A Short Guide to Iraq


War and Navy Departments
Washington, D.C.
[1943]

Image of cover.

Prepared by Special Service Division, Army Service Forces, United States Army.


Contents

Introduction 1
What Is This Iraq? 3
Meet The People 4
The Country 6
The Moslems 10
Iraqi Customs and Manners 13
The Language 18
Climate and Health 19
Currency, Weights and Measures 24
Some Important Do's and Don'ts 27
Hints on Pronouncing Arabic 31
Useful Words and Phrases 34
A Glossary 39

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page banner: camel caravan.

A Short Guide to Iraq

YOU HAVE been ordered to Iraq (i - RAHK) as part of the world-wide offensive to beat Hitler.

You will enter Iraq both as a soldier and as an individual, because on our side a man can be both a soldier and an individual. That is our strength--if we are smart enough to use it. It can be our weakness if we aren't. As a soldier your duties are laid out for you. As an individual, it is what you do on your own that counts--and it may count for a lot more than you think.

American success or failure in Iraq may well depend on whether the Iraqis (as the people are called) like American soldiers or not. It may not be quite that simple. But then again it could.

How To Beat Hitler. Herr Hitler knows he's licked if the peoples united against him stand their ground. So it is pretty obvious what he and his propaganda machine are trying to do. They're trying to spread disunity and discontent among their opponents whenever and wherever they can.

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So what's the answer? That ought to be pretty obvious, too. One of your big jobs is to prevent Hitler's agents from getting in their dirty work. The best way you can do this is by getting along with the Iraqis and making them your friends. And the best way to get along with any people is to understand them.

That is what this guide is for. To help you understand the people and the country so that you can do the best and quickest job of sending Hitler back where he came from.

And, secondly, so that you as a human being will get the most out of an experience few Americans have been lucky enough to have. Years from now you'll be telling your children and maybe your grandchildren stories beginning "Now when I was in Baghdad -----."

Image of street scene.

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What Is This Iraq?

WHAT is Iraq, anyhow? Well, it's a lot of things, old and new. It is one of the oldest countries in the world--and one of the youngest under its present government. In Baghdad, the capital city, you will see: street merchants selling exactly the same kind of pottery that their ancestors sold at the time of the Arabian Nights. Not far away you will see great dams and modern refineries equal to the best you have seen in America. If you happen to be sent to the oil fields, you will discover miracles of modern engineering construction side by side with primitive refineries built 2,000 years ago and still in operation.

Iraq Is Hot! As a matter of fact you may be so busy when you reach Iraq that you won't see much of anything for awhile. Probably you will feel Iraq first--and that means heat. Blazing heat. And dust. In the daytime Iraq can be one of the hottest spots in the world. If you happen to travel by train in the daytime, the leather seats may get so hot that you'll have to stand up. Most work is done between 6 a.m. and noon and perhaps an hour or two in the early evening. And yet the nights of these hot days are often uncomfortably cool.

Or maybe the first thing you notice will be the smells. You have heard and read a lot about the "mysterious East." You have seen moving pictures about the colorful life of the desert and the bazaars. When you actually get

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there you will look in vain for some of the things you have been led to expect. You will smell and feel a lot of things the movies didn't warn you about.

Meet the People

But don't get discouraged. Most Americans and Europeans who have gone to Iraq didn't like it at first. Might as well be frank about it. They thought it a harsh, hot, parched, dusty, and inhospitable land. But nearly all of these same people changed their minds after a few days or weeks, and largely on account of the Iraqi people they began to meet. So will you.

That tall man in the flowing robe you are going to see soon, with the whiskers and the long hair, is a first-class fighting man, highly skilled in guerilla warfare. Few fighters in any country, in fact, excell him in that kind of situation. If he is your friend, he can be a staunch and valuable ally. If he should happen to be your enemy--look out! Remember Lawrence of Arabia? Well, it was with men like these that he wrote history in the First World War.

But you will also find out quickly that the Iraqi is one of the most cheerful and friendly people in the world. Few people you have seen get so much fun out of work and everyday living. If your are willing to go just a little out of your way to understand him, everything will be o.k.

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Differences? Of Course! Differences? Sure, there are differences. Differences of costume. Differences of food. Differences of manner and custom and religious beliefs. Different attitudes toward women. Differences galore.

But what of it? You aren't going to Iraq to change the Iraqis. Just the opposite. We are fighting this war to preserve the principle of "live and let live." Maybe that sounded like a lot of words to you at home. Now you have a chance to prove it to yourself and others. If you can, it's going to be a better world to live in for all of us.

Although relatively few Iraqis receive a formal education similar to yours, they are shrewd and intelligent and

Iraqi man in desert garb

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tend to believe what they hear and see with their own ears and eyes. By what you do and how you act you can do a lot to win this war and the peace after it. Right now Iraq is threatened with invasion--as America is now. The Iraqis have some religious and tribal differences among themselves. Hitler has been trying to use these differences to his own ends. If you can win the trust and friendship of all the Iraqis you meet, you will do more than you may think possible to help bring them together in our common cause.

Needless to say, Hitler will also try to use the differences between ourselves and Iraqis to make trouble. But we have a weapon to beat that kind of thing. Plain common horse sense. Let's use it.

Hitler's game is to divide and conquer. Ours it to unite and win!

The Country

First, let's have a look at the country. We can't very well talk about places and people until we know where we are.

In the center of this guide you find a map of what is called the "Middle East." You will see by the map, Iraq lies south of Turkey; east of Syria and Palestine; north of Arabia; west of Iran (EE-RAHN) (Persia); and just touches the Persian Gulf at one corner. It is about the size of the State of Montana.

