Government Documents Relating to Chaotic Conditions in Haiti and Subsequent Landing of US Naval Personnel

[page 461] The Secretary of State to Minister Blanchard. [Telegram.]

Department of State,
Washington, January 16, 1915.

Following telegram dated today from Consul, Cape Haitien, repeated for your information:

Cannon of alarm announcing adhesion to revolution fired in Cape this morning. Delegate requested consuls to use their influence for the preservation of order and for peaceful entry of revolutionary forces, now near city. Consular Corps in written communication request me to ask presence of warship to protect foreign interests.

The Navy Department has ordered the cruiser Washington to proceed immediately to Cape Haitien for the protection of Americans and other foreigners. Washington due to reach Cape Haitien January 20.

Bryan.

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[page 462] Consul Livingston to the Secretary of State. [Telegram.]

American Consulate,
Cape Haitien, January 18, 1915.

Revolutionary army 1,000 strong under Metellus just entered town. Insurgents of Artibonite accept Vilbrun Guillaume as candidate presidency.

Livingtson.

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Minister Blanchard to the Secretary of State. [Telegram.]

American Legation,
Port au Prince, January 20, 1915.

Consul at Gonaives reports that Saint Michel, Ennery, Limbe, Plaisance and other surrounding places have taken up arms against the Government. It is reported that Vilbrun Guillaume has proclaimed himself chief of the disaffections at Cape Haitien.

Blanchard.

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[page 462] Consul Livingtson to the Secretary of State.

American Consulate,
Cape Haitien, January 27, 1915.

Sir: I have the honor to report that the extraordinary revolution in the northern part of Haiti, which, indeed, was only the continuation in arms of the leading federals of the old Zamor party, joined by an almost unanimous defection from the ranks of the Theodore party, is now nearing its close. The unusual feature is that there has been practically no fighting at all. Not a single shot has been fired at Cape Haitien or anywhere in the neighborhood. The fusion of the two parties mentioned, reinforced by practically all the neutral elements, is so close and intimate that no opposition to the movement has so far been made or is expected to be made anywhere throughout the three departments of the North, the Northwest and the Artibonite.

The reasons for this singular state of affairs are not far to seek. The old Zamor party held many of the important strongholds, which [page 463] they refused to surrender to the new Government of Davilmar Theodore, and this chief was in such haste to have himself installed as president that he hesitated to risk a further effort to continue the work of subjugation. The generals of this party in other parts remained under arms to cooperate with those holding the forts.

When President Theodore was elected, his followers flocked to Port au Prince expecting to reap the rewards of ten months of struggle and hardships. The President found himself in a position where he was unable to satisfy the demands of his friends and had to suffer the consequences. As the revolution, like most of its predecessors, was made for money and nothing but money, the ignorant followers of the President became much incensed, refusing to believe that the head of a government was unable to find the means of meeting obligations toward those who had put him in power. His failure to supply their demands was attributed to his cupidity and lack of good faith, and he immediately became the most unpopular man in Haiti.

The opposition centered around General Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, and up to the present date all the generals commanding troops in the three departments mentioned have communicated with him by letter or by delegation declaring their adhesion to the revolution and acceptance of his candidacy for the presidency.

General Metellus, the famous Caco general, who has been often referred to in despatches from this Consulate, came into Cape Haitien on Saturday morning the 16th instant with a thousand men and has remained here since that date to accompany General Guillaume to Port au Prince. Although he has heretofore been considered a savage and the terror of the surrounding country, not a single act of disorder has been committed here by him or his troops since his arrival, and the general conduct has been such that the situation has more the appearance of a great holiday than of a revolution. There is the utmost order, tranquility and respect both of foreign and native interests.

General Guillaume was awaiting the arrival of General Constantin Vieux from Fort Liberté in order to set out on his march in the direction of Port au Prince. General Vieux arrived yesterday morning and the departure has been fixed for to-morrow, 28th.

Vilbrun Guillaume Sam is now considered as the future President of Haiti. In fact, it is believed here that he will march to Port au Prince without any opposition and the Government of Theodore will fall without the firing of a single shot.

I am [etc.]

Livingston.

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[page 464] American Legation,
Port au Prince, February 19, 1915.

Saint Marc in the hands of Guillaume revolutionists 3,000 strong. Monplaisir, Minister of the Interior, killed there yesterday. Petionville, 3 miles outside of Port au Prince, in the hands of revolutionists reported to be partisans Charles Zamor. Jacmel in arms and General Hilaire, ex-commandant of arrondissement, proclaimed as chief of the revolutionary forces there. Has issued proclamation appointing ministers of revolutionary government. Here, great anxiety as to probable attack revolutionists. Preparations are being made to defend the city. Numerous armed men in the streets. Food supply from the interior practically cut off and markets deserted. Water supply for the lower part of the town cut off by revolutionists at Petionville. Currently reported President contemplating resignation.

Blanchard.

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[page 465] Minister Blanchard to the Secretary of State. [Telegrams.]

American Legation,
Port au Prince, February 22, 1915.

The city has been practically without food and with no water for the past three days and revolutionists having stopped all incoming foodstuffs and cut off the entire water supply, a condition which they declared would continue as long as President Theodore remained in office. This along with the fact that the city is surrounded by revolutionists determined him to leave at once and at midday he boarded the southbound Dutch vessel now in port. He was escorted through the streets by a mounted guard amid little excitement. Order prevailed. The revolutionary army of Vilbrun Guillaume is expected to arrive at Port au Prince tomorrow. Except for desultory firing the city is quiet. There has been considerable firing during the past two nights as is customary here when a change in government is imminent. So far order is being maintained.

Blanchard.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, February 24, 1915 - 10 a.m.

My February 19 and February 22. General Hilaire and all other revolutionary chiefs have recognized Vilbrun Guillaume Sam as Chief of the Executive Power. Part of his army entered Port au Prince yesterday and returned to outskirts of city. Generals Augustin and Milford in command of arrodissement and palace. Order being perfectly maintained. Water restored and market supplies coming in. President Theodore sailed for Curacao Monday; Vilbrun Guillaume Sam due to arrive to-morrow. City quiet.

Blanchard.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, February 24, 1915 - 6 p.m.

Your cable February 20, 3 p.m., not entirely clear; but to avoid delay pending complete repetition hereby requested, following answers are submitted:

First. Theodore was regularly elected President according to the Constitution of Haiti by the Senate and House in joint session for a full term of 7 years. See my telegram of November 7, and November 13, 3 p.m.

