MARCH AND OPERATIONS
ARMY OF THE INDUS,
EXPEDITION TO AFFGHANISTAN
IN THE YEARS 1838-1839.
ILLUSTRATED BY A MAP, *
VIEWS OF CANDAHAR, GHUZNEE, AND CABOOL, AND
THE HISTORY OF THE DOORANEE EMPIRE FROM
ITS FOUNDATION TO THE PRESENT TIME.
By MAJOR W. HOUGH,
48th Regiment, Bengal Native Infantry.
LATE DEPUTY JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL OF THE "BENGAL COLUMN, ARMY OF
THE INDUS;" AND AUTHOR OF PRACTICE OF COURTS MARTIAL,
AND SEVERAL OTHER WORKS ON MILITARY LAW.
Wm. H. ALLEN and CO.,
7, Leadenhall Street.
* Note - The map is not available on-line due to its large size.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
|1.--Address to the Earl of Auckland, Governor General of India,||iii|
|2.--Address to the Reader,||v|
|3.--The Invasion of India, and its Defence,||ix|
|4.--Acknowledgments to Contributors,||xxiii|
|5.--Details of the "Army of the Indus;" and its Reserves,||xxv|
|Chap. I.--March of the "Army of the Indus" from Kurnal to Rohree on the Indus--Movements of the Bombay Troops,||1|
|Chap. II.--March from Rohree to Lower Sindh, and back to Sukkur, crossing the Bridge of boats--March to Shikarpoor-Movements of the Bombay Troops,||15|
|Chap. III.--March from Shikarpoor to Dadur near the Bolan Pass-Movements of the Bombay Troops,||35|
|Chap. IV.--March from Dadur--Through the Bolan Pass to Quetta,||47|
|Chap. V.--Quetta, and march from it through the Kojuk Pass, to Candahar,||63|
|Chap. VI.--Arrival at Candahar--Detachment sent to Girishk--Arrival of two grain convoys--Occurrences, &c.--Preparations to leave it,||99|
|Chap. VII.--Description of Candahar,||131|
|Chap. VIII.--March from Candahar towards Ghuznee,||143|
|Chap. IX.--March on Ghuznee-Operations before; Assault and capture of the Fortress--Reports of operations-- Despatches, &c. &c.-Description of Ghuznee,||163|
|Chap. X.--March from Ghuznee towards Cabool--Dost Mahomed Khan's flight--Pursuit after him--Arrival at Cabool,||239|
|Chap. XI.--Arrival at Cabool---Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk's entry into the Capital--Return of party from the pursuit of Dost Mahomed Khan, unsuccessful--Medals proposed for the capture of Ghuznee--Arrival of Shahzada Timoor and Lieut.-Col. Wade with his Troops. Review of H. M.'s 16th Lancers--Review of the Bengal and Bombay Horse Artillery--Grand Review--Races at Cabool--Durbar-- The Dooranee Order--Attack on Ghiljies--Troops to remain in Affghanistan--Arrival of 2 treasure convoys-- Disposition of Troops in Affghanistan--Troops to return to India--Mahomed Hyder Khan, and Hajee Khan, Kakur, return to India,||251|
|Chap. XII.--Description of the country of Cabool--Trade-- Fruits--Climate--Grain--The city of Cabool--Revenue--Population-Army-Provisions-Police,||275|
|Chap. XIII.--March of the Hd. Qrs. and Troops returning to India, from Cabool, through the Khoord Cabool Pass--to near the Khyber Pass,||293|
|Chap. XIV.--March through the Khyber Pass to Peshawer--The Khyber Pass and its defence--Payments to the Khyberees. Tax, or Toll, levied--Commercial and Military use of the Pass-Arrival at Peshawer,||309|
|Chap. XV.--Peshawer described--Revenue--Troops--Attacks in Khyber Pass--Battle of Noushera (1823). Cross the Indus over a bridge of boats-Arrival at Attok,||321|