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A Strategic Hot Spot. Iraq is thus a strategic part of the great "land bridge" between Europe and India--the road Hitler HOPES to use to join hands with his back-stabbing allies, the Japs. Also, the Persian Gulf is an important back door for us to get supplies to our Russian allies. And even more, Iraq has great military importance for its oil fields, with their pipelines to the Mediterranean Sea. Yes, Iraq is a hot spot in more ways than one.

Iraq was formerly called Mesopotamia. Its history goes back a tidy 5,000 years. By tradition the Garden of Eden was located in this region. Hence it is often called "the birthplace of mankind." It is certainly one of the oldest settled regions in the world. Here it was that the ancient cities of Babylon and Nineveh (NI-ne-ve) flourished in Bible times. You will very likely see their ruins, some of the great ruins of the world.

Before the First World War, Mesopotamia (as it was called then) was a part of Turkey. After the war the state of Iraq was set up as a British mandate, with an Arab chieftain, Feisal (FAY-sal), as king. In 1932 Iraq became an independent state--a "limited monarchy" of the English type, with an elected legislature. The present king is Feisal II, the grandson of the first king. Close relations have been maintained with the British, and the country is now guarded by British troops to prevent the Germans from gaining control.

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The Cities. Iraq has only a few cities. Baghdad, the largest, has a population of around 500,000, about like that of Minneapolis or Kansas City. Mosul (MO-sul) in the oil region has a population of over 100,000, Suq-al Shuyukh (SOOQ ash-shu-YOOKH) about the same, and Basrah (BAS-ra) on the Persian gulf, the most important port, has about 70,000.

Most of Iraq is desert country. Not great sandy wastes like the Sahara in Africa, but flinty, harsh, monotonous desert, treeless but covered with a thin scrub vegetation very much like our Southwest region. The only water in this region comes from waterholes, and these are jealously guarded. Water is more valuable than anything else in the desert, and for the Iraqi, to waste water would be like throwing money away.

In contrast to the dry deserts are the great green valleys of the Tigris (TAI-gris) and Euphrates (yoo-FRAY-teez) Rivers. These two important rivers rise in the Kurdistan (KUR-di-stan) mountains of Turkey, north and west of Iraq. After flowing across the country in parallel channels, they join together and empty into the Persian Gulf through one mouth. In the valleys of these two rivers nine-tenths of the 31/2 million people (about the population of Chicago) live.

At the northern end of these valleys is the important oil field of Kirkuk (kir-KOOK). The field was discovered

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in 1927 but it was not until 1935 that production began in earnest. Twin pipe-lines have been constructed to the ports of Tripoli in Syria and Haifa (HAI-fa) in Palestine, on the Mediterranean Sea. These fields and pipe-lines are among the richest prizes Hitler would like to grab, and they are heavily guarded. Guarding or defending them may be among your most important military duties, for this oil is the source of supply for the armies of the Middle East and India, and also feeds the Mediterranean fleet.

How the People Live. Nearly all farming in Iraq is dependent on irrigation, with water taken from the two great rivers. The most important crop is dates, which not only are the chief food of the people but also shipped to other countries. Grain, especially wheat, barley, rice, and millet is grown in large quantity. Also grown are cotton, sugar cane and legumes, with small quantities of citrus fruits.

Practically the only building material is dried mud, like the adobe used in the Southwestern U.S.A. It is admirably suited to the hot climate and you will find the inside of the flat-roofed Iraqi houses cool even in the noonday heat.

The Iraqi people are divided by occupation into the tradesmen in the cities, the farmers in the irrigated areas, and the nomads, who herd their sheep and camels on the desert, moving from place to place for fresh pastures.

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The nomads and farmers cling to the native dress more than the city dwellers, who are often quite "westernized."

The nomads are divided into tribes headed by sheikhs (SHAYK). These leaders are very powerful and should be shown great consideration. Townsmen, farmers, and nomads consider themselves as equal and should be treated as such.

Image of sheep herders.

The Moslems

There are a few Christians and Jews and other sects among the Iraqis, but by far the most people you will meet and see are Moslems. This means that they are followers of the religion founded by Mohammed. But you should not call it the Mohammedan religion, for the Moslems do not worship Mohammed as Christians worship Christ. They believe in one god, Allah, and that Mohammed was His prophet. The religion is called Islam and the people who believe in it are called Moslems.

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The Moslem bible is known as the Koran and the Moslems worship in mosques (mosks). They are very devout in their religion and do not like to have "unbelievers" (to them you are an "unbeliever") come anywhere near their mosques. You can usually tell a mosque by its high tower. Keep away from mosques. Even though you may have visited mosques in Syria or Egypt, the mosques in Iraq must not be entered. If you try to enter one, you will be thrown out, probably with a severe beating. The Iraqi Moslems even resent unbelievers coming close to mosques. If you have blundered too near a mosque, get away in a hurry before trouble starts. The Moslem religion requires a man to pray five times a day. This is done by facing the holy city of Mecca and going through a series of prostrations. Don't stare at anyone who is praying, and above all do not make fun of him. Respect his religion as he will respect yours.

Image of mosque.

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No Preaching. This isn't preaching. You probably belong to a church at home, and you know how you would feel towards anyone who insulted or desecrated your church. The Moslems feel just the same way, perhaps even more strongly. In fact, their feeling about their religion is pretty much the same as ours toward our religion, although more intense. If anything, we should respect the Moslems the more for the intensity of their devotion.

