GENERAL MESS MANUAL
U. S. NAVY
USE ON BOARD VESSELS OF THE UNITED STATES
PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF
THE PAYMASTER GENERAL.
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHORITY OF
THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY.
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
|Organization and Administration||
|The commissary stewards||
|Establishment and Administration||
MESS MANUAL AND COOKBOOK.
1. The general messing system is, by the regulations, obligatory on board of all vessels of the Navy. The mess must include all enlisted men of the Navy and Marine Corps, excepting chief petty officers and officers' servants, and its members are to be divided into messes of about twenty men each, and as nearly as possible messed by divisions instead of by ratings, as has heretofore been the custom. By this method the petty officers will be scattered among the messes and there can be no complaint on account of discrimination - all faring alike.
2. A messman is to be detailed for each mess, and he is to receive the food from the cooks at the galley, serve it at the mess table, and is responsible for the care and the cleanliness of the mess gear and mess tables.
3. The chief commissary steward, or commissary steward, the cooks and bakers, together with the storekeeper (when a store is established on the ship), form the enlisted force of the commissary department. They are the assistants of the pay officer and belong to the pay division.
4. The responsibility of the commissary and his assistants ceases with the delivery of the food to the messmen at the galley.
5. The established rate of pay being sufficient to secure the services of competent and experienced men, the payment of any gratuity, either by the commissary or by the men themselves, to any person employed in the service of the general mess is forbidden by the regulations.
6. The commanding officer should see that proper facilities, including such boats and men as may be necessary, are afforded the commissary for getting mess stores on board and stowing them.
7. It should be thoroughly understood that the general mess is not an organization managed by its members, as was the "berth-deck mess."
8. In addition to the pay provided for enlisted men, the Government undertakes to subsist them, and this it does at whatever expense may be necessary. The fixed value of commutation for one ration is, by law, 30 cents, but the commutation of rations is a privilege, not a right, and the idea prevalent among enlisted men that they are entitled to receive just 30 cents' worth of food each day, or 30 cents in money, is erroneous.
9. Under the general messing system the Government subsists the men entirely, and they have no more voice in the management of the commissary department than in any other department of the ship. The Government, through its authorized officer, provides them with the ration allowed by law. The food is purchased, cooked, and served entirely at the Government expense, and its value, whether it be more or less than 30 cents per diem per man, is a matter with which the men themselves have nothing to do.
10. In case any man considers that he is improperly subsisted, he has the right, which all persons in the Navy have, to state his grievance at the proper time and place to his commanding officer, who should then cause the commissary to investigate the matter, and, if the complaint is well founded, to take steps to place the responsibility and to prevent a recurrence of the fault complained of.
11. The men are entitled to the full benefit of the money and stores allowed for their subsistence, and no expenditure can be made from the general mess fund, except for the benefit of the mess; nor can any of this money, or these stores, be withheld (when they can be used to advantage) and allowed to accumulate as a surplus. In cases, however, where a surplus of either money or stores does unavoidably exist when a ship is placed out of commission, the members of the mess have no claim whatever to any part of it and it reverts to the Government, the stores being taken up as a gain on issues and the money being credited to the appropriation "Provisions, Navy."
12. Subsistence of enlisted men absent from the ship on duty will, when practicable, be furnished by the general mess. When men are landed in large numbers for an expedition or for going
into camp with the expectation of being absent from the ship for more than twenty-four hours, the commissary or the commissary steward, according to the proportion of the ship's company landed and the importance of the expedition, together with such cooks and bakers as may be necessary, and a sufficient number of messmen, should constitute the commissary corps.
13. The pay officer of the ship, or, in ships having no pay officer, an officer designated by the captain, is the commissary, and is solely responsible for the purchase and preparation of the food for the general mess, the care of the stores, and the judicious expenditure of mess funds, keeping the accounts of the mess and administering all its affairs except the serving of the food at the mess table.
14. His authority in the performance of these duties is commensurate with his responsibility, and all persons employed in the service of the general mess are subject to his orders.
15. The commissary should frequently inspect the storerooms allotted to the general mess and see that the stores are properly stowed and that the rooms are dry and well ventilated. Any deterioration in the stores being a direct loss to the mess, great care should be exercised in their selection, and no greater quantity should be bought at one time than can be used within the period they may be expected to keep in good condition.
16. The commissary should not permit any stores to be purchased until a list of them has been submitted to him and carefully examined and approved. No stores should be received on board unless accompanied by a bill or memorandum by which they can be checked off; and before being stowed away all stores should be carefully inspected by the commissary or the commissary steward. No bills should be contracted that can not be paid from the funds in hand or by the ration money that will accrue to the mess during the current month. All bills should be settled at the end of each month, and always before the ship sails from port.
17. The commissary should keep the cash accounts of the mess so that they can be conveniently audited by the general inspector of the pay corps, the paymaster of the fleet, or by the board
appointed for the purpose. All expenditures must be substantiated by vouchers, which are to be exhibited when the accounts are inspected.
18. He should cause the commissary steward to keep a stock account which should embrace all stores and all property of the general mess. The value of the balance shown upon this stock account should be taken into consideration in making up the statement of the financial condition of the mess.
19. The commissary should, when he deems it advisable, submit written reports and recommendations to the captain regarding the general mess, and he must do so whenever the interests of the mess require any change which he himself is not authorized to make.
20 . The commissary should mark the enlisted men of his department in proficiency in rating and should immediately report any inefficiency or carelessness in their performance of duty.
21. He should frequently inspect the food before it is delivered to the mess men at the galley, and in case he finds it improperly prepared, should take steps to prevent any further occurrence of the kind. If cooks are not thoroughly competent, they should be made to follow strictly the recipes in this book, and flagrant cases of incompetency should be reported.
