The Use of Naval Forces in the Post-War Era: U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1990

Adam B. Siegel
Operations and Support Division

Center for Naval Analyses

Abstract: Since the end of World War II, U.S. Naval forces have played a major role in at least 207 U.S. responses to international incidents and crises, exclusive of the Korean and Vietnam wars. This research memorandum summarizes these U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps crisis management operations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
Definitions and Sources
Methodological Issues
U.S. Naval and Other Service Crisis Response Activity
Regional Distribution of U.S. Naval Crisis Response Activity
Glossary
Selected Bibliography
Appendix: USMC Aircraft Deployment Aboard Aircraft Carriers
 
TABLES
1. U.S. Naval Crisis Responses, 1946-1990
2. U.S. Naval Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1990, by Five-Year Periods
3. U.S. Naval Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1989; Proportion of Involvement by Service and Force Type
4. Distribution of Incidents by Type of Force Responding, 1946-1982
5. U.S. Naval Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1990; Regional Distribution
6. Descriptions of U.S. Naval Crisis Responses, 1946-1990


INTRODUCTION

Since the end of World War II, U.S. Naval forces have played a major role in at least 207 U.S. responses to international incidents and crises, exclusive of the Korean and Vietnam wars. This research memorandum summarizes these U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps crisis management operations. It was written at the request of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans, Policies and Operations, Headquarters, United States Marine Corps. This paper is a report from CNA's History of U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps Crisis Response Activity Project, conducted for the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans, Policy and Operations (OP-06).

This paper focuses on the actions of the Navy and Marine Corps immediately prior to and during American responses to international incidents and crises. Because this paper focuses on Navy and Marine Corps involvement, the 207 crises include only those cases in which it is known that naval forces were involved in the response. The focus on the Navy and Marine Corps activity is not intended to obscure the fact that the other services and other instruments of policy (military and nonmilitary) play significant roles in the crisis management activities of the National Command Authorities. Similarly, the focus on crises should not obscure the day-to-day actions the Navy and Marine Corps undertake in support of U.S. foreign policy and national strategy, which range from the Navy's role in the strategic triad to the peacetime presence mission Navy and Marine Corps forces carry out worldwide.

This paper updates CNA Research Memorandum 89-315, U.S. Navy Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1989: Preliminary Report, which was distributed in November 1989.1 Research Memorandum 89-315 documented 187 cases of U.S. Navy crisis response activity in the post-World War II era. The paper was revised to (a) more fully document U.S. Marine Corps activity, (b) include research completed after the original document, (c) improve methodological consistency between periods covered by different sources, and (d) add recent crisis response actions.  

DEFINITIONS AND SOURCES

This analysis of American military responses to international incidents and crises focuses on actions that fulfill the following criteria:
  • Actions taken by the National Command Authorities involving the U.S. armed forces (for an action to be included in this paper, a Navy surface ship or a Marine Corps unit must have been involved).

  • Actions taken in conjunction with events occurring outside the United States.

  • Actions taken other than in the course of general war (Korea, 1950-1953; Vietnam, 1964-1975; and the conflict with Iraq from 17 January 1991).

  • Actions that were reported at a given (senior) level in the political-military policy process.2

A few categories of responses are not included. These include humanitarian missions, such as disaster relief and medical ship port calls, and intelligence operations that were excluded for security reasons.

Crisis management is a peacetime activity. Peace is defined negatively as the noninvolvement of the United States in a war. War is defined in terms of U.S. casualties. Any engagement in which American forces suffer at least 1,000 casualties (KIA, WIA, and MIA) is at least a limited war. In the period reviewed, both the Korean and Vietnam-Indochina Wars fall into this category and are thus excluded from the analysis.3

The Korean War began with the invasion of the Republic of Korea on 25 June 1950. The end of the war is defined as 27 July 1953 when the armistice agreement was signed at Panmunjom. The beginning of the Vietnam-Indochina War is set at 10 August 1964, the date the U.S. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. The end of the war is defined as 31 December 1974. This date was selected so that (a) the long wind down of heavy U.S. involvement would not be unduly reflected in the study and (b) the evacuations of U.S. personnel from Phnom Penh and Saigon would be included.

This study focuses on international events. Thus, any actions undertaken by U.S. forces inside the United States (such as hurricane relief, fire-fighting, or support of police forces) are excluded. The exemptions clause above covers several categories of responses:

  • Humanitarian operations: For example, the provision of medical assistance following natural disasters abroad.4

  • Intelligence and other special operations: These operations are not covered systematically in any source material available for this work, which does not include compartmentalized intelligence information. (A desire to produce an unclassifed document drove the requirement for surface ship involvement for a USN crisis response to be included. Other forces such as submarines, patrol aircraft, and SEALs have been used without surface ship involvement; however, the activities of these forces are not well documented in the unclassified literature.)

  • Operations that are routinely undertaken to support U.S. diplomacy: For example, U.S. Navy units are often alerted during Presidential visits overseas (such as during President Bush's February 1990 trip to Colombia).

  • Law enforcement operations: For example, the Department of Defense involvement in drug interdiction operations.

  • Incidents at sea: Activities that are not specifically related to events taking place ashore, such as incidents (collisions or harassment) between U.S. Navy and Soviet Navy vessels. Some types of incidents at sea, specifically terrorist hijackings or seizures of U.S. flag vessels that prompt a U.S. military response are included.

This paper relies heavily on previous work done in the field concerning the use of armed forces as a political instrument.5 As such, each of the 207 crisis responses, listed in table 1, occur in one of three time periods:

1985-present Documentation of ongoing research at CNA on crisis response activity. Additional U.S. Navy and Marine Corps responses for the period might be documented in the course of the research.
1955-1984 Information for this period is based primarily on previous CNA research efforts (as documented in CNA Research Contributions 322 and 429 and CNA Research Memorandum 85-71).
1946-1954 Earlier CNA analysis in this area excluded this period. This paper relies principally on work done at The Brookings Institution (work done by Barry M. Blechman and Stephen S. Kaplan as documented in Force Without War, 1978) for this period.

The Selected Bibliography lists other principal sources. The files maintained at the Marine Corps Historical Center and the Navy Operational Archives, both located in the Washington Navy Yard, were especially valuable.6

Figure 1 shows the U.S. Navy's Ocean Area Codes, which are used to geographically describe each crisis response.

Figure 1. U.S. Navy Ocean Area Codes
Figure 1. U.S. Navy Ocean Area Codes

 

METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

As with any attempt to record history, the very attempt creates a selective interpretation. Despite the best efforts of the researcher, attempts at description automatically create distortion to some degree.7 The methodological choices made for this project both explicitly and implicitly tilt the historical record. The following paragraphs briefly examine some of the implications of these choices.

The focus on peacetime activity excludes from consideration three major episodes of U.S. military activity: the Korean War, the Vietnam Conflict, and the conflict with Iraq. If crisis response actions are viewed in isolation from these events, the periods 1951-1955 and 1966-1975 would seem to periods of little U.S. military activity (see table 2). These periods encompass, however, wars excluded from consideration. The implication might be that, during war, military forces are not available for crisis response actions. The implication might also be that with a focus on wartime activity, crisis actions are not as prominently reported as during periods of relative tranquility.

The requirement for USN surface ship or USMC unit movement is also exclusionary. This leads to an understatement of total USN actions, as submarine, maritime patrol and transport aircraft, SEAL, and other activities are not necessarily dependent on surface ship movement. The requirement for movement excludes alerts. For the U.S. Army, especially, alerts are often used as a crisis response action and, depending on the circumstances, alerts can be used as a signal similar to that created by the movement of a surface ship. In addition, an attempt has been made to estimate equivalents to U.S. Navy ships for the size of involvement to be counted in this documentation (thus, small-scale involvement by other services might not be reflected in this document). These criteria lead to an understatement both in the total number of naval responses and of the role played by U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force forces in these crisis response actions.

The focus on USAF Strategic Air Command (SAC) and Tactical Air Command (TAG) combat aircraft highlights another important issue. Comparisons between types of forces may well be of greater interest than comparisons between services. Neither can be adequately done with this material at the present time. Due to the focus on Navy and Marine Corps activity, the research Air Force and Army activity has been less extensive than desired. In the absence of such work, this research does not provide an adequate basis for comparisons of service-specific activity.

Humanitarian operations, a frequent tasking for all the services, are also excluded from this document. Just like political events, these can often be responded to as a "crisis." (In other words, natural disasters can be crises to which military forces might be ordered to respond.) Because this study focuses on activity that has at least a latent potential to lead to conflict, it does not include humanitarian operations. Although these operations are a mission that the military services are called on to perform, they are not the reason for which the forces were procured. The military services perform valuable humanitarian services, but this is a secondary benefit due to the existence of capabilities procured for other reasons.

In addition to the methodological biases discussed above, there are a number of other questions that, when systematically examined, would likely change the material presented in this paper. Each of the studies used to prepare this paper relied on slightly different methodologies and definitions of "crisis" and "crisis response." Because of these differences, the list presented here could change if the responses were further reviewed using a standard methodology and standard definitions.

Further, the question of when a crisis response begins and ends has not been systematically addressed. In many cases, either information is lacking or the division between regular operations and a contingency response is unclear. Thus, the information on the lengths of crises should be treated as approximate rather than specific. The unclear nature of begin and end dates also could easily lead to a renumbering of the crisis response actions. Many of the 207 documented crisis response actions could be logically separated into a number of cases, and other cases could be combined into one.7a Such differences have been minimized as much as possible in light of the information available on each of the crisis response actions. Further research should remove some of the inconsistencies.

This document attempts solely to document the role U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps forces have played in crisis response actions since World War II; it does not attempt to answer qualitative questions that it might provoke. Such questions might include:

  • How effective were the forces that responded in achieving the President's objective? Fundamentally, are military forces used to respond to crisis situations because they are effective or because the forces are available?

  • Why were certain forces used? Which combination of forces is most effective in responses (and for what types of missions)?

While, to a certain extent, these questions will find no clear answers, they are too important to be left unexplored. In an attempt to answer this type of question, one should remain aware of the methodological biases and limitations of the material in this document as discussed above.

Table 1. U.S. Naval Crisis Responses, 1946-1990 [Table Notes]

No. Name B-date Length OAC USN CVs Amp USMC VM on CV TAC/SAC USA
1 Coup in Haiti 1/12/46 2 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
2 Security of Turkey 3/22/46 19 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
3 Greece, Pol. Conflict 4/10/46 5 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
4 China Civil War Apr-46 1348 P4 Y ? Y Y   Y Y
5 Security of Trieste 6/3/46 65 A6 Y 0 N Y   N N
6 Turkey/Greece 8/16/46 148 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
7 Albania Oct-46 46 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
8 Chilean Inauguration 11/1/46 6 P5 Y 1 N N   N N
9 Lebanon 12/1/46 4 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
10 Uruguayan Innauguration 2/22/47 9 A4 Y 0 N N   Y N
11 Greek Civil War 4/16/47 412 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N Y
12 Security of Turkey 5/2/47 396 A6 Y 1 Y N   N N
13 Cuban Sup, Anti-Truj. 7/31/47 60 A3 Y 1 N N   N N
14 Security of Trieste 8/16/47 122 A6 Y 0 N N   N Y
15 Elections in Italy 11/2/47 94 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
16 Arab-Israeli War 1/5/48 466 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
17 Security of Trieste 1/16/48 88 A6 Y ? Y Y   N N
18 Interests in Persian Gulf 1/20/48 1 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
19 Security of Norway 4/29/48 4 A5 Y 1 N N   N N
20 Security of Berlin 6/26/48 401 A5 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
21 Relations w/Argentina Nov-48 7 A4 Y 0 N N   N N
22 Gov Change, China 12/9/49 38 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
23 Kor. War, For. Straits 6/27/50 951 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
24 Kor. War, Sec. Europe 7/16/50 715 A5 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
25 Lebanon 8/14/50 1 A6 Y 2 N N   N N
26 Security of Yugoslavia 3/15/51 869 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
27 China-Taiwan Conflict 2/2/53 2 P4 Y ? N N   N N
28 Dien Bien Phu 3/13/54 90 P4 Y 2 N N Y N N
29 Honduras-Guatemala 5/20/54 14 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
30 PRC Shootdown 7/24/54 6 P4 Y 2 N N   N N
31 Vietnam Evacuations Aug-54 305 P4 Y 0 Y Y   N N
32 Honduran Elections Oct-54 11 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
33 Accord on Trieste 10/7/54 20 A6 Y 0 N N   N Y
34 Tachen Islands 2/8/55 6 P4 Y 6 Y Y   Y N
35 Red Sea Patrols Feb-56 183 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
36 Jordan Mar-56 62 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
37 Pre-Suez Aug-56 69 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
38 Suez War 10/30/56 8 A6 Y 3 Y Y   Y N
39 Port Lyautey 11/29/56 57 A5 N 0 N Y   N N
40 Post-Suez 11/6/56 38 A6 Y 8 Y Y   N N
41 Cuban Civil War Dec-56 435 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
42 Red Sea Patrols Feb-57 87 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
43 Jordan Unrest 4/25/57 9 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
44 Haiti 6/14/57 18 A3 Y 0 Y Y Y N N
45 PRC-ROC Tension Jul-57 63 P4 Y 3 Y Y   N N
46 Syria 8/21/57 118 A6 Y 4 Y Y Y Y N
47 Indonesia 12/10/57 174 P4 Y 2 Y Y Y N N
48 Venezuelan Revolution 1/21/58 2 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
49 Venezuela 5/13/58 3 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N Y
50 Lebanon 5/15/58 48 A6 Y 3 Y Y   N N
51 Lebanon Jul-58 93 A6 Y 3 Y Y   Y Y
52 Jordan-Iraq 7/17/58 138 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
53 Quemoy Aug-58 67 P4 Y 6 Y Y   Y N
54 Panama 4/30/59 5 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
55 Berlin Crisis May-59 145 A5 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
56 Laos Jul-59 103 P4 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
57 PRC-ROC 7/5/59 6 P4 Y 2 ? N   N N
58 Panama Aug-59 93 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
59 Congo 7/1/60 124 A4 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
60 Guatemala 11/14/60 27 A3 Y 2 N N   N N
61 Laos 1/1/61 6 P4 Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y
62 SS Santa Maria  1/23/61 8 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
63 Gulf of Guinea-Congo 2/2/61 34 A4 Y 0 Y Y   N N
64 Laos 3/21/61 85 P4 Y 3 Y Y Y N N
65 SS Western Union  3/31/61 1 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
66 Bay of Pigs Apr-61 62 A3 Y 2 Y Y   Y N
67 Dominican Republic 5/30/61 12 A3 Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y
68 Zanzibar Jun-61 31 P6 Y 0 Y Y   N N
69 Kuwait 7/4/61 4 P6 Y 0 Y Y   N N
70 Berlin Crisis Jul-61 102 A5 Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y
71 Dominican Republic 11/18/61 32 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
72 South Vietnam Dec-61 244 P4 Y 0 N N   N Y
73 Dominican Republic 1/18/62 2 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
74 Guatemala Riots 3/14/62 9 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
75 South Vietnam 4/15/62 849 P4 Y 0 Y Y   N N
76 Thailand 5/10/62 90 P4 Y 2 Y Y   N N
77 Guantanamo 7/25/62 3 A3 Y 0 Y Y N
78 Haiti Civil Disorder Aug-62 14 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
79 Yemen Sep-62 213 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
80 Cuban Missile Crisis 10/14/62 38 A3 Y 8 Y Y Y Y Y
81 Sino-Indian War 11/19/62 2 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
82 SS Anzoatequi 2/12/63 9 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
83 Laos Apr-63 35 P4 Y 2 Y Y   N N
84 Haitian Unrest 4/29/63 34 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
85 Haiti Civil War 8/6/63 17 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
86 Vietnam Civil Disorder 8/25/63 93 P4 Y 2 Y Y   N N
87 PRC-ROC 9/20/63 5 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
88 Dominican Republic 9/25/63 81 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
89 Indonesia-Malaysia Oct-63 78 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
90 Zanzibar 1/12/64 2 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
91 Tanganyika 1/20/64 7 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
92 Carib. Surveillance 1/15/64 92 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
93 Panama Jan-64 101 A3 Y 0 Y Y   Y Y
94 Venezuela Jan-64 310 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
95 Cyprus 1/22/64 269 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
96 Brazil 3/31/64 4 A4 Y 1 N N   N N
97 Laos 4/21/64 42 P4 Y 2 N Y   N N
98 Guantanamo 5/1/64 7 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
99 Panama 5/7/64 14 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
100 Dominican Republic 7/24/64 5 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
101 Gulf of Tonkin 8/2/64 9 P4 Y 2 N N   N N
102 Haiti 8/7/64 3 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
103 Panama 1/7/65 6 A3 Y 0 Y N   N N
104 Tanzania 1/17/65 1 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
105 Venezuela-Colombia Jan-65 91 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
106 British Guiana Apr-65 11 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
107 Dominican Republic 4/24/65 515 A3 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
108 Yemen Jul-65 32 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
109 Cyprus 8/3/65 30 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
110 Indo-Pakistani War 9/11/65 25 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
111 Indonesia 10/2/65 8 P4 Y 0 Y Y   N N
112 Greek Coup 4/21/67 23 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
113 Six Day War 6/6/67 6 A6 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
114 DD Eilat Sinking 10/21/67 12 A6 Y 2 N N   N N
115 Cyprus 11/15/67 24 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
116 USS Pueblo  1/24/68 59 P4 Y 3 N N   Y N
117 EC-121 Shootdown 4/14/69 26 P4 Y 4 N N   Y Y
118 Curaçao Civil Unrest 5/31/69 1 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
119 Lebanon-Libya Ops 10/26/69 5 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
120 Trinidad 4/22/70 6 A3 Y 0 Y Y   Y N
121 Jordan 6/11/70 7 A6 Y 1 Y Y Y Y N
122 Jordan 9/2/70 60 A6 Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y
123 Haiti Succession 4/22/71 37 A3 Y 0 N Y   N N
124 Indo-Pakistani War 12/10/71 30 P6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
125 Bahama Lines 12/15/71 52 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
126 Lebanon 5/3/73 7 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
127 Middle East War 10/6/73 48 A6 Y 3 Y Y   Y Y
128 Middle East Force 10/24/73 22 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
129 Oil Embargo-IO Ops 10/25/73 159 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
130 Cyprus 7/15/74 39 A6 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
131 Cyprus Unrest 1/18/75 4 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
132 Ethiopia 2/3/75 4 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
133 Eagle Pull, Cambodia Feb-75 70 P4 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
134 Frequent Wind, Viet. 4/18/75 12 P4 Y 4 Y Y Y Y N
135 Mayaguez  5/13/75 3 P4 Y 2 Y Y   Y N
136 Lebanon Aug-75 367 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
137 Polisario Rebels 1/5/76 18 A5 Y 0 Y N   N N
138 Tunisia 7/27/76 25 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
139 Kenya-Uganda 7/8/76 20 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
140 Korean Tree Incident 8/19/76 21 P4 Y 1 N N Y Y Y
141 Uganda 2/25/77 6 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
142 Ogaden War Feb-78 51 P6 Y 1 N N   Y N
143 Sea of Okhotsk 6/15/78 10 P4 Y 0 N N   N N
144 Afghanistan Jul-78 31 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
145 Nicaragua 9/16/78 16 A3 Y 0 N N   Y N
146 Iranian Revolution 12/6/78 86 P6 Y 1 Y Y   Y N
147 China-Vietnam 2/25/79 6 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
148 Yemen 3/6/79 93 P6 Y 1 N N   Y N
149 Nicaraguan Revolution Jul-79 31 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
150 Soviet Troops in Cuba 10/2/79 46 A3 Y 1 Y Y   Y N
151 Afghan/Iran Hostages 10/9/79 472 P6 Y 2 Y Y Y Y Y
152 Park-Chung Hee 10/26/79 9 P4 Y 1 N N   Y Y
153 Korea 5/27/80 33 P4 Y 1 N N Y Y Y
154 Iran-Iraq War 9/30/80 125 P6 Y 2 N N Y N N
155 Poland 12/9/80 24 A5 Y 0 N N   N N
156 Morocco 1/29/81 10 A5 Y 0 N N   N N
157 Liberia 4/1/81 15 A5 Y 0 N N   N Y
158 Syria 5/3/81 135 A6 Y 2 Y Y Y N N
159 Libya 8/1/81 20 A6 Y 2 N N Y N N
160 Sadat-Sudan 10/7/81 24 A6 Y 1 Y Y Y Y N
161 Central America 10/16/81 47 A3 Y 2 Y Y   N N
162 Israeli Invasion 6/8/82 45 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
163 Peacekeeping Force 8/10/82 30 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
164 Palestinian Massacre 9/22/82 143 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
165 Libya-Sudan 2/14/83 11 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
166 Honduras 6/14/83 131 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N Y
167 Libya-Chad 8/1/83 16 A6 Y 1 N N   Y N
168 Marine Barracks Bomb 8/29/83 170 A6 Y 2 Y Y   Y N
169 KAL 007 9/1/83 66 P4 Y 0 N N   Y N
170 Iran-Iraq 10/8/83 92 P6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
171 Korea-Burma 10/11/83 3 P4 Y 1 N N   Y N
172 Grenada 10/20/83 23 A3 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
173 Syria 12/3/83 37 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
174 Central America 3/13/84 264 A3 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
175 Persian Gulf Apr-84 245 A7 Y 1 N N   N N
176 Red Sea Mines 8/3/84 46 A7 Y 0 Y N   N N
177 Beirut Embassy 9/21/84 42 A6 Y 0 Y Y   N N
178 Saudi Hijacking 11/6/84 1 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
179 Cuba 11/30/84 1 A3 Y 1 N N   Y N
180 U.S. Pers. in Lebanon Mar-85 32 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
181 TWA 847 Hijacking 6/14/85 41 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
182 Persian Gulf 9/13/85 19 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
183 Achille Lauro  10/7/85 4 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
184 Egypt Air Hijacking 11/23/85 3 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
185 Persian Gulf Escort 1/12/86 141 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
186 Yemen Civil War Jan-86 32 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
187 OVL-FON Ops Feb-86 85 A6 Y 3 N N Y N N
188 Lebanon Hostages Mar-86 1 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
189 La Belle Disco, Libya 4/10/86 6 A6 Y 2 Y Y Y Y N
190 Pakistan Hijacking Sep-86 1 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
191 Persian Gulf Ops Jan-87 579 A7 Y 2 Y Y   N Y
192 Hostages in Lebanon Feb-87 29 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
193 Haiti Jan-88 31 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
194 Panama Apr-88 30 A3 N 0 N Y   N N
195 Summer Olympics Sep-88 31 P4 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
196 Burma Unrest Sep-88 31 P6 Y 0 Y Y   N N
197 Maldives Coup 11/17/88 1 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
198 Lebanon Civil War Feb-89 45 A6 Y Y Y Y   N Y
199 Panama Elections 5/11/89 52 A3 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
200 China Civil Unrest Jun-89 31 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
201 Hostages in Lebanon 8/1/89 32 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
202 Philippines 11/30/89 6 P4 Y 2 Y Y   Y N
203 Panama 12/20/89 34 A3 Y 0 N Y   Y Y
204 Liberia NEO 5/25/90 169 A5 Y 0 Y Y   N N
205 Iraqi Pressure on Kuwait 7/24/90 9 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
206 Operation Desert Shield 8/2/90 166 A7 Y 6 Y Y   Y Y
207 Somalia Evacuation 1/2/91 9 P6 Y 0 Y Y   Y N
[Table Notes]