Second. The term of the present [Chamber of Deputies?] expires the end of 1916. Senators are elected by the [Chamber of Deputies?] for a term of 6 years and renewed by session every 2 years.

Members of Chamber of Deputies elected by the people.

For detailed information see American Constitutions, edition 1905, volume 2, page 59, and following paragraph. The candidates elected as a rule are the candidates of the Government.

[page 466] Third. The Legislature was not coerced into the election of Theodore, who received the entire vote.

The proclaiming of a successful revolutionary leader as Chief of the Executive Power is tantamount to his election as President. Upon his entrance in the capital the Chambers are convoked and he is invariably elected.

Fourth. The revolution is successful. All revolutionary leaders have declared allegiance to Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, who is expected to arrive at Port au Prince tomorrow, 25th. Chambers convoked yesterday in extra session and according to all precedents will elect him for the term of 7 years.

Fifth. The overthrow of the Theodore Government was due in part to personal ambition of Vilbrun Guillaume Sam and to the fact that the Government being without funds and unable to secure any the troops received no pay, as had been promised after his election, for 10 months campaign and they therefore returned to the North and joined the revolution; also economic conditions here due to European war and internal unrest resulting in business stagnation and creating a poverty-stricken condition throughout the country. Further, Theodore surrounded himself with members of the former Simon Government the most unpopular faction in Haiti which contributed to a great degree to his downfall.

Blanchard.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, February 25, 1915.

Vilbrun Guillaume Sam entered Port au Prince this morning at 9, escorted by about 300 mounted troops. His army of about 3000 had preceded him into the city. Presidential salutes fired from forts. Perfect order maintained.

Blanchard.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, February 27, 1915 - noon.

Replying to your February 20, 3 p.m., point 2: qualifications for suffrage. All citizens 21 years of age who are not debarred by provisions of Article 11, chapter 2, Haitian Constitution.

Elections as understood in America do not exist in Haiti. Elections being simply a continuation of military system under which the country is governed. The population generally takes no part in elections, the voting being done by soldiers acting under instructions. Few voters who vote many times.

No data obtainable as to causes contributing to downfall of the Theodore Government.

Blanchard.

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[Note: skip page 467]

[page 468] American Legation,
Port-au-Prince, March 9, 1915 - 2 p.m.

Called informally yesterday afternoon on Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs to introduce Commission before ceremonies of today which I attended with members of the Commission and staff of Legation. The President took oath outside office at 10 then attended a Te Deum at the cathedral after which he held a reception in the barracks where he still resides. The Commission is to be received tomorrow morning by the new Minister of Foreign Affairs who is now arranging an early audience with the President.

Blanchard.

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[page 469] Minister Sullivan to the Secretary of State. [Telegram.]

American Legation,
Santo Domingo, March 28, 1915.

Bobo, ex-Minister of the Interior of Haiti, has issued revolutionary call to the Haitians from Monte Christi, where he makes headquarters. He makes attack on proposed American control of customs in Haiti. He is secretly supported by Arias, Dominican Minister of [page 470] War. Manifesto issued has tendency to create bad feeling against Americans both in Dominican Republic and Haiti. I have informally called President Jiménes’ attention to Bobo's conduct. President has commanded Bobo to leave Monte Christi at once.

Sullivan.

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Minister Sullivan to the Secretary of State. [Telegram.]

American Legation,
Santo Domingo, April 10, 1915.

Bobo arrested at Monte Christi by Dominican Government and will be deported.

Sullivan.

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Consul Livingston to the Secretary of State. [Telegrams.]

American Consulate,
Cape Haitien, April 25, 1915 - 10 a.m.

Government troops at Fort Liberté revolted and marching in direction Cape Haitien.

Livingston.

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American Consulate,
Cape Haitien, April 25, 1915 - 3 p.m.

One hundred revolutionists favoring Bobo entered Cape Haitien at 2 o'clock today without opposition.

Livingston.

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Chargé Davis to the Secretary of State. [Telegrams.]

American Legation,
Port au Prince, April 29, 1915.

Consul at Cape Haitien reports that rebels broke open and pillaged safe of the custom house yesterday. Gunboat Pacifique sailed on [page 471] Tuesday carrying ammunition and soldiers to Gonaives, whence they will proceed to [Cape Haitien?] by land. Ministers of War and Interior have gone to north.

Davis.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, May 6, 1915.

Bobo with a large cavalry escort entered Cape Haitien yesterday at 1 o'clock.

Davis.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, May 14, 1915.

Government forces were badly defeated near Cape Haitien yesterday. More than 100 reported killed and a number wounded and made prisoners. Government troops have retreated about 25 miles abandoning arms and ammunition. It is currently reported that ammunition is being supplied to revolutionary forces by Dominicans, a large quantity having been delivered to them by sailboat from Monte Christi on May 11. New paper currency in circulation here today.

Davis.

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[Note: Skip page 472]

[page 473] Chargé Davis to the Secretary of State. [Extract.]

American Legation,
Port au Prince, June 23, 1915.

Sir: Confirming my cablegram of June 20 and previous relevant messages regarding the revolutionary situation in the North, I have the honor to report that after some days of desultory fighting just outside of Cape Haitien, the Government troops on June 19 surprised the forts protecting the town, which were held by the revolutionists, and shortly afterwards entered Cape Haitien. The rebel army, preceded by many women and children, retreated in good order and it is thought will continue the revolution.

During several days prior to the taking of Cape Haitien, the French Minister here received a number of telegrams from his Consular Agent at Cape Haitien expressing anxiety over the safety the refugees in the Consulate, and also fear of pillage should the revolutionists be compelled to give up the city. As this Legation was in daily communication with the American Consul there, and knowing that the French Agent was having his first experience with a revolution, I felt confident that should there be any real cause for anxiety I would be advised thereof directly by Mr. Livingston, and I awaited some expression of concern from him before reporting the situation as grave to the Department.

The French Minister, however, deemed the situation sufficiently acute to warrant a request that a ship be sent if possible, and on the morning of the 18th the Descartes entered the harbor here, sailing that afternoon for Cape Haitien where sailors were at once landed and at the time of this writing still maintain a guard at the French Consulate, the bank and bishopric.

The success of the Government up to this time has been very largely due to the fact that the arrival of a part of the new issue of paper money, voted by the Theodore Government last December, has given the Government funds for rationing and paying the army, while the revolutionists have practically no financial backing at all.

Just how much of this paper money has already been issued it is impossible to say, but as the whole issue is 8,000,000 gourdes, and as the Government since the taking of the Treasury from the Bank has converted all pledged and unpledged duties to its own uses, it would seem that it will be sometime in the future before a lack of money will hamper operations against the revolutionists.