There are four towns in Iraq which are particularly sacred to the Iraqi Moslems. These are Kerbela (ker-be-LAA), Nejef (NE-jef), Kadhiman (KAA-di-MAYN) (near Baghdad), and Samarra. Unless you are ordered to these towns, it is advisable to stay away from them.

It is a good idea in any foreign country to avoid any religious or political discussions. This is even truer in Iraq than most countries, because it happens that here the Moslems themselves are divided into two factions something like our division into Catholic and Protestant denominations--so don't put in your two cents worth when Iraqis argue about religion. There are also political differences in Iraq that have puzzled diplomats and statesmen. You won't help matters any be getting mixed up in them. Moreover, if you discuss foreign politics with them, you might be maneuvered into making statements that could be interpreted as criticisms of our Allies.

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Your move is to stay out of political and religious arguments altogether. By getting into them you'll only help the Nazi propagandists who are trying to stir up trouble among the Iraqis.

Iraqi Customs and Manners

MOST of the Iraqi customs and manners are religious in their origin. For example, there is the month of fasting each year called "Ramadan" (ra-ma-DAHN). This period is similar to the Lenten period in many of the Christian Churches. In 1942 Ramadan begins September 12th. In 1943 it will be about two weeks earlier. During this period the Moslems do not eat, drink, or smoke between sunrise and sunset. Avoid offering, or asking them for food, drink, or smokes at this time, except after sunset. All hesitations and refusals at this period should be accepted without any attempts at persuasion. Any drawing of blood, during this period, even if accidental, such as a scratch or a nosebleed, may have serious consequences. Remember that Moslem tempers are very short during this month as yours would be under similar circumstances.

The Moslem day of rest is Friday, and their stores are closed on that day. In Baghdad and the other large cities many shops are closed on Saturday, the Jewish day of rest, while Christian shops are closed on Sunday.

Moslems, Christians, and Jews all have a number of religious holidays. Some of these are solemn fasts like

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Ramadan, others are colorful festivals. You will be wise to respect the observance of these holidays.

The "Evil Eye". Many of the Iraqis believe in the "evil eye". This is a good deal in their minds like putting a "hex" on a person is to people in parts of our country. If you stare at people, especially children, someone may think you are the possessor of an "evil eye", and are trying to put a curse on the person you are staring at. Some of the Iraqis think that the lens of a camera is an "evil eye", and you will make enemies by taking close-up snapshots and possibly wind up with a knife in your back. General views or street scenes will cause no trouble--except mosques. Don't try to photograph mosques.

Beggars are not numerous in Iraq. Those you will see live mainly in the cities and are mostly professionals, and it is not a good idea to give them money. If you do, the word will spread to all the beggars in the city that you are an easy mark. Of course, some of them may be deserving, and if you feel moved by their plight, give them a little something--but better be prepared to repeat.

Bargaining in the shops and bazaars is a great national pastime. You will have to bargain for almost everything you buy. The price first quoted is usually one-third to two-thirds higher than what you should pay. In bargaining the important thing is not to hurry. A little American horse trading will carry you a long way in this game.

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Image of two men bargaining.

Manners Are Important. Moslems pay much attention to good manners.

Handshaking in Iraq is considered an important part of good manners. You will be greeted with a handshake on every occasion that you meet an Iraqi. His handshake is cordial and sincere. Return it in the same spirit.

But do not touch or handle an Iraqi in any other way. Do not wrestle with him in fun, and don't slap him on the back. Any such contact is offensive to his idea of good manners. Above all never strike an Iraqi.

Do your swearing in English. Avoid the native oaths--you will not know their exact meaning and they may get you into trouble. Don't under any circumstances call an Iraqi a "dog", a "devil", a "native", or a "heathen". These terms are all deadly insults to him.

They do not drink liquor or eat pork. So respect their feelings and do not drink in their presence. They do not like to see others drink and it offends them to see others drunk. Never give them pork to eat or offer it to them even in fun.

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Pigs are "unclean" to Moslems. So are dogs. If you happen to have a mascot dog, be particularly careful to keep him away from mosques.

Moslems do not let other people see them naked. Do not urinate in their presence. They do it squatting and dislike to see other people do it standing up. These things may seem trivial, but they are important if you want to get along well with the Iraqis.

Moslem Women. Moslem women do not mingle freely with men. The greater part of their time they spend at home and in the company of their families. Never make advances to Moslem women or try to attract their attention in the streets or other public places. Do not loiter near them when they are shopping. If a woman has occasion to lift her veil while shopping, do not stare or smile at her. Look the other way. These rules are extremely important. The Moslems will immediately dislike you and there will be trouble if you do not treat women according to their standards and customs.

These rules apply both to the cities and towns and to the villages and the desert. The village and desert women go unveiled more often than the women in the cities and seem to have more freedom. But the rules are still strict. Any advance on your part will mean trouble and plenty of it. Even when speaking to Iraqi men, no mention should be made of their female relatives. The Iraqi themselves

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Image of a "Don't Do," slapping an Iragi on the back.

follow this custom and would resent anyone, especially a foreigner, not doing the same.

To repeat--don't make a pass at any Moslem woman or there will be trouble. Anyway, it won't get you anywhere. Prostitutes do not walk the streets but live in special quarters of the cities.

Iraqi Hospitality. If you are entertained in an Iraqi city home, you will probably find dishes and silverware and customs somewhat like our own. But do not eat too much of the first course of a meal. There is probably more coming.

In the country there will probably be no table, plates, or silverware. You will be expected to sit on the ground as your host does. Follow his example. Roll up your right sleeve and eat with the tips of your right fingers--even if you are a southpaw. It is considered rude to eat with your left hand. If your host tears off tid-bits and hands them to you, eat them. In the country there will probably be only one course. After the meal, water will be brought to wash your hands and a towel to wipe them.