22. The chief commissary steward or commissary steward is the chief petty officer in charge, under the commissary, of the general mess. He is entitled to respect and obedience from all persons of inferior rating while in the performance of his duties, and he is responsible for the proper execution of the orders of the commissary. The daily bill of fare should be made out by the commissary steward and submitted to the commissary, and the necessary stores issued to the cooks at the galley. He should direct the manner of its preparation and shall be in charge of the galley and the men employed at it, and should frequently inspect the food before it is delivered to the messmen to be served. He should see that the galley and all the galley utensils are kept in proper condition, giving particular attention to their cleanliness.
23. He should report to the commissary daily, in writing, all purchases made and debts contracted, and keep that officer
advised of the needs of the mess. He is to draw from the pay department, at the appointed times, such Government stores as are due the mess, and must keep an account of these stores for the verification of the provision return at the end of each quarter. When fresh provisions are issued he should be on deck, when practicable, to receive them from the representative of the pay department as soon as they have been received on board and inspected. In case these fresh provisions, or any other stores issued to the mess by the pay department, are, in the opinion of the commissary steward, of inferior quality and unfit for issue, he should report the matter to the commissary, who shall make a personal investigation, and, in case he finds the objection well founded, should take the necessary steps to provide other stores, as prescribed by the regulations. An issuing book should be kept by the pay yeoman and signed daily by the commissary steward, in order that no question may arise at the end of the quarter as to the stores drawn by the general mess. The commissary steward may, with the authority of the commissary, draw from the pay department such Government stores as are required in excess of the allowance, and these stores shall be paid for from the mess fund at the end of each month.
24. The senior cook, or, if there are two or more of the same rating, one selected by the commissary, should be in immediate charge of the galley and act in the capacity of head cook. He should be held strictly responsible for the cleanliness of the galley and the utensils pertaining to it, for the maintenance of discipline among his assistants, for the proper preparation of the food, and for having the meals ready at the prescribed hours. He should personally superintend the cooking of all meals, and should carefully inspect all food before it is delivered to the messmen. It is his duty to report to the commissary any inefficiency or neglect on the part of his assistants; otherwise the entire blame for poor cooking or any other delinquency at the galley should rest upon him. The head cook should keep the commissary steward informed as to the requirements of the galley, and should from time to time prepare lists of articles required by him in his cooking, which are not included in the Navy ration. He
is responsible for the galley utensils and will report immediately when any are lost, worn out, or damaged.
25. The other cooks should, as far as possible, be assigned specific duties at the galley in order that the responsibility for any neglect may readily be placed. One should be detailed as "meat cook," another as "vegetable cook," and one man should, in addition to other duties, be held responsible for the preparation of the coffee and tea.
26. The cooks in the lower ratings should be detailed for starting fires, cleaning the galley and utensils (regular cleaning stations being assigned them), and for preparing the food for cooking.
27. The organization of the force at the galley should be as complete and efficient as that of a gun division.
28. The commissary steward should issue to the baker such quantities of flour and other ingredients as may be necessary for making bread for the mess and keep him advised of the amount of bread required from day to day.
29. The baker, or, in ships which are allowed two bakers, the baker first class, is to be held responsible for the proper baking of the bread and for its delivery to the messmen at the appointed times. He is also responsible for the condition of the bake ovens and the utensils used by him.
30. There being no public funds available for the establishment of a store on board ships of the Navy, such establishment is not made compulsory, but is left to the discretion of the commanding officer. The advantages of such a store are, however, so obvious and so great, that provision is made in the regulations for its administration in ships where it exists, or may be established.
31. The objects of a commissary store are:
(1) To enable the men to purchase a better quality of the articles usually obtained from bumboat men, and at a lower price.
(2) To return directly to the men all profits from their purchases not needed for carrying on the business.
(3) To bring under official control the sale of all merchandise on board ship, and thus do away with bumboat men and peddlers, and reduce the chances of liquor or other unauthorized articles being brought on board. The sale of any merchandise on board ship, except by the store, should be prohibited as far as practicable. Tailors, persons doing repairing, and those selling special articles which can not conveniently be handled by the store, may be exempt from this prohibition, but dealers in milk, pies, fruit, and such articles should not be allowed to sell to the men.
32. The commissary should make agreement with reliable merchants to supply to the store, while the ship is in port, such stores as are salable but can not be carried in stock, and these articles should be delivered to the storekeeper and by him sold to the men at a very small advance. For example, if it be thought advisable to have milk for sale in the store when the ship is in port, the commissary should arrange with a dealer to place on
board, at a specified time each day, a quantity of milk at a fixed price, such quantity as may be sold to be paid for, and the balance to be taken away by the dealer.
33. The stock being purchased from reliable firms at wholesale prices, will be better in quality and lower in price than that usually carried by bumboats or itinerant merchants. The greater part of the retail dealer's profit should revert directly to the purchaser at the time he buys the article - that is, the price charged should be very little, if any, above the wholesale price. Some profit must be made, however, and all that is not required for incidental expenses of the store must be turned over to the general mess fund, and thus it, also, reverts to the men in the form of delicacies for the mess table, such as are not a part of the Navy ration.
34. In ships where the men desire to subscribe for the original stock of a commissary store, and the commanding officer authorizes its establishment, the commissary is, by the regulations, placed in charge of it. This officer is to receive voluntary subscriptions from the crew, giving them receipts (stated to be not negotiable) for the amount subscribed, with the agreement that these receipts may be surrendered and the amount of the subscription refunded after the original stock has been paid for and the business is on a good financial basis. The original subscribers, after they have been paid the amount of their subscriptions, have no further claim upon, nor interest in, the store.