U.S. NAVAL AND OTHER SERVICE CRISIS RESPONSE ACTIVITY

In the 207 documented instances of U.S. Naval crisis response activity since World War II, aircraft carriers have played a dominant role. In 140 total, or 68 percent of the total, aircraft carriers were used at some point in the response (see tables 2 and 3.) Amphibious ships were frequently used as well (112 cases, 54 percent). Not surprisingly, the Marine Corps involvement (other than aviation units deployed aboard aircraft carriers) in these 207 crisis responses closely paralleled the use of amphibious ships (113 cases, 55 percent). Frequently, U.S. Marine Corps aviation units are deployed aboard aircraft carriers. (See the appendix.) Therefore, it should not be surprising that in at least 21 cases, or somewhat less than one-sixth of the aircraft carrier cases, USMC aviators were deployed aboard a carrier that responded to a crisis situation. In six of these cases, there was no other USMC involvement. Thus, USMC forces of all types were involved in at least 119 (57 percent) of the listed responses.

Table 2. U.S. Naval Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1990, by Five-Year Periodsa

Period Number of
Responses
USN CVs Avg. Number
of CVs
Amph.
Ships
USMC VM on
CVs
TAC/
SAC
USA
46-50 25 25 19 1.1 9 9 0 4 5
51-55 9 9 6 2.5 5 5 1 1 1
56-60 26 25 17 2.8 19 19 3 7 5
61-65 51 51 23 1.8 29 29 5 7 7
66-70 11 11 9 2.1 8 8 2 6 3
71-75 14 14 10 1.8 9 10 1 4 3
76-80 19 19 15 1.1 5 4 4 9 4
81-85 29 29 23 1.3 16 15 3 8 4
86-90 23 22 18 1.4 12 14 2 7 6
Total 207 205 140 1.7 112 113 21 53 38
a. This table shows the number of cases for each category by five-year periods. One response from 1991 is added to the 86-90 figures. The "CVs" and "Amph. Ships" columns include those cases in which there were "?" in the "CVs" and "Am" columns in table 1. The "Avg. Number of CVs" column is the average number of carriers used in responses for each period. The average does not include the "?" cases.

Although Navy and Marine forces typically operated independently, in 53 of the crises (26 percent) USAF SAC/TAC fighters and/or bombers were also involved, and in 38 crisis actions (18 percent) Army forces were involved. Although the information on USAF and USA involvement relies almost entirely on secondary sources, the distributions are generally consistent with those found in the research done at Brookings in the mid-1970s and in a follow-on effort conducted in the early 1980s.8

Table 3. U.S. Naval Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1990; Proportion of Involvement by Service and Force Type

Period Number
of Responses
Proportion of Involvement
CVs Amph USMC VM on CV USAF USA
46-50 25 .76 .36 .36 .00 .16 .20
51-55 9 .66 .56 .56 .11 .11 .11
56-60 26 .65 .73 .73 .12 .27 .14
61-65 51 .45 .57 .57 .10 .14 .14
66-70 11 .82 .73 .73 .18 .55 .27
71-75 14 .71 .64 .71 .07 .29 .21
76-80 19 .79 .26 .21 .21 .47 .21
81-85 29 .79 .55 .52 .10 .28 .14
86-91 23 .78 .52 .61 .09 .30 .26
Total 207 .59 .53 .54 .10 .26 .18
NOTE: This table is derived from the data in table 2.

For the period 1946-1982, according to the Brookings research, there were 258 uses of the U.S. armed forces for political purposes. Of these 258 cases, "ground combat forces" were involved in 55 (or 21 percent). In the 209 cases involving U.S. Navy forces,9 ground combat forces were involved in 36 (or 17 percent - see table 4). According to this research, "land-based air" was used in 125 responses, or 48 percent of the total. In those 209 cases of Navy involvement, "land-based air" was also involved in 81 of the cases (39 percent). This Brookings figure includes all forms of land-based aircraft, USAF bombers, fighters, surveillance aircraft, tankers, and transports, as well as U.S. Navy patrol and transport aircraft. There is no comparable figure in this work.

This document does not examine all instances of the American use of force in situations short of war and thus cannot describe the share of total responses by the U.S. armed forces that the Navy participated in. In the Brookings, and follow-on work, however, there were 258 uses of the U.S. armed forces for political purposes examined for service involvement for the period 1946-1982. According to the Brookings research, naval forces participated in 209, or 81 percent, of the total number. Note, however, that the Brookings use of the term "naval" differs from the one typically used. In the Brookings definition, naval refers to actions from the sea, essentially. Thus, Navy activity by land-based patrol aircraft (such as ASW aircraft like the P-3) was included under land-based air, and Marine Corps activity when not deployed aboard Navy vessels was considered either land-based air or ground forces (depending on the unit involved). Thus, the 209 figure (81 percent) should be considered a lower bound estimate on total U.S. Naval force involvement in these actions.

Table 4. Distribution of Incidents by Type of Force Responding, 1946-1982

Type of Force Used Number of Incidents Percentage of Total
Naval only   119     46  
Naval and land-based air   54     21  
Naval and ground   9     3  
All three components   27     10  
Ground only   5     2  
Ground and air   14     5  
Land-based air only   30     12  
Total Incidents   258     100  
Total for naval forcesa   209     81  
Total for land-based Airb   125     48  
Total for ground combat forcesc   55     21  
a. Includes Marine Corps units when deployed on amphibious vessels.
b. In additon to USAF forces, this includes Navy land-based maritime patrol aircraft, Marine Corps fixed-wing aviation (when not deployed aboard aircraft carriers), and Army helicopter transportation units.
c. Army units, and Marine when not deployed on amphibious vessels.

SOURCES: Barry Blechman and Stephen S. Kaplan, Force Without War, Washington, D.C., The Brookings Institution, 1978, p. 40 (for the 1946-1975 period); and, Philip D. Zelikow, "Force Without War, 1975-1982," The Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, March 1984, pp. 46-47 (for the 1975-1982 period).

 

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF U.S. NAVAL CRISIS RESPONSE ACTIVITY

Over the past 45 years, the Navy and Marine Corps have been called on to respond to international incidents and crises in every region of the world. The Mediterranean Sea has been the scene of the most crisis responses of any one region (61 responses, 29 percent of the total). (See table 5.) There have been at least 52 responses (25 percent) in the Caribbean, 40 (19 percent) in the Western Pacific, and 23 (11 percent) in the Indian Ocean. The Mediterranean has been one of the most active regions, in terms of the number of crisis responses, in every period except during the Kennedy and early Johnson Administrations (1961-65) and during the Carter Administration (1976-80). In the 1961-65 period, there were 25 responses in the Caribbean (following the Cuban revolution) and 12 in the Western Pacific (in the years leading to heavy U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War). In the same period, there were just two responses in the Mediterranean. During the 1976-80 period, the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific saw the most responses (8 and 5 respectively) with just one response in the Mediterranean.

Table 5. U.S. Naval Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1990; Regional Distributiona

Period A3 A4/P5 A5 A6 A7 P4 P6 Total
46-50 2 3 3 13 1 3 0 25
51-55 2 0 0 2 0 5 0 9
56-60 7 1 2 8 3 5 0 26
61-65 25 2 1 2 1 12 8 51
66-70 2 0 0 7 0 2 0 11
71-75 2 0 0 5 2 3 2 14
76-80 3 0 2 1 0 5 8 19
81-85 5 0 2 16 3 2 1 29
86-90 4 0 1 7 4 3 4 23
Total 52 6 11 61 14 40 23 207
Percentage 25 3 5 29 7 19 11 100
a. A3 =
A5 =
A7 =
P4 =
Caribbean
Eastern Atlantic
Red Sea & Persian Gulf
Western Pacific
    A4/P5 =
A6 =
P6 =
S. Atlantic and SE Pacific
Mediterranean Sea
Indian Ocean
Figure 1 displays the U.S. Navy Ocean Area Codes on a world map.

Table 6 briefly describes each of the 207 Navy crisis response actions, highlighting the cause and nature of each response. A glossary of abbreviations and acronyms is provided at the end of this document.