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In the desert the customs are much the same as in the country, except that there is less variety in the food. You may be offered only some bread and milk or soured milk, like buttermilk. These people are poor and are offering you the best they have. You must not refuse it--but do not take too much.

Coffee drinking is equally popular in the city, country, or desert. Even a shopkeeper may offer you a small glass of coffee. Do not refuse it or throw it away half-drunk, even if it does not taste like our American coffee. If you are offered a second cup, take it, and also a third. But it is customary to refuse a fourth.

These are some general hints about manners. But the main thing is the SPIRIT of politeness and courtesy. If you show this, the Iraqis will understand and forgive any lapses you may make through not knowing their customs. If you show that you really want to be friendly, you'll get along.

The Language

THE native language of Iraq is Arabic. You will not need to know many words to get along. A few simple words will go a long way. Learn a few words and

Image of four cups of coffee, the fourth is "X"ed out.

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phrases--you will find a helpful list at the end of this guide--and talk to the Iraqis in their own language. They will like it even if your pronunciation is not the same as theirs. They will be especially pleased when you use their polite salutations even if you do not know any other words. When you hear one of them speak English--no matter how badly--you will understand the pleasure they feel when you speak to them in their language.

Many Iraqis speak a few words or at least understand English, especially those in the larger stores in the cities and others in the oil regions which were developed by the British. Occasionally among the wealthier classes French, Turkish, and sometimes German are spoken. In most of the Baghdad bazaars, Persian in understood. From Mosul north both Turkish and Kurdish are heard commonly.

Climate and Health--Sanitary Conditions

Iraq is a hot country. This means: keep your headgear on when you are in the summer sun. In this kind of a climate it is very easy to let yourself be burned and think nothing of it. But next day you are likely to wake up with black blisters and possible fever. The headgear issued to you will be sufficient to protect you. But whatever you wear, be sure that it shades the back of your neck as well as the top of your head. If you expose the back of your

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Map of the Middle East

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neck you are inviting sunstroke. Don't, under any circumstances, take a sun bath.

Image of sun.

In the desert, be prepared for extremes of temperature. The days are usually very hot. The nights can be uncomfortably cool.

Boil your drinking water or see that it is properly chlorinated. You will find that conditions of life in Iraq do not allow the degree of sanitation or cleanliness that we know.

Avoid eating unwashed vegetables and fruits. They may be contaminated with human excrement. Wash raw fruits and vegetables in water or alcohol or peel them before eating them, because the skins may have become contaminated by flies or by human contact. Avoid leafy vegetables altogether. Keep all food away from flies.

Diseases: Malaria and typhoid are two very serious fevers. You should guard against them in every possible way. Malaria is carried by a particular kind of mosquito which breeds in marshy areas, uncovered wells and cisterns and in shallow water pools. If at all possible, stay away from areas in which malaria is common. When you

Image of "Don't sunbath."

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can't do this, sleep under nets and keep your arms and legs covered, especially at dusk.

Typhoid is contracted from unboiled water and from raw foods which have not been properly cleaned or peeled. Once again, avoid them.

Sandflies, which are smaller than mosquitoes and which can get through an ordinary mosquito net, carry a slight three-day fever which is not serious but is very weakening. It is known as sandfly fever. Sandflies are most prevalent in midsummer. Coating yourself with a light oil will give you some protection from them.

You should be very careful about bugs and lice, which are common. Give yourself a frequent once-over for them. Scabies is a skin infection, produced by a parasite which feeds on the skin. It is extremely annoying and difficult to get rid of. However, it can be cured by sulphur ointment.

Intestinal diseases, such as dysentery and tapeworm, are very common in Iraq. These can be avoided, or at least made less severe, by extreme care in the water you drink and the food you eat.

Image - You will have to carry your own supply of toilet paper.

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Trachoma, a very common disease of the eye, can be picked up almost everywhere, even from shaking hands with someone and then touching your eyes. Don't rub or touch your eyes.

Toilets such as those in America are very scarce. You will have to get used to relieving yourself outdoors at any convenient spot. Be sure to get well off the main streets and well away from mosques, and out of sight as much as possible. You will have to carry your own supply of toilet paper.

There is a good deal of venereal disease around, so don't take chances.

Currency, Weights, Measures, Etc.

Iraqi Currency. The rate of exchange of Iraqi money to United States currency may vary a little from time to time, so that the table below can give only approximate ratios. The basis of Iraqi money is the "dinar" (DEE-NAHR) which is roughly worth $4.00 in United States money. Each dinar is further divided into 1,000 "fils" (fils or FI-lis). The dinar is a paper note or bill; the fils pieces are coin. The approximate value of the various denominations of Iraqi money are given below.

Image

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TABLE OF IRAQ CURRENCY


Paper Money
Iraq Value American Dollars
100 Dinars $402.00  
10 Dinars 40.20  
5 Dinars 20.10  
1 Dinar 4.02  
1/2 Dinar (500 fils) 2.01  
1/4 Dinar (250 fils) 1.00  

Silver Coins
200 fils .80  
50 fils .20  
20 fils .08  

Nickel Coins
10 fils .04  
4 fils .016

Bronze Coins
2 fils .008
1 fils .004

An easy way to remember the values of the various fils pieces is to think of each fils as being worth just a little less than 1/2 cent in U.S. money.

