to proceed on her voyage; or (in case of probable cause for capture) that the vessel be detained for the following reason _________________ (state reason, whether one of those noted immediately above, or any other, such as breach of blockade, or unneutral service, or great deviation from direct course, or any reason justifying detention). (Date of entry and signature follow.)

The vessel is accordingly allowed to proceed on her voyage, by direction of the commanding officer of the visiting vessel.

Entered ________________ (give hour, date, and geographical position when entry is made).

(Signed) (Name) _________________, __________,
(Rank) _________________, U.S. Navy, Boarding Officer.

1 Or to be irregular, or fraudulent, or defaced, or incomplete, or in part destroyed, or in part concealed, or to show the presence of contraband, or to be apparently regular but, owing to suspicions having been aroused by (state reason), a search appeared to me to be warranted and was made, which resulted and follows (state result).

FORM NO. 6
LOG ENTRY CONCERNING SEIZURE

By direction of _______________ (give name, rank and title of Commanding Officer of capturing vessel or force), the ______ (flag) _____ (class) ______ (name) has this day been captured as a vessel engaged in the service of an enemy of the United States and has been placed in my charge as Prize Master, with directions to take her to a United States Special Prize Commissioner for proceedings in preparatorio.

The officers and mane of the Prize Crew are as follows:
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________

Entered at ________________ (name of port, or latitude and longitude if at sea) at ___________ (hours) on __________ (date).

(Signed) (Name) ________________,
(Rank) _________________, U.S. Navy, Prize Master.


FORM NO. 7
CERTIFICATE OF CAPTOR

Sirs:

On __________ (date) at ___________ (port or latitude and longitude) the _____ (flag) ______ (class) _____ (name) was captured as a Prize of War by U.S. Navy personnel, attached to and at the direction of this Command.

__________ (rank) ___________ (name), U.S. (Navy) (Naval Reserve), was placed in charge of the vessel as Prize Master, with a Prize Crew.

Enclosure (A) is a copy of the inventory of documents and papers found on board the Prize at the time of capture. I hereby certify that the documents and papers listed in Enclosure (A) constitute all the papers found on the vessel. I further certify that all these papers1 have been forwarded to a Special Prize Commissioner for delivery to the District Court of the United States for the ___________ District of ___________ and that they are in the condition in which they were found. 2 3

Respectfully,
(Signed) (Name) _________________
By direction of (Title)______________

The Honorable _________________,
United States District Judge,
District Court of the United States,
for the __________ District of ___________,
(address)

Enclosure (A), List of documents and papers.

1 Except those numbered _____ and ______ in Enclosure (A).
2 The documents numbered _____ and _____ were not forwarded because __________ .
3 Except that the condition of document number _____ listed in Enclosure (A), has been changed as a result of __________ caused by __________.

FORM NO. 8
CERTIFICATE AS TO MONEY AND VALUABLES FOUND ON BOARD

I, __________ (name), ___________ (rank), U.S. (Navy) (Naval Reserve), do hereby certify that the following list of money and valuables is a full and complete list of all such property found on board the __________ (flag) _____ (class) ___________ (name) at the time of the capture of said vessel on ___________ (date) at ___________ (port or latitude and longitude) by U.S. Navy personnel at the direction of ___________ or thereafter discovered while said vessel was in my custody as Prize Master, except such money and valuables as were discovered on the persons or among the personal effects of the officers and members of the crew of said vessel, and which, after due investigation, were determined to be the personal property of said officers and members of the crew.
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

(Signed) (Name) _________________,
(Rank) __________________, U.S. Navy,
Prize Master
.


FORM NO. 9
ENTRY OF PRIZE MASTER IN LOG OF PRIZE

(Entry must be written, not pasted, in the log.)

By direction of ___________ (give name, rank, and title of commanding officer of the visiting (blockading) vessel), the ___________ (give name, nationality, and class of visited vessel, as steamer or sailing vessel) has this day been captured for ___________ (state reason, briefly) and has been placed in my charge as prize master, with directions to take her to a United States port for adjudication. The officers and crew of the prize crew are follows, namely, ___________.

