The Use of Naval Forces in the Post-War Era: U.S. Navy and
U.S. Marine Corps Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1990

Explanatory Notes for Table 1

Column headings:

B-date: Date of the first known movement of U.S. Navy surface forces in response to a crisis. In some cases (primarily in the 1946-1954 period from the Brookings Force Without War database), the begin date is for the first use of U.S. armed forces in the response. When the date is given in the form "Mon-Yr" rather than "M/D/Yr," it is because a specific starting date of operations is not known.
Length: In days, from "Begin date" to known (or the best estimate of the) release date of forces to normal operations. In some cases, the approximate date that operations became institutionalized (e.g., a normal part of U.S. Navy operations) was used as the end of the crisis response.
OAC: U.S. Navy Ocean Area Code, as shown in figure 1. This is the location of the crisis or of the main portion of the crisis response.
USN: Are U.S. Navy surface ships (of any class) known to have been involved in the crisis response?
CVs: Largest number of carriers known to be operating in the crisis response at any one point. (Both CVAs and CVSs are counted in this column.) A "?" indicates that carrier involvement is assumed but that the exact number of vessel(s) is not known.
Amp: Are amphibious ships known to have been involved in the crisis response? A "?" indicates that amphibious ship involvement is assumed but that exact vessel(s) are not known.
USMC: Are U.S. Marine Corps forces (other than aviation units operating off aircraft carriers) known to have been involved in the crisis response?
VM on CV: Are U.S. Marine Corps aviation units, of any type, known to have been operating off one (or more) of the aircraft carriers involved in the crisis response? (See the appendix for a listing of USMC deployments aboard aircraft carriers for the 1949-1989 period.)
SAC/TAC: Are U.S. Air Force strategic or tactical fighters and/or bomber forces known to have been involved in the crisis response? (This column relies heavily on the Brookings (and Zelikow) Force Without War data for the 1946-1982 period. If "USAF combat aircraft" was indicated in the Force Without War database, a "Y" has been entered. In a number of cases, available information indicates SAC/TAC involvement even when the Brookings data do not indicate such involvement. For such cases, a "Y" was entered.)
USA: Are U.S. Army forces known to have been involved in the crisis response? (This column relies heavily on the Brookings (and Zelikow) Force Without War database for the 1946- 1982 period. If "USA" involvement is indicated in the Brookings database, a "Y" has been entered. In a number of cases, available information indicates USA involvement even when the Brookings data do not indicate such involvement. In those cases, a "Y" was entered.)

SOURCES: See Selected Bibliography.