Table 6. Descriptions of U.S. Naval Crisis Response Actions, 1946-1990

No. Name B-date Length OAC USN CVs Amp USMC VM on CV TAC/SAC USA
1 Coup in Haiti 1/12/46 2 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
On 10 January 1946, a military junta overthrew the government of President Elie Lescot in Haiti. USN forces in the Caribbean moved toward Honduras but were soon recalled as the situation quickly stabilized.
2 Security of Turkey 3/22/46 19 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
Amidst Soviet pressure on Turkey and tension over the Soviet presence in Iran, the U.S. Government decided to use the battleship Missouri to return the body of the deceased Turkish ambassador to the United States to Turkey for burial. Missouri, which departed the United States on 22 March, arrived in Istanbul on 5 April. This was taken as a strong sign of U.S. support for and commitment to Turkey.
3 Greece, Pol. Conflict 4/10/46 5 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
On 10 April 1946, following her visit in Istanbul, USS Missouri entered Piraeus harbor. This was during a period of significant Eastern Bloc pressure on Greece and was meant to signal U.S. resolve to support the Greek Government.
4 China Civil War Apr-46 1348 P4 Y ? Y Y   Y Y
On 9 January 1946, Communist and government troop movements were suspended in accordance with a truce agreement. In April, the truce collapsed as Communist forces attacked Nationalist-held towns and all-out conflict renewed. Following the breakdown of the truce in China, the U.S. Navy resumed transporting Nationalist troops within the country. Over the next few years, significant U.S. force movements occurred within China. Marines had first entered China in September 1945 to accept the surrender of Japanese forces. Marines remained in China or in Chinese waters until December 1949 and frequently responded to the events ongoing within the country. For example, in November 1948, 1,250 Marines from Guam reinforced the USMC garrison at Tsingtao, and in mid-December, a contingent of Marines moved from Tsingtao to Shanghai to protect the 2,500 U.S. nationals in the city.
5 Security of Trieste 6/3/46 65 A6 Y 0 N Y   N N
On 2 June 1946, the Governments of the United States and United Kingdom formally protested Yugoslavian obstruction of the Allied Military Government in Trieste. The next day, the U.S. Navy confirmed that the cruiser Fargo was en route to Trieste. In late June, as many as ten Allied warships, including USN and Royal Navy (RN) battleships, lay off the coast. In July, Fargo made the first port visit to Trieste by a major U.S. combatant since the end of hostilities. An Adriatic patrol, consisting of either a cruiser or two destroyers, began in July.
6 Turkey/Greece 8/16/46 148 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
On 7 August 1946, following Turkish elections, the Soviet Union renewed its demands for a revision of the Montreaux Convention governing access to the Black Sea, and Soviet naval activity in the region began. On 10 August, the Turkish Premier reaffirmed Turkey's intent to continue opposition to the Soviet demands. In the coming months, U.S. and U.K. naval activity in region greatly increased, and on 18 October, Turkey rejected the Soviet demands. In the same time period, the Communist insurgency in Greece grew dramatically. On 5 September, CVB Franklin Delano Roosevelt and four escorts arrived in Piraeus to underscore the U.S. support for the Greek Government. On 9 September, as Roosevelt left port, 78 U.S. aircraft flew over the task force. On 30 September, the U.S. Government announced that U.S. Navy units would be permanently stationed in the Mediterranean to carry out American policy and diplomacy.
7 Albania Oct-46 46 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
Through the fall of 1946, the relations between the pro-Soviet Albanian government and Western nations grew increasingly hostile. A number of American merchant vessels struck mines in the waters off Albania, prompting contingency planning for mine-sweeping operations. Two RN destroyers struck mines on 22 October 1946, leading to greater tension. On 14 November, the State Department personnel assigned to Albania were evacuated by a tug to two USN destroyers, which stood off just outside the three-mile territorial limit.
8 Chilean Inauguration 11/1/46 6 P5 Y 1 N N   N N
Following a leftist victory in the September election and a month of tensions over the results, the United States announced that a five-ship squadron would visit Chile for the inauguration. The USN ships arrived on 1 November.
9 Lebanon 12/1/46 4 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
Just before the withdrawal of the last French troops from Lebanon (which occurred in late December), elements of the U.S. Mediterranean Fleet (including an aircraft carrier and amphibious forces with an embarked USMC BLT) made a well-publicized port visit in Beirut.
10 Uruguayan Inauguration 2/22/47 9 A4 Y 0 N N   Y N
To emphasize U.S. support for the new Uruguayan Government, a Navy and Army Air contingent was sent to Montevideo for the 1 March 1947 inauguration. On 23 February, seven B-29 Superfortresses representing the Army left Salina, Kansas. The Navy contingent consisted of the light cruiser Fresno and four destroyers.
11 Greek Civil War 4/16/47 412 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N Y
On 30 January 1947, the Government of Greece declared martial law amidst the worsening conflict with the Communist insurgents. On 21 February, the United Kingdom announced that it could no longer afford to give military aid to Greece and Turkey. Amidst the debate in the U.S. Congress over an aid package to the two countries, elements of the U.S. Navy's Mediterranean Fleet, including the carrier Leyte, visited Greek ports. Through this period, one to two ships from the Sixth Task Fleet were kept in Greek waters.
12 Security of Turkey 5/2/47 396 A6 Y 1 Y N   N N
Amidst a significant reduction in the U.K. Eastern Mediterranean presence and continued pressure from the USSR on Turkey, the U.S. Government offered a large aid package to Turkey. In what was seen as linked to the aid package issue, four USN ships (including the aircraft carrier Leyte) made a week-long port visit in Istanbul.
13 Cuban Sup, Anti-Truj. 7/31/47 60 A3 Y 1 N N   N N
The Cuban Government began supporting anti-Trujillo forces as early as January 1946. In July 1947, the Trujillo regime began to perceive the exiles as a major threat. On 31 July, U.S. Navy ships began search operations to intercept Dominican exiles' craft, and on 18 August, the Dominican Republic's armed forces were put on alert. Following this, USN operations in the Caribbean further increased as part of growing U.S. pressure on Cuba. On 28 September, the revolutionary forces were disbanded by Cuba.
14 Security of Trieste 8/16/47 122 A6 Y 0 N N   N Y
In August 1947, there was evidence of progress on the questions surrounding the division of Trieste. On 3 September, an accord for withdrawal from Trieste was signed; 5,000 U.S. troops along with equal contingents of British and Yugoslav soldiers were to remain, and the city was divided into two zones. Despite the agreement, tension continued as Yugoslavia tested the Anglo-U.S. commitment. For example, on 16 September, 12 U.S. Army troops, who were soon reinforced, blocked the movement of 2,000 Yugoslavian troops into the western zone of the city. Throughout this period, a combatant from the Sixth Task Fleet was stationed off Trieste.
15 Elections in Italy 11/2/47 94 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
Amidst growing fears of a Communist victory and increasing domestic violence, the United States announced a delay to late November of the departure of the last occupation troops in Italy. USN ships were moved to the area and made port calls in cities along both coasts as the troops remained through mid-December following President Truman's 12 December pledge that the United States would defend Italy despite the withdrawal of the last 1,600 troops.
16 Arab-Israeli War 1/5/48 466 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
In early January 1948, the Sixth Fleet began patrol operations in the Eastern Mediterranean as the situation in Palestine deteriorated toward the end of the British Mandate period. On 15 May, Israel declared its independence and Arab forces invaded. On 18 June, following the death of the U.S. Consul General by sniper fire, a Marine force was detached from the USS Kearsarge, then in Tripoli Harbor, to Jerusalem. The Chief of Naval Operations assigned three destroyers to the U.N. mediator for the Palestinian truce the next day. On 23 July, USS Putnam evacuated the U.N. team from Haifa and became the first USN ship to fly the U.N. flag.
17 Security of Trieste 1/16/48 88 A6 Y ? Y Y   N N
Yugoslav Communist labor unions called for a general strike in Trieste in the first weeks of January 1949. Shortly thereafter, 1,000 Marines of the 2nd USMC division left for the Mediterranean one day ahead of schedule. This was perceived as a warning for Yugoslav troops not to molest U.S. Army troops in Trieste. The departure of the Marines being replaced was postponed, thereby doubling the USMC presence in the Mediterranean for a period.
18 Interests in Persian Gulf 1/20/48 1 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
To underscore the U.S. commitment to the Persian Gulf region, the USN Persian Gulf Area Command was formally established (the name was changed from Persian Gulf Force to Middle East Force on 16 August 1949) with a seaplane tender as the flag (and only) ship. This formalized a deployment that has continued, at some force level, to this day. The Soviet Union criticized the establishment of the command within a few days.
19 Security of Norway 4/29/48 4 A5 Y 1 N N   N N
Amidst fears of a Communist coup in Norway and growing Soviet press attacks on Norway and Sweden, a U.S. ship visit to Oslo was announced in early April. On 29 April, the aircraft carrier Valley Forge and three escorts arrived for a four-day port visit.
20 Security of Berlin 6/26/48 401 A5 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
On 1 April 1948, the Soviet Union temporarily restricted Western access to Berlin. On 24 June, all Western transportation to the city was cut off. On 26 June 1948, the Berlin airlift was initiated to offset the blockade. In addition to the two USN transport squadrons that participated in the airlift (and carried over 119,000 tons of supplies into the city), a carrier battle group (CVBG) was moved into the North Atlantic, and the Sixth Fleet was reinforced (including a reinforcement of the Mediterranean Amphibious Ready Group (MARG)). One of the strongest military signals was the deployment, for the first time since World War II, of USAF bomber squadrons from the United States to bases in the United Kingdom. The blockade was declared lifted by the Soviets on 12 May 1949. The airlift continued through 30 September 1949.
21 Relations w/Argentina Nov-48 7 A4 Y 0 N N   N N
In the fall of 1948, a period of gradually worsening U.S.-Argentinian relations was generally linked to the 9 September speech by the Argentinian leader in which he threatened to hang his opponents. Relations improved in November following a two-ship USN port visit.
22 Gov Change, China 12/9/49 38 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
On 8 December 1949, the Nationalist government and forces withdrew to Taiwan and formally established the Republic of China (ROC). The next day, the U.S. Navy announced that the Pacific Fleet was understrength and would be reinforced by vessels from the Atlantic. On 29 December, CV-21 Boxer was assigned to the Western Pacific in the first aircraft carrier deployment there since April 1949.
23 Kor. War, For. Straits 6/27/50 951 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
During the Korean War, USN forces were ordered to the Formosa Straits on a number of occasions to counteract threats of an invasion of Taiwan by the People's Republic of China (PRC). For example, at the very beginning of the war, aircraft from the carrier Valley Forge (CV- 45) flew over Taipei in a demonstration of U.S. commitment to the Republic of China. The surface patrol force typically included two cruisers and five destroyers. In April 1951, Task Force 77 (TF 77) was ordered to the Formosa Straits from Korean waters to counteract a threatened invasion of Taiwan from Communist China. TF 77 operated in the Straits from 11 to 14 April, then returned to Korean waters.
24 Kor. War, Sec. Europe 7/16/50 715 A5 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
With the outbreak of war on the Korean peninsula, it was feared that the Soviets would invade Western Europe. Over the next two years, U.S. forces were built up in Europe and numerous naval alerts occurred. By mid-July, for example, the Sixth Fleet was augmented with one carrier (CVA-41 Midway) and one destroyer division, and the afloat Marine force was reinforced. In mid-August, two destroyers were diverted from Northern European port visits to Iceland as a "large" Soviet fishing fleet moved near the island. Major U.S. Army formations were reintroduced into Europe in this period as well.
25 Lebanon 8/14/50 1 A6 Y 2 N N   N N
At the request of the Lebanese Government, USS Midway (CVB), Leyte (CVL), Salem (CA), Columbus (CA), and destroyers visited Beirut and gave a carrier aircraft demonstration. This demonstrated U.S. presence in the Mediterranean in spite of the deep U.S. involvement in Korea.
26 Security of Yugoslavia 3/15/51 869 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
In the summer of 1948, Yugoslavia was expelled from the Comintern. Over the next several years, there were serious tensions between Yugoslavia and its Communist neighbors. In March 1951, Tito claimed that Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union were massing forces along Yugoslavia's border. In mid-March, a reinforced Marine Corps battalion arrived in the area. Later in March, the relief force for the Mediterranean arrived six weeks early to cover "the politically critical spring period." In the last week of May, the Fleet was augmented with another aircraft carrier. In December, CA-134 Des Moines visited Fiume, the first port visit to Yugoslavia since the end of the war. In September 1952, President Tito went to sea aboard the carrier Coral Sea (a demonstration to the Soviet Union that American aid was available and acceptable to Yugoslavia).
27 China-Taiwan Conflict 2/2/53 2 P4 Y ? N N   N N
Three years after President Truman gave TF 77 orders to operate in the Formosa Straits to prevent an attack both by the PRC on Taiwan and by the Republic of China (ROC) against the mainland, President Elsenhower ordered that TF 72 should cease the blockade of Taiwan. Eisenhower's goal was to "de-neutralize" the island; it was hoped that by allowing ROC raids on the mainland, the PRC would be induced to negotiate more seriously in Korea.
28 Dien Bien Phu 3/13/54 90 P4 Y 2 N N Y N N
On 13 March 1954, the battle for Dien Bien Phu began in earnest as the Viet Minh launched their first major assaults on the French garrison. On 19 March, USN forces in the region, including the carriers Wasp and Essex, were put on alert. The carrier task group steamed on 22 March for a position off the Indochina coast. On 18 April, USMC pilots flew 25 aircraft from Saipan (CVL-48) to a French airfield in Indochina. On 7 May, Dien Bien Phu fell. Through this period, from 21 April to 10 June, USAF transports flew volunteer French paratroopers to Indochina. In mid-July, the possibility of U.S. intervention grew and the 3rd Marine Division was put on alert for movement to Indochina from 12 July to the signing of the armistice agreement in Geneva five days later.
29 Honduras-Guatemala 5/20/54 14 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
In January 1954, the leftist Guatemalan Government requested arms from the Soviet Bloc in reaction to a U.S. decision to support an anti-Government "liberation" movement. On 20 May, the first Soviet arms shipment arrived. On that day, the Caribbean Sea Frontier established air-sea patrols in the Gulf of Honduras to protect Honduras from invasion and to control arms shipments to Guatemala. On 3 June, the United States airlifted arms to Honduras. Four days later, CINCLANTFLT ordered a contingency evacuation force to the area. This force included an ASW carrier and five amphibious ships with a Marine BLT aboard. On 18 June, the United States announced a complete arms embargo against Guatemala. The crisis ended after a 29 June army coup that led to an anti-Communist government in Guatemala.
30 PRC Shootdown 7/24/54 6 P4 Y 2 N N   N N
On 23 July 1954, PRC aircraft shot down a Cathay Pacific (U.K.) airliner, killing 10 of 18 people aboard (including 6 Americans). USN aircraft from the carriers Philippine Sea and Hornet provided air cover to the rescue operations. On 26 July, three aircraft from Philippine Sea shot down two PRC fighters that had fired upon them.
31 Vietnam Evacuations Aug-54 305 P4 Y 0 Y Y   N N
Acting under the terms of the Indochina accords of 1954, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps helped relocate military personnel, civilians, and materiel from North to South Vietnam. Over the course of operation "Passage to Freedom" over 293,000 civilians, 17,846 military personnel, 88,000 tons of cargo, and 8,100 vehicles were transported. The operation involved 109 ships and craft, 59 of which were from the amphibious forces.
32 Honduran Elections Oct-54 11 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
On 1 October 1954, four Marine rifle platoons and a small command group from FMFLANT were put on alert for a possible evacuation of U.S. and other foreign nationals due to expected violence during the Honduran national elections. The four platoons were airlifted to Guantanamo the next day. The Marines were deployed aboard the Olmstead which stood 60 n.mi. off the Honduran coast from the 3rd through the 12th.
33 Accord on Trieste 10/7/54 20 A6 Y 0 N N   N Y
On 5 October 1954, an agreement settling the nine-year-old Trieste discord was signed. Ships from the Sixth Fleet moved into the Adriatic Sea as the 3,000 U.S. Army occupation troops were withdrawn. The withdrawal was completed on 26 October.
34 Tachen Islands 2/8/55 6 P4 Y 6 Y Y   Y N
In January 1955, PRC forces began to bombard the Tachen Islands, and in early February, the ROC decided to evacuate several of the islands. U.S. Navy ships evacuated more than 15,000 civilians and 11,000 military personnel from the islands. The evacuation was covered by the six carriers of TF 77: Yorktown, Kearsarge, Essex, Wasp, Midway, and Boxer. A special 209-man shore party from the Third Marine Division aided in the evacuation.
35 Red Sea Patrols Feb-56 183 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
In response to the growing tension in the Middle East (which centered around the Suez Canal), a destroyer patrol was formed in the Red Sea.
36 Jordan Mar-56 62 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
Following a period of growing internal tension and foreign policy turmoil, King Hussein dismissed British General Glubb as Commander of the Jordanian Arab Legion. In reaction to this move, two carriers (Coral Sea and Randolph) and an amphibious force were moved into the Eastern Mediterranean. The formation of a new cabinet in May effectively ended this crisis.
37 Pre-Suez Aug-56 69 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956. Tensions immediately rose as both France and the United Kingdom began preparations for military operations. Two carriers (Coral Sea and Randolph) and an amphibious force (which was reinforced in early September) were moved into the Eastern Mediterranean. The fleet dispersed in mid-September as the level of tensions in the area appeared to subside; however, two BLTs (rather than the normal level of one) were maintained in the Mediterranean until 8 October.
38 Suez War 10/30/56 8 A6 Y 3 Y Y   Y N
On 29 October 1956, Israel attacked Egypt, and the next day, the United Kingdom and France joined in the invasion. The United States opposed the invasion. Major portions of the Sixth Fleet, including three carriers, were moved into the Eastern Mediterranean. Amphibious forces, including USMC BLT 3/2, moved from Suda Bay on 29 October and evacuated more than 2,000 endangered Western nationals from Haifa and Alexandria on November 1st and 2nd. USAF transports flew Western nationals out of Amman and Damascus. On 30 October, TG 81.2 (centered on the carrier Antietam) was diverted from a port visit in Rotterdam to the Mediterranean (it arrived on station on 7 October).
39 Port Lyautey 11/29/56 57 A5 N 0 N Y   N N
In response to increasing French-Moroccan tensions, which were believed to threaten the U.S. Naval Air Station (NAS) at Port Lyautey, a reinforcing company of Marines was airlifted to augment local defenses. The company was alerted for movement on the 29th and arrived at the NAS on the 31st, 44 hours later. On 7 February 1957, the unit returned to Camp Lejeune.
40 Post-Suez 11/6/56 38 A6 Y 8 Y Y   N N
On 5 November 1956, the Soviet Union sent threatening diplomatic notes to Israel, France, and the United Kingdom. The next day, a ceasefire took effect, and Egyptian President Nasser requested the assistance of the Sixth Fleet to forestall Soviet intervention. RLT-2(-) at Camp Lejeune was alerted for movement to the Mid-East and was ordered to Norfolk, where it was put on 48 hours sailing notice. On 7 November, Washington received reports that the Soviet Union would transit six ships from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. In response, the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) ordered a three-carrier task force to sail from the United States to the Western Pacific and a two-carrier task force to sail to vicinity of the Azores. USN forces worldwide were ordered to maintain readiness to execute emergency war plans. A combined submarine-aviation barrier was instituted in the GIUK gap as well. On 11 November, BLT 3/3 left Japan for the Persian Gulf. Surveillance operations in the Mediterranean were intensified as well. Tensions continued at a high level until U.N. forces were brought into Egypt to serve as a "buffer" on 15 November. The Sixth Fleet was removed from 24-hour-alert status on 13 December.
41 Cuban Civil War Dec-56 435 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
During the final phases of Castro's campaign from late 1956 through early 1959, U.S. Navy and Marine forces deployed intermittently to the area. The most significant event came following a 23 October 1958 request by the State Department for the evacuation of U.S. nationals from the Cuban port of Nicaro. The next day, Kleinsmith (APD-134) conducted the evacuation without incident. The carrier Roosevelt stood by farther out to sea as a contingency force to cover the operation. In January 1959, a force of five ships with Marines embarked stood 30 n.mi. off Havana for the possible evacuation of American nationals following the victory of Castro's forces.
42 Red Sea Patrols Feb-57 87 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
A destroyer patrol was established in the Straits of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba when it appeared possible that Egypt would attempt to prevent U.S. merchant ships from transitting these waters on their way to Israel or Jordan. The ships were from MIDEASTFOR.
43 Jordan Unrest 4/25/57 9 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
On 15 April 1957, King Hussein's dismissal of the Jordanian cabinet led to urban demonstrations on the 22nd through the 24th. On the 25th, the new royalist government declared martial law. On the same day, major elements of the Sixth Fleet deployed towards the Eastern Mediterranean to demonstrate American support for the King. The forces included the Forrestal and Lake Champlain CVBGs, which departed abruptly from French and Italian liberty ports, the battleship Wisconsin, two cruisers, 24 destroyers, the MARG, and submarines. Additional Marine forces in Camp Lejeune were alerted for deployment on the 25th but were released on 30 April.
44 Haiti 6/14/57 18 A3 Y 0 Y Y Y N N
On 14 June 1957, Haiti's provisional government was overthrown by a military coup. The United States responded with a theater alert of amphibious and surface units of the Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron.
45 PRC-ROC Tension Jul-57 63 P4 Y 3 Y Y   N N
In June 1957, a buildup of PRC forces opposite Taiwan was reported. In response, Navy forces were deployed to the region, with the maximum concentration (three aircraft carriers and two amphibious ready groups with embarked Marines) occurring in September.
46 Syria 8/21/57 118 A6 Y 4 Y Y Y Y N
Because of changes in the Syrian Government, Syria's relations with both the United States and neighboring countries deteriorated. Major portions of the Sixth Fleet were moved to the Eastern Mediterranean, and aircraft were redeployed from Western Europe to Adana, Turkey, as the United States assured Syria's neighbors that the United States would support them against external aggression.