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The Moslem Calendar. The Moslem calendar is used in Iraq. The main thing to know about the Moslem calendar is that it is lunar, or based on the moon. Each of the 12 months has only 28 days. this means that the Moslem year is a little shorted than our year, so that a special date, such as the fast of Ramadan, will occur a little earlier each year.

Time. There are two ways of telling time in Iraq. The official system is the "European system." That is, a 24-hour clock, beginning at midnight, instead of a 12-hour clock. So in railway timetables you may see that a train is scheduled to arrive at 14 o'clock. That means at 2 p.m. as we reckon time. Or at 23 o'clock, which is 11 p.m. to us. 24 o'clock is midnight. However, most of the country goes on the same 12-hour system used in America.

Weights and Measures. The metric system is used for all official measurements of distance and area in Iraq. The unit of length in the metric system is the "meter," which is 39.37 inches, or a little more than our yard. The unit of road distance is the "kilometer," which is 1,000 meters or 5/8 (a little over one-half) of one of our miles.

The metric unit of square measure is the "hectare" (HECK-tayr), which consists of 10,000 square meters, or about 21/2 of our acres. An Iraqi unit of square measure

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is the dunam (DU-nam) or "misharah" (mi-SHAH-ra), which equals 2,500 square meters or a little less than 3,000 square yards.

The unit of weight in the metric system is the "kilogram," which equals 2.2 pounds in our system.

Liquids in the metric system are measured by the "liter." A liter is a little more than one of our quarts.

Some Important Do's and Don'ts

Keep away from mosques.

Smoke or spit somewhere else--never in front of a mosque.

If you come near a mosque, keep moving (away) and don't loiter.

Keep silent when the Moslems are praying (which they do five times a day) and don't stare.

Discuss something else--NEVER religion or politics or women--with Moslems.

Remember the fear of the "evil eye." Don't stare at anyone. Don't point your camera in anyone's face.

Avoid offering opinions on internal politics.

Shake hands with the Iraqi; otherwise don't touch them or slap them on the back.

Remember that the Iraqi are a very modest people and avoid any exposure of the body in their presence.

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Keep out of the sun whenever you can. When you can't, keep your head and neck covered.

Start eating only after your host has begun.

Eat with your right hand--never with your left, even if your are a southpaw.

Always tear bread with your fingers--never cut it.

Bread to the Moslems is holy. Don't throw scraps of it about or let it fall on the ground.

In the city eat only part of the first course. There may be more coming.

In the country leave some food in the bowl--what you leave goes to the women and children.

Don't offer Moslems food containing pork, bacon, or lard, or cooked in pork products. All such food is religiously "unclean" to them.

Don't eat pork or pork products in front of Moslems.

Be pleasant if Moslems refuse to eat meat you offer.

Don't offer Moslems alcoholic drinks. Drink liquor somewhere else--never in the presence of Moslems.

Knock before entering a private house. If a woman answers, wait until she has had time to retire.

Image "Meal time tips for southpaws."

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Always respect the Moslem women. Don't stare at them. Don't smile at them. Don't talk to them or follow them. If you do any of these things, it means trouble for you and your unit.

In a house or tent, follow the rule of your host. If he takes off his shoes on entering, do the same.

If you are required to sit on the floor in an Iraqi house or tent, cross your legs while doing so.

When visiting, don't overstay your welcome. The third glass of tea or coffee is the signal to leave unless your are quartered there.

If you should see grown men walking hand in hand, ignore it. They are not "queer."

Be kind and considerate to servants. The Iraqis consider all people equals.

Avoid any expression of race prejudice. The people draw very little color line.

Talk Arabic if you can to the people. No matter how badly you do it, they will like it.

Shake hands on meeting and leaving.

On meeting an Iraqi, be sure to inquire after his health.

If you wish to give someone a present, make it sweets or cigarettes.

If you are stationed in the country, it is a good idea to take sweets and cigarettes with you when you visit an Iraqi's home.

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Show respect toward all older persons. If serving food, the eldest person should be served first.

Be polite. Good manners are important to the Iraqis. Be hospitable.

Bargain on prices. Don't let shopkeepers or merchants overcharge you; but be polite.

Be generous with your cigarettes.

Above all, use common sense on all occasions. And remember that every American soldier is an unofficial ambassador of good will.

Image of a soldier saluting.

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Hints on Pronouncing Arabic

THESE are pronunciation hints to help you in listening to the Arabic language records which have been supplied to your troop unit. They will also help you with the pronunciation of additional words and phrases given in the vocabulary below, which are not included in the records.

Arabic is spoken over a great area in North Africa and the Near East. There are some differences between regions, both in pronunciation and the use of words. The dialect you are going to hear on this set of records is the Baghdad variety and you will be understood all over Iraq, except in the extreme north, and in most of Trans-Jordania. If you should go on to other regions, you will be given further information at that time. Don't worry about that now.

There is nothing very difficult about Arabic--except that you won't be able to read Arabic signs and newspapers you will see. That is because they use a different alphabet from ours. Therefore, the instructions and vocabulary below are not based on the written Arabic language, but are a simplified system of representing the language as it sounds. This system contains letters for all the sounds you must make to be understood. It does not contain letters for some of the sounds you will hear, but it will give you enough to get by on, both listening and speaking.

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Here are a few simple rules to help you:

1. Accents. You know what the accented syllable of a word is, of course. It is the syllable which is spoken louder than the other syllables in the same word. We will show accented (loud) syllables in capital letters and unaccented syllables in small letters.