35. During this period it is advisable to make the prices correspond with those of retail dealers in order that the store may be independent as soon as possible, but when all indebtedness has been discharged and the store is self-supporting, the profits should be reduced to a minimum, it being always borne in mind that making money is not one of the objects of the store. The injustice of making profits from sales to one set of men to be divided among another set at the expiration of a cruise is manifest, and for this reason the regulations provide that such profits be used to improve the bill of fare of the general mess, but with the present ample ration no addition to the mess fund should be necessary; and by reduction in prices from time to time, as experience dictates, the monthly surplus should be reduced to a minimum, thus disposing of the regular retail dealer's profit in the most equitable manner possible, i.e., by
giving the benefit of it to each purchaser in the form of a discount.
36. It is impracticable to operate a store unless a suitable room, used for no other purpose and to which only the storekeeper has access, is available for the purpose.
37. No cash will be received at the store for articles purchased, but sales will be made under the following system: Books of tickets of a form prescribed by the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts will be issued for cash by the pay officer and storekeeper and will be negotiable at the store in lieu of money. The issue of these books by the pay officer will be made at the same time as the issue of monthly money, and by the storekeeper daily during the month as the men may desire to purchase them. For the latter issues the pay officer will turn over from time to time a limited number of books to the storekeeper, who will be held strictly accountable therefor, and will turn in to the pay officer daily the money received for same.
38. The commissary of the ship has charge of the ship's store. He is allowed the services of a yeoman for duty as storekeeper. The commissary should give his personal attention to the purchase of stock for the store, should fix the prices at which the articles are sold, establish a businesslike system for the operation of the store and direct all its affairs. He should keep the cash account and cause the commissary steward to turn in daily all money not required for making change. He is to turn over to the general mess fund, monthly, so much of the surplus of the store as is not required for the purchase of new stock, and he should endeavor to so regulate the prices that this surplus will not be larger than necessary.
39. All the accounts of the commissary store should be kept in such manner as to admit of ready inspection by the general inspector of the pay corps, the paymaster of the fleet, or by the board appointed for that purpose.
40. The storekeeper should be responsible to the commissary for the proper conduct of the store.
He is to keep the account of the stock, and of the sales, and submit to the commissary from time to time lists of articles required.
41. In order to protect the store from any loss, either through carelessness or dishonesty, the following method of keeping the accounts should be employed:
At the end of each month an account of stock should be taken by the commissary steward or the paymaster's yeoman, and the articles found to be on hand entered in a book similar to the return of clothing and small stores. (This blank may conveniently be used for the purpose, the headings of the columns being changed.) These quantities represent the stock on hand at the beginning of the new month and to them should be added all stores received from purchase. At the end of the month the quantities found to be on hand should be entered in the proper line and subtracted from the total receipts and the difference entered as "sales." By multiplying the number of each article sold by its selling price and taking the total of that line in the return will be found the amount which the storekeeper should have received, and this amount he should be required to turn in or account for.
42. If no prices are changed except at the beginning of a month, and if the established prices are displayed on the store bulletin board so that no overcharges can be made, this system will be a simple and absolute check on the storekeeper.
43. The man selected for this responsible duty should first of all be entirely trustworthy. He must be quick and accurate at figures and write legibly. It is his duty to receive such stock as may be delivered for the store, conveniently arrange it in the storeroom, and keep the latter clean and see that it is ready for inspection at the appointed times. He is to open the store for the sale of merchandise to the men at such times as may be appointed by the commissary, with the authority of the captain.
He should keep a small memorandum book in which to enter the amounts turned in daily to the commissary, and when that officer receives the money, he should initial the amount in the book.
44. The dietary of the enlisted men of the Navy must necessarily be based upon the ration provided by law. In general messes, where the circumstances are favorable, provisions which are not a part of the ration may at times be purchased, but articles of which there is a supply already on board in the pay department should not be bought unless the Government stores shall have deteriorated, in which case they should be surveyed and a new stock obtained at the first opportunity.
45. Unless there be some good reason for not doing so, the official issuing table should be strictly adhered to, it having been arranged to give the necessary variety.
46. The ship's galley (or that part of it used by the general mess), together with its appurtenances, is under the charge of the commissary. That officer should see that the galley and its utensils are properly cared for and are ready for inspection at the appointed times. He should himself frequently inspect this part of his department and advise the equipment officer of any repairs or alterations needed, and should, when occasion demands it, furnish that officer with a list of galley utensils requiring a survey.
47. On board ship, where the facilities are necessarily restricted and the food lacking in variety compared to that obtainable on shore, it is of the highest importance that the very best results possible under the circumstances should be obtained. With a liberal allowance of cooks and bakers, and a judicious selection of the men for these rates, the Navy ration should be so prepared as to give the enlisted men three nourishing and palatable
meals each day, and it should be the duty of the commissary department to see that this is done.
Frequent inspections of the food by the commissary and the commissary steward, and efficiency on the part of the cooks, alone can insure this.
NOTE. - The following recipes have been deduced from a series of experiments made with articles of the Navy ration. Only such as can be easily followed with the usual facilities found on board ship are given. Where time and space will permit more elaborate dishes may be prepared, but it is here the aim to aid inexperienced cooks in the proper preparation of the stores supplied by the Government.
The quantities of the ingredients given in all recipes are those required for one hundred men.
BEAN SOUP WITH SALT PORK.