47 Indonesia 12/10/57 174 P4 Y 2 Y Y Y N N
From December 1957 through June 1958, revolts against the authority of the Sukarno regime prompted a number of responses by USN and USMC forces. In March 1958, the Navy established the South China Sea Force which was initially composed of CVS Princeton, the cruiser Bremerton, destroyers, and an amphibious force with the 1st MEF (RLT-3, HMR(L)-162) aboard. Primarily because of concern over the safety of U.S. citizens and their property, this contingency evacuation force operated north of Sumatra for much of this period. The South China Sea Force was disbanded after the central government contained the rebellions in June 1958.
48 Venezuelan Revolution 1/21/58 2 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
Through the first half of 1958, U.S. Naval forces were used to respond to events in Venezuela on a number of occasions. In January 1958, apparently as part of an effort to overthrow the regime of President Peres Jimenes, mob violence broke out in Caracas. On 21 January, a provisional company of Marines embarked upon USS Des Moines which proceeded to a station off the coast of Venezuela for potential evacuation operations. The evacuation alert was cancelled the next day, and Des Moines returned to Guantanamo where the Marines disembarked.
49 Venezuela 5/13/58 3 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N Y
On 13 May 1958, a mob attacked the motorcade carrying Vice President Nixon from the airport to Caracas, Venezuela. Two companies of the 2d Marine Division were airlifted from Camp Lejeune to Guantanamo, Cuba, where they boarded an amphibious ship (USS Boxer and Boston). USS Tarawa and four destroyers sortied from the East Coast, and four destroyers left Guantanamo. Two Army companies of airborne infantry were moved from Ft. Campbell, Kentucky, to Puerto Rico. The alert was cancelled on the 15th, following the Vice President's departure from Venezuela.
50 Lebanon 5/15/58 48 A6 Y 3 Y Y   N N
On 15 May 1958, Lebanese President Chamoun informed the U.S. ambassador that U.S. assistance might be requested because Syrian partisans had entered Lebanon. Three aircraft carriers and a reinforced Marine force were deployed off Lebanon's coast. By 1 July, reports that there had been no massive infiltration of forces led to the withdrawal of most of the forces from the area.
51 Lebanon Jul-58 93 A6 Y 3 Y Y   Y Y
On 14 July 1958, following serious rioting in Beirut, Lebanese President Chamoun requested U.S. assistance. On the same day, a coup in Iraq overthrew a pro-Western government. The first Marine Corps unit, BLT 2/2, landed the next day. Eventually, four USMC BLTs were ashore with a peak strength of 5,790 Marines. The first U.S. Army troops arrived on 19 July; USA peak-strength was 8,508 troops ashore. The supporting naval force included more than 60 vessels, including 3 carriers and an 8-ocean-going minesweeper (MSO) mine force. The last USMC forces departed Beirut Harbor on 18 October, and the last USA troops left on the 25th.
52 Jordan-Iraq 7/17/58 138 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
Following the coup against the pro-Western Iraqi Government, Jordan's King Hussein requested and received a contingent of British paratroopers. Several surface vessels were redeployed in conjunction with the British operation.
53 Quemoy Aug-58 67 P4 Y 6 Y Y   Y N
On 23 August 1958, PRC forces began to shell the Quemoy Islands group, raising the possibility that the islands might be cut off from Taiwan. By the first week of September, a Marine Amphibious Ready Group and six CVs were in the area (one CV, Midway, had left Pearl Harbor on 28 August and arrived off Taiwan on 4 September; another, Essex, had been ordered from the Mediterranean on 23 August and arrived off Taiwan a day after Midway), and three USMC fighter squadrons from Marine Air Group (MAG) 11 had moved from Japan to Taiwan. Elements of the Seventh Fleet escorted ROC resupply vessels to within 3 miles of the islands. Tensions eased with a ceasefire on 6 October.
54 Panama 4/30/59 5 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
On 25 April 1959, a small force landed on Panama's Caribbean coast. The United States offered the Panamanian Government small arms, and a small surveillance patrol of two surface ships and four P2Vs was established off Panama's coast to deter additional landings. The invaders surrendered on 1 May.
55 Berlin Crisis May-59 145 A5 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
From the fall of 1958 on, there was growing tension over Berlin as the Soviets threatened to turn control of access to the city over to the German Democratic Republic. From April through September 1959, the Soviets interfered with the transit of supply trains to West Berlin. There was a general alert of Navy forces throughout the world during most of the May through September time frame. The most immediate and visible part of the Navy's response came in the Mediterranean, where the carrier force was brought to an advanced state of readiness and deployed in an alert posture. Second Fleet units were also put on alert and conducted exercises in the Western Atlantic to display U.S. resolve. In addition to involvement in these exercises, a number of USMC units were alerted for deployment (but did not deploy). The response terminated on 30 September 1959 following the end of Soviet harassment along the access routes to West Berlin.
56 Laos Jul-59 103 P4 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
In early July 1959, the Laotian Government requested U.S. civilian technicians to assist in the training of the Royal Laotian Army, and later that month, Pathet Lao forces launched an offensive along the North Vietnamese border. In mid-July, elements of the Seventh Fleet (including one CVBG and an amphibious force) were deployed near the Vietnamese coast for possible intervention in Laos. The Seventh Fleet returned to normal operations in October after tensions subsided.
57 PRC-ROC 7/5/59 6 P4 Y 2 ? N   N N
In relation to growing tensions between the PRC and ROC, and in support of U.S. operational activity off the coast of China, a two-carrier battle group (Ranger and Lexington) conducted operations in the vicinity of Taiwan.
58 Panama Aug-59 93 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
In reaction to growing civil disorder in Panama, surface combatants were used for surveillance operations. The surveillance operations continued through November 1959.
59 Congo 7/1/60 124 A4 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
The former Belgian Congo (now Zaire) became independent on 30 June 1960. Elements of the army quickly revolted, and widespread civil disorder resulted. CVS Wasp, with a Marine company aboard, was dispatched to assist in the evacuation of Western nationals. Over the next two and one-half years, USN ships supported U.N. forces in the Congo by providing sealift for U.N. force contingents. Four Military Sea Transport Service (MSTS) ships transported over 4000 UN troops and 37,640 tons of cargo. Operations ended 29 July 1963.
60 Guatemala 11/14/60 27 A3 Y 2 N N   N N
At the request of the Nicaraguan and Guatemalan Governments, President Eisenhower ordered the Navy to establish a patrol off of their Caribbean coasts to guard against possible infiltration. The patrol force included one CVA (Shangri-La), one CVS (Wasp), and eight surface ships.
61 Laos 1/1/61 6 P4 Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y
Following the Pathet Lao capture of strategic positions on the central plain of Laos, Seventh Fleet forces (including two CVAs (Lexington and Coral Sea), one CVS (Bennington), and an amphibious force) were ordered to the South China Sea. After the situation in Laos stabilized, the units were directed to withdraw on 6 January.
62 SS Santa Maria  1/23/61 8 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
Following the seizure of the Portuguese-flag cruise ship Santa Maria, which had more than 600 passengers and crew aboard, by 70 armed passengers, on 23 January 1961 LANTFLT units were ordered to find and trail the hijacked vessel. Patrol forces included at least one DD, AO, AOG, and a number of patrol aircraft. The ship entered port at Recife, Brazil, after the USN forces had boxed it in. The hijackers surrendered shortly thereafter.
63 Gulf of Guinea-Congo 2/2/61 34 A4 Y 0 Y Y   N N
In early February 1961, the Amity I task force (two amphibious ships and two destroyers) provided troop lift for U.N. forces in the Congo. As the situation deteriorated, the Amity I force was rerouted to the area on 5 March, apparently at the request of the U.S. Ambassador. On 7 March, the force was released from contingency operations.
64 Laos 3/21/61 85 P4 Y 3 Y Y Y N N
Because of the deteriorating position of government forces in Laos, elements of the Seventh Fleet were ordered to the South China Sea. While on station, U.S. Navy aircraft conducted reconnaissance missions over Laos. The alert status of the force was relaxed following the start of cease-fire negotiations in mid-June.
65 SS Western Union  3/31/61 1 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
On 31 March 1961, a Cuban gunboat detained the 92-ton cable-ship Western Union in international waters. The destroyer John H. Weeks and a number of aircraft were sent to the scene. After six hours, the Cubans released Western Union, and Weeks escorted her to Key West.
66 Bay of Pigs Apr-61 62 A3 Y 2 Y Y   Y N
On 17 April 1961, American-trained and -supported Cuban exiles invaded Cuba. By 20 April, Cuban forces had decisively defeated the exiles. Carrier task forces and at least one Marine Corps battalion stood by during the operation. USN units remained in the vicinity as the United States attempted to ensure that the captured exiles were not abused by the Cuban Government and tried to negotiate terms for their release.
67 Dominican Republic 5/30/61 12 A3 Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y
General Rafael Trujillo was assassinated on 30 May 1961. The Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron was reinforced by two additional amphibious squadrons, and a three-carrier task force was deployed to the region. The alert was cancelled on 10 June as the Dominican Republic's domestic situation stabilized.
68 Zanzibar Jun-61 31 P6 Y 0 Y Y   N N
In response to rioting on Zanzibar, the vessels of the Amity II force moved to the vicinity of the island. The safety of the U.S. space-tracking station on the island was a principal concern.
69 Kuwait 7/4/61 4 P6 Y 0 Y Y   N N
Shortly following Kuwait's independence (19 June 1961), Iraq claimed that Kuwait had been improperly withheld from Iraq and that Iraq planned to annex Kuwait. On 30 June, Kuwait requested assistance from the United Kingdom, and Royal Marines landed within 24 hours. On 4 July, the five vessels of the Amity II cruise were directed to sail to the vicinity of Aden to serve as a contingency force. This order was cancelled on 7 July.
70 Berlin Crisis Jul-61 102 A5 Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y
Following a period of increased Soviet pressure over the status of Berlin, German Democratic Republic forces established barriers along the border between the two sectors of Berlin on 13 August 1961. In response, the United States sent reinforcements to the Berlin Brigade. Before this, in response to the mounting Soviet pressure, the Navy's forces were augmented with 33 reserve ships and about 8,000 Naval Reserve personnel. Elements of the Sixth Fleet were put on alert, and a CVS group was moved to the northeast Atlantic in August.
71 Dominican Republic 11/18/61 32 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
On 18 November, Dominican President Balaguer declared a state of emergency following the return to the Dominican Republic of two brothers of the slain former dictator, Gen. Rafael Trujillo (see response 67). The Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron was deployed off the coast and was reinforced by the Roosevelt CVBG. Naval forces included at least 13 surface combatants, MINDIV 43, PHIBRON 8 with a USMC BLT embarked, and VMA 224. Operational activity included amphibious force feints directed at the beach and flyovers of A-4Ds just outside Dominican territorial waters to underscore Secretary of State Rusk's statement that the United States would not "remain idle" if the Trujillos attempted to reestablish the dictatorship. The Navy's response ended following the formation of a Council of State on 19 December.
72 South Vietnam Dec-61 244 P4 Y 0 N N   N Y
During the December 1961 through August 1962 period, the United States increased its military involvement in Vietnam. In December, for example, the first major U.S. Army contingent arrived. On 22 December, a newly formed USN anti-infiltration coastal patrol began operations. For three months, March through May, these patrols were augment by DEs activated in response to the Berlin crisis. These patrols terminated on 1 August 1962.
73 Dominican Republic 1/18/62 2 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
On 18 January 1962, a coup ousted the regime in the Dominican Republic. Within six hours, a USN force was ready for a planned show-of-force operation. The deployment was cancelled on 19 January, apparently because the United States was satisfied with the course of events in the Dominican Republic.
74 Guuatemala Riots 3/14/62 9 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
Following student rioting on 13 March 1962, which led to an outbreak of more general civil disorder, the United States established a precautionary deployment off the coast of Guatemala. The force included the CVA Midway and the Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron.
75 South Vietnam 4/15/62 849 P4 Y 0 Y Y   N N
On 15 April 1962, a Marine helicopter squadron (HMM-362) arrived at Soc Trang. It was the first USMC aviation unit to arrive in the Republic of Vietnam (three USA helicopter squadrons had already arrived in country), and its arrival denoted a qualitative change in Navy/Marine Corps operations in South Vietnam. The mission was to provide helicopter troop and cargo lift for Vietnamese Army units.
76 Thailand 5/10/62 90 P4 Y 2 Y Y   N N
Following major victories by Pathet Lao forces that moved their units closer to the Thai border, the United States carried out an administrative landing of Marine forces in Thailand at the request of the government of Thailand. The operation involved the carriers Valley Forge and Hancock. About 3,400 Marines moved to Thailand between 17 and 20 May, and took up defensive positions in north Thailand. The United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand sent forces to Thailand as well.
77 Guantanamo 7/25/62 3 A3 Y 0 Y Y N
For the first eight months of 1962, there was a particularly serious period of harassment of the U.S. base at Guantanamo. A major response took place in July when it was feared that the security of the installation might be threatened in conjunction with Cuban celebration of the 26th of July revolutionary holiday. The Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron deployed to Guantanamo on 25 July, and major air demonstrations were conducted over the base that evening. The alert was terminated on the 27th.
78 Haiti Civil Disorder Aug-62 14 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
In early August 1962, U.S decision-makers were apprehensive concerning potential civil disorders in Haiti. In response, the Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron was positioned for possible employment, and a two-destroyer patrol was established in the Gulf of Gonave.
79 Yemen Sep-62 213 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
In September 1962, following the outbreak of a civil war in Yemen, the number of destroyers assigned to the Middle East Force was increased from three to four. A patrol was established in the Red Sea to "contain the war and protect U.S. interests and nationals." The patrols lasted until April 1963.
80 Cuban Missile Crisis 10/14/62 38 A3 Y 8 Y Y Y Y Y
A 14 October overflight provided evidence that Soviet MRBMs were deployed in Cuba. On 22 October, President Kennedy announced a quarantine of the island nation. Approximately 180 U.S. Navy ships, including 8 carriers and a 60-ship amphibious force, and more than 25,000 Marines from both coasts were involved in the response. The blockade was lifted on 20 November. The last FMFLANT forces were released from contingency orders on 18 December.
81 Sino-Indian War 11/19/62 2 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
During the Sino-Indian War, Indian Prime Minister Nehru requested U.S. fighters for possible combat operations against the PRC. In response, an American aircraft carrier was dispatched from the Pacific towards Indian waters; but the crisis passed 24 hours after Nehru made this appeal, and the CV turned back before it reached the Bay of Bengal.
82 SS Anzoatequi 2/12/63 9 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
On 12 February 1963, the Venezualian merchant ship Anzoatequi was seized in Santo Domingan waters by "Cuban-oriented leftists." U.S. Navy air and surface units tracked the ship from 16 through 20 February, when Brazilian Navy forces took it under control.
83 Laos Apr-63 35 P4 Y 2 Y Y   N N
After Pathet Lao forces had inflicted serious defeats on the neutralist faction in Laos, U.S. forces deployed to the area. The two carriers (Ticonderoga and Ranger) and a three-ship amphibious group returned to normal Seventh Fleet assignments on 5 May, two weeks after a cease-fire agreement was reached.
84 Haitian Unrest 4/29/63 34 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
In March 1963, Atlantic Fleet forces began operations, and VMA-533 was deployed to Guantanamo to provide air support off Haiti due to a worsening domestic situation. On 16 April 1963, the Haitian Government announced it had uncovered a plot to overthrow the Duvalier regime. Over the coming weeks, tension continued to mount. On 29 April, a 30-man USMC training force was withdrawn from Haiti. On 8 May, Navy ships, including LPH Boxer, evacuated 2,279 civilians. Reserve forces came from the 4th MEB, with the command element embarked on LPH Thetis Bay and both the United Kingdom and France also deployed ships during the crisis. On 17 May, the United States broke diplomatic relations with Haiti. On 3 June, following stabilization of the situation, the United States resumed diplomatic relations and the Navy forces were released from contingency tasking.
85 Haiti Civil War 8/6/63 17 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N N
Groups of Haitian exiles invaded Haiti on 5 and 15 August 1963. On 6 August, the Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron sailed to the Gulf of Gonave, where it remained until 22 August. The Haitian Government easily defeated the rebels.
86 Vietnam Civil Disorder 8/25/63 93 P4 Y 2 Y Y   N N
U.S. Navy forces responded to domestic disturbances in South Vietnam that culminated in the 1 November 1963 coup overthrowing President Diem. On 25 August, CINCPACFLT was ordered to station Naval forces off the South Vietnamese coast and be prepared to evacuate American nationals. On 11 September, CINCPAC returned all Navy forces to normal operations. This deployment was the first of several in the worsening South Vietnamese internal crisis. Shortly following the coup, two aircraft carriers (Hancock and Oriskany) and an amphibious force were operating off the Vietnam coast. On 7 November, the last units were released for normal operations.
87 PRC-ROC 9/20/63 5 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
On 20 September 1963, the CVA Hancock was directed to move to a position off Taiwan in anticipation of a PRC bombardment of the offshore islands. This followed a period of active ROC raiding of the mainland.
88 Dominican Republic 9/25/63 81 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
On 25 September 1963, a coup overthrew the government of President Bosch. The United States suspended diplomatic relations and cut off economic aid. The Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron was alerted for the response. The alert was cancelled on 14 December.
89 Indonesia-Malaysia Oct-63 78 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
The Federation of Malaysia was created on 16 September. The Sukarno regime in Indonesia laid claim to some of Malaysia's territories and conducted a guerilla war in provinces on the island of Borneo. The Western response was carried out primarily by the United Kingdom. There were, however, a number of demonstrative actions taken by the United States, including a 29 November through 17 December port visit by the seaplane carrier AV Salisbury Sound to Singapore.
90 Zanzibar 1/12/64 2 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
On 12 January, a rebel movement overthrew the regime in Zanzibar. On 13 January, the USN DD Manley evacuated 54 U.S. citizens and 36 nationals of other countries to Tanganyika.
91 Tanganyika 1/20/64 7 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
On 20 January 1964, there was an army mutiny in Tanganyika. The DD Manley was directed to return there for possible evacuations. On 25 January, British forces landed and put down the mutiny.
92 Carib. Surveillance 1/15/64 92 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
As a result of possible arms smuggling, a two-destroyer patrol was stationed in the southern Caribbean for surveillance and interception operations.
93 Panama Jan-64 101 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N Y
Following serious rioting in the Canal Zone (which left 4 U.S. soldiers and 20 Panamanians dead), the Government of Panama suspended diplomatic relations with the United States on 9 January. An amphibious force was kept in the region until a week following the 3 April U.S.-Panamanian agreements that restored diplomatic recognition.
94 Venezuela Jan-64 310 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
The United States established special surveillance operations in response to reports that Cuba was supplying Venezuelan rebels with arms and personnel. The patrol aircraft and surface ship patrols were terminated on 7 November, after observing more than 200 vessels.
95 Cyprus 1/22/64 269 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
After conflict between Greek and Turkish factions renewed on 21 January 1964, elements of the Sixth Fleet were deployed to the vicinity of Cyprus. Although U.S. Navy vessels conducted patrols off Cyprus throughout this period, there were several phases to this conflict. Aircraft carriers were deployed off Cyprus for most of March, early June, and from 8 August to 2 September.
96 Brazil 3/31/64 4 A4 Y 1 N N   N N
Following domestic unrest, the Forrestal CVBG moved off Santos, Brazil. This unit was on station from 31 March to 3 April. There was a military coup, and a new President was sworn in on 2 April.
97 Laos 4/21/64 42 P4 Y 2 N Y   Y N
Following an abortive rightist coup attempt on 19 April, Pathet Lao units made gains. On 21 April, the Kitty Hawk CVBG and the Afloat Landing Force Seventh Fleet were ordered to a position in the South China Sea. On 18 May, carrier aircraft began low-level aerial reconnaissance missions over Laos. Following the 7 and 8 June shooting down of Navy reconnaissance aircraft, planes from Constellation and Kitty Hawk flew air strikes against Pathet Lao antiaircraft positions. On 21 May, the standing carrier presence at Yankee Station in the South China Sea was initiated.
98 Guantanamo 5/1/64 7 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
In the midst of serious Cuban harassment of the Guantanamo base, there were indications on 27 April 1964 that the Cuban Government intended to have demonstrations take place along the base's perimeter. The Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron deployed to the base for the period 1-7 May.
99 Panama 5/7/64 14 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
Because of fears that violence might accompany the Panamanian presidential elections, the Caribbean Ready Amphibious Squadron was deployed off the coast of Panama. It remained there for a week, following the 13 May certification of the election results.
100 Dominican Republic 7/24/64 5 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
U.S. Navy surface ships and patrol aircraft conducted four days of special patrol operations designed to detect Cuban arms shipments directed at the Dominican Republic.
101 Gulf of Tonkin 8/2/64 9 P4 Y 2 N N   N N
On 2 August 1964, North Vietnamese MTBs engaged the USN destroyer Maddox; two of the patrol boats were sunk. On 4 August, two destroyers were engaged, and again two patrol boats were sunk. On 5 August, aircraft from the carriers Ticonderoga and Constellation carried out retaliatory strikes against the North Vietnamese mainland.