2. Vowels. These are the kinds of sounds we represent in English by a, e, i, o, u, ah, ay, ei, oi, au, ow, etc. Just follow the key below and you will have no trouble.

a or A equals The a in pat or the o in pot. There is no fixed rule. You'll just have to listen and learn. (Example: tif-HAM-nee meaning "do you understand me?")
AA equals The a in bath--that is, not the "broad a"--but stretch (lengthen) it. (Example: THLAA-tha meaning "three.")
AH equals The a in father--that is, the "broad a"--but stretch it. (Example: WAH-hid meaning "one.")
AI equals The ai is aisle--but stretch it. (Example: MAI meaning "water.")
AU equals The ow in now--but stretch it. (Example: AU-wal meaning "first.")
AY equals The ay in day--but stretch it. (Example: WAYN meaning "where.")
e or E equals The e in pet. (Example: tel meaning "hill.")
ee or EE equals The ee in feet--but stretch it. (Example: a-REED meaning "I want.")
i or I equals The i in pit. (Example: SIT-te meaning "six.")

--32--

o or O equals The o in go--but stretch it. (Example: YOM meaning "day.")
OO equals The oo in boot--but stretch it. (Example: ar-JOOK meaning "please.")
u or U equals The u in put. (Example: NUS meaning "half.")
uh or UH equals The u in but. (Example: CHUHZ-ma meaning "boots.")

3. Consonants. The consonants are all the sounds that are not vowels. Pronounce them just as you know them in English. All consonants should be pronounced. Never "slight" them. Here are some special consonant sounds to learn.

h              The small h is always pronounced with the h sound except after small u. Listen carefully to the h sound on the records.
kh              is pronounced as when clearing your throat when you have to spit. Listen carefully for it on the records.
gh              is pronounced like kh except that you put "voice" into it. That is, a sound very much as when you gargle.
sh              is like the sh in show.
th              is like the th in thin.
dh              is like the th in then.
ch              is like the ch in church.
q              is like a very far back k, that is, it is swallowed. Listen carefully for it on the records.
(')              is to be pronounced like a slight cough. Listen carefully for it on the records. Whenever it

--33--

               is indicated, pronounce it clearly, but do not pronounce it even accidentally when it is not indicated, or you will be misunderstood.
s              is always pronounced like the s in kiss.

List of Most Useful Words and Phrases

HERE is a list of the most useful words and phrases you will need in Arabic. You should learn these by heart. They are the words and phrases included on the Arabic language records, and appear here in the order they occur on the records.

Greetings and General Phrases

English--Simplified Arabic Spelling

good day--saBAHh il-KHAYR

good evening--ma-sal KHAYR

sir--BAYG

madam--KHAH-TOON

   (but if the lady is a Moslem--KHAH-nim)

miss--BNAY-ye

please (to a man)--ar-JOOK or min-FADH-lak

please (to a woman)--ar-JOOCH or min-FADH-lich

please (to more than one person)--ar-JOO-kum or min-jadh-IL-kum

pardon me--il-'A-fu

excuse me (to a man)--u'-DHUR-nee

  excuse me (to a woman)--a'-dhur-EE-nee

excuse me (to more than one person)--u'-dhur-OO-nee

thank you (to a man)--ash-KU-rak

Thank you (to a woman)--ash-KU-rich

Thank you (to more than one person)--ash-KUR-kum

Yes--NA-'am

No--la'

Do you understand me--tif-HAM-nee

I don't understand--MA-da-AF-ham

Please speak slowly--ar-JOOK, Eh-chee ya-WAHSH

--34--

Location
Where (is)--WAYN
   a restaurant--il-MAT-'am

Where is a restaurant--WAYN il-MAT-'am
   a hotel--il-OO-TAYL

Where is a hotel--WAYN il-OO-TAYL
   the railroad station--il ma-HAT-ta

  Where is the R.R. station--WAYN il-ma-HAT-ta

Where is a toilet--WAYN il-A-dab

Directions
Turn right--DOOR YIM-ne

Turn left--DOOR YIS-re

Straight ahead--GU-bal

  Please point--ar-JOOK, ra-WEE-nee
If your are driving and ask the distance to another town, it will be given you in kilometers as often as miles.
Kilometers--KEE-lo-met-RAHT   Miles--MEEL
One kilometer equal 5/8 of a mile. You need to know the numbers.
Numbers
One--WAH-hid

Two--THNAYN

Three--THLAA-tha

  Four--AR-ba-'a

Five--KHAM-ta

When you use the numbers with other words, you just say the number and add the other word.

--35--

One kilometer--WAH-hid KEE-lo-ME-tir
But two kilometers you say "couple of kilometers" all in one word.
Two kilometers--KEE-lo-met-RAYN

Six--SIT-te

Seven--SAB-'a

Eight--THMAA-nee-a

Nine--TIS-'a

Ten--'ASH-re

Eleven-DA-'ash

Twelve--THNA-'ash

Thirteen--thla-TA'SH

  Three kilometers--THLAA-tha KEE-lo-ME-tir

Fourteen--ar-ba'-TA'SH

Fifteen--khu-mus-TA'SH

Sixteen-sit-TA'SH

Seventeen--sba-TA'SH

Eighteen--thmun-TA'SH

Nineteen--tsa-TA'SH

Twenty--'ish-REEN

For "twenty-one", "thirty-two" and so forth, you put the number before the words for "twenty" and "thirty," just as we sometimes say "one and twenty," thus:
Twenty-one--WAH-hid u-'ish REEN