Soak 5 gallons of beans in fresh water and 80 pounds of salt pork in fresh or salt water over night. Put the beans in a copper and let them come to a boil, then add 15 pounds of the pork. Continue boiling until the pork is tender, then remove. In a separate copper boil the rest of the pork until tender. When bean soup is done, season with pepper. Cut up 6 pounds of stale bread, brown it on a pan in the oven and add to the soup, stirring it in.
(NOTE.-One gallon of the stock from the copper in which pork is boiled may be added to the soup.)
Use 90 pounds of soup meat (as much bone as possible); let simmer for two hours, then remove meat and add vegetables as follows: One quart of barley, 6 pounds of carrots, 3 pounds of onions, 2 pounds of turnips (the vegetables having been cleaned and cut in strips), and allow the soup to boil for one hour. Season with pepper, salt, cloves, and spices; mix flour and water
to the consistency of a sirup and stir in, while the soup is boiling, a sufficient quantity to thicken it. After boiling for ten minutes longer the soup is ready to serve. After the beef is removed it should be kept hot until served.
Add to the stock obtained from the last recipe 5 pounds of carrots, 3 pounds of turnips, 2 heads of cabbage, 1 1/2 pounds of sugar, 6 pounds of rice or barley, and 6 pounds of tomatoes. Season with pepper and salt and boil for forty-five minutes. All fatty substances should be skimmed from the stock before adding the vegetables.
Break into small pieces 10 pounds of macaroni and drop into boiling water seasoned with salt. Leave on the fire for thirty minutes or until tender. Chop up 4 pounds of onions and 7 pounds of tomatoes; add to the stock obtained from the recipe for beef soup, and boil for one hour. Drain the macaroni and add it to the soup. Thicken with flour prepared as for beef soup, boil ten minutes and serve.
Into 12 1/2 gallons of water put the following ingredients: Twenty-five pounds of tomatoes mashed through a colander, 4 pounds of hashed raw onions, 5 pounds of rice which has been boiled twenty minutes, 1/4 ounce of allspice, and 1/2 ounce of cloves. Boil for one hour and then thicken with flour and season with pepper and salt.
(NOTE. - This soup may be improved by the addition of 15 or 20 pounds of meat bones.)
Cut up 10 pounds of salt pork in l-inch cakes and render out in frying pan until brown. Cut 50 pounds of potatoes and 20 pounds of onions in small pieces and place them with the pork in 12 1/2 gallons of water. Boil 30 pounds of fresh cod or halibut until tender, let it cool, remove all bones and add to the above.
Season with salt and pepper, add 1 gallon of milk, if obtainable, and boil for ten minutes.
(NOTE. - The potatoes for chowders may be prepared the night before and kept in fresh water.)
Cut up 10 pounds of salt pork in l-inch cakes and render out in frying pan until brown. Cut 50 pounds of potatoes and 25 pounds of onions in small pieces and place them with the pork in 12 1/2- gallons of water, and allow them to boil three-quarters of an hour. Cut 2 1/2 gallons of clams in small pieces and add them to the above with their juice and 4 gallons of tomatoes. Season with pepper, salt, and mace, and let the whole boil for fifteen minutes, then add 15 pounds of broken biscuits.
Large fish, such as cod, halibut, or haddock, are the only ones suitable for use on board ship. Cut 80 pounds of fish in steaks 1/2 inch thick, wash thoroughly, and dry. Beat well 3 eggs and add 2 quarts of water and a tablespoonful of salt, stirring together. Dip each piece of fish into the batter thus made and then into Indian meal or cracker dust. Place a pan of drippings, butter, or lard on the fire and let it come to the boiling point. Fry the fish in this from eight to ten minutes, turning after the first three minutes.
Soak 10 pounds of stale bread in cold water, and when soft press all the water out. Season with pepper, salt, and thyme, and spread in a thin layer on the bottom of well-greased baking pans. Clean and wipe dry 76 pounds of fish, place in the pans and dredge with flour, pepper, and salt, adding a small quantity of tomatoes or tomato juice. Place in a moderately hot oven for about forty-five minutes, or until done.
Place 75 pounds of fish in cold water, adding plenty of salt and 1 pint of vinegar. Place on the fire in pans or fish kettles and allow to simmer until tender. Take out fish when cooked. Make sauce with 2 quarts of water and 1 quart of milk. Put on
fire until it boils. Thicken with cornstarch or flour; chop a bunch of parsley with pepper and stir into the sauce. Pour over fish and serve.
(NOTE. - This sauce is suitable for all boiled and baked fish.)
Soak 25 pounds of codfish over night in fresh water. Boil for an hour and a quarter, drain off water, remove bones, and chop up. Boil 50 pounds of potatoes, and to them add the fish, together with 1 pound of butter, 6 eggs, and 1 ounce of pepper. Mash all together thoroughly, make into cakes, and place in pans in the oven to brown.
(NOTE. - Fish cakes may be fried in the manner described for frying fish.)
FRESH ROAST BEEF.
Take 90 pounds of ribs, wipe with a towel soaked in salt water, dry thoroughly and place in pans, adding 3 onions and 3 carrots sliced up. Dredge the meat with pepper, salt, and flour, using the flour liberally. Place pans in the oven, and after thirty minutes baste with 2 quarts of boiling water. Bake for an hour and a half, watching meat carefully, and keeping plenty of water in the pans with which to baste. When cooked, remove from the oven, stir a little more flour into the essence of the meat, add 2 more quarts of boiling water, let it simmer for five minutes in the oven or on top of the galley, carve meat and serve with the gravy.
(NOTE. - Top sirloin or cross ribs can also be roasted.)
Cut up 75 pounds of steak in 8-ounce pieces, season with pepper and salt, place in the oven or on the galley, in pans; fry for ten minutes, then serve.