Inasmuch as the overthrow of both the Zamor and Theodore Governments was almost directly attributable to lack of money, it would seem that the present Government has an excellent chance of putting down the revolution, or, in any case, of maintaining itself in power for some time to come.

Aside from the continued seizing of men and forcing them into the army, no effects of the revolution are visible at Port au Prince.

I have [etc.],

R.B. Davis.

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[page 474] Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy. [Telegram - Paraphrase.]

Cape Haitien, July 3, 1915.

All remains quiet at Cape Haitien. Position of revolutionists is within three miles of Cape Haitien. Outside the town there occurred some fighting last night. I informed General Probus Blot to-day that fighting cannot be permitted to take place within town Cape Haitien on account of the protection of lives and property of foreigners. As soon as possible I will inform Bobo to same effect. Consider this action demanded by United States interests. If necessary will use force, and have informed contending factions to that effect. Am assured by General Probus Blot that fighting will not take place in town, and that the property and also the lives of foreigners will be protected.

Of this action I have informed Commanding Officer Descartes and also that I am prepared for the protection of the interests of French citizens at Cape Haitien, also of those of other foreign nations; and that should he be called elsewhere he may be assured that after he leaves, the interests of citizens of France would be handled in the same way as the interests of the citizens of the United States.

Caperton.

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Chargé Davis to the Secretary of State. [Telegrams.]

American Legation,
Port au Prince, July 27, 1915 - 9 a.m.

Uprising in the city this morning at 4.15; heavy firing for two hours which still continues intermittently. Government completely taken by surprise and revolutionists now in partial control of the city. President and a few generals surrounded in the palace. Uprising reported in favor of Charles Zamor but it is impossible under present conditions to verify any report. A large number of soldiers reported killed and wounded. Presence of war vessel advisable.

Davis.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, July 27, 1915 - 6 p.m.

Commandant of arrondissement of the Guillaume Government murdered about 70 political prisoners in their cells before giving up [page 475] prison and was himself killed. Great excitement and intense feeling as a result.

It has been confirmed that the President is in French Legation.

I have communicated situation to Admiral Caperton.

Davis.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, July 27, 1915 - 2 p.m.

French Legation threatened and a forcible entry attempted for the purpose of taking out the President. French Minster and British Charge d'Affaires have telegraphed for ships. Situation very grave and the presence of war vessels as soon as possible necessary.

Davis.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, July 28, 1915 - 11 a.m.

At 10.30 mob invaded French Legation, took out President, killed and dismembered him before Legation gates. Hysterical crowds parading streets with portions of his body on poles.

USS Washington entering harbor.

Davis.

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The Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Navy.

Department of State,
Washington, July 28, 1915.

Sir: In confirmation of the telephonic conversations between the Chief of the Bureau of Operations of your Department and an official of the Latin American Division, I have the honor to request, in view of the grave situation now existing in Port au Prince, Haiti, that Admiral Caperton be instructed to land marines from the Washington at the earliest opportunity; that he request the Captains of both the British and French warships, which the Department understands are now about to proceed to Port au Prince, not to land their marines; and that he assure them the American forces are ready to and will protect foreign interests in Port au Prince.

I have [etc.]

Robert Lansing.

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The Acting Secretary of the Navy to Admiral Caperton. [Telegram.]

Navy Department,
Washington, July 28, 1915.

State Department desires that American forces be landed Port au Prince and that American and foreign interests be protected; that representatives England, France be informed this intention; informed that their interests will be protected, and that they be requested not land. In acting this request be guided your knowledge [page 476] present condition Port au Prince and act at discretion. Department has ordered USS Jason with marines Guantánamo, Cuba, proceed immediately Port au Prince. If more forces absolutely necessary wire immediately.

Benson.

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The Secretary of State to Chargé Davis. [Telegram.]

Department of State,
Washington, July 28, 1915 - 6 p.m.

Navy Department is instructing Admiral Caperton to land marines at his discretion at earliest opportunity and to request British and French not to land marines and to assure them that the American forces will protect foreign interests. Discreetly repeat this to your British and French colleagues, giving them ample assurance of the intention of this Government to protect the interests of their nationals.

You will confer and cooperate with Admiral Caperton in all possible ways and keep the Department fully informed by frequent telegraphic reports.

Lansing.

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Chargé Davis to the Secretary of State. [Telegrams.]

American Legation,
Port au Prince, July 29, 1915.

Marines and bluejackets landed yesterday afternoon at about 4 o'clock after Captain E.L. Beach had delivered a letter from Admiral Caperton addressed to the committee of safety stating that the landing was entirely friendly and for the preservation of order and protection of legations, etc. Conference today at the Legation with the committee of safety and an agreement made that this committee would disarm all Haitian soldiers before tomorrow night. City quiet now.

Davis.

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American Legation,
Port au Prince, July 30, 1915.

Two bluejackets killed by snipers last night. Urgent need that the American forces in the city be augmented by at least a regiment of marines. This seems advisable on account of the moral effect of increased numbers and also because it would permit a patrol of the city which under present conditions is desirable but not feasible on account of the smallness of the force. City outwardly quiet today but there is quite an undercurrent of excitement and unrest. Disarmament continues slowly.

Davis.

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[page 477] American Legation,
Port au Prince, July 31, 1915.

Disarming of citizens and soldiers continues. Situation critical but being well handled by forces and authorities of landing force. Revolutionary committee seemingly acting in good faith and practically under Admiral's direction. Existence of great number of armed troops in the north constitutes a menace to Port au Prince and establishment of peace and imperatively demands sufficient troops here to control situation in an emergency.

Davis.

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Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy. [Telegram.]

Port au Prince, August 2, 1915.

23302. Large number Haitian revolutions largely due existing professional soldiers called Cacos, organized in bands under lawless and irresponsible chiefs who fight on side offering greatest inducement, and but nominally recognize the Government. Cacos are feared by all Haitians and practically control politics. About fifteen hundred Cacos now in Port au Prince, ostensibly disarmed but retain organization and believed to have arms and ammunition hidden. They have demanded election Bobo President, and Congress, terrorized by mere demand, is on point complying but restrained by my request. Present condition no other man can be elected account fear of Cacos. Believe can control Congress. Can prevent any Cacos outbreak in Port au Prince after arrival regiment of marines USS Connecticut. Stable government not possible in Haiti until Cacos are disbanded and power broken. Such action now imperative Port au Prince if United States desires to negotiate treaty for financial control Haiti. To accomplish this must have regiment of marines in addition that on Connecticut. Majority populace well disposed and submissive will welcome disbanding Cacos and stopping revolutions. Should agreement with Haiti be desired recommend Captain USN Beach be appointed single commissioner for United States with full instructions and authority. He has conducted my negotiations on shore and I believe has confidence generally of Haitians. As future relations between United States and Haiti de- [page 478] pend largely on course of action taken at this time earnestly request to be fully informed of policy of United States.