|Chap. XVI.--March from Attok to Ferozpoor viâ the Punjab to--Rawul Pindee--The Tope of Muneekyala--Rhotas-- Jheelum--Loss in crossing the river---Cross the Chenab --The true site of Nica; Bucephalia; and Taxilla. Sir John marches to Lahore. Cross the Ravee--Rumour of attempt to rescue the state Prisoners--The visit at Lahore --Display of the Sikh Army and extensive Artillery--Their state of discipline and knowledge of tactics---Cross the Sutluj--Camp near Ferozpoor--Orders breaking up the "Army of the Indus"--The longest Indian march ever known--Sir J. Keane embarks on the river for Bombay, with Mahomed Hyder Khan--The Troops proceed to their destinations,||337|
|Chap. XVII.--The History of the Dooranee dynasty, from its foundation (1747) to the present period,||365|
|Chap. XVIII.--Tablet of routes of the Bengal column, from Kurnal to Cabool, and of Hd. Qrs., back to Ferozpoor-- Of the Bombay Column from the landing in Sindh, to Dadur--Of the Bombay Column from Cabool, by a new route, on its return to Sindh,||423|
|No. I.--Proclamation declaring the object of the expedition into Affghanistan,||3|
|No. II.--Report of the Envoy and Minister of arrival at Candahar,||8|
|No. III.--Sir John Keane's order on arrival at Candahar,||11|
|No. IV.--Report of arrival at Cabool,||15|
|No. V.--G. O. by the Govr. Genl. of India regarding the termination of the expedition,||26|
|No. VI.--Despatch regarding the operations and capture of Khelat,||23|
|No. VII.--Honors conferred on Lord Auckland, Sir John Keane, and on officers of the Army of the Indus,||32|
|No. VIII.--Lord Auckland's letter on the fall of Khelat to the Secret Committee of the E. I. Company,||36|
|No. IX.--Letter of Lord Hill, Comg.-in-Chief H. M.'s Forces, to Lieut.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, regarding the capture of Ghuznee,||37|
|No. X.--G. O. by the Comr.-in-Chief in India, expressive of the Queen's satisfaction (through Lord Hill) at the capture of Khelat,||37|
|No. XI.--Directions regarding the Family Remittances of officers,||38|
|No. XII.--The Queen's permission to wear the order of the "Dooranee Empire,"||39|
|No. XIII.--List of officers killed, and who have died in the course of the expedition,||41|
|No. 1.--Return of Death Casualties of Men, Horses, and Bullocks, in the Army of the Indus,||43|
|No. 2.--Monthly numerical return of the Admissions into Hospital, and Deaths of the Bengal Column, Army of the Indus, for the year 1839,||46|
|No. 3.--The range of the Thermometer during the year 1839,||58|
|No. 4.--Barometrical heights in feet--Observations with an Englefield's Barometer, without an attached Thermometer,||74|
|No. 5.--Return of Ordnance stores, and grain, captured at Ghuznee, &c. &c.,||75|
|No. 6.--Return of a month's supply for the Army of the Indus,||77|
|No. 7.--Return of Ordnance, Ordnance stores, Musket, Carbine, and Pistol Ammunition, and Powder, which accompanied the Bengal Park, Army of the Indus,||78|
|No. 8.--Loss of public and hired cattle in the Bengal Column, "Army of the Indus." Also, the loss of cattle by officers and men in the Bengal and Bombay Columns, "Army of the Indus"--during the Affghanistan expedition,||79|
|The Index after the Tables.|
|The Errata last.|
RT. HON. THE EARL OF AUCKLAND, G. C. B.
GOVERNOR GENERAL OF INDIA.
I HAVE at length the satisfaction of presenting the "Narrative of the March and Operations of the Army of the Indus," which you did me the honor to permit me to dedicate to your Lordship.