(NOTE. - It is seldom possible to broil beefsteak for a large number of men on board ship.)
Place 75 pounds of lean beef in pots with 2 pounds of beef dripping. Cut up 1 quart of onions, 6 carrots, and 6 bay leaves,
and add them to the beef. Place the pots on the galley, and allow them to simmer for twenty minutes. Turn the meat frequently, taking care that it does not stick to the bottom of the pots. Throw in 1 quart of dry flour, and season well with pepper and salt, stirring thoroughly; then add 2 quarts of boiling water, continually stirring, and allow it to simmer for twenty minutes longer. Then cover the whole with boiling water, let cook until tender, and serve.
Wash 60 pounds of beef in water to which a little vinegar and salt has been added, and then cut into small pieces. Place in the copper with 10 gallons of water and boil for one hour. Slice up 40 pounds of potatoes, 10 pounds of carrots, and 15 pounds of onions (the potatoes and onions being cut in quarters) and add to the above. Allow the whole to boil until the vegetables are done and then add 10 pounds of tomatoes. Season with pepper and salt and allow it to simmer for twenty minutes.
Wash 75 pounds of mutton in water to which vinegar and salt have been added, and cut up in pieces of suitable size. Place the meat in the copper with 10 gallons of water and allow it to boil for one hour. Cut 40 pounds of potatoes and 15 pounds of onions in quarters, 8 pounds of turnips, and 10 pounds of carrots in slices and add to the above, letting all cook for forty minutes. Add flour thickening, season with pepper and salt, and add four cans of green pease free from liquid. Allow stew to simmer for twenty minutes and serve.
Use 90 pounds of lamb. Wipe thoroughly with towel soaked in salt water and place in dry pans, adding three sliced onions and three sliced carrots. Dredge with pepper, salt, and flour, using the latter liberally. Roast in closed oven for thirty minutes, then baste with boiling water and cook for one hour and a half, watching the meat carefully and seeing that there is plenty of water in the pan with which to baste it. Upon removing the meat when done, stir into the gravy a little more flour, add 2
quarts of boiling water, and let it simmer for five minutes in the oven or on top of the galley.
Prepare 80 pounds of veal in the manner prescribed for roast beef. Veal should be frequently turned over and basted and should be thoroughly cooked before serving. A stuffing which may be used for veal, chickens, or turkeys may be made as follows:
Soak 15 pounds of stale bread in cold water and drain thoroughly; add 3 pounds of sliced onions, fried until brown, and pepper, salt, and thyme; mix all thoroughly and brown in the oven.
(NOTE. - Roast pork should be prepared in the same manner as roast veal, care being taken that it is thoroughly cooked. Quantity, 100 pounds.)
MUTTON, VEAL, AND PORK CHOPS.
Place 75 pounds of chops in pans, dredge well with flour, season with salt and pepper and fry on the galley for ten minutes. Then half cover the meat with boiling water and cook for ten minutes longer.
Soak 10 pounds of stale bread in cold water and drain. Add to this 2 pounds of onions, chopped fine and fried in pan until light brown, together with salt, pepper, and thyme; mix thoroughly and spread on pans. In these pans place 65 pounds of sausage and bake for thirty minutes.
FRANKFURTERS AND SAUERKRAUT.
Boil 60 pounds of frankfurters for 15 minutes. Wash 7 gallons of sauerkraut in cold water and place in covered pot with 1 gallon of water, adding 2 pounds of dried apples and 1 pound of beef dripping. Boil for thirty minutes and season with pepper.
ROAST TURKEY, CHICKEN, GEESE, AND DUCKS.
Ninety pounds of fowl will be required. In dressing be careful not to break the gall. Wash thoroughly inside and out in
salt water and dry. Season well inside with salt and pepper and fill the cavity with the stuffing prescribed for roast veal in the case of turkey and chicken, and for geese and ducks the one given below. Place in dry pans, dredging well with flour, and roast for twenty minutes. Then baste frequently with hot water, turning them twice, and allow them to roast two hours and a half.
Gravy is made as follows: Take the hearts, livers, and gizzards, wash them off thoroughly and place them in 2 quarts of cold water. Chop 1 pound of onions and place the whole together on a fire in a saucepan; cook for one hour, take out hearts, livers, and gizzards, saving the juice. Chop up the giblets fine, placing them back in the juice, and add the gravy from the pans to it. Season with pepper and salt.
STUFFING FOR GEESE AND DUCKS.
Cook 7 pounds of dried apples thirty minutes in enough water to cover them. Put 18 pounds of stale bread to soak, squeeze the water out of the bread, add the apples to it, mix together thoroughly and season with pepper and salt.
TURKEY OR CHICKEN FRICASSEE.
Draw and wash 75 pounds of turkeys or chickens thoroughly, cut up and place in the copper, covering them well with water. When the water commences to boil skim with a dipper. Add 6 quarts of onions chopped fine, and allow the whole to boil for an hour and a half. Season with pepper and salt, add six bunches of parsley chopped fine and simmer for twenty minutes.
BOILED BACON (OR PORK) WITH CABBAGE.
Clean and cut in quarters 25 heads of cabbage and put in cold water to soak. Place 75 pounds of bacon in the copper (rind up) and allow it to cook for an hour and a half, then add the cabbage and allow the whole to cook for an hour and a half longer. Then remove the bacon, and the cabbage as soon as it is tender.
(NOTE. - One teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda added to any boiled vegetables will make them more tender.)
LIVER AND BACON.