Caperton.

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Chargé Davis to the Secretary of State. [Telegram.]

American Legation,
Port au Prince, August 5, 1915.

Admiral has put Colonel Cole in charge of military control of the city and Captain Beach in charge of such civilian matters and negotiations as will grow out of military control. Fort National occupied today without resistance. Marines quartered in government barracks. City quiet and under control. Afternoon paper announces that Chambers will convene Sunday to elect President. Commission still at Cape Haitien. Connecticut left here today for that port.

Davis.

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Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy. [Telegram - Paraphrase.]

USS Washington, August 7, 1915.

General Bobo formally resigned the position Chief Executive Power and dismissed his cabinet ministers before the landing at Port au Prince today. By his orders all his generals in the North were telegraphed to deposit their arms with the American forces at Cape Haitien. He promises to use every effort for good order. Similar promises have been given by Bourand and to his troops in the North have been sent similar instructions. Because it did not keep faith, I have curtailed the power of the revolutionary committee, for this resulted in not having a serviceable committee. My orders are gladly accepted and executed by the civil officials of the late Government. The immediate election of a President is clamored for by all classes of Haitians. For regular Government, Congress with civil functionaries and all necessary organizations except President and Congress not exist legally. There are only two serious candidates, Bobo and Dartiguenave; Congress probably will elect the latter.

I have had daily conferences with the President of the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, with Senators, Deputies, ex-Cabinet Ministers, and many leading Haitians. In the presence of Congressmen, Dartiguenave, President of the Senate, stated that Congressmen are agreed that Haiti must and will accede gladly to any terms proposed by the United States. Now, they say they will cede outright without restriction St. Nicholas Mole, granting us the right to intervene when necessary, customhouse control, and any other terms. Only they beg to avoid as far as possible humiliation. They insist that no government can stand except through the protection of the United States. Without this protection there would be nothing but anarchy [page 479] in Haiti according to their statements. Most Haitians now fear that the Americans will withdraw their troops.

Immediately it is extremely desirable to reestablish government. Next Thursday, August 12, unless otherwise directed, I will permit Congress to elect a President.

Caperton.

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The Acting Secretary of Navy to the Secretary of State.

Navy Department,
Washington, August 9, 1915.

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of August 6, 1915 [not printed] in which you requested, by the instruction of the President, that a sufficient force absolutely to control the city of Port au Prince and the country immediately about it from which it draws its food supply be despatched immediately to the island.

Admiral Caperton now has at his disposal a force of about 1,100 men on shore. An additional force of about 850 marines will be sent at the earliest possible moment. Admiral Caperton has been informed that he is expected to absolutely control the city of Port au Prince and the country immediately about it from which it draws its food supply.

Very sincerely yours,

W.S. Benson.

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The Secretary of State to Chargé Davis. [Telegram.]

Department of State,
Washington, August 10, 1915 - noon.

In view of the fact that the Navy last night informed Admiral Caperton that he might allow election of a President whenever the Haitians wish, and of the impression which exists here that the elections may take place Thursday next, it is desired that you confer with the Admiral to the end that, in some way to be determined between you, the following things be made perfectly clear:

First: Let Congress understand that the Government of the United States intends to uphold it, but that it can not recognize action which does not establish in charge of Haitian affairs those whose abilities and dispositions give assurances of putting an end to factional disorders.

Second: In order that no misunderstanding can possibly occur after election, it should be made perfectly clear to candidates as soon as possible and in advance of their election, that the United States expects to be entrusted with the practical control of the customs, and such financial control over the affairs of the Republic of Haiti as the United States may deem necessary for an efficient administration.

[page 480] The Government of the United States considers it its duty to support a constitutional government. It means to assist in the establishing of such a government, and to support it as long as necessity may require. It has no design upon the political or territorial integrity of Haiti; on the contrary, what has been done, as well as what will be done, is conceived in an effort to aid the people of Haiti in establishing a stable government and in maintaining domestic peace throughout the Republic.

Lansing.

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Chargé Davis to the Secretary of State. [Telegram.]

American Legation,
Port au Prince, August 12, 1914.

Your instruction of August 10, noon, complied with yesterday afternoon, Captain Beach and I communicating contents to Senators and Deputies assembled in informal meeting and through them communicated to the candidates. Today at about midday Sudre Dartiguenave elected President, receiving 94 out of 116 votes. Election held under protection of marines. Bobo adherents had threatened violence and entire city patrolled. No outbreak.

The President has expressed gratitude for protection afforded which alone made an election with any degree of freedom possible. He seems, for the moment at least, deeply appreciative of what has been done toward the establishment of peace and order in Haiti.

Davis.

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Consul Livingston to the Secretary of State.

American Consulate,
Cape Haitien, August 12, 1915.

Sir: I have the honor to report that, owing to the excitement here following the recent events at Port au Prince, culminating in the death of President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, the commanding officer of the USS Eagle placed a guard of 20 men at the French Consular Agency where several prominent revolutionists had taken refuge since June 19 when the Government troops retook the town. These men remained at the Consular Agency until August 4, the day following the departure of the principal Government generals. On that day the Nashville landed sixty men and those from the Eagle remained as a part of the landing party. This reassured the refugees and they left the Consular Agency.

General Blot, commander in chief of the Government forces, left for Monte Christi on a Haitian gunboat during the night of the 3d with his family and the most active of his generals and men. Many of the Government troops voluntarily laid down their arms and took refuge in the yard of the Bishop's residence. Others went aboard the Haitian gunboat Nord Alexis, but a good contingent remained with their arms and marched out of town in the direction [page 481] of Port au Prince. Those remaining here, about 750 in all, were sent to Port au Prince on board the Nord Alexis.

The Jason arrived from Port au Prince on the 3d instant with a commission composed of Archbishop Conan, ex-President Legitime, Lieutenant Coffee, Flag Secretary of Admiral Caperton, Charles Zamor and Edmond Polynice. The commission returned on the 5th with Dr. R. Bobo and staff, General Bourand who commanded the Government troops at Fort Liberté, Ouanaminthe adjacent territory, and a few other prominent citizens.

The USS Connecticut arrived on the 6th instant and immediately landed about 63 marines. After the departure of the Eagle on the 8th, the Connecticut landed 108 bluejackets, making a total of about 230 men landed.