NOTE: The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 10 August 1964 is used as the starting point for the Vietnam/Indochina War. U.S. Navy and Marine Corps activity in the region from this point through December 1974 are considered to be part of the conflict and thus are excluded from consideration in this work.

102 Haiti 8/7/64 3 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
On 7 August 1964, CINCLANT initiated a two-day surveillance operation designed to locate a ship that was believed to be connected with Haitian military forces.
103 Panama 1/7/65 6 A3 Y 0 Y N   N N
In anticipation of possible rioting that might accompany the first anniversary of the 9 January 1964 riots, forces in USCINCSO were put on alert. One LST was put on alert for the 9-12 January period.
104 Tanzania 1/17/65 1 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
On 17 January 1965, a destroyer was ordered to move to a position off Tanzania following the request by the Department of State for a ship for potential evacuation of U.S. nationals from the country. The alert was cancelled later that same day.
105 Venezuela-Colombia Jan-65 91 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
In response to reports of clandestine arms shipments and movement of personnel, surface ship and aircraft surveillance patrols were established in the Caribbean.
106 British Guiana Apr-65 11 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
In response to domestic violence, air and surface patrols were established. On 11 April, Navy aircraft located a Cuban ship that was believed to be carrying arms to rebel forces within British Guiana. Surveillance was held until a Royal Navy vessel arrived on the scene.
107 Dominican Republic 4/24/65 515 A3 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
Following a period of mounting tension in the Dominican Republic, the U.S. Embassy indicated on 25 April 1965 that a landing might be required to protect American lives and conduct evacuations. Between 27 and 30 April, some 2,400 evacuees were removed by the deployed amphibious force. The first Marines (BLT 3/6) went ashore on 28 April and the first U.S. Army troops arrived by air on 30 April. Peak U.S. strength ashore came on 17 May, with 7,958 Marines, 14,889 Army troops, and 1,000 Air Force personnel in the Dominican Republic. On 14 May, the first Organization of American States (OAS) troops arrived; the OAS force eventually included contingents from Brazil, Honduras, Paraguay, Panama, Costa Rica, and El Salvador. On 26 May, USMC troops began to be withdrawn from the country. The last U.S. Army troops were withdrawn on 21 September 1966.
108 Yemen Jul-65 32 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
July and August 1965 were critical months in the Yemeni civil war. MIDEASTFOR surface combatants carried out surveillance and presence missions during this period.
109 Cyprus 8/3/65 30 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
During a period of growing tension on Cyprus that centered on proposed changes to the electoral system, a CVBG and the MARG (BLT 2/2) operated off the island.
110 Indo-Pakistani War 9/11/65 25 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
The Indo-Pakistani War broke out in the first week of September 1965. On 11 September, two MIDEASTFOR ships left Bahrain en route to Karachi, Pakistan, to act as a contingency evacuation force. On the 15th, USAF planes evacuated U.S. civilians from West Pakistan.
111 Indonesia 10/2/65 8 P4 Y 0 Y Y   N N
On 30 September 1965, there was an abortive rebellion involving elements of the Indonesian Communist Party and the Indonesian army. An amphibious task force stood by as a contingency evacuation force following the attempted coup during a period of heavy fighting from 2 through 9 October.
112 Greek Coup 4/21/67 23 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
The military coup occurred on 21 April 1967. In response, the America CVBG was immediately dispatched to the Ionian Sea. Two amphibious groups (with RLT 6 embarked) were included in the contingency task force.
113 Six Day War 6/6/67 6 A6 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
On 13 May 1967, Egypt reinforced its forces in the Sinai border and Israel mobilized in response. Following several weeks of growing tension, the war began on 5 June. The fleet was initially held back to indicate American noninvolvement in the fighting, while the MARG was alerted for a possible noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO). On 6 June, two carrier task forces moved closer to the fighting. On 10 June, the President ordered a high-speed carrier movement toward Syria to facilitate a cease-fire agreement.
114 DD Eilat Sinking 10/21/67 12 A6 Y 2 N N   N N
On 21 October 1967, Egyptian ships sunk the Israeli destroyer Eilat using surface-to-surface missiles. In response, two carrier task forces were ordered to a position 100 miles north of Egypt.
115 Cyprus 11/15/67 24 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
On 15 November 1967, there was renewed communal violence on Cyprus. This led to a contingency deployment of Sixth Fleet units in anticipation of possible evacuations. On the 24th, U.S. citizens were evacuated by commercial aircraft with no military involvement.
116 USS Pueblo 1/24/68 59 P4 Y 3 N N   Y N
On 23 January 1968, North Korean forces seized USS Pueblo in international waters. On the 24th, Task Group (TG) 70.6 (CVA Enterprise) was directed to Korea. Through 22 March, a standing two-carrier force was maintained off Korea, and intermittent deployments were maintained after that point until the release of Pueblo's, crew on 22 December.
117 EC-121 Shootdown 4/14/69 26 P4 Y 4 N N   Y Y
On 15 April 1969, a U.S. Navy reconnaissance plane was shot down by Democratic Republic of Korea (North Korean) fighters over the Sea of Japan. Sea-Air Rescue (SAR) efforts began immediately and TF 71 was activated, drawing units from Southeast Asia (including four aircraft carriers). After 26 April, the force was reduced to a one-carrier battle group.
118 Curaçao Civil Unrest 5/31/69 1 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
Because of riots in Curacao, the fast element of the Caribbean Ready Force (one cruiser and three amphibious ships) was reconstituted on 31 May 1969 and ordered to a position off Curacao in anticipation of possible evacuations. Order was quickly restored, and at sunset on 31 May, the group was ordered to return to normal operations.
119 Lebanon-Libya Ops 10/26/69 5 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
On 1 September 1969, a coup overthrew the Libyan monarchy. At the same time, conditions were very unsettled in Lebanon, leading to the 22 October resignation of the Lebanese Prime Minister. Contingency forces in the period 26-30 October included two carrier task forces and the Mediterranean Amphibious Ready Group (MARG) with BLT 1/6 embarked.
120 Trinidad 4/22/70 6 A3 Y 0 Y Y   Y N
The Government of Trinidad and Tobago declared a state of emergency on 21 April in response to civil unrest and a mutiny of 80 troops. The Caribbean Ready Group was ordered to sail to the vicinity in preparation for evacuation operations.
121 Jordan 6/11/70 7 A6 Y 1 Y Y Y Y N
On 9 June 1970, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) seized 32 hostages in a hotel in Amman; 14 Americans were among those held. In addition, on the same day, there was an unsuccessful assassination attempt against King Hussein. CVA Forrestal moved to the Eastern Mediterranean to provide air cover for potential evacuation operations by the MARG with BLT 1/8 embarked. While the situation in Jordan abated, tensions flared in neighboring Beirut, with an attack on the Jordanian embassy on 12 June. The situation in Lebanon calmed on the 15th, and U.S. forces returned to normal operations on 17 June.
122 Jordan 9/2/70 60 A6 Y 3 Y Y Y Y Y
Sixth Fleet units were put on alert on 3 September 1970 because of rising tensions in the region. On 6 September, the PFLP hijacked civilian airliners and took them to Dawson Field. Fighting soon broke out between Jordanian and Palestinian forces. Two CVs (Independence and Saratoga) and the MARG were in the Eastern Mediterranean. Following Syrian intervention on 18 September, CVA Kennedy and elements of the 8th Marine Amphibious Brigade (MAB) were ordered from the East Coast to the Mediterranean. On the 19th, troops in Germany and CONUS (82nd Airborne Division) were alerted for movement. By 24 September, all Syrian forces were out of Jordanian territory, and by 5 October, only one carrier was on station in the Eastern Mediterranean.
123 Haiti Succession 4/22/71 37 A3 Y 0 N Y   N N
Haitian President Francois Duvalier died on 21 April 1971 and was succeeded as chief of state by his 19-year-old son Jean-Claude. A surface patrol was established in the Windward Passage because of the possibility that the situation might be exploited by Haitian exiles and/or Cuban forces. Additionally, BLT 2/3 was alerted and carried out a contingency reaction drill in CONUS (no amphibious ships were diverted to support this).
124 Indo-Pakistani War 12/10/71 30 P6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
The Bangladesh war began on 3 December 1971, and on 7 December, the head of the U.N. relief mission in East Pakistan (Bangladesh) indicated that evacuation of foreign civilians might be required. On 10 December, a CVBG (CVAN Enterprise) and an amphibious ready group were ordered to the Indian Ocean. On 12 December, the Royal Air Force evacuated Western nationals from East Pakistan, thereby eliminating the requirement for an American evacuation operation.
125 Bahama Lines 12/15/71 52 A3 Y 0 N N   N N
Following seizure of the steamer Johnny Express by Cuban naval forces on 15 December 1971, two U.S. Navy destroyers were put on alert. The remaining four ships of the exile-owned Bahama lines were escorted through the end of January 1972.
126 Lebanon 5/3/73 7 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
On 3 May 1973, the Palestinian Yarmuk Brigade entered Lebanon from Syria. Two CVBGs (Forrestal and Kennedy) and the MARG were alerted for potential evacuation operations. By 9 May, the situation had stabilized.
127 Middle East War 10/6/73 48 A6 Y 3 Y Y   Y Y
On 6 October 1973, Egyptian and Syrian forces launched a surprise attack on Israel. U.S. Navy forces quickly sortied in response to the war, with two CVBGs (Independence and Roosevelt) and an amphibious force (with two BLTs embarked) in the Mediterranean and a CVBG (Kennedy) in the eastern Atlantic. On 25 October, U.S. forces went on Defense Condition (DEFCON) III alert status, as possible intervention by the Soviet Union was feared. The Kennedy CVBG and additional amphibious forces entered the Mediterranean. On 26 October, CINCSAC and CINCONAD reverted to normal DEFCON status. On 31 October, USEUCOM (less the Sixth Fleet) went off DEFCON III status. The Sixth Fleet resumed its normal DEFCON status on 17 November.
128 Middle East Force 10/24/73 22 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
On 24 October, the U.S. merchant ship La Salle was shot at at the mouth of the Red Sea. Over the next month, a MIDEASTFOR destroyer escorted U.S. merchant ships in the lower Red Sea.
129 Oil Embargo-IO Ops 10/25/73 159 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
Following the initiation of the oil embargo in the midst of the October War, a CVBG (Hancock) was ordered from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean.
130 Cyprus 7/15/74 39 A6 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
On 15 July 1974, immediately after a coup on Cyprus, the carrier America was ordered to augment the Sixth Fleet instead of returning to the United States. At the same time, port calls for the Forrestal CVBG and the Sixth Fleet amphibious groups were cancelled. On 22 July, the 34th MAU (HMM-162 and BLT 1/8) conducted a NEO from Dhekelia, Cyprus to USS Coronado. On 24 July, British helicopters carried evacuees to USS Trenton. A total of 752 evacuees (498 Americans) from Cyprus were brought aboard USN vessels. Through August, Sixth Fleet units remained in a high state of readiness in the area as the situation remained tense on the island. On 2 September, the last units were released from contingency tasking.
131 Cyprus Unrest 1/18/75 4 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
Following violent Greek Cypriot demonstrations, some of which were outside the American Embassy in Nicosia, the Joint Chiefs of Staff ordered a precautionary deployment of the Saratoga CVBG to a position southwest of Cyprus. In addition, units of the Sixth Fleet's amphibious force (34th MAU) were alerted for possible evacuation duty. By 21 January, the situation had quieted and the alert situation was relaxed.
132 Ethiopia 2/3/75 4 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
In 1974, elements of the Ethiopian military seized control of the government and overthrew Emperor Haile Selassie. As the Ethiopian civil war intensified, a two-ship contingency force took position in the Red Sea for potential evacuation of American citizens who operated the U.S. Navy Communications Station in Asmara. On 4 February, these civilians were evacuated by commercial airliners. On 6 February, the contingency force was released.
133 Eagle Pull, Cambodia Feb-75 70 P4 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
With the growing deterioration of the military situation in Southeast Asia, amphibious force readiness for an evacuation from Phnom Penh was increased in February 1975. In early April, CINCPAC was granted authorization to order Operation Eagle Pull, the evacuation of U.S. personnel from Cambodia. On 10 April, the U.S. Ambassador requested an evacuation, which was carried out on 12 April. A total of 287 persons were evacuated by a force that included Marines (31st MAU, HMH 462, HMH 463), USAF (elements of a CH-53 squadron), and Navy ships (including the carrier Hancock).
134 Frequent Wind, Viet. 4/18/75 12 P4 Y 4 Y Y Y Y N
In spring 1975, the South Vietnamese Government was under increasing military pressure and contingency planning for the evacuation of U.S. personnel accelerated. Following the completion of Operation Eagle Pull, TF 76 headed to Subic Bay for upkeep. This was cut short, as TF 76 was ordered to the waters off South Vietnam on 18 April. On 21 April, the units were put on a 6-hour alert for execution of the evacuation. On 29 April, the evacuation was executed, with the operation declared complete on the morning of the 30th, just four hours prior to the South Vietnamese government's announcement of unconditional surrender. Forces involved included four carriers (two as helicopter carriers -- Midway and Hancock - and two providing air support - Enterprise and Coral Sea), the 9th MAB (with over 6,000 Marines), and USAF elements from SAC, and the 7th and 13th Air Forces. Nearly 7,000 persons were evacuated.
135 Mayaguez  5/13/75 3 P4 Y 2 Y Y   Y N
On 12 May 1975, the SS Mayaguez was seized by Cambodian gunboats and escorted to Koh Tang Island. On 14 May, U.S. Marines (BLT 2/9, elements of BLT 1/4) recaptured the Mayaguez and went ashore on Koh Tang Island, releasing the crew. Air cover was flown by USAF fighters operating from Thailand and by aircraft operating off CVA-43 Coral Sea.
136 Lebanon Aug-75 367 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
During 1974 and 1975, the situation in Lebanon generally deteriorated as the nation headed toward civil war. In late June, a U.S. Army colonel was kidnapped and held for two weeks. Starting in August, a contingency evacuation force was maintained for the potential evacuation of the approximately 100 U.S. Government employees and 1,000 U.S. citizens in Lebanon.
137 Polisario Rebels 1/5/76 18 A5 Y 0 Y N   N N
On 3 January 1976, the Moroccan Navy stopped a Soviet cargo ship off the Spanish Sahara and found a cargo of arms. In response to the evidence of increased Soviet support for the Polisario rebels, U.S. Navy vessels made three port visits in Morocco during January 1976.
138 Tunisia 7/27/76 25 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