The skin having been removed from 45 pounds of liver, cut it in 1/2-inch slices and place it in a pan. Chop up 1 pound of onions and 1 bunch of parsley and brown them on the fire in 1/4 of a pound of dripping. Sprinkle 1 tablespoonful of this over the liver, dredging well with flour. Slice 25 pounds bacon and place on top of the liver. Put in a hot oven for ten minutes, then cover well with boiling water, season with salt and pepper, and leave in the oven for twenty minutes.
Cut 50 pounds of kidney into small pieces and place them in pots filled with cold water on the galley. Bring to the boiling point, remove the kidney, place in a colander and pour cold water over it, washing it thoroughly. Place the kidneys in the copper well covered with hot water. Add 15 pounds of onions, season with pepper and salt, and boil for an hour. Cut into small pieces 40 pounds of potatoes and 6 pounds of carrots and add them to the stew. Then boil for thirty minutes, add flour thickening, and simmer for ten minutes.
Soak 80 pounds of beef in fresh or salt water overnight. Place in cold water in the copper. Boil for one hour, then draw off water and fill copper again with boiling water. Allow beef to boil until tender and serve with boiled, carrots, turnips, and onions.
TINNED ROAST BEEF WITH MACARONI.
Place 2 pounds of onions, chopped fine, in a pot with 1/2 pound of dripping and brown them on the galley. Stir in 1 pound of flour and then 2 quarts of boiling water. Add 6 pounds of tomatoes and 60 pounds of tinned beef. Add to this 6 pounds of macaroni which has been dropped into boiling water, well salted, and cooked until tender. Season with pepper and salt and simmer for twenty minutes.
(NOTE. - To prepare this dish in the coppers, proceed as follows: After the flour, onions, tomatoes and boiling water have simmered for ten minutes in a pot add them to the meat
and the macaroni in the copper. Season and simmer for twenty minutes.)
BEEF A LA MODE (MADE FROM CANNED ROAST BEEF).
Place 60 pounds of beef in pans on the galley. Add 20 pounds of canned tomatoes and season with salt, pepper, and vinegar.
Cut 5 pounds of onions in thin slices and fry with gravy of beef in frying pan, adding flour to thicken. Pour over meat, adding water if too thick and allow the whole to simmer for about fifteen minutes. Serve very hot with boiled potatoes.
(NOTE. - This meal can be prepared in about forty minutes.)
Take 40 pounds of chopped beef and 5 pounds of chopped pork, place in pan, mix well; add 5 pounds of stale soaked, bread or 5 pounds of cracked roasted bread, 5 pounds of chopped onions; season well with pepper and salt and mix well. Form into cakes. Place in pan and bake for thirty minutes. Turn once during baking.
Add 1 gallon of water to pans after frying steak and strain. Boil five minutes, season with pepper, salt, and catsup, and thicken with flour. Pour over hamburger steak when served.
SMOKED SHOULDER OF PORK.
Ninety pounds required. Cut stringer. Place in copper and boil for one hour. Drain off and renew water and continue boiling until tender. Boil about three and one-half hours altogether. If large, the shoulder should boil about four and one-half hours moderately.
MADE TO SERVE COLD. - Boil shoulder the same as above. Remove rind, place in pan, and dredge well with sugar. Put about 30 cloves into fat about 1 inch apart. Bake from thirty to forty minutes in moderately hot oven and serve cold.
TINNED MUTTON STEW.
Cut in quarters 4 pounds of turnips, 10 pounds of carrots, and 20 pounds of potatoes, and slice up 6 pounds of onions and place them all in the copper with sufficient water to cover them. Add 6 pounds of tomatoes and allow all to boil for twenty minutes.
Season with pepper. Add 50 pounds of canned mutton and allow to simmer for twenty minutes.
TINNED MUTTON POTPIE.
Prepare as directed for stew and add dough, made as follows:
Place a pot of boiling water on the galley and add 4 ounces of salt. Mix 10 pounds of flour with 10 tablespoons of baking powder and 1 tablespoon of salt. Mix with cold water and make into a thin paste. Roll this up into small cakes, drop into boiling water, and when cooked add to the stew.
TINNED BEEF (OR MUTTON) PIE.
Slice up 5 pounds of onion and fry until brown. Place 20 pounds of sliced potatoes in a pot with enough water to cover them. When the potatoes have boiled for fifteen minutes add the onions and 50 pounds of tinned meat. Allow the whole to simmer for twenty minutes, and season with pepper and salt. To prepare a crust, put 20 pounds of flour through a sieve, add 2 tablespoonfuls of salt. Rub in 6 pounds of dripping or lard thoroughly. Wet the whole with sufficient cold water to make a stiff paste and work it all together. Flour the board or table, turn out the paste and work it up. Roll it out, sprinkle with flour, and roll to 1/2 of an inch thickness. Place the pile in baking pans and cover with this crust, making a hole in the crust of each pan. Bake in the oven for about twenty minutes, or until the crust is brown.
TINNED CANNED BEEF, POTTED.
Slice up 10 pounds of onions and place in a pot with 2 pounds of dripping and allow them to brown, lightly stirring in 2 pounds of flour and then adding a gallon of boiling water, which should be stirred into the flour briskly while boiling. Cut 50 pounds of canned beef into small slices and 30 pounds of boiled potatoes into thin slices and place in the pots. Season with salt and pepper and allow to simmer for thirty minutes.
TINNED HAM AND SAUSAGE CROQUETTES.
Put 25 pounds of ham, 70 pounds of boiled potatoes, and 6 pounds of onions through a hash machine, season with pepper
only, and mold into cakes. Beat together 2 pounds of butter and 12 eggs to a batter, and cover the cakes with it. Put the cakes in greased pans in the oven or on the galley, and bake or fry until brown. Serve with stewed tomatoes or tomato sauce.