Captain Durell of the Connecticut and Commander Olmstead of the Nashville have taken temporary charge of the administration of affairs in the city. Most of the former Haitian employees have been restored to their places, with one American at the custom house and others at the port. They are beginning now to clean up the town so far as the limited means at their disposal will permit. Everything is working smoothly and the people are taking it good-naturedly.

Captain Durell has received instructions to give 100 gourdes to each principal officer and 10 gourdes to each private who comes in and surrenders his arms. Arrangements are being made to carry out these instructions; but word comes this morning from Port au Prince that Dr. Bobo may start a revolt in case he is not elected. One of his emissaries is expected on the steamer that is due here to-day.

Yesterday the accompanying printed translation of the enclosed proclamation by Admiral Caperton was distributed throughout the city and made a good impression.

Commander Olmstead is in charge of the forces ashore.

I have [etc.]

Livingston.

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[Inclosure.]

Proclamation of the United States.

USS Washington, Flagship,
Port au Prince, Haiti, August 9, 1915.

I am directed by the United States Government to assure the Haitian people that the United States has no object in view except to insure, to establish, and to help maintain Haitian independence and the establishment of a stable and firm government by the Haitian people.

Every assistance will be given to the Haitian people in their attempt to secure these ends. It is the intention to retain the United States forces in Haiti only so long as will be necessary for this purpose.

W.B. Caperton,
Rear Admiral, United States Navy,
Commanding U.S. Forces in Haitian Waters.

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[Note: Skip page 482]

[page 483] Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy. [Telegram.]

Port au Prince, August 26, 1915.

Port de Paix occupied by our forces Wednesday; landing force now established and maintaining order. Have assumed charge custom house and port service Port de Paix. Continued reports of pillage and disorder coming from interior. There is no doubt that there is now a fairly strong agitation to incite hostility toward American occupation. Castine left St. Marc for Gonaives on reconnaissance duty this morning. About 1,000 ex-Government troops vicinity Ouanaminthe willing to disarm and return to their homes but cannot get to our lines on account of Cacos around Cape Haitien.

Caperton.

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Chargé Johnson to the Secretary of State. [Telegram.]

American Legation,
Santo Domingo, August 28, 1915 - 11 a.m.

Bobo on Cuban vessel in harbor. At my request pending quick reply to this telegram vessel will be detained here by Cuban Minister and Bobo kept under guard by Dominican Government which is desirous of compelling him to proceed to next port, Santiago de Cuba. Has the Department any request to make of the Dominican Government?

Johnson.

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Minister Gonzales to the Secretary of State. [Telegram.]

American Legation,
Habana, September 1, 1915.

Sub-Secretary of State informs Scholle that Bobo, Haitian revolutionist, has debarked at Santiago de Cuba after being refused admission at Santo Domingo. The Cuban Government is having him closely watched as there are many Haitians in Cuba and Government wishes to frustrate any revolutionary propaganda in Cuba.

Gonzales.

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[page 484] Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy. [Telegrams.]

Port au Prince, September 2, 1915.

To-morrow September 3, I will proclaim martial law at Port au Prince for the following reasons: 1st, on account of the increasing uneasiness; 2d, the propagation by the newspapers and public men of inflammatory propaganda against the Government and the American occupation; 3d, because present Government is confronted with conditions which it is apparently unable to control; 4th, because some of the government officials are disloyal to the present Government; 5th, in order to better support the present Government. The Charge d'Affaires concurs with me in this action. I am forwarding the proclamation by radio.

Caperton.

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Port au Prince, September 3, 1915.

Following proclamation published to people of Port au Prince:

Information having been received from the most reliable sources that the present Government of Haiti is confronted with conditions which they are unable to control, although loyally attempting to discharge the duties of their respective offices; and the facts having created a condition which requires the adoption of different measures from those heretofore applied; and in order to afford the inhabitants of Port au Prince, and other territory hereinafter described, the privileges of government, exercising all the functions necessary for the establishment and maintenance of the fundamental rights of man - I hereby, under my authority as Commanding Officer of the Forces of the United States of America in Haiti and Haitian waters, proclaim that martial law exists in the City of Port au Prince and the immediate territory now occupied by the forces under my command.

I further proclaim, in accordance with the law of nations and the usages, customs and functions of my own and other Governments, that I am invested with the power and responsibility of government in all its functions and branches throughout the territory above described; and the proper administration of such Government by martial law will be provided for in regulations to be issued from time to time, by the Commanding Officer of the Forces of the United States of America in Haiti and Haitian waters.

The martial law herein proclaimed, and the things in that respect so ordered, will not be deemed or taken to interfere with the proceedings of the Constitutional Government and Congress of Haiti, or with the administration of justice in the courts of law existing therein, which do not affect the military operations or the authorities of the Government of the United States of America.

All the municipal and other civil employees are, therefore, requested to continue in their present vocations without change; and the military authorities will not interfere in the functions of the civil administration and the courts, except in so far as relates to persons violating military orders or regulations, or otherwise interfering with the exercise of military authority. All peaceful citizens can confidently pursue their usual occupations, feeling that they will be protected in their personal rights and property, as well as in their proper social relations.

The Commanding Officer of the United States expeditionary forces, Colonel Littleton W.T. Waller, United States Marine Corps, is empowered to issue the necessary regulations and appoint the necessary officers to make this martial law effective.

[page 485] Done at the City of Port au Prince, Haiti, this third day of September, A.D. 1915.

W.B. Caperton,
Read Admiral, United States Navy,
Commanding the Forces of the United States of America in Haiti and Haitian Waters.

Caperton.

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[page 486] The Secretary of the Navy to Admiral Caperton. [Telegram.]

Navy Department,
Washington, September 5, 1915.

Unless absolutely to prevent loss of life or property, you will take no offensive action against Haitians without first consulting the Navy Department. Tomorrow the Department will send you more detailed instructions. Should any conditions arise that would seem to make offensive action either desirable or necessary inform the Department immediately.

Daniels.

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Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy. [Telegram.]

[Not dated; received September 7, 1915.]

In northern Haiti the Cacos situation is becoming critical. Because of their leaders, who are endeavoring to obtain exorbitant [page 487] bribes, these Cacos will not come within our lines and surrender arms and will not disband. Repeated efforts have been made both through channels in the north and through their leaders in Port au Prince, and liberal offers of 15 gourdes per soldier and 100 gourdes per chief have been made to pay for their rifles and to give them sufficient money to return to their homes; but the offers were not accepted.