Thirty--THLAA-THEEN

Thirty-two--THNAYN u-THLAA-THEEN

Forty--ar-ba-'EEN

Fifty--kham-SEEN

One hundred--MEE-YE

But for 200 you would say "couple of hundreds," all on one word--

Two hundred--MEE-TAYN

For 250 you say "couple of hundreds and fifty"--

  250--MEE-TAYN u-kham-SEEN

For 255 you say "couple of hundreds, five and fifty"--

255--MEE-TAYN u-kham-sa u-kham-SEEN

But fo 555 you would say "five hundred and five and fifty"--

555--klam-is MEE-ye u-kham-sa u-kham-SEEN

1,000--A-lif

--36--

Designation
What is--SHI-nu

This--HAA-dha

What's this--SHI-un HAA-dha

I want--a-REED
   cigarettes--ji-GAA-yir

  I want cigarettes--a-REED ji-GAA-yir
   to eat--AH-kul

I want to eat--A-REED AH-kul

Foods
Bread--KHU-buz

Fruit--MAY-we

Water--MAI

Eggs--BAY-uhdh

Steak (but only in cities)--STAYK

Meat--LA-ham

Potatoes--pu-TAY-ta

Rice--TIM-man

Beans (navy)--fa-sul-EE-a

Beans (horse)--BAA-GIL-la

Fish--SI-mach

Salad--za-LAH-ta

  Milk--Ha-LEEB

Beer--BEE-ra

A glass of beer--GLAHS BEE-ra

A cup of coffee--fin-JAHN GAh-wa

To find out how much things cost, you say:

How much--shgad
   costs--i-KAL-lif
   this--HAA-dha

How much does this cost?--shgad i-KAL-lif HAA-dha

Money
fils--FI-lis

Two fils ("couple of fils")--fil-SAYN

Four fils--AR-ba-'a FLOOS

Fifty fils--kham-SEEN FI-lis
   or--WAH-hid DIR-ham

Two hundred fils--MEE-TAYN FI-lis
   or--WAH-hid ree-ALL

  Dinar--DEE-NAHR

Two Dinars--DEE-NAA-RAYN

Four Dinars--AR-ba-'a DEE-NAHR

--37--

Time
What time is it--SAA-'aBAYSH

Quarter past five--KHAM-sa u-RU-bu'

Half past six--SIT-a u-NUS

Twenty past seven--sav-'a u THI-lith

Twenty of eight--THMAA-nee-a IL-la THIL-ith

"Except a quarter"--IL-la RU-bu'

Quarter of two--thin-TAYN IL-la RU-bu'

Ten minutes to three--THLAA-tha IL-la 'ASH-ra

  At what time--SAA-'a BAYSH
   the movie--is-SEE-na-ma
   starts--tib-TI-dee

At what time does the movie start?--SAA-'a BAYSH tib-TI-dee is-SEE-na-ma

The train--il-qit-TAHR
   leaves--YIM-thee

At what time does the train leave?--SAA-'a BAYSH YIM-shee il-qit-TAHR

Today--il-YOM
   or--hal-YOM

Tomorrow--BAA-chir

Days of the Week:
Sunday--il'-A-had

Monday--il-ith-NAYN

Tuesday--ith-tha-la-THAA

Wednesday--il-ar-ba'-AH

  Thursday--il-kha-MEES

Friday--il-JUM-'a

Saturday--is-SE-bit

Useful phrases:
What is your name (to a man)--SHIS-mak

What is your name (to a woman)--SHIS-mich

My name is _____--IS-mee _____

  How do you say _____ in Arabic?--SHLON TGOOL _____ bil-'A-ra-bee

Good-bye (by person leaving)--FEE a-MAAN il-LAAh

Good-bye (by person replying)--ma-'as-sa-LAA-ma

--38--

Additional Words and Phrases

[English--Arabic]

Surroundings--Natural Objects
bank (of river)--JUR-uf

darkness-dha-LAAM

daytime (light)--na-HAAR

desert--sah-RAH' or CHOL

field--SAA-ha

fire--NAAR

grass--ha-SHEESH

the ground--GAA'

hill--tel

ice--THE-lij

lake--bu-HAI-ra

the moon--il-GU-mar

  mountain--JI-bal

the ocean (sea)--BA-har

rain--MU-tar

river--NA-har or shuht

snow--WA-fur

spring (water-hole, etc.)--'AYN

the stars--in-nu-JOOM

stream--NA-har

the sun--ish SHA-mis

swamp--mus-TAN-qa'

wind--REEh or HA-wa

Time
day--YOM

day after tomorrow--'U-gub BAH-chir

day before yesterday--AU-wal BAHR-ha

evening--maa-SAA'

month--SHA-har

morning--SU-BAh

night--LAYL

week--is-BOO'

year--SA-na

yesterday--il-BAHR-ha

January--KAA-NOON THAA-nee

  February--shu-BAHT

March--AH-DHAHR or MAHRT

April--NEE-SAAN

May--MAIS or ay-YAHR

June--ho-zay-RAHN

July--tam-MOOZ

August--AAB

September--AY-LOOL

October--tish-REEN AU-wal

November--tish-REEN THAA-nee

December--KAA-NOON AU-wal

--39--

Relationships
boy--WA-lad

brother--uhkh

child--TU-fil

daughter--BI-nit

father--ab

  man--RA-jul or rij-JAAL

mother--um

sister--U-khut

son--I-bin

woman--MA-ra

Human Body
arms--EE-DAYN

back--DHA-har

eye--'AYN

finger--IS-ba'