Entered ___________ (give hour, date, and geographical position when entry is made).

(Signed) (Name) _________________, __________,
(Rank) ________________, U.S. Navy,
Prize Master.


FORM NO. 10
ENTRY IN LOG OF VESSEL THAT SAILED WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE OF THE EXISTENCE OF WAR OR A DECLARATION OF CONTRABAND

(To be written, not pasted, in the log.)

The ___________ (give name, nationality, and class of vessel, as steamer or sailing vessel) has this day been visited by me at ___________ (give hour and date) by direction of ___________ (give name, rank, and title of commanding officer of the visiting vessel). I have examined the ship's papers concerning the vessel and her cargo, produced by the master, which were found by me to show that the vessel has contraband in her cargo.

I have further ascertained that the vessel sailed without knowledge of the outbreak of hostilities (declaration covering the contraband goods).

The circumstances have been reported to the commanding officer of the U.S.S. ___________, who has directed the detention of the vessel.

Entered ___________ (give hour, date, and geographical position when entry is made).

(Signed) (Name) __________________,
(Rank) __________________, U.S. Navy,
Boarding Officer.


FORM NO. 11
CERTIFICATE OF DELIVERY OF CONTRABAND CARGO IN ACCORDANCE WITH TREATY PROVISIONS

(In duplicate)

The ____________________________ (give name, nationality, and class of vessel, as steamer or sailing vessel) has this day been visited by me at ____________ (give hour and date) by direction of ____________ (give name, rank, and title of commanding officer of the visiting vessel). I have examined the ship's papers concerning the vessel and her cargo, produced by the master, which were found by me to be regular and to show that the vessel has contraband in her cargo.

The master of the vessel having agreed to deliver and having delivered the contraband, in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of __________, (date) between the United States and ___________ (country to which vessel belongs), the vessel is accordingly allowed to proceed on her voyage, by direction of the said _________________ (give name, rank, and title of commanding officer of the visiting vessel).

An inventory and receipt is appended.1 One copy of this certificate with appendix has been given to the master of the _________________ (give name of visited vessel).

(Signed) (Name) _________________,
(Rank) __________________, U.S. Navy,
Boarding Officer
.
_________________,
Master.
___________ (hour and date of signature).

1 See Form No. 12.

FORM NO. 12
INVENTORY AND RECEIPT FOR CONTRABAND GOODS DELIVERED IN ACCORDANCE WITH TREATY PROVISIONS BY A NEUTRAL VESSEL, WHETHER OR NOT AWARE OF THE EXISTENCE OF WAR OR OF A DECLARATION COVERING CONTRABAND

Copy of Parts of Ship's Papers Covering Such Contraband Cargo (In duplicate, to be appended to Form No. 11)

INVENTORY
(Give full description of contraband articles)


COPY OF SHIP'S PAPERS COVERING CONTRABAND CARGO


The undersigned, on behalf of the United States, acknowledges the receipt of the contraband goods listed in the inventory above.

(Signed) (Name) _________________,
(Rank) _________________, U.S. Navy,
Commanding (Boarding) Officer.


The undersigned certifies to the delivery of the contraband goods inventoried above, and that these are the only goods in the cargo known to him to be contraband by the declarations on the subject of contraband issued by the United States; and he further certifies that the copy of the ship's papers covering contraband goods is correct and gives all the knowledge concerning the contraband goods that the ship's papers contain.

(Signed) (Name) _________________,
Master.
_________________ (give hour, date and geographical position when signed).

FORM NO. 13
CERTIFICATE OF IMPRACTICABILITY OF DELIVERY OF CONTRABAND CARGO IN ACCORDANCE WITH TREATY PROVISIONS

(In duplicate)

The ________________ (give name, nationality, and class of vessel, as steamer or sailing vessel) has this day been visited by me at ___________ (give hour and date) by direction of ____________ (give name, rank, and title of commanding officer of the visiting vessel) I have examined the ship's papers concerning the vessel and her cargo, produced by the master, which were found by me to be regular and to show that the vessel has contraband in her cargo.