To reassure Tunisian officials following Libyan threats against Tunisia, the U.S. Embassy at Tunis requested that the port visit by two vessels to Tunis be extended. A frigate made a port visit at Sfax several weeks later at the request of the State Department.
139 Kenya-Uganda 7/8/76 20 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
Because of the possibility of Ugandan military operations against Kenya following the Israeli raid on Entebbe airport, the Ranger CVBG was ordered from the South China Sea to the Western Indian Ocean. In addition, two MIDEASTFOR frigates made successive port calls in Mombassa in mid-July. Ranger was released on 27 July.
140 Korean Tree Incident 8/19/76 21 P4 Y 1 N N Y Y Y
Following the murder of two U.S. Army officers (and wounding of four U.S. and five South Korean soldiers) on 18 August 1976 in the Demilitarized Zone, a general buildup and alert of forces occurred in South Korea. The Midway CVBG was ordered from Yokosuka to an operating area in the approaches to the Korea Strait, where it remained until released on 8 September.
141 Uganda 2/25/77 6 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
In response to restrictions placed on Americans in Uganda by President Amin, the Enterprise CVBG was ordered to move to a position off the coast of Kenya. The CVBG was released to normal operations after Amin lifted all travel restrictions on Americans.
142 Ogaden War Feb-78 51 P6 Y 1 N N   Y N
In late February 1978, surface ships from MIDEASTFOR began surveillance operations of the Somali invasion of the Ogaden region of Ethiopia. Following the collapse of the Somali army in the Ogaden, the Kitty Hawk CVBG was ordered to a holding point north of Singapore. On 23 March, the CVBG was released without having been sent into the Indian Ocean.
143 Sea of Okhotsk 6/15/78 10 P4 Y 0 N N   N N
Following increased Soviet military activity in the Far East, Secretary of Defense Harold Brown asserted that the United States did not recognize the Sea of Japan as a Soviet sanctuary. A week later, three USN ships began operations in the Sea of Japan to underscore the Secretary of Defense's comments and to demonstrate the right of free navigation in international waters.
144 Afghanistan Jul-78 31 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
During the growing unrest in Afghanistan, the Enterprise CVBG was ordered to remain in the vicinity of Diego Garcia. Enterprise was released as of 31 July.
145 Nicaragua 9/16/78 16 A3 Y 0 N N   Y N
Following a period of growing civil strife in Nicaragua, CINCLANTFLT ordered surface ship surveillance operations off the west coast of Nicaragua on 16 September 1978. The operations began on 20 September and continued until 1 October.
146 Iranian Revolution 12/6/78 86 P6 Y 1 Y Y   Y N
On 6 December 1978, following a deterioration in the internal situation in Iran, three surface vessels were ordered to remain in the Persian Gulf/Arabian Sea region following completion of exercise "Midlink." From 28 December through 28 January 1979, the Constellation CVBG was kept in the Singapore area for possible deployment to the Indian Ocean. On 14 February, armed leftists briefly took over the American Embassy in Tehran. On 18 and 21 February, Western nationals were evacuated from Bandar Abbas and Chah Bahar by RN and commercial ships (many of the evacuees were transferred to USN ships in international waters).
147 China-Vietnam 2/25/79 6 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
In response to the 22 February 1979 PRC invasion of North Vietnam and a large Soviet deployment of vessels to the region, USN vessels including the Constellation CVBG, entered the South China Sea to monitor the situation.
148 Yemen 3/6/79 93 P6 Y 1 N N   Y N
On 6 March 1979, the Constellation CVBG was ordered from the South China Sea to the Gulf of Aden. The deployment to monitor the fighting between North and South Yemen was, most likely, meant to reassure the Saudis that the United States intended to remain in the region despite the fall of the Shah. A carrier presence was kept in the region until 6 June.
149 Nicaraguan Revolution Jul-79 31 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
A contingency evacuation force, centered on LHA-2 Saipan, operated off the coast of Nicaragua for possible evacuation of American diplomats and other individuals due to the turmoil surrounding the fall of the Somoza government.
150 Soviet Troops in Cuba 10/2/79 46 A3 Y 1 Y Y   Y N
On 2 October, the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) issued an executive order directing the establishment of a Caribbean contingency task force, following a month of news reports about the presence of Soviet troops in Cuba. On 11 October, 1,800 Marines left Morehead City en route to Guantanamo as part of a reinforcement exercise. In mid-October, the Forrestal CVBG transited close to Cuba in conjunction with the U.S. policy of an increased Navy presence in the Caribbean.
151 Afghan/Iran Hostages 10/9/79 472 P6 Y 2 Y Y Y Y Y
In October 1979, the U.S. relationship with the Islamic Republic worsened as riots and massive demonstrations outside the American Embassy in Tehran became a common occurrence. On 9 October, a 20 October deployment of the Midway CVBG to the region was ordered. On 4 November, Iranian students seized the U.S. Embassy and took the personnel hostage. On 20 November, the President ordered the Kitty Hawk CVBG into the Indian Ocean. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late December reinforced the decision to maintain two CVBGs in the Indian Ocean. On April 24, an attempted rescue mission failed; eight U.S. servicemen died. On 21 January 1981, the hostages were released, after 444 days in captivity.
152 Park-Chung Hee 10/26/79 9 P4 Y 1 N N   Y Y
Following the assassination of South Korean President Park Chung Hee, DEFCON 3 was declared on 26 October 1979. The Kitty Hawk CVBG was ordered to a position south of Korea. On 5 November, the DEFCON alert returned to normal.
153 Korea 5/27/80 33 P4 Y 1 N N Y Y Y
In 1980, a growing storm of protest calling for democratic reforms led to the declaration of martial law in South Korea and the massacre of several hundred people in the town of Kwangju. A carrier moved to the area in late May, and a carrier presence was maintained through 28 June. USAF F-4Es, scheduled to be withdrawn, were directed to remain in place to maintain presence because of the political instability.
154 Iran-Iraq War 9/30/80 125 P6 Y 2 N N Y N N
Following the Iraqi invasion of Iran on 22 September 1980, four USAF AWACS aircraft were deployed to Saudi Arabia on 30 September. On 11 October, a reinforcement of the MIDEASTFOR was announced. In mid-October, about 60 U.S., British, French, and Australian warships were in the region to prevent potential Iranian interference with oil traffic through the Straits of Hormuz. In February 1981, a decision was made to maintain two CVBGs in the Indian Ocean even though the hostages had been released.
155 Poland 12/9/80 24 A5 Y 0 N N   N N
Because of instability along the Polish/Soviet border, the chairman of the NATO Military Committee ordered that NATOs Standing Naval Forces Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT), which included one USN ship, would not be released for the Christmas holiday. At the same time, the United States decided to supply NATO with four AWACS aircraft to monitor the border situation.
156 Morocco 1/29/81 10 A5 Y 0 N N   N N
The Secretary of State, with the concurrence of the Department of Defense, decided that a well-publicized U.S. Naval visit to Agadir would be desirable to send a signal to the Soviets in response to the positioning of three Soviet Navy ships in the region. A three-day visit by CG-20 Turner early in February followed.
157 Liberia 4/1/81 15 A5 Y 0 N N   N Y
On 1 April, President Reagan ordered a company of Green Berets and a Navy destroyer to Liberia to show support for the government of Samuel K. Doe. On 10 April, the Green Berets arrived for 30 days of training exercises with Liberian troops. On 12 April, DD-988 Thorn arrived in Monrovia, Liberia, for a three-day port visit.
158 Syria 5/3/81 135 A6 Y 2 Y Y Y N N
Following Israeli reprisal raids against Syrian surface-to-air missile (SAM) positions in southern Lebanon, the Forrestal CVBG and the Mediterranean Amphibious Ready Group were ordered into the Eastern Mediterranean on 3 May 1981. In mid-May, the Independence CVBG was retained in the Eastern Mediterranean following a transit through the Suez Canal from the Indian Ocean. On 26 May, Independence was released. On 14 September, the response posture for amphibious forces to conduct evacuation operations was cancelled.
159 Libya 8/1/81 20 A6 Y 2 N N Y N N
In response to extensive Libyan claims of sovereignty over international waters, the President authorized naval exercises in the Gulf of Sidra. During the Freedom of Navigation (FON) operations, two Libyan Air Force fighters were shot down by USN fighters on 18 August.
160 Sadat-Sudan 10/7/81 24 A6 Y 1 Y Y Y Y N
Following the 6 October 81 assassination of Egyptian President Sadat at a military parade, a CVBG and the MARG were ordered to a position 120 n.mi. north of Egypt. The forces were sent to the region because of the possibility of Libyan involvement in the assassination and because of fears of Libyan aggression against either Egypt or Sudan.
161 Central America 10/16/81 47 A3 Y 2 Y Y   N N
Amidst growing official concern over arms shipments to rebels in El Salvador, a series of maneuvers began in the Caribbean. On 23 December, DD-989 Deyo was tasked to sortie to the coast of El Salvador to conduct surveillance operations. On 2 February, because of the mining of Nicaraguan harbors, the Defense Mapping Agency issued Special Warning #57 warning mariners to avoid Nicaraguan harbors. On 16 February, DD-970 Caron completed turnover with Deyo, and surveillance operations were to continue in the region for the indefinite future.
162 Israeli Invasion 6/8/82 45 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
On 6 June 1982, Israeli forces entered Lebanon in operation "Peace for Galilee." On 8 June, the Secretary of Defense ordered the MARG at Rota to the Eastern Mediterranean for potential evacuation of American citizens from Beirut. On 28 June, Israeli forces began a siege of West Beirut. On 20 July, the MARG response posture was relaxed.
163 Peacekeeping Force 8/10/82 30 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
On 10 August, the alert posture of the MARG was heightened in light of a likely deployment as part of a peacekeeping force to oversee the evacuation of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) forces from West Beirut. On 24 August, the first of 800 Marines began going ashore at Beirut as part of a joint U.S.-French-Italian peacekeeping force. On 8 September, following the removal of the PLO forces from West Beirut, the Marines redeployed aboard the MARG ships.
164 Palestinian Massacre 9/22/82 143 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
On 22 September 1982, following the 16 September Phalangist Christian force massacre of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatilla refugee camps, the MARG was ordered to the Eastern Mediterranean. On 29 September, the first Marines of the Multi-National Peacekeeping Force were put ashore in Beirut. From 27 September through 21 January 1983, two carriers were tethered to Lebanon to provide support for the Marine Corps forces ashore. On 11 February, the response posture for carrier support was relaxed as the situation had stabilized.
165 Libya-Sudan 2/14/83 11 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
Following Libyan threats against Sudan, the Nimitz CVBG moved from a position off Lebanon to a position north of Libya. USN aircraft from Nimitz operated in the Tripoli Flight Information Region (FIR), and the Nimitz closed to within 85 miles of the Libyan coast. Four USAF E-3A AWACS aircraft were deployed to Egypt as part of the increased surveillance of the region.
166 Honduras 6/14/83 131 A3 Y 1 Y Y   N Y
In 1983, the U.S. Government expressed great concern over the safety of Honduras, citing the threat of invasion from neighboring Nicaragua. On 14 June, 100 Green Beret military advisors arrived in Honduras. On 18 July, the Ranger CVBG was diverted from a planned Indian Ocean deployment to the vicinity of Central America through 12 August. On 16 August, the Coral Sea CVBG arrived off the east coast of Nicaragua, and on 26 August, the battleship New Jersey arrived on station west of Nicaragua. These vessels departed the region in mid-September.
167 Libya-Chad 8/1/83 16 A6 Y 1 N N   Y N
Following an escalation of the Libyan aggression against Chad, aircraft from CVN-69 Eisenhower operated in the Gulf of Sidra. CV-43 Coral Sea's departure from the Mediterranean was delayed for a day because of uncertainty over the situation. On 6 August, two USAP E-3A AWACS and eight F-15 aircraft were dispatched to Khartoum. The aircraft were to protect the Sudanese capital from Libyan attack and support French forces if they deployed to Chad. The aircraft were withdrawn following deployment of French aircraft to Chad.
168 Marine Barracks Bomb 8/29/83 170 A6 Y 2 Y Y   Y N
The Eisenhower CVBG was ordered to return at "best speed" to the Eastern Mediterranean on 29 August as the situation in Beirut worsened, with more frequent gun battles and growing numbers of USMC casualties. On 28 August, Marines retaliated for the first time for attacks against one of their positions and on 8 September FF-1079 Bowen provided the first naval gunfire support (NGFS) (to silence a Druze battery shelling Beirut International Airport). On 12 September, ARG Alpha, the Pacific Amphibious Ready Group, arrived off Beirut. BB-62 New Jersey arrived to provide NGFS on 25 September. On 4 October, the Eisenhower CVBG was authorized to leave the Beirut area, and on 9 October, ARG Alpha's return to PACOM via the Suez was authorized. On 23 October 1983, a suicide bomber struck the Marine Corps barracks in Beirut, killing 241. On the same day, another suicide car bomb killed 58 French paratroopers. Various Sixth Fleet units were ordered to Beirut, both to reassert the U.S. presence and to assist in rescue operations. Following the attack, the Ranger CVBG was diverted from port calls in Australia to the North Arabian Sea, where it operated for 122 days. On 26 February 1984, the withdrawal of the USMC contingent of the international peacekeeping force was completed.
169 KAL 007 9/1/83 66 P4 Y 0 N N   Y N
On 1 September 1983, a Soviet air defense fighter shot down Korean Air Lines flight 007 (KAL 007), killing all 267 aboard. USN surface ships were moved to the vicinity to search for debris and provide an American presence. USAF aircraft, including an F-15 squadron, provided support for the sea-air rescue (SAR) operations.
170 Iran-Iraq 10/8/83 92 P6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
Following an 18 September 1983 Iranian threat to block oil exports from the Persian Gulf, ARG Alpha was ordered from the Eastern Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean on 8 October. On 10 October, the Ranger CVBG arrived in the northern Arabian Sea. Ranger, which had been scheduled to depart the region on 18 October, remained through the new year.
171 Korea-Burma 10/11/83 3 P4 Y 1 N N   Y N
The Vinson CVBG's departure for CONUS was delayed during the U.S. Secretary of Defense's attendance at funeral ceremonies for the 21 South Korean officials killed by a North Korean bomb in Burma. The CVBG operated in waters off Pusan, South Korea, to underscore the U.S. commitment to South Korea.
172 Grenada 10/20/83 23 A3 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
On 19 October, in response to mounting political strife in Grenada, the JCS issued a warning order indicating the possible requirement for U.S. military assistance to evacuate U.S. citizens from the island. On 20 October, the Independence CVBG and the Amphibious Ready Group en route to the Mediterranean from CONUS were diverted to sail to the vicinity of Grenada to signal U.S. concern regarding events on the island. On 25 October, Marines and U.S. Army rangers landed on the island, and by 27 October, all major objectives were secured. On 4 November, Independence and the Amphibious Ready Group renewed their transit to the Mediterranean.