foot--QA-dam

hair--SHA-'ar

  hand--FED

head--EED

leg--RI-jil

mouth--HA-lig

nose--KHA-shim

teeth--SNOON

House and Furniture
bed--FRAHSH

blanket--bat-TAH-NEE-ya or blanket

chair--SKAM-lee

door-BAAB

drinking water--MAI SHU-rub

house--BAYT

  stairs--da-RAJ

stove (cooking place)--MO-gad

table--MAYZ

wall--HAH-yit

water for washing--MAI GHA-sil

window--shib-BAACH

Food and Drink--Tobacco
butter--ZI-bid

cigars--si-GAHR

food--A-kil

pipe--PEEP

salt--MI-lih

  sugar--SHA-kar

tea--CHAI

tobacco--TI-tin

wine--sha-RAHB

--40--

Surroundings
bridge--JI-sir

mosque--JAH-mi'

church--ka-NEE-sa

mosque (small)--MAS-jid

city--BAL-da

path (trail, pass)--ta-REEQ

post-office--POS-ta

road--ta-REEQ

shop (store)--duk-KAHN or MAKH-zan or ma-GHAA-za (dept. store)

  street--SHAA-ri'

town--BA-lad

village--QAR-ya

well--BEER

police post--MAKH-far SHUR-ta

Animals
animal--hai-WAHN

bird--TAYR

camel--JI-mal

chicken (hen)--di-JAH-ja

cow--HAI-sha

dog--CHE-lib

donkey (burrow, jackass)--ZMAHL

goat--SA-khal, 'AN-za (female goat)

  horse--ha-SAHN

mouse--FAHR

mule--BA-ghal

pig--khan-ZEER

rabbit--AR-nab

rat--JRAY-dee

sheep--kha-ROOF

snake--HAI-ya

Trades and Occupations
baker--khuhb-BAHZ

barber--im-ZAY-yin

blacksmith--had-DAHD

butcher--gas-SAHB

  cook--tab-BAHKH

farmer--fal-LAAh

shoemaker--rag-GAH'

tailor--khai-YAHT

--41--

Numbers
sixty--sit-TEEN

seventy--sab-'EEN

eighty--THMAA-NEEN

ninety--tis-'EEN

first--AU-wal

second--THAA-nee

third--THAA-lith

fourth--RAH-bi'

  fifth--KHAH-mis

sixth--SAA-dis

seventh--SAA-bi'

eighth--THAA_min

ninth--TAA-si'

tenth--'AH-shir

eleventh--it-DA-'ash

twelfth--il-THNA-'ash

Clothing
belt--ha-ZAHM

boots--CHUHZ-ma

coat--PAHL-to (overcoat) or CHA-KET (suitcoat)

gloves--chi-FOOF

hat--SHAF-ka

necktie--BAYIM-BAHGH

  shirt--THOB

shoes--QUN-da-ra, (pl.) qa-NAH-dir

socks--JOO-RAH-BAHT

trousers--pan-TROON

undershirt--fa-NAY-la

Adjectives
good--ZAYN

bad--MOO-ZAYN

big--chi-BEER

small--za-GHAI-yir

sick--waj-'AHN

well--ZAYN

lame--A'-raj

hungry--JOO-'AHN

thirsty--'at-SHAHN

black--AS-wad

white--AB-yad

red--Ah-mar

blue--AZ-rag

  green--AKH-dhar

yellow--UHS-far

high--'AH-lee

low--NAH-see

cold--BAA-rid (of things) or bar-DAHN (of persons)

hot--HAHR

wet--im-BAL-lal dry--NAH-shif or YAH-bis

expensive--GHAH-lee

cheap--ra-KHEES

empty--FAH-righ

full--mat-ROOS or mal-YAAN

--42--

Pronouns, etc.
I--AA-nee or A-na

we--Ah-na

you--IN-ta (masc.sg.); IN-ti (fem.sg.) IN-tu (pl.)

he--HOO-wa

she--HEE-ya

they--HUM-ma (masc.) HIN-na (fem.)

this--HAA-dha (masc.) HAA-dhee (fem.)

my--MAA-lee

  these--DOH-le

that--DHAHK (masc.) DHEECH (fem.)

those--DHO-LAHK (masc. and fem.)

who--MI-nu

what--SHI-nu

how many--CHUHM WAHhid

how far--shgad bi-'EED

anyone--AI WAH-hid

Prepositions
for--I-la

from--min

in--bi

of--min

  on--'A-la

to--I-la

up to--I-la or li-HAD

with--WEE-ye

Adverbs
above--FOG

again--MAR-ra THAH-nee-a

behind--WA-ra

beside--'A-la SAF-ha

below--JAU-wa

far--bi-'EED

here--he-NAH

in front--gid-DAHM

  less--a-QAL

more--ZAA-yid

near--qa-REEB

on that side--(see "there")

on this side--(see "here")

there--he-NAHK

very--HW Al-yir

Conjunctions
and--wa or u

but--LAA-kin

if--I-dha

  or--AU

that--in

--43--

Phrases for Everyday
What date is today?--hal-YOM shgad

Today is the fifth of June--hal-YOM KHAM-sa ho-zay-RAHN

What day of the week?--hal-YOM SHI-nu

Today is Tuesday, etc.--hal-YOM ith-tha-la-THAA

Come here--ta-'AAL hi-NAA

Come quickly--ta-'AAL bil-'A'jal

Go quickly--ROOh bil-'A-jal

  Who are you?--MI-nu In-ta

What do you want?--shit-REED

Bring some drinking water--JEEB MAI li-SHU-rub

Bring some food--JEEB SHWAY-yat A-kil

How far is the camp?--shgad bi-'EED il-ma-'AS-kar

How far is the water?--shgad bi-'EED il-MAI

Whose house is this?--BAYT man HAA-dha

--44--

Source: War and Navy Departments. A Short Guide to Iraq. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1943.