2. The importance, in a political and military point of view, of the great measure of your Lordship's administration, by which an additional barrier against foreign invasion, has been secured to the North West Frontier of British India, has induced me to add to this volume, a History of the Dynasty of the "Dooranee Empire;" exhibiting the period of its foundation; the period and splendour of its rule; the dethronement of its sovereign, and loss of its most valuable provinces; the dismemberment of the remaining portion of the country and thirty years of anarchy and misrule: and finally, the restoration, under your Lordship's auspices, of Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, to the throne of his ancestors.
3. May I be permitted to add--while the result of the expedition has obtained such present advantages, and has rendered an act of justice to a fallen monarch, who long lived under the protection of a liberal government--that I trust, under Divine Providence, the event may not only cause the regeneration of Affghanistan; but may, in future times, be attended with great commercial advantages to Great Britain.
I have the honor to be,
25th August, 1840.
I HAVE given to this work the title of the "March and Operations of the Army of the Indus," because it is not merely a "Diary." The details of the march and operations of an Army in the form in which I have given them, appeared to me to be the most simple method, and the notice, as they occurred, of the losses sustained in cattle, &c. by the State or by private individuals, has the advantage of identifying the places where the Army suffered most. The details of the losses sustained by an army marching into a foreign country, may be useful as guides for the future; and I am indebted to friends for many valuable tables to prove the amount in each case.
2. Had I the ability to give a comprehensive political view of so great an undertaking, still as the necessity for the measure is acknowledged by sound politicians, it were useless to argue the point in detail. If the article on the "Invasion of India," and the "History of the Dooranee Empire," will not satisfy the objections of another class of politicians, I plead my inability, on the present occasion, to do more than refer them to the "Parliamentary
Papers." I am of that class called "Whig;" and am of opinion that a mistaken policy towards Persia caused the expedition into Affghanistan.
The expense I believe, will be less than the admirers of another plan would suppose: but the cost should be referred to another period.
3. The nature of the country, in a great measure, prescribed the plan of our marches. Our operations were against fortresses, where the engineers, as a matter of science, had the chief direction of the mode of procedure, and as they declared only one form of attack was available under the existing circumstances, the execution of it only remained to be carried into effect. The daily description of the country we passed through, may serve to show by the relative position of our columns, the means to resist an enemy. If the reports of "advancing foes" often proved fallacious, such will be found to be the case in all warfare; it is wise to be prepared for their truth: but we must not condemn the "Politicals," because a rumour of such a nature proved untrue. Information obtained in a foreign country must often be uncertain; the parties giving it may have every inducement to be sincere; but, like Hajee Khan, Kakur, they may prove deceitful.
4. I have commented on several occurrences, from a desire to state, fairly, what took place, and I have endeavoured to do so with a view to elicit a consideration of what I have deemed erroneous, to prevent their recurrence; but without any intention of hurting the feelings of any one. Where any action of gallantry or conspicuous good conduct occurred, I have mentioned the name of the
individual, which is an act of justice. I have employed the most simple style, which is a type of the old-school: but, if I have rendered the work a useful record of facts, I shall be satisfied; and willingly concede to others, the ability to write in a more fascinating form.
5. From the nature of our operations, Cavalry were less employed than Infantry, the Affghan troops are chiefly composed of Cavalry, but do not equal the description given of the "Candahar Horse" of former days; though we had no opportunity of testing their military worth. The Ghiljies have proved themselves, of late, to be the boldest of the mounted troops of the country.
The European troops of our Army had no "rum" from the time we left Candahar, till a supply came from India, after the campaign. Owing to eating the fat Doomba mutton which is rich, and drinking the water of the country possessing an aperient quality, they suffered much from bowel complaints. Whatever may be the opinion of the "Abstinence Societies," all sound medical men declare the sudden deprivation of spirits to be injurious.
Now that the "Magnates" have received the meed of their merits, in the shape of Honors and Rank, it is to be hoped that the more humble officers, N. C. O. and soldiers may be honored with the "Medal" for the capture of Ghuznee, which his Affghan majesty designed to bestow, in high approbation of their services; while the public voice has sanctioned the justness of the expectation.