In Cape Haitien these Cacos have again begun investing the town and are preventing market people and food stuffs from entering. As recommended in my radiogram 16029 (S.D. 1141) I believe that furnishing work on railroad construction in the vicinity of Cape Haitien might induce many men to desert their chiefs and to go to work. In this connection unless prompt measures are taken I shall be forced to consider very soon offensive operations against these Cacos.

Caperton.

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[page 488 bottom of page]
The Acting Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary of State.

Navy Department,
Washington, September 11, 1915.

Sir: I have the honor to forward herewith a copy of a report from Rear Admiral W.B. Caperton, in reference to conditions in Haitian waters from August 13 to August 19, inclusive.

Very sincerely yours,

W.S. Benson

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[Inclosure - Extract.]

Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy.

Port au Prince, August 13, 1915.

Considerable destitution exists among the lower classes in Port au Prince. On the morning of August 13, a woman and child were found dead in the open [page 489] market-place in the vicinity of Rue de St. Honore and Rue de Centre, their deaths having been due, without question, to starvation. A very intelligent woman, claiming to be a school teacher, appeared this morning and showed what purported to be an acknowledgement of indebtedness due her for pay as school teacher for the month of January. She claims that neither she nor family have had anything to eat for two days. Other cases similar to this have been brought to my attention; and some cases where families have been without food for 24 to 48 hours. The starting of public works and establishment of peace will, without doubt, furnish employment to many men who are now without food; but this will not, in all probability, reach the women and children who have no men to support them.

I request that this matter be brought to the attention of the Red Cross Society, with the request that they send representatives and undertake relief work at Port au Prince. I suggest the Red Cross Society cable me $1,000 to carry on relief work until they arrive. Referring to the Department's radiogram No. 14002, there are no influential Haitians who have funds for properly organizing a relief society; the country is destitute from lack of crops and industry due to continuous revolution.

August 14, 1915.

The revolutionary leader, Daguesseau Montreuil, arrived at Cape Haitien on the morning of August 13. He communicated with the revolutionary committees at St. Marc and Gonaives, and sent a telegram to the revolutionary committee at Cape Haitien to the effect that Bobo was very strong politically. It is suspected that he will urge the ex-Bobo troops to maintain their present stand and not surrender their arms. The committee of public safety appointed by Bobo still continues to exist and to be a menace to Cape Haitien. No troops have presented themselves to surrender arms as yet.

I immediately informed the Commanding Officer of the Connecticut that no revolutionary activities of any kind would be tolerated in Haiti and especially within the limits of my command; that it is the duty of all citizens to support the present Government; and that if Montreuil, or any other Haitian, attempted revolutionary activities of any kind, he is to be arrested at once.

I received on this day Department's radiogram No. 12014, stating that the Red Cross Society had contributed $1,000 to relieve the destitute among the lower classes at Port au Prince.

August 16, 1915.

On this day information was received from fairly reliable sources, that the Cacos forces were concentrating at Le Borgne, on the north coast of Haiti, west of Cape Haitien, and at Pt. Sonde, just east of St. Marc, on the Artibonite River; that the Cacos were becoming restless as they had not received pay for some time; and that the leaders appear to fear that they will lose control over their men.

The Cacos question will be the most difficult one for the United States to solve in Haiti, as these men have long been used to the wandering life of a bandit and to a life without work. I made arrangements for the bank at St. Marc, under the direction of the American officer at that place, to pay those Cacos who belong to any military organization a sum of money if they would surrender their arms and return to their homes, in the same manner as was done at Port au Prince and Cape Haitien. The Castine has been ordered to St. Marc and will take charge of such payment.

The offer of money to the Cacos to surrender arms and disband is entirely in the nature of pay for military services rendered in the past, as they form the majority of the military organizations in the North. At present considerable difficulty is being experienced at Cape Haitien in getting the Cacos to come in and deposit their arms, although the money is waiting for them and they have been so informed.

The Cacos question is a most serious one and will probably not be successfully handled until a reliable constabulary is established and money comes into the country to provide work for these men.

Under date of August 16, the American Consular Agent at Port de Paix informed the Commanding Officer of the Connecticut that Port de Paix was entirely and openly hostile to the Government of President Dartiguenave, which has not been recognized at that place yet, and that the population was ready to join the Cacos. The Consular Agent stated that General Cherfilus had been called to Port de Paix with an armed force to take possession of the town and to join the Cacos army and the population there, which is to commence what [page 490] they term "guerre internationale" against Dartiguenave and the American occupation; that there was a strong rumor that a division of the Cacos was on the march there via Le Borgne; that if this is true there will be serious danger to foreign life and property; and that the population is very excited and inclined to excesses.

A committee - consisting of Archbishop Pichon, Reverend Turnbull, U.S. Vice Consul Battist, Senators L. Herrison and Villard, Madame Vve Fils-Aimé, president, and Madame E. Solages, treasurer of St. Vincent de Paul's Hospital - under direction of Lieutenant Oberlin, is engaged in alleviating the suffering of the starving poor at Port au Prince with funds provided by the American Red Cross Society.

August 18, 1915.

In order to give further publicity to my offer to pay the soldiers upon coming within the United States lines, depositing their arms, and returning to their homes, fifteen gourdes apiece and to each chief one hundred gourdes, I directed the Commanding Officer of the Castine to publish the Department's proclamation and this information at Gonaives; the Commanding Officer of the Connecticut at Port de Paix; the Commanding Officer of the Eagle at Leogane, Petite Goave, and Miragoane; and I asked the American Consul at Port au Prince to take the necessary measures to direct the consular representatives at Port de Paix, Aux Cayes, Jacmel and Jeremie to publish the proclamation and give this notice to the people in their districts.

W.B. Caperton.

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[page 491] Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy. [Telegrams - Paraphrases.]

Port au Prince, September 22, 1915.

Colonel Waller returned from Gonaives Monday. Conditions that town relative to food and water supply so intolerable as to require immediate action. Therefore directed railroad be opened to Ennery in same manner as was done at Cape Haitien. When Cacos learned of preparations for opening railroad they started firing and began destroying railroad tracks one half to one and one-half miles outside Gonaives. Detachment of 24 marines immediately proceeded along railroad, where about 50 Cacos from behind barricades across railroad opened fire on our men at 25 yards distance. Firing was returned by our troops and Cacos were driven into bush for mile and one-half. No casualties our forces. One chief and five other Cacos killed and one chief wounded. Sniping from bush to east of towns continues at intervals. Cacos' chief had been warned in morning against interfering with food and water supply. Have approved Commanding Officer Castine action and have directed him open railroad to Ennery without delay and keep it open and take such action as necessary to secure food and water supply for towns and free entry of coffee. No offensive involved. All measures purely those for protection of life and property.