The master of the vessel having agreed to deliver the contraband, in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of __________ (date) between the United States and ____________ (country to which vessel belongs), such delivery being impracticable on account of ____________. (state reasons, such as bulk of cargo, or bad weather, or impossibility of remaining long enough to have the cargo delivered), the vessel is, by direction of the said ____________ (give name, rank, and title of commanding officer of visiting vessel), detained and sent into port for adjudication.

(Signed) (Name) ________________,
(Rank) _________________, U.S. Navy,
(Signed) _________________,
Master.
________________ (hour and date of signature).

FORM NO. 14
REPORT AS TO THE DESTRUCTION OF A PRIVATE VESSEL


On the __________ day of __________ 19___, at ___ o'clock __m., in latitude _____ longitude _____, the undersigned ___________, holding the rank of ____________ in the United States Navy and belonging to the U.S.S. ___________, came upon the ___________ of ____________ nationality, and after being assured that the persons on board the ____________ were removed to a safe place and after the papers of the ____________ were brought on board the U.S.S. ___________ proceeded to destroy the ____________ for the following reasons:
_________________________.

(Signed) (Name) _________________,
(Rank) _________________ U.S. Navy,
(Signed) _________________,
Master.
_________________ (hour and date of signature).


Source: Department of the Navy. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Law of Naval Warfare, NWIP 10-2. September 1955. [see "Appendix H," pp. H-1 to H8].


APPENDIX I
Code of Conduct for Members of the Armed Forces of the United States

(Executive Order 10631)
By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, I hereby prescribe the Code of Conduct for members of the Armed Forces of the United States which is attached to this order and hereby made a part thereof.

Every member of the Armed Forces of the United States is expected to measure up to the standards embodied in this Code of Conduct while he is in combat or in captivity. To insure achievement of these standards, each member of the Armed Forces liable to capture shall be provided with specific training and instruction designed to better equip him to counter and withstand all enemy efforts against him, and shall be fully instructed as to the behavior and obligations expected of him during combat or captivity.

The Secretary of Defense (and the Secretary of the Treasury with respect to the Coast Guard except when it is serving as part of the Navy) shall take such action as is deemed necessary to implement this order and to disseminate and make the said code known to all members of the Armed Forces of the United States.

THE WHITE HOUSE
August 17, 1955


CODE OF CONDUCT FOR MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES

I

I am an American fighting man. I serve in the forces which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.
A member of the Armed Forces is always a fighting man. As such, it is his duty to oppose the enemies of the United States regardless of the circumstances in which he may find himself, whether in active participation in combat, or as a prisoner of war.
II
I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command I will never surrender my men while they still have the means to resist.
As an individual, a member of the Armed Forces may never voluntarily surrender himself. When isolated and he can no longer inflict casualties on the enemy, it is his duty to evade capture and rejoin the nearest friendly forces.

The responsibility and authority of a commander never extends to the surrender of his command to the enemy while it has power to resist or evade. When isolated, cut off, or surrounded, a unit must continue to fight until relieved, or able to rejoin friendly forces, by breaking out or by evading the enemy.
III
If I am captured I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.
The duty of a member of the Armed Forces to continue resistance by all means at his disposal is not lessened by the misfortune of capture.