6. As it appeared to me that some account of a country so little known, and which has been the scene of our operations, should be afforded, and
having possessed the means of effecting such an object; I have in my XVIIth Chapter given the "History of the Dooranee Dynasty." It may, here, not be out of place, to show the ancient dimensions of the Empire; now reduced to the kingdom of Cabool and its dependencies.
|At the death of Ahmed Shah the founder (1747)
who died in 1773, the Empire was composed of:--
|Under Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk,|
|1. Neeshapoor.||1. Cabool.|
|2. Meshid.||2. Bameean.|
|3. Herat.||3. Ghuznee.|
|4. Cabool.||4 Candahar.|
|5. Balkh.||5. Jellalabad.|
|13. The Punjab.|
|14. Dera Ghazee Khan.|
|15. Dera Ismael Khan.|
|19. The country as far E. as Sirhind.|
THE INVASION OF INDIA, AND THE MEANS OF DEFENCE.
1. The Invasion of India, has been contemplated at various periods for more than half a century. Sir John McNeill2 states that Prince Nassau Siegen presented to Catherine of Russia in 1787, a project, drawn up by a Frenchman, for marching an Army through Bokhara and Cashmeer3 to Bengal, to drive the English out of India, this was to be preceded by a manifesto declarative of the intention to re-establish the great Moghul on the throne of India;4 and though Potemkin derided it, the plan was favorably received by the Empress: and has never been forgotten in Russia.
2. It is a singular fact that Zeman Shah,5 brother to Shah Shoojah, whom the British Government has just replaced on the throne of Cabool, should have twice (1797 and 1798) threatened the invasion of India; the last time accompanied with a letter addressed to the minister at Delhi
declaring his intention of returning, on a more favorable occasion, to replace Shah Alum on his throne, and make the Mahomedan the paramount power in India. An ambitions Government would in 1838 have taken possession of Affghanistan, instead of adopting the more generous act of the restoration of a long deposed monarch. Both the above events caused great alarm in India, and occasioned a considerable increase in the Bengal Army.6
A Persian of rank was entrusted, by the Government of Bombay, with a letter to the King of Persia to endeavour to secure his aid, which was afforded in the shape of an attack on an Affghan province in Khorasan; which caused Zeman Shah's return from Lahore to his Capital.
3. The Government of India next determined to send an Ambassador to Persia. Sir J. Malcolm was selected. He left Bombay in the end of 1799, arrived in Persia in 1800, and in 1801, commercial and political treaties were signed between the British and Persian Governments. The invasion of Egypt by France about this period, with 40,000 men, though it failed in gaining the object intended, owing to our successes, ought to have opened the eyes of the ministry of that period, to the probability of an attempt to invade India by the way of Persia; but the opportunity was lost. This was the first error.
In 1805,7 the King of Persia being unable to cope with Russia, addressed a letter to Napoleon, desiring to form an alliance with France. M. Jaubert was sent to Tehran. Merza Reza, in return, went on a mission to Napoleon, accompanied him to Tilsit, and concluded a treaty, which was ratified at Fenkenstein in May, 1807. At the same time Mahomed Nebbee Khan was sent as Envoy to the British Government of India, to claim its assistance against Russia; but his mission was unsuccessful; and Persia losing all hope of support from her old ally, had no alternative but to throw herself into the arms of France.
4. This was the second error in our policy towards Persia. There was also at this period, a secret treaty signed at Tilsit, between Napoleon and the Emperor Alexander, having for its object the invasion of India, each power to furnish 30,000 men. Napoleon was playing a double game. Probably his plans in Spain and Portugal prevented the execution of his designs on India on a great scale. Probably he was not desirous of sharing his conquest with Russia; and wished, by a successful invasion of Russia, to carry single-handed his views in the East. The next step of Napoleon was to send General Gardanne as Ambassador to the Court of the Shah. French officers were sent who first introduced European discipline into the Persian Army. French Engineers built the first regular fortifications.