Caperton.

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Port au Prince, September 22, 1915.

Major Butler with 50 marines and sailors left Gonaives at 7 a.m. Tuesday for Poteau by wagon road. Half mile from town column fired on by Cacos from bush. Firing at two other points during advance. No firing by Butler's forces except when fired upon first. One Caco killed. Force reached Poteau at noon overtaking Cacos force of five hundred with two hundred rifles. Held parley with General Rameau, who agreed to withdraw his forces from neighborhood of Gonaives and promised not to interfere with food or water supply or injure railroad or telegraph lines. Column returned along railroad arriving Gonaives 5 p.m. Tuesday. Found tracks and bridges slightly damaged. Engaged today in repairs damage to railroad caused by firing near Gonaives Monday. Vandergrift with 25 marines marched over pipe line at Lapierre repairing water main. Found no Cacos. Quiet during night and this morning. Patrolling all roads within a radius of 5 miles.

Caperton.

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Port au Prince, September 26, 1915.

Yesterday forenoon sent patrol to Haut du Cap; afternoon sent patrol Petitanse. Both patrols passed Cacos outposts whose com- [page 492] manders wished them to wait until communication could be held with Caco chief but no opposition was encountered when patrols pushed on. Today at 6 a.m. sent out 2 patrols 40 men each, first to Plain du Nord via Haut du Cap, second to Haut du Cap via Petitanse and Carrefour de Trous. Patrol ordered to push through, to take no offensive action, but to defend themselves if attacked. First patrol met numerous Caco outposts but went on. About 8.30 a.m. firing became general near Haut du Cap, both patrols engaged. Colonel Cole with marines sent to support patrol and remainder of Connecticut's landing force landed. About 12.30 p.m. second patrol returned Cape Haitien; Colonel Cole with other patrol and support remained at Haut du Cap, firing continuing at that time. Ten marines wounded; counted forty dead Cacos on Haut du Cap road. The sending out of these patrols necessary to insure free entry of food and supplies to Cape Haitien and not considered in nature of offensive operations. Colonel Waller leaving Port au Prince tonight on board Eagle for Cape Haitien.

Caperton.

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Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy. [Telegram - Paraphrase.]

USS Washington, October 30, 1915.

Although country vicinity Cape Haitien and Fort Liberté is quiet and inhabitants resuming normal occupations, conditions vicinity Bahon and St. Suzanne are disturbed. Bands of Cacos raiding and pillaging small towns and terrorizing country. Under agreement these Cacos are to be treated as bandits and I have directed Colonel [page 493] Waller to take active measures to suppress them. This plan should be kept secret, as action to be effective must be complete surprise or bandits will escape to mountains and continue depredations.

Caperton.

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The Secretary of the Navy to Admiral Caperton. [Telegram.]

Navy Department,
Washington, November 20, 1915.

Department strongly impressed with number Haitians killed. Department feels that a severe lesson has been taught Cacos and believes that a proper patrol can be maintained to preserve order and protect innocent persons without further offensive operations. Should these measures prove inadequate inform Department before taking steps that would lead to loss of life on either side except in case of urgent necessity. Acknowledge.

Daniels.

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Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy.
[Telegrams.]

Port au Prince, November 22, 1915.

All operations except protective patrolling have been suspended. Directions have been given that loss of life both sides be avoided if possible.

Caperton.

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Port au Prince, November 30, 1915.

French Government has officially recognized Dartiguenave Government. British Chargé d'Affaires has instructions to recognize Dartiguenave Government.

Caperton.

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The Acting Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary of State.

Navy Department,
Washington, December 8, 1915.

Sir: I have the honor to forward herewith, for the information of your Department, a copy of a letter dated November 20, 1915, received from Rear Admiral Caperton, Commander of the Cruiser Squadron, Atlantic Fleet, relative to the operations of the Cruiser Squadron in Haitian waters from November 7 to 19, inclusive.

W.S. Benson

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[Inclosure - Extract.]

Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy.

November 7, 1915.

Colonel Waller reports that operations are progressing well against the Caco bandits, and that the bandits are scarce at present. It his opinion that the [page 494] North will soon be quiet, but that our troops will be active for a few days more. He will interview several Caco generals tomorrow.

I directed the commander of the Fifth Naval District to occupy the custom house at Aquin in accordance with orders previously issued.

November 8, 1915.

Operations against the bandits in the North continues. Our forces have been divided into small columns and are patrolling the country in all directions, and the bandits have been almost completely broken up.

November 10, 1915.

On this day the Commander of the Expeditionary Force reported that Forts Selon and Berthol had been captured on November 8; that the Cacos had fired [fled?] at the sight of our men; and that all in the Caco country were displaying white flags. He further reports that a band of 15 bandits was trapped near Grande Rivière, and that 2 were killed and 9 wounded. He also reports Limonade quiet and states that he was satisfied that the movement crushed was more than an aggregation of ordinary brigands. The Commander of the Expeditionary Force will now start operations to the west of the railroad and toward Ranquille.

November 13, 1915.

The Commander of the Expeditionary Force reports from the North that a general movement westward towards the Cape Haitien-Bahon railroad started this morning, and will be finished tomorrow to the line Grande Rivière-Bahon; that Limonade and Le Trou also were being occupied; that few Cacos were seen; that there were 3 killed and 6 wounded among them; and that there were no casualties on our side. He further reports that it is quiet south of Behon; that the district between the railroad and San Raphael will be cleared next week if necessary; and that this district has already been patrolled and partly cleared. He further reports that conditions are quiet and that more people are going to work on the farms.

November 16, 1915.

The Commander of the Expeditionary Force returned to Port au Prince on this day. The operation against the Cacos toward Dondon, Fort Rivière and Ranquille began this morning. Conditions to the eastward of the Cape Haitien-Bahon railroad are quiet, and no further trouble is anticipated in this district.

November 18, 1915.

On 17 November Fort Rivière was captured by forces under the command of Major Butler. All avenues of escape had been previously closed so that no Cacos escaped. Fifty-one Cacos were killed, including General Joseph and 3 division chiefs, and all others were captured. There were no casualties to our forces. Major Butler's force consisted of the 13th Company of Marines, Captain C. Campbell; marine detachment from the Connecticut, Captain F. A. Barker; 5th Company of Marines, Captain W.W. Low; a seamen company from the Connecticut, Lieut. S.D. McCaughey; and an automatic-gun detachment from the 3d Company. The assault was made by Major Butler with the 5th Company, supported by five other companies. A hand-to-hand conflict in the fort lasted ten minutes. Forty-seven rifles and considerable ammunition found in the fort after the capture. This fort is made of masonry and brick of most substantial construction. It will be leveled to the ground.