Article 82 of the Geneva Convention pertains and must be explained. He will escape if able to do so, and will assist others to escape. Parole agreements are promises given the captor by a prisoner of war upon his faith and honor, to fulfill stated conditions, such as not to bear arms or not to escape, in consideration of special privileges, usually release from captivity or a lessened restraint. He will never sign or enter into a parole agreement.
IV
If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will give no information or take part in any action which might be harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will take command. If not I will obey the lawful orders of those appointed over me and will back them up in every way.
Informing or any other action to the detriment of a fellow prisoner is despicable and is expressly forbidden. Prisoners of war must avoid helping the enemy identify fellow prisoners who may have knowledge of particular value to the enemy, and may therefore be made to suffer coercive interrogation. Strong leadership is essential to discipline. Without discipline, camp organization, resistance, and even survival may be impossible. Personal hygiene, camp sanitation, and care of sick and wounded are imperative. Officers and noncommissioned officers of the United States will continue to carry out their responsibilities and exercise their authority subsequent to capture. The senior line officer or noncommissioned officer within the prisoner of war camp or group of prisoners will assume command according to rank (or precedence) without regard to Service. This responsibility and accountability may not be evaded. If the senior officer or noncommissioned officer is incapacitated or unable to act for any reason, command will be assumed by the next senior. If the foregoing organization cannot be effected, an organization of elected representatives, as provided for in Articles 79-81 Geneva Convention Relative to Treatment of Prisoners of War, or a covert organization, or both, will be formed.
V
When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am bound to give only name, rank, service number, and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements disloyal to my country and its allies or harmful to their cause.
When questioned, a prisoner of war is required by the Geneva Convention and permitted by this Code to disclose his name, rank, service number, and date of birth. A prisoner of war may also communicate with the enemy regarding his individual health or welfare as a prisoner of war and, when appropriate, on routine matters of camp administration. Oral or written confessions, true or false questionnaires, personal history statements, propaganda recordings and broadcasts, appeals to other prisoners of war, signatures to peace or surrender appeals, self criticism or any other oral or written communications on behalf of the enemy or critical or harmful to the United States, its allies, the Armed Forces or other prisoners are forbidden.

It is a violation of the Geneva Convention to place a prisoner of war under physical or mental torture or any other form of coercion to secure from him information of any kind. If, however, a prisoner of war is subjected to such treatment, he will endeavor to avoid by every means the disclosure of any information, or the making of any statement or the performance of any action harmful to the interests of the United States or its allies or which will provide aid or comfort to the enemy.

Under Communist Bloc reservations to the Geneva Convention, the signing of a confession or the making of a statement by a prisoner is likely to be used to convict him as a war criminal under the laws of his captors. This conviction has the effect of removing him from the prisoner of war status and according to this Communist Bloc device denying him any protection under terms of the Geneva Convention and repatriation until a prison sentence is served.
VI
I will never forget that I am an American fighting man, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America.

The provisions of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, whenever appropriate, continue to apply to members of the Armed Forces while prisoners of war. Upon repatriation, the conduct of prisoners will be examined as to the circumstances of capture and through the period of detention with due regard for the rights of the individual and consideration for the conditions of captivity.

A member of the Armed Forces who becomes a prisoner of war has a continuing obligation to remain loyal to his country, his Service and his unit.

The life of a prisoner of war is hard. He must never give up hope. He must resist enemy indoctrination. Prisoners of war who stand firm and united against the enemy will aid one another in surviving this ordeal.


Source: Department of the Navy. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Law of Naval Warfare, NWIP 10-2. September 1955. [see "Appendix I," pp. I-1 to I3].


APPENDIX J
Bibliography

As a supplement to the guidance provided in NWIP 10-2 on international law as related to naval warfare, the following publications are recommended to aid the naval officer in making decisions which will best serve the interests of the United States and simultaneously adhere to the principles of international law. It should be pointed out, however, that there is no one answer to any law problem, whether the problem is one of international or domestic law.

1. Constitution of the United States.
2. International Law. Third Edition. Fenwick, Charles G. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1948.
3. International Law. Oppenheim-Lauterpacht. Vols. I (Eighth Edition) and II (Seventh Edition). New York: Longmans Green. 1955 and 1952.
4. International Law of the Sea. Third Edition. Higgins and Colombos. New York: Longmans Green. 1954.
5. International Law for Seagoing Officers. Brittin, Burdick H., CDR., USN. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute. 1956.
6. International Law Situations and Documents, U.S. Naval War College. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. (Particularly recommended are the 1955 and 1956 editions, titled, respectively, “The Law of War and Neutrality at Sea” and “Situation, Documents, and Commentary on Recent Developments in the International Law of the Sea.”)
7. An Introduction to International Law. First Edition. Gould, Wesley L. New York: Harper Brothers. 1957. (Official text of U.S. Naval War College on international law.)
8. U.S. Navy Regulations, 1948. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1948.


Source: Department of the Navy. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Law of Naval Warfare, NWIP 10-2. September 1955. [see "Appendix J," pp. J-1].