(NOTE. - Lard may be substituted for the egg dressing. This meal can be prepared in two hours.
STEAMED CORNED BEEF HASH.
Hash together 40 pounds corned beef and 30 pounds of peeled potatoes. Cut up fine 10 pounds of onions, and brown them in 2 pounds of dripping in pots on the galley. Add the hash and 4 quarts of boiling water. Season with salt and pepper, and allow the whole to cook for twenty minutes.
BAKED CORNED BEEF HASH.
Chop together 40 pounds of corned beef, 30 pounds of boiled potatoes (cold), and 10 pounds of onions. Season with pepper and salt, and bake in the oven for twenty minutes, or until brown.
(NOTE. - This hash is improved by adding a little dripping to the top of each panful before baking.)
BAKED TINNED SAUSAGE MEAT.
Mix together 60 pounds of sausage meat, 20 pounds of stale bread, which has been soaked in cold water, drained dry, and well seasoned with salt and pepper, 1 ounce of thyme, and 1/2 teaspoonful of mace. Make into 10-pound rolls and bake in well-greased pans in the oven for thirty minutes.
TINNED HAM, MINCED.
Cut 2 pounds of salt pork in small pieces, place in frying pans and allow it to brown. To this add 6 pounds of onions cut up fine, which should also be browned lightly. Chop fine 60 pounds of ham and to it add 10 pounds of stale bread which has been soaked in cold water and drained dry. Mix all the ingredients together, season with pepper only, and bake in the oven in greased pans for twenty minutes.
BAKED PORK AND BEANS.
Wash thoroughly 5 1/2 gallons of beans and soak in cold water over night. In another pot soak 15 pounds of salt pork over night. Place the pork and beans together in pots on the fire (scoring the pork). Add water, and boil with pot covered for one hour. Season with salt and pepper. When the beans are soft add 2 pints of molasses, turn out into pans, and bake in a quick oven until brown.
HAM AND EGGS.
Take 25 pounds of ham and 17 dozen of eggs. Cut ham in thin slices and quarter them. Put into boiling water and simmer for five minutes. Drain off water. Fry the ham and put aside to keep warm. Take a large bake pan and cover the bottom with lard. Break each egg in a cup first to ascertain if it is fresh, then fry in pan.
BACON AND EGGS (SCRAMBLED).
Cut 25 pounds of bacon in thin slices and place in large baking pan. Fry in oven about twenty minutes, turning over occasionally. When done remove from pan and keep warm until ready to serve.
Take 17 dozen of eggs. Break each egg separately in a cup and then put in a large pan, adding two quarts of milk. Season with pepper and salt and beat well. Pour into well-greased pans and cook on moderately hot fire, stirring continually until done. Remove from pan and serve together with bacon.
Fifteen pounds of ham and 22 dozen of eggs will be required. Chop ham fine. Put eggs, one at a time, in a large pan. Season with pepper. Beat eggs at least twenty minutes. Take large narrow baking pans and cover bottom with lard. When lard is hot, pour about 2 dozen well-beaten eggs into each pan. Remove from the bottom of pan occasionally. When eggs are set, put a quantity of chopped ham along the center and fold the sides over the center.
Sixty pounds of potatoes will be required. Wash thoroughly; place in copper in cold water and boil for thirty-five minutes.
Boil as above 80 pounds of potatoes, take them out of the water, mash them in a pan, adding 1 pound of butter, and salt to the taste. Boil 1 quart of milk and 1 quart of water together and stir into the potatoes.
Cut two barrels of cabbage into quarters, wash thoroughly and put into cold water in the copper and boil for one hour. Season well with pepper and salt.
SPINACH AND SPROUTS.
Wash 2 barrels of spinach thoroughly in water three times. Place in cold water in the copper, cook for forty-five minutes, then drain off water and season with butter, salt, and pepper.
Put about 150 ears of corn into boiling water in the copper, well salted. Cook for thirty minutes.
Pour the contents of thirty l-pound tins of corn into a pot or copper. Add 1 quart of milk and 1/2 pound of butter. Pepper and salt to taste and cook for twenty minutes.
TINNED GREEN PEASE.
Strain off the juice from thirty tins of pease; place them in cold water, in a pot or copper; season well with butter, salt, and pepper, and cook for twenty minutes. The juice should not be used.
Place into a copper containing 10 gallons of boiling water 3/4 of a pound of salt. Break 50 pounds of macaroni into the copper and allow it to boil for thirty minutes. Strain off and place
in well-greased pans; grate 10 pounds of cheese on top of the macaroni and bake in a hot oven for twenty minutes.
(NOTE. - 6 pounds of tomatoes may be added before baking, if desired.)
TINNED CORN FRITTERS.
Sift into a dish 10 pounds of flour, 5 ounces of baking powder, and 1/2 pound of sugar; mix with cold water to a smooth batter and add 15 pounds of tinned corn, mixing all together. Place dripping in pans on the fire and when it is smoking hot, drop in the batter by large spoonfuls and fry, turning as soon as one side is brown. After frying bake in oven for ten minutes.
(NOTE. - The addition of a dozen eggs, when obtainable, will improve these fritters.)
Peel and slice 30 pounds of boiled potatoes, to which add 6 pounds of onions and 2 bunches of parsley, chopped up fine, mix all together with pepper and salt. Stir in 2 quarts of vinegar and 1 pint of oil and allow the salad to stand for an hour before serving.
Cut 40 pounds of corned beef into small cubes. Chop up fine 5 pounds of onions and 5 pounds of pickles; add pepper and salt to taste. Stir in 1 quart of oil and 3 tablespoonfuls of mustard, then add 2 quarts of vinegar and mix all the ingredients together.