173 Syria 12/3/83 37 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
On 3 December, two F-14s flying over Lebanon were fired upon by antiaircraft artillery. On 4 December, aircraft from the aircraft carriers Kennedy and Independence were launched in a strike against antiaircraft positions; two USN planes were shot down, and one U.S. airman was taken prisoner by Syrian troops.
174 Central America 3/13/84 264 A3 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
In late January 1984, the Secretary of Defense authorized an increase in U.S. Navy presence operations off Central America during the period of 1 February through 31 July to demonstrate support for El Salvador during elections, deter Nicaraguan aggression, and build confidence in the U.S. commitment to Central America. On 13 March, the America CVBG left for operations off the east coast of Central America that coincided with Salvadoran elections on 25 March. Similar operations throughout the year included battleship, carrier, and amphibious warfare operations.
175 Persian Gulf Apr-84 245 A7 Y 1 N N   N N
Following Iraqi initiation of a major antishipping campaign, the commitment to a continuous aircraft carrier presence in the North Arabian Sea was renewed. In late May, MIDEASTFOR ships began to escort U.S. flag merchant ships because of the escalating violence in the region. On 4 June, DOD officials announced that the United States had sent AWACS planes to Saudi Arabia. (The next day, Saudi warplanes, guided by an AWACS, shot down an Iranian plane in Saudi airspace.)
176 Red Sea Mines 8/3/84 46 A7 Y 0 Y N   N N
On 9 July 1984, a Soviet merchant ship was struck by an unidentified explosion in the Red Sea. On 3 August, following a number of additional mine strikes and an Islamic Jihad announcement that it had laid 190 mines in the Red Sea, a small U.S. mine-countermeasures team was sent to the Red Sea. On 9 August, U.S. minesweeping operations using helicopters operating off USN ships began. In addition to the U.S. efforts, vessels from France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union conducted minesweeping operations.
177 Beirut Embassy 9/21/84 42 A6 Y 0 Y Y   N N
On 21 September, amidst renewed terrorist threats against the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, three ships were ordered off Lebanon to provide a sea-based contingency response capability. On 18 October, Sixth Fleet units in the Cyprus area were placed on alert because of a terrorist threat to the U.S. Embassy in Nicosia.
178 Saudi Hijacking 11/6/84 1 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
Following the 5 November hijacking of a Saudi airliner to Iran, the Enterprise CVBG was ordered to the northern Arabian Sea. On 6 November, the order was cancelled.
179 Cuba 11/30/84 1 A3 Y 1 N N   Y N
On 30 November, Nimitz (CVN-68) and an escorting cruiser were ordered from Charlotte Amalie to an area just off the Cuban coast when a Navy-chartered vessel broke down and drifted into Cuban waters. The response was cancelled when the USCG ship Reliance took the stricken vessel under tow and removed it from Cuban waters.
180 U.S. Pers. in Lebanon Mar-85 32 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
Following threats against U.S. personnel at the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, the Eisenhower CVBG was diverted from Majorca to the Eastern Mediterranean while U.S. personnel were evacuated by helicopter to Cyprus.
181 TWA 847 Hijacking 6/14/85 41 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
On 14 June 1985, TWA Flight 847 was hijacked to Beirut by Shiite terrorists. The Nimitz CVBG was ordered from Italy to the Eastern Mediterranean, along with the MARG with 1,800 Marines embarked. Nimitz was on station in the Eastern Mediterranean until 24 July, following the release of the passengers and aircraft.
182 Persian Gulf 9/13/85 19 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
On 13 September 1985, COMIDEASTFOR ordered the escort of an MSC ship because of recent Iranian seizures of merchant vessels. On 22 September, two vessels were diverted from an ASW exercise with the Kitty Hawk CVBG to resume Persian Gulf surveillance operations.
183 Achille Lauro  10/7/85 4 A6 Y 1 Y Y   N N
On 7 October 1985, following the Palestinian terrorist hijacking of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro, Sixth Fleet vessels (including CV-60 Saratoga) moved to the Eastern Mediterranean. On 10 October, F-14s from Saratoga forced an Egyptian airliner with the hijackers aboard to Italy, where the hijackers were taken into custody.
184 Egypt Air Hijacking 11/23/85 3 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
On 23 November 1985, an Egyptian airliner was hijacked to Malta. USN ships, including CV-43 Coral Sea, responded to the hijacking and moved toward Malta for contingency purposes.
185 Persian Gulf Escort 1/12/86 141 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
The tension in the Persian Gulf persisted as the Tanker War continued unabated. The 12 January l986 Iranian boarding of the SS President Taylor led to closer USN escort of U.S. merchant vessels. On 12 May, the destroyer David R. Ray deterred an Iranian Navy attempt to board another U.S. merchant ship.
186 Yemen Civil War Jan-86 32 P6 Y 0 N N   N N
In January 1986, amidst the bloody civil war in South Yemen, vessels from the Middle East Force, including the flagship La Salle, moved off the Yemeni coast for potential evacuation operations. Royal Navy vessels carried out the endangered Western nationals.
187 OVL-FON Ops Feb-86 85 A6 Y 3 N N Y N N
Following terrorist attacks on 27 December 1985 in the Rome and Vienna airports, a series of Freedom of Navigation (FON) operations in the Gulf of Sidra (Operations in the Vicinity of Libya, OVL) were approved. Code-named "Attain Document," the first two exercises (26-30 January and 12-15 February) occurred without incident. During "Attain Document III" (23-29 March 1986), a surface-to-air missile (SAM) site shot two SA-5 missiles at U.S. aircraft on 24 March. Over the next 16 hours, two Libyan patrol boats were sunk by USN aircraft.
188 Lebanon Hostages Mar-86 1 A6 Y 0 N N   N N
A USN vessel was diverted to a point off the coast of Lebanon to stand by to pick up hostages. The vessel was soon returned to scheduled operations as no hostages were released.
189 La Belle Disco, Libya 4/10/86 6 A6 Y 2 Y Y Y Y N
On 5 April, the La Belle Discotheque in the Federal Republic of Germany was bombed, resulting in the death of one U.S. serviceman and many injured. On 14 April, aircraft from the carriers Coral Sea and America, as well as USAF FB-111s from Lakenheath Air Force Base (AFB) in the United Kingdom, struck targets in Libya. Elements of the MARG stood off the coast, prepared to execute combat-SAR (CSAR) if necessary.
190 Pakistan Hijacking Sep-86 1 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
Following the hijacking of a Pakistani airliner, the Forrestal CVBG was ordered to head toward the Eastern Mediterranean in case the aircraft took off for Larnica in Cyprus or Beirut. Because this did not occur, the vessels were soon released for normal operations.
191 Persian Gulf Ops Jan-87 579 A7 Y 2 Y Y   N Y
The U.S. operations in the Persian Gulf were perhaps the most involved use of USN forces since the Vietnam War. U.S. operations increased in intensity during 1987, as the U.S. agreed to reflag and escort a number of Kuwaiti oil tankers. Augmentation forces sent to the Persian Gulf or North Arabian Sea in 1987 included minesweeping helicopters, minesweepers, aircraft carriers, a battleship battle group, SEALs, and a contingency MAGTF. Notable points in the operations include the following: 17 May 1987, an Iraqi Exocet air-to-surface missile (ASM) hit the frigate Stark, killing 37 U.S. sailors; 21 July 1987, escort operations (code-named "Earnest Will") began; 24 July, the tanker Bridgeton struck a mine during the first "Earnest Will" transit; 21 September, U.S. forces captured an Iranian vessel laying mines; 6 October, three Iranian small boats were destroyed; 19 October, an Iranian oil-drilling platform was destroyed; 14 April 1988, FFG-58 Roberts struck a mine; 18 April, retaliation operations against two Iranian oil drilling platforms (one destroyed by Marines from the contingency MAGTF) led to a day-long naval battle in which many Iranian naval units were damaged or sunk; and, on 3 July 1988, in the midst of a surface engagement, CG-49 Vincennes shot down an Iran Air Airbus, killing all 290 passengers and crew. On 20 August 1988, a U.N.-sponsored cease-fire went into effect, ending the nearly eight-year-long war.
192 Hostages in Lebanon Feb-87 29 A6 Y 1 N N   N N
In response to growing tension over hostages in Lebanon, the Kennedy CVBG was ordered to a MODLOC off Lebanon for potential evacuation operations.
193 Haiti Jan-88 31 A3 Y 0 Y Y   N N
In response to increasing domestic unrest that led to a change of government, an amphibious squadron (PHIBRON) with embarked Marines was deployed off the coast of Haiti.
194 Panama Apr-88 30 A3 N 0 N Y   N N
In response to domestic unrest and increasing U.S.-Panamanian tension, U.S. forces in the Canal Zone were augmented. Marine forces sent included the Fleet Anti-Terrorist Support Team from the Marine Corps Security Force Company (FAST MCSFCO).
195 Summer Olympics Sep-88 31 P4 Y 2 Y Y   Y Y
During the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, the United States deployed forces to deter a feared disruption of the Olympics by North Korea. At one point, two CVBGs (Nimitz and Midway) were operating in the Sea of Japan providing an augmented U.S. Navy presence during the Olympics.
196 Burma Unrest Sep-88 31 P6 Y 0 Y Y   N N
During unrest in Burma, Amphibious Ready Group ALPHA was sent to a MODLOC off Burma for possible evacuation of U.S. citizens. The endangered U.S. citizens finally left Burma by commercial air.
197 Maldives Coup 11/17/88 1 P6 Y 1 N N   N N
The Nimitz battle group was put on alert to provide a U.S. presence near the Maldives. The movement was cancelled after Indian troops sent to the island chain quickly repelled the attempted coup by an armed group of "probable" Sri Lankan Tamil mercenaries.
198 Lebanon Civil War Feb-89 45 A6 Y Y Y Y   N Y
During February 1989, fighting in Beirut intensified. In mid-February, following the outbreak of fighting near the U.S. Embassy, the MARG was ordered to move to the Eastern Mediterranean for potential evacuation operations with the Theodore Roosevelt CVBG providing a covering force.
199 Panama Elections 5/11/89 52 A3 Y 1 Y Y   Y Y
Following a violent election campaign and annulment of the results by Panamanian President Noreiga, President Bush ordered a reinforcement of U.S. forces in Panama. A light infantry battalion from the U.S. Army's 7th Infantry Division and a company from the 2nd USMC division were flown to Howard Air Force Base outside Panama City. Elements of the 5th Infantry Division, Mechanized, were transported by T-AKR Bellatrix from Louisiana to Panama. U.S. Navy vessels alerted in support of this contingency response included the aircraft carrier Eisenhower.
200 China Civil Unrest Jun-89 31 P4 Y 1 N N   N N
During the demonstrations in China, and throughout the military crackdown in Beijing, a carrier battle group steamed in the South China Sea.
201 Hostages in Lebanon 8/1/89 32 A6 Y 2 Y Y   N N
Following the Israeli capture of Sheik Obeid and Shiite claims that Lt.Col. William R. Higgins, USMC, had been killed in Lebanon, USN forces were ordered to steam toward Lebanon and Iran. The America CVBG was ordered from Singapore to the Arabian Sea; the Coral Sea CVBG left a port call in Alexandria, Egypt, ahead of time; and BB-61 Iowa broke off a port call in Marseilles, France, to steam east toward Lebanon. The cruiser Belknap, with the Sixth Fleet commander aboard, headed to the waters off Lebanon, canceling its participation in a port call in the Soviet Union.
202 Philippines 11/30/89 6 P4 Y 2 Y Y   Y N
In the midst of a coup attempt against the government of Corazon Aquino, USAF F-4s based at Clark Air Force Base flew combat air patrols above rebel air bases. Press reports indicated that this was done to prevent rebel aircraft from taking off. At the same time, two aircraft carriers (Enterprise and Midway) were in the waters off the Philippines, and an ARG was moved to Subic Bay. A second ARG was ordered to halt its transit from Okinawa to Pearl Harbor and was held in the waters off Okinawa until the situation in the Philippines stabilized. Additional units alerted included elements of the U.S. Army's 25th Infantry Division (Light), which is based in Hawaii.
203 Panama 12/20/89 34 A3 Y 0 N Y   Y Y
Following a period of growing U.S.-Panamanian tension, which greatly increased in mid-December with growing harassment of U.S. personnel stationed in the Canal Zone, U.S. forces overthrew the Noreiga regime. The primary augmentation of forces in the Canal Zone consisted of U.S. Army units, including a battalion each from the 5th and 7th Infantry Divisions and a brigade of the 82nd Airborne. In addition to extensive airlift, U.S. Air Force involvement included the first use of the Stealth fighter in a combat environment. The primary Marine Corps mission was to secure the Bridge of the Americas and to ensure the security of Howard Air Force Base. Navy involvement included a ship held in a MODLOC off the Panamanian coast. This operation included the largest special forces operations since the Vietnam War, involving more than 4,000 troops including a large number of Navy SEALs.
204 Liberia NEO 5/25/90 230 A5 Y 0 Y Y   N N
In late May 1990, following a period of increasing violence in Liberia, the Mediterranean Amphibious Ready Group was ordered from Toulon, France, to a holding point off Monrovia, Liberia. The first forces arrived on 2 June, with the ships of the MARG and a destroyer all on station by 4 June. The forces involved in "Operation Sharp Edge" supported the U.S. Embassy and stood by to evacuate American citizens from Liberia. The first noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) occurred on 5 August. On 21 August, the original four-ship task force was relieved by a two-ship amphibious force, which remained until November. The last amphibious ship (Nashville) left the coast of Liberian on 9 January 1991 to rejoin the MARG in the Mediterranean. A total of 2,609 people were evacuated from Liberia during Sharp Edge (the largest NEO since the evacuation of Saigon in 1975).
205 Iraqi Pressure on Kuwait 7/24/90 9 A7 Y 0 N N   N N
In response to mounting Iraqi pressure against Kuwait, an exercise by Middle East Force ships was ordered by the JCS. The exercise, which was a joint exercise with the United Arab Emirates, involved five MEF ships and three USAF aircraft (two tankers and one cargo plane). The forces remained in theater on higher alert during the period prior to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.
206 Operation Desert Shield 8/2/90 166 A7 Y 6 Y Y   Y Y
On 2 August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. U.S. Navy forces, including the aircraft carrier Independence immediately began moving toward the region. On 7 August, President Bush issued orders for the movement of U.S. forces to Saudi Arabia. The first U.S. Air Force and Army units began to arrive within days, and the first Marine Corps units married up with maritime prepositioning force (MPF) equipment a week later. Large numbers of U.S. Navy ships were involved in interdiction operations in support of U.N. sanctions against Iraq. Desert Shield represents the largest commitment of U.S. forces since the Vietnam War, with more than 210,000 military personnel in theater at the end of October 1990 and more than 400,000 in early January 1991. The U.S. forces in the region were joined by forces from over 20 nations around the world in support of sanctions against Iraq.