5. In 1809 Sir J. Malcolm was sent on a second mission to Persia. On his arrival at Bushire he was denied permission to proceed to the capital, owing to French influence;8 in consequence he returned to Calcutta. Sir Harford Jones,9 who had been sent by the Court of London on a mission to Persia, was received at the Persian Court. The Shah apprehensive of the threatened hostilities from India, and more than all, the inability of the French Ambassador to perform the promises his master had made,10 secured to this mission a favorable reception, and ultimately forced the French Embassy to retire, and procured a Persian Ambassador to be sent to England. Sir H. Jones settled a preliminary treaty on the 12th March, 1809, to the following effect:11
Article IV.12 "In case any European Forces shall invade the territories of Persia, His Britannic Majesty will afford a force, or, in lieu of it, a subsidy. That in case the dominions of H. B. M. in India are attacked or invaded by the Affghans, or any other power, H. M. the King of Persia shall afford a force for the protection of the said dominions."13
But, while the Government of India had, thus, secured the aid of Persia in case of the invasion of British India by the Affghans, or any other power, it was resolved to be doubly armed, on the present occasion, by having a treaty with the Affghans themselves. Accordingly, the mission of the Honorable Mr. M. Elphinstone was despatched to the Court of Cabool, which resulted in the following treaty.14
6. Article II. "If the French and Persians, in pursuance of their confederacy, should advance towards the king of Cabool's country in a hostile manner, the British state, endeavouring heartily to repel them, shall hold themselves liable to afford the expenses necessary for the above mentioned service, to the extent of their ability. While the confederacy between the French and Persians continues in force, these articles shall be in force, and be acted on by both parties."
So that, while the Government of India entered into a treaty with Persia to defend British India in case of its invasion by the Affghans, or any other power, it, at the same time, sent a mission to the King of the Affghans, and made
a treaty with him to protect India from an invasion by the French and Persians! While the British Government merely engaged to defend Persia against European enemies, and Affghanistan only against one European power!
7. Had the British ministry secured the advantages to be expected to result from the commercial and political treaties with Persia, settled by Sir J. Malcolm in 1801, they might have prevented the King of Persia, in 1805, seeking the alliance of France. Our expedition to Egypt had been crowned with success, and there was no war in India. But when in 1809, we obtained the dismissal of General Gardanne's Embassy, and induced a Persian Ambassador's being sent to England, then, at all events, was the time to have secured such a political and military alliance with Persia, as to have prevented Russian influence succeeding that of France. It must have been foreseen that, if remote France could gain an ascendancy in Persia, the proximity of Russia rendered it probable that she would exert a more direct and permanent ascendancy in the councils of the Shah.
As observed by Sir J. McNeill,15 "British replaced the French officers in the armies of the Shah, and taught them to combat, on several occasions with success, the battalions of the Czar." At this period too, France was amply engaged in Spain and Portugal.
8. In 1812, Russia was invaded by France. At this time though we were much engaged in the war in Spain and Portugal, still in India there was no war16 to have prevented our embracing so favorable an opportunity to strengthen our relations in Persia, and prevent Russian influence in that country.
As the greatest commercial nation in the world, it was to have been expected that such permanent relations would have
been established in Persia as should have secured to the British nation, a paramount commercial influence; and by such means, some recognised principle of permanent political advantage.17 But the ministry of the day neglected British interests, and those of her ancient ally, and threw her on the mercy of Russia: this was not the Act of a Whig ministry.
In 1814, a treaty was concluded between Russia and Persia, by which the latter ceded to Russia, all her acquisitions South of the Caucasus, and engaged to maintain no navy on the Caspian; which now belongs to Russia: this we might have prevented. By the treaty of 1828 with Persia, Russia established the line of the river Arras (Araxes) as her frontier towards Persia.18
9. In 1833, several British officers were sent to Persia19 to discipline the king's troops. Had Abbas Merza lived, British influence would have prevented the march of a Persian Army to Herat in 1837. The present king of Persia, Mahomed Shah, eldest son of Abbas Merza, having inarched to Herat, the British officers in his service were not allowed to accompany the troops; and shortly after returned to Bengal.