The fact that this fort was taken without a single casualty on our side speaks well for the ability and judgment of all officers concerned.

November 19, 1915.

The operations against the Caco bandits in North Haiti during the last three weeks has resulted in the dispersing of the Cacos, the capture of many of their strongholds, the destruction of quantities of arms and ammunition, and the bringing of peaceful conditions throughout the Caco country. This area is included within the lines Cape Haitien, Minthe, the mouth of the Massacre River, and Cape Haitien. This area is now patrolled throughout by our forces, is now peaceful, and the country people are now busy with their crops. Our patrols are also at present operating from Gonteau, from Port de Paix for a distance of eight miles to the southward and from St. Marc to the Artibonite Valley. These latter areas are quiet and patrols from Gonaives and St. Marc found the people friendly and welcoming our detachments.

The last movement of the Cacos appears to have been of a revolutionary nature against the present Government and the American occupation, as well [page 495] as brigandage. While petty brigandage will continue from time to time, yet it is hoped that no more such organized brigandage or revolutionary activities will occur. Our casualties to date in this campaign are one officer and one man wounded.

November 19, 1915.

On this day I received the Department's radiogram 22018, in which the Department directs that, in view of the heavy losses to the Haitians in recent engagements, our offensive operations be suspended in order to prevent further loss of life.

It is presumed that the Department understands that patrolling in North Haiti is now under way by our forces, and that hostile contact with the bandits may unavoidably occur from time to time, resulting in loss of life. The operations we have been conducting are purely of a defensive character for the preservation of law and order, the suppression of revolutionary activities against the present Government and military intimidation of the people and for the protection of life and property of the innocent farmers and tradesmen who form by far the majority of the population in the districts patrolled. The Cacos against whom these operations have been undertaken, are bandits purely and simply, owing no allegiance to the Government or any political faction, but organized under petty chiefs for the sole purpose of stirring up strife against the Government, and robbing, pillaging, and murdering innocent people. The suppression of this brigandage and these activities is absolutely essential to peace and security in Haiti. It will be remembered that there is no Government authority in these areas at present and that we have disbanded the Haitian army, which has heretofore been only the means of protection to the inhabitants. The operations now undertaken should continue until this brigandage is suppressed or the constabulary is ready to relieve our forces. Having undertaken this intervention, any diminution in the protection and support offered the Government and the people of Haiti by the United States will greatly harm our prestige. Our action in suppressing these bandits is approved by the Haitian Government, and, in the case of most of the members of that Government, most enthusiastically.

It is absolutely necessary that the present movement continue to the southward to include Hinche at least, where arms and ammunition have been collected for delivery to our forces in accordance with the agreement of Quartier-Morin; and furthermore, if Hinche is not occupied it will therefore form a base for future revolutions. It is of course possible that some slight opposition may be encountered at Hinche although we are assured there will be none. In view of this vital necessity, unless otherwise directed, I will continue the movement to Hinche.

W.B. Caperton.

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The Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary of State.

Navy Department,
Washington, December 29, 1915.

Sir: I have the honor to forward herewith 2 reports from the Commander of the Cruiser Squadron, Atlantic Fleet, covering the operations of the squadron in Haiti and Haitian waters from November 20 to December 16, 1915.

Very sincerely yours,
Josephus Daniels

[Inclosure - Extract.]

Admiral Caperton to the Secretary of the Navy.


November 20, 1915.

On this day I received a radiogram from the Department stating that the Department was impressed with the number of Haitians killed; that it feels that a severe lesson has been taught the Cacos and it believes that a proper patrol can be maintained to preserve order and protect innocent persons without further offensive operations. The Department directs that, should these [page 496] measures prove inadequate, I inform the Department before taking steps that would result in loss of life on either side, except in the case of urgent necessity.

November 21, 1915.

At 30 minutes past midnight, November 21, Colonel Waller directed all the forces in the North to suspend operations except patrolling, pending further instructions; and at 12.30 p.m., November 21, he communicated the Department's instructions to the forces in the North and gave instructions accordingly.

November 22, 1915.

Later reports from North Haiti indicate that when Fort Rivière was rushed by the 5th Company of Marines, 29 Cacos were killed in the mêlée. Many jumped over the parapet and attempted to escape. These were attacked by the remaining companies and 22 were killed. It is not known how many escaped or how many were in the fort when the attack was made. My radiogram 12018 was in error relative to the captures made at Fort Rivière. There were none captured there. 42 prisoners were captured that day, but elsewhere.

November 25, 1915.

On this day, President Dartiguenave called at the French Legation and formally apologized for the violation of that Legation on July 28, 1915. The Haitian shore battery fired a salute of 21 guns to the French flag. This salute was returned gun for gun by the French Cruiser Descartes with the Haitian flag at the main. At 12.40 p.m. the Descartes got under way and stood to sea.

November 29, 1915.

North Haiti continues to be patrolled by the marines. This country remains quiet. Captain Campbell's company, which went to Hinche, found the population there and en route apparently delighted to see our troops and that vicinity quiet and orderly.

November 30, 1915.

Colonel Cole, commanding the 1st Regiment of Marines at Cape Haitien, reports that entire North Haiti is quiet, though there are a few scattered outlaws who commit depredations from time to time between Le Trou and the border. Our patrolling continues in North Haiti.

December 11, 1915.

The situation in Haiti remained unchanged on this day, except that a small band of 16 armed bandits, under a leader named Tijacques, pillaged the town of Gross Roches the night of 9-10 December. Marine patrols have been sent out to capture them. There is considerable unrest on the Dominican side of the border in the vicinity of Monte Cristi and Dajabon.

December 13, 1915.

The situation on this day remained unchanged, except that part of the band implicated in the pillaging of Gross Roche were overtaken by a marine patrol. These bandits refused to surrender and broke for the bush, firing a number of shots. One bandit was killed, several wounded, and five taken prisoners by the patrol. Two of the prisoners afterwards escaped. The Haitian authorities at Perches captured two Cacos charged with looting and turned them over to the patrol. These affairs are of very minor nature.

W.B. Caperton.

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Source: Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: With the Address of the President to Congress December 7, 1915 (Washington, US Government Printing Office, 1924): 461 - 496. [Additional documents providing a more comprehensive record of political affairs, financial matters, and economic developments in Haiti can be found on pages 431-549 in this volume.].