NOTE: This document was prepared in late January 1991. A decision on how to treat the conflict with Iraq in terms of this study has not been determined as of the publication of this research memorandum.

207 Somalia Evacuation 1/2/91 9 P6 Y 0 Y Y   Y N
On 30 December 1990, rebels from the United Somali Congress (USC) began to have great success against government troops and were threatening the capital. On 2 January 1991, USS Guam (LPH-9) and USS Trenton (LPD-14), deployed in the North Arabian Sea as part of Desert Shield, were ordered to Mogadishu to evacuate the U.S. Embassy. On the night of 4-5 January, two CH-53s from HMH-461 carried 60 Marines and SEALs 466 miles (with two refuelings en route) to the embassy, and carried 61 evacuees back to Guam. The next night, 10 CH-46s from HMM-263 and HMM-365 flew in to evacuate the remaining personnel. By early morning on 6 January, 281 people had been evacuated (the 282nd was born on Guam on 10 January) including 51 Americans, 39 Soviets, eight ambassadors, and four charge d'affaires. French and Italian Navy vessels also evacuated people from Mogadishu.
NOTES: See table 1 for notes.

SOURCES: See Selected Bibliography for partial source list.

 

GLOSSARY

APD
High-Speed Transport
ARG Amphibious Ready Group
ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare
AV Seaplane Tender
AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System
BB Battleship
BLT Battalion Landing Team
CA Cruiser
CG Guided-Missile Cruiser
CINCLANTFLT Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet
CINCCONAD Commander-in-Chief, Continental Air Defense
CINCSAC Commander-in-Chief, Strategic Air Command
CONUS Continental United States
CV Aircraft Carrier
CVA Aircraft Carrier, Attack
CVAN Aircraft Carrier, Attack (nuclear-powered)
CVB Large Aircraft Carrier (attack)
CVBG Carrier Battle Group
CVL Aircraft Carrier, Small
CVN Aircraft Carrier (nuclear-powered)
CVS Aircraft Carrier, Support (antisubmarine warfare)
DD Destroyer
DEFCON Defense Condition
FF Frigate
FFG Guided-Missile Frigate
FMFLANT Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic
FON Freedom of Navigation
HMH Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron
HMM Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron
HMR Marine Helicopter Squadron
JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff
LHA Amphibious Assault Ship
LPH Amphibious Assault Ship (helicopter)
LSD Dock Landing Ship
LST Landing Ship, Tank
MAB Marine Amphibious Brigade
MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force
MARG Mediterranean Amphibious Ready Group
MAU Marine Amphibious Unit
MIDEASTFOR Middle East Force (also MEF)
MEF Marine Expeditionary Force
MODLOC Modified Location
MRBM Medium-Range Ballistic Missile
MPF Maritime Prepositioning Force
MSC Military Sealift Command
NEO Non-combatant Evacuation Operation
OVL Operation, Vicinity of Libya
PACOM Pacific Command
PFLP Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
PHIBRON Amphibious Squadron
PRC People's Republic of China
RLT Regimental Landing Team
ROC Republic of China
SAC Strategic Air Command
SAR Sea-Air Rescue
STANAVFORLANT Standing Naval Forces, Atlantic
TAC Tactical Air Command
TF Task Force
TG  Task Group
USCINCSO U.S. Commander-in-Chief, Southern Command
USA U.S. Army
USAF U.S. Air Force
USCG U.S. Coast Guard
USEUCOM United States European Command
USMC U.S. Marine Corps
USN U.S. Navy
VM Marine Aviation
VMA Marine Attack Squadron
VMA(AW) Marine All-Weather Attack Squadron
VMF Marine Fighter Squadron
VMF(AW) Marine All-Weather Fighter Squadron

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bendix BSR 1407, The Navy and Sub-Limited Conflict (U), Confidential, 30 September 1966

Blechman, Barry M., and Stephen S. Kaplan, Force Without War, Washington, D.C., The Brookings Institution, 1978

Bolger, Daniel P., Americans at War: 1975-1986, An Era of Violent Peace, Novato, California, Presidio Press, 1988

Brecher, Michael, Jonathan Wilkenfeld, and Sheila Moser, Crises in the Twentieth Century: Vol I, Handbook of International Crises, Oxford, Pergammon Press, 1988

Cable, James, Gunboat Diplomacy, 1919-1979, New York, St. Martin's Press, Second Edition, 1979

China and U.S. Far East Policy, 1945-1967, Washington, D.C., Congressional Quarterly Service, 1967

CNA Information Manual 51, Deployments of U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers and Other Surface Ships, 1976-1988, by Adam Siegel, Karen Domabyl, and Barbara Lingberg, For Official Use Only, July 1989

CNA Research Contribution 144, An Analysis of Recent Conflicts, by R.P. Richardson, Jr., and S. Waldron, Unclassified, January 1966

CNA Research Contribution 322, U.S. Navy Responses to International Incidents and Crises, 1955-1975, by Robert B. Mahoney, Jr., July 1977

CNA Research Contribution 429, Naval Crisis Management (U), by Stephen S. Roberts, Secret, May 1980

CNA Research Memorandum 85-71, U.S. Naval Responses to International Incidents and Crises, 1976-1984 (U), by John D. Perse, Secret, August 1985

CNA Research Memorandum 89-315, U.S. Navy Crisis Response Activity, 1946-1989: Preliminary Report, by Adam B. Siegel, November 1989

Congressional Research Service Report 89-651 F, Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-1989, Ellen C. Collier (ed.), 4 December 1989

Cooney, David M., A Chronology of the U.S. Navy: 1775-1965, New York, Franklin Watts, 1965

Donnelly, Ralph W., Gabrielle M. Neufeld, and Carolyn A. Tyson, A Chronology of the Unites States Marine Corps: Vol. III, 1947-1964, Washington, D.C., Historical Division, Headquarters, USMC, 1971

Facts on File, 1946-1989

Frank, Benis M., U.S. Marines in Lebanon, 1982-1984, Washington, D.C., History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1987

Futrell, Robert Frank, Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, vol 1: 1907-1960 and vol. II: 1961-1984, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, Air University Press, December 1989

Gilmore, Barbara A., Chronology of U.S. Naval Events, Operational Archives, U.S. Navy Historical Center, Bldg. 57, Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., 1960-1979

Hooper, Edwin Bickford, Dean C. Allard, and Oscar P. Fitzgerald, The United States and the Vietnam Conflict, Vol I: The Setting of the Stage to 1959, Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1976

Howe, Jonathan T., Multicrises, Seapower and Global Politics in the Missile Age, Cambridge, MIT Press, 1971

IBM, Federal Systems Division, Appendix A to WWMCCS Architecture Baseline Assumptions: Selected Post-World War II Crisis Descriptions, Arlington, Virginia, 1 July 1975 (DTIC AD-B959 592)

Jessup, John E., A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945-1985, New York, Greenwood Press, 1989

Kaplan, Stephen S., Force Without War: The United States: Use of Armed Forces as a Political Instrument (manual), Washington, D.C., Brookings Institution, 1977

Keesing's Contemporary Archives, 1946-1988

Marolda, Edward J., "The U.S. Navy and the Chinese Civil War, 1945-1952," PhD Dissertation at George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 18 February 1990 (The author would like to note his appreciation to Dr. Marolda for allowing access to a draft version of the dissertation.)

Marolda, Edward J., and Oscar P. Fitzgerald, The United States and the Vietnam Conflict, Vol II: From Military Assistance to Combat, 1959-1965, Washington, D.C., Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1986

Mets, David R., Land-Based Air Power in Third World Crises, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, Air University Press, 1986

Millett, Allan R., Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps, New York, Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980

Moore, James A., et al., Crisis Inventory, Arlington, Virginia, CACI, Inc.-Federal, August 1975 (DTIC AD-A015 721)

Neufeld, Gabrielle M., A Chronology of the United States Marine Corps: Vol. IV, 1965-1969, Historical Division, Headquarters, USMC, Washington, D.C., 1971

New York Times, 1946-1990

Smith, Richard K., and Floyd D. Kennedy, Jr., Cold War Navy, Falls Church, Virginia, Lulejian & Associates (Prepared for the Chief of Information, Department of the Navy under contract # N00014-75-C-1001), March 1976

Stephens, and Steven R. Bollenbaugh, Projected U.S. Combat Ship and Aircraft Requirements for Crises Response in the Year 2000, China Lake, CA, Naval Weapons Center, For Official Use Only, April 1983

Sweetman, Jack, American Naval History: An Illustrated Chronology of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, 1775-Present, Annapolis, MD, Naval Institute Press, 1984

"USAF Operations and U.S. National Security, 1980-1989 (Draft Memorandum)," prepared by OSAF based on data from the U.S. Air Force Historian's Office, USAFE, and SAC, Spring 1990

U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute ACN 74020, An Analysis of International Crises and Army Involvement (Historical Appraisal 1945-1974), Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, 1 October 1974

U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, chronologies and descriptions of U.S. Naval operations and maritime events appearing in the May issues, 1976-1989

U.S. Navy History Division, Operational Archives, "CNO Daily Briefing Notes," for the period 1976-1989

Xydis, Stephen G., "The Genesis of the Sixth Fleet," USNI Proceedings, vol. 84, August 1958, pages 41-50

Zelikow, Philip D., "Force Without War, 1975-1982," The Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, March 1984, pages 29-54


NOTE: This is a partial bibliography, reflecting sources that were used for multiple crises and which provided substantial information on the United States use of force (especially naval forces) during those crises. Additional sources were used for almost every individual crisis response.

 

Appendix
USMC AIRCRAFT DEPLOYMENT
ABOARD AIRCRAFT CARRIERS

This appendix lists U.S. Marine Corps fixed-wing aircraft deployments aboard U.S. Navy aircraft carriers from 1949 through 1989. Because the sources used for this table often conflicted with each other, this should not be considered authoritative but rather as representative of the USMC squadron deployments aboard carriers. Also, this appendix understates USMC aircraft at sea deployments in two significant ways. First, deployments aboard amphibious ships are not included (this primarily excludes helicopters, but also AV-8B deployments in recent years). Second, the table only considers "attack" carriers; deployments aboard escort (CVE), light (CVL), and antisubmarine (CVS) are not included in the table. In the 1940s and 1950s, deployments aboard such carriers were possibly quite frequent. For example, during the Korean War, USMC squadrons flew ground support missions off two CVEs (VMF 214 off Sicily, 3 August - 15 November 1950; VMF 323 off Badoenq Strait, 5 August - early December 1950). This practice continued into the 1960s. For example, during the Vietnam War VMA-223 flew A-4Cs off CVS-10 Yorktown during one deployment (23 October 1964 -16 May 1965).

Table A-1. USMC Aircraft Deployments Aboard Aircraft Carriers, 1949-1989

Air Wing Yeara Carrierb Squadron Aircraft
Type
Notesc
MAG-11 1949 CV-32 MAG-11 (VMF 223, VMF 225, VMF 461)    
CVG-6 1951 CVB-42 VMF 225    
CVG-4 1951 CV-34 VMF 122    
CVG-6 1952 CVB-41 VMF 225    
CVG-4 1952 CVB-43 VMA 211    
CVG-10 1953 CVA-40 VMF 114    
CVG-8 1953 CVA-43 VMF 122    
CVG-17 1955 CVA-43 VMF 122    
CVG-6 1955 CVA-39 VMA 324    
CVG-15 1956 CVA-18 VMA 223    
ATG-182 1957 CVA-39 VMF 533   Jordan
ATG-2 1957 CVA-19 VMF(AW) 214   PRC-ROC tension
CVG-1 1957 CVA-42 VMF(AW) 114   Syria
CVG-10 1957 CVA-9 VMA 225    
  1958 CVA-59 VMF 333 F-8 Lebanon landings
CVG-7 1960 CVA-62 VMA 224    
CVG-15 1960 CVA-43 VMA 324, VMA 121    
CVG-10 1961 CVA-38 VMA 225   Dominican Republic
VG-2 1961 CVA-41 VMA 311   Laos
CVG-14 1961 CVA-16 VMF 323   Laos
CVG-10 1962 CVA-38 VMF 251   Berlin
CVG-7 1962 CVA-62 VMF(AW) 115   Cuban Missile Crisis
CVG-16 1962 CVA-32 VMF 232    
CVG-7 1963 CVA-34 VMA 324    
CVG-8 1964 CVA-62 VMA 331    
CVW-16 1965 CVA-59 VMF(AW) 212    
CVW-16 1965 CVA-34 VMF 212 F-8E Vietnam
  1970 CVA-59 VMCJ 2   Jordan
  1970 CVA-60 VMCJ 2   Jordan
  1970 CVA-66 VMCJ 2    
CVW-7 1970/1 CVA-62 VMA 331 A4-E Jordan
  1971 CVA-59 VMCJ 2 (det) EA-6A  
  1971 CVA-60 VMCJ 2 (det) EA-6A  
CVW-8 1971 CVA-66 VMFA 333    
CVW-15 1971/2 CVA-43 VMA(AW) 224 A-6A, KA6D Vietnam
CVW-8 1972/3 CVA-66 VMFA 333 F4J  
CVW-17 1972/3 CVA-59 VMFA 531    
  1972/3 CVA-60 VMCJ 2 (Det) EA-6A  
CVW-5 1972 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets) EA-6A/B, RF-4B  
CVW-5 1973 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)    
CVW-5 1974 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)    
  1974 CVA-66 VMCJ-2 (det) EA-6A  
CVW-5 1975 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)   Frequent Wind
  1976/7 CV-42 VMA 231 (det)    
CVW-5 1976 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)   Korean Tree Incident
CVW-8 1976 CVN-68 VMFA 333    
CVW-5 1977 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)    
CVW-5 1978 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)    
CVW-5 1979 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)    
CVW-14 1979 CV-43 VMFA 323, VMFA 531 F-4N  
CVW-5 1980 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)   Iran Hostage Crisis
CVW-5 1981 CV-41 VMCJ/VMAQ 2, VMCJ/VMFP 3 (dets)   Iran Hostage Crisis
CVW-1 1981 CV-59 VMFA 115 F-4J  
CVW-9 1981 CV-64 VMAQ 2 EA-6B Iran Hostage Crisis
CVW-8 1981/2 CVN-68 VMAQ 2 EA-6B Iran Hostage Crisis
CVW-5 1982 CV-41 VMCJ/VMFP 3 (det) RF-4  
CVW-5 1983 CV-41 VMCJ/VMFP 3 (det) RF-4  
CVW-17 1984 CV-60 VMFA (AW) 533, VMAQ 2 A-6E, KA-6D, EA-6B  
CVW-22 1984/5 CV-61 VMA(AW) 121 A6-E  
CVW-2 1986 CV-61 VMA(AW) 121 A6-E  
CVW-13 1985/6 CV-43 VMFA 314, VMFA 323 F/A-18 Libya, Mar 86
CVW-1 1986 CV-66 VMAQ-2 (det) EA-6B Libya, Mar/Apr 86
CVW-3 1986/7 CV-67 VMA(AW) 533 A-6E  
CVW-2 1986/7 CV-61 VMA(AW) 121 A-6E Earnest Will Escort
CVW-3 1988/89 CV-67 VMA(AW) 533 A-6E  
  1989 CV-43 VMFA-451 F/A-18C  
  1989 CV-61 VMA(AW)-121 A-6E  
Notes:

a. The year column indicates when the deployment occurred. It is likely that a greater number of the deployments than indicated occurred in a period of two calendar years.

b. The following are the carriers listed in the table, with the ship's name in addition to the hull number. The aircraft carriers are listed by their most recent designator in the appendix. For example, Coral Sea is listed as CV-43, rather than CVB-43 or CVA-43.

CVA-9 Essex
CVA-19 Hancock
CVA-38 Shangri-La
CV-41 Midway
CV-59 Forrestal
CV-62 Independence
CV-67 Kennedy
CVA-16 Lexington
CV-32 Leyte
CVA-39 Lake Champlain
CVB-42 FD Roosevelt
CV-60 Saratoga
CV-64 Constellation
CVN-68 Nimitz
CVA-18 Wasp
CV-34 Oriskany
CVA-40 Tarawa
CV-43 Coral Sea
CV-61 Ranger
CV-66 America

c. The notes column gives some indication as to the action(s) specific carriers/deployed units were associated with. This information was derived by comparing the list of USMC deployments aboard aircraft carriers with information as to which carriers were involved in each response.

Sources:

Appendix 1 from an unpublished paper by LtCol S.T. York, USMC, covers period 1949-1984 (used as primary source)

CNA OEG Report 72-01151, U.S. Naval and Marine Fixed-Wind Tactical Aviation Unit Identification and Deployment to Southeast Asia, May 1964 through July 1970, by Sharlet Gillam, 8 Aug 1972

CNA Ship Employment History Database as documented in CNA Research Memorandum 86-178, Ship Employment Histories and Their Use, by Karen N. Domabyl and Patricia A. Reslock, Unclassified, Jul 1986

Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, OP-962 Fact Sheet #40: Carrier/Aircraft Balance, George Haering, OP-962, 27 Dec 1976 (208416)10

Naval Aviation News, Annual Review Issues for 1979-1987

75 Years of Marine Corps Aviation - A Tribute, History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C., 1986

Thornell, LtCol John F., USMC, "Interoperability: A New Name for an Old Game," Foundation (Naval Aviation Museum Foundation), Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring 1990, pages 57-63


FOOTNOTES

1. Substantial excerpts of Research Memorandum 89-315 were inserted into the Congressional Record by Senator John McCain on 9 November 1989 ("The Importance of Carriers in an Era of Changing Strategic Priorities," pages S15384-S15394).

2. Each of these criteria can be discussed at great length. For most of CNA's research efforts on crisis response activity, a "senior" level has meant that the response had to be reported to the Chief of Naval Operations or to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the response to be counted.

3. The author completed the work on this research memorandum in late January 1991, while deployed to the Persian Gulf. At that time, the conflict with Iraq had not yet met this criteria. Clearly, however, the conflict with Iraq should be categorized as a war. This may force a reexamination of the methodological definition used for this study.

4. For examples of such activity, see CNA Information Manual 132, A Sampling of U.S. Naval Humanitarian Operations, by Adam B. Siegel, November 1990

5. The Selected Bibliography at the end of this document lists the main sources used to prepare this paper.

6. Dan Crawford of the Marine Corps Historical Center and Wes Price (formerly) and Judy Short of the Navy Operational Archives deserve special appreciation for their assistance in this research.

7. "If I am ordered: 'Record what you are now experiencing' I shall scarcely know how to obey this ambiguous order. Am I to report that I am writing; that I hear a bell ringing, a newsboy shouting, a loudspeaker droning, or am I to report, perhaps, that these noises irritate me?" [Karl R. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, New York, Harper, 1959, p. 106, as quoted in CNA Professional Paper 279, Causal Inferences and the Use of Force: A Critique of Force Without War, by Stephen M. Walt, May 1980, p. 47]

7a. A comparison between the treatment of the USMC involvement in China, 1946-1949 (case 4), and in Lebanon, 1982-1984 (cases 162, 163, 167, and 172), highlights the difficulties in determining logical start and end dates for each rresponse. In many ways, these could be viewed as relatively similar situations. The break points in U.S. Navy operations seemed clearer in the operations in and off Lebanon, and thus it is documented in four separate cases rather than the single case for the Marine involvement in China after the war.

8. Barry Blechman and Stephen S. Kaplan, Force Without War, Washington, D.C., The Brookings Institution, 1978; and, Philip D. Zelikow, "Force Without War, 1975-1982," The Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 7, no. 1, March 1984, pp. 29-54.

9. There are two principal reasons for the apparent discrepancy between the numbers presented in this paper (207 naval responses for the years 1946-1990) and the Force Without War data (209 naval responses for the 1946-1982 period):

  • Differing definitions for the duration of the Vietnam War (CNA's research defines the start of the Vietnam War with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of August 1964 and the end of the war as 31 December 1974, following the end of significant U.S. involvement in the war effort. The respective dates in the Brookings work are March 1965 and March 1972).

  • Multiple listings for some crises in the Brookings research to facilitate examination of different forms of use of America's armed forces for political purposes.

The Brookings study also focused more on the political utility of armed force as opposed to CNA's focus upon the use of U.S. Navy forces to respond to an international incident or crisis. Therefore, a number of cases included in the Brookings database (such as the invitation to Spanish observers to ride U.S. Navy ships during an exercise in 1952 following the signing of the basing agreement between the United States and Spain) are excluded according to the definitions used at CNA.

10. This number is an internal document control number at the Center for Naval Analyses.

Acknowledgement: The Navy Department Library gratefully acknowledges the Center for Naval Analyses for their support and encouragement in posting this online edition.