Supposing the subsidy of 1814 to have been continued up to the year 1828, 5,600,000 were paid to Persia, and there have been several expensive Embassies;20 so that eight or nine millions sterling have been paid to our ancient
ally, for which no adequate political advantage has been gained.
Sir J. McNeill states21 that the British imports into Persia the last two years amounted to 1½ millions, and the last year (1837) to nearly two millions. But it might be greater if we possessed more influence in that country.22
10. When Abbas Merza in 1828, cancelled the subsidy of 1814, with his father's consent, such a fact fully proved the hold which Russia had obtained on Persia, which a more liberal system might have averted. Persia had at one time consented to receive a French subsidiary force, and a British force would no doubt have been received, and at a time when the integrity of the Persian empire could have been assured. The years 1809 or 1812, would have been the best periods for such an arrangement, to have prevented the execution of the Russian and Persian treaty of 1814. But even in the year 1827, important service might have been afforded to Persia; and such a course would doubtless, have rendered our expedition into Affghanistan unnecessary.
11. The failure of the ministry of the above period to act with true policy towards Persia, and the advance of a large Persian army against Herat in 183723 imposed on
the Government of India the necessity of sending the expedition into Affghanistan; since the fall of the above fortress, would have caused the whole of Affghanistan to become a Persian Province! Treaties had been tried since the year 1801, without success; because treaties, alone, were of no avail. I do not believe the expedition will cost above one-third of the money expended in Persian diplomacy.
If then it were good and sound policy, to prevent the conquest of Affghanistan, by Persia, the next consideration was, whether it were better to restore Shah Shoojah who had been deposed for 30 years, and thus add to the measure an act of justice; or to make Dost Mahomed Khan, an usurper, the head of the Affghan nation?
I think the former measure was the most advisable and legitimate one; as there would be a sense of gratitude to the British Government for its past liberal asylum to a fallen monarch;24 and kingly power was preferable to that of an usurper, whose rule was not by the choice of the people. To have made Dost Mahomed the head of the nation, and to have fully effected such a measure, we must have placed him in possession of Candahar, which would have involved a subsidiary force both at Candahar and Cabool, equal to the expense of the Shah's contingent;25 together with European political officers at both cities; as is now the case. But we could not have placed the same confidence in Dost Mahomed; and it was of importance that the head of the nation should not be on unfriendly terms with Shah Kamran of Herat.26
12. The result of the expedition will prove, that the difficulties of the invasion of India are far greater than have been supposed. The British Army had the resources of the country at its command, or it never could have replaced a great portion of the 33,000 animals which died, &c. during the campaign.27 This an invading army from Persia could not reckon on. The friends of Shah Shoojah brought cattle to us. Were a Persian Army now to invade Affghanistan, the camels, &c. would be driven away.
We had two convoys of grain sent to our Army from our Provinces; but, had we not, through the Shah's possession of Candahar, obtained grain from the city (having only two or three days' supplies on our arrival) and the coming crops of grain, we must have been starved! The quantity of grain required for our small army,28 and the great number of cattle required for its transport, prove that the feeding an army, in a country where the people only grow enough grain for their own support, is one of great difficulty. We nearly starved the inhabitants of Candahar.
13. The greater the force sent to invade India, the more would the difficulties multiply. The Emperor Baber in 152529 invaded India the 5th, and last time, with only 12,000 men, including followers, and defeated Sultan Ibrahim, at Paneeput, at the head of an army of, it is said, 100,000 men! Baber had guns, the Sultan had not; and the troops of the former were better disciplined: but with Asiatic armies the first success often insured a victory, as in the above case, against very superior numbers. At Herat a Persian army of 45,000 men with 80 guns besieged that fortress for nearly 14 months