In a pot on the galley place 25 pounds of tomatoes, 3 pounds of onions hashed fine, 1/2 ounce of cloves and 6 bay leaves. Season with pepper and salt, add 1 gallon of boiling water and allow it to boil for twenty minutes. Then put the whole through a colander, pouring the juice in a pot on the fire, stir in flour thickening while boiling, and let simmer for ten minutes.
Into pots of boiling water to which 1 pound of butter and 2 pounds of sugar have been added stir 40 pounds of oatmeal and boil two hours, stirring occasionally.
(NOTE. - When the oats are crushed or cracked boil for twenty minutes only.)
STEWED DRIED APPLES.
Soak 12 pounds of dried apples over night in cold water. Drain off and place in a pot on the fire, covering them with cold water. Allow them to boil for thirty minutes and then add 5 pounds of sugar, 1/4 ounce of cinnamon, and a tablespoonful of salt. Simmer for ten minutes and serve.
Place 15 pounds of apples in a pot with sufficient water to cover them and cook on a slow fire till tender. Add 3 1/2 pounds of sugar, 2 1/2 tablespoonfuls of salt, and 2 1/2 teaspoonfuls of ground cinnamon. Mix thoroughly and force through a colander until a smooth sauce is obtained.
STEWED DRIED PEACHES.
Soak 12 pounds of dried peaches over night in cold water. drain off and place in pot on the galley, cover with cold water and boil for forty minutes. Add 5 pounds of sugar and 1 teaspoonful of salt and simmer for ten minutes.
Place 16 pounds of prunes in cold water in a pot on the galley. Add 2 lemons sliced, and allow it to boil for twenty minutes. Then add 4 pounds of sugar and simmer for twenty minutes longer.
Soak 25 pounds of stale bread in cold water and drain. Add 8 pounds of raisins which have been thoroughly washed, 6 cans of condensed milk (or 10 quarts of fresh milk) in which two tablespoonfuls of salt have been dissolved; mix all together; place in greased pans; dredge the top of the pudding with cinnamon, and bake until brown.
Wash 30 pounds of rice and place in pots of cold water on the galley, letting it boil for thirty minutes. In six cans of condensed milk or 10 quarts of fresh milk dissolve 6 pounds of sugar and 2 tablespoonfuls of salt. When the rice is soft, add the
milk and 6 pounds of currants, 6 pounds of raisins, and 4 dozen eggs, and mix all together. Place the pudding in greased pans, grate nutmeg over them, and bake in oven until brown.
(NOTE. - In this and the preceding recipe, when condensed milk is used, it should be diluted to the consistency of rich fresh milk.)
Core the apples and place them in pans in the oven until soft. Dissolve 5 pounds of sugar in 3 quarts of boiling water, add 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon and 1 teaspoonful of salt, and allow it to boil for ten minutes. When the apples are cooked pour this sirup over them.
Soak 25 pounds of stale bread in cold water and drain dry. Add 25 pounds of sifted flour, 5 pounds of suet chopped fine, 3 pounds of raisins, 5 pounds of sugar, 4 pounds of currants, 2 pounds of prunes, 3 tablespoonfuls of salt, 1 teaspoonful of ground cloves, 1 tablespoonful of ground cinnamon, and 1 wineglassful of vinegar, and mix all thoroughly with cold water. Turn the bags inside out, drop them into boiling water, render out slightly, and drop into dry flour, dredging them thoroughly. Turn the bags flour side in and fill them with the pudding. securing the opening firmly, drop into the copper in which water is boiling and cook for at least two hours. If there is sufficient time, the pudding will be improved by boiling three or four hours.
BAKED APPLE DUMPLINGS.
Mix 8 pounds of drippings and 15 pounds of sifted flour, rubbing it in thoroughly with the hands, add 3 tablespoonfuls of salt, mix with cold water into a stiff paste, roll out to the thickness of 1/8 of an inch and cut into 5-inch squares. Pare and core 100 apples and place one on each square of the dough. Fill the center of the apples with sugar, roll them up in the dough and bake them in a greased pan in a hot oven for thirty minutes, or until the apples become soft.
(NOTE. - The crust described above is suitable for any meat or fried pie.)
Into 1 gallon of boiling water place three lemons sliced, 4 pounds of sugar, and 1 teaspoonful of salt, and boil for ten minutes. Add thickening made of cornstarch or flour mixed with cold water, stirring it into the sauce slowly. Then allow the sauce to simmer for ten minutes.
FROM FRESH APPLES, PEACHES, AND PEARS.
Prepare 30 pounds of fresh fruit, paring and coring the apples and pears, and paring and removing the stones from peaches, and slice them up. Line the pie plates with the crust prepared as hereinbefore described under "Apple dumplings." Fill the plates with the fruit, adding about 3 ounces of sugar to each pie, sprinkle with cinnamon, cover with thin crust, joining the edges of the upper and lower crust and bake in the oven for thirty minutes or until slightly brown.
(NOTE. - Pie may be made in the same manner from dried fruit which has been soaked in cold water until soft and cooked as described under "Stewed dried apples" and "Stewed dried peaches" before putting it into the crust.
Sift 50 pounds of flour into a large kneading pan and add about 2 pounds of hot dripping. Break ten cakes of yeast into small pieces and put into lukewarm water and stir until dissolved. Add this to the flour and dripping and also add 2 1/2 gallons of fresh water and 2 1/2 gallons of salt water, luke warm, mixing all thoroughly. Dust the dough with a thin coating of flour to prevent its crusting. Cover the pan with a cloth and stand in a warm place from four to six hours, then knead out well and make into loaves. Put in well-greased pans and bake in moderate oven for forty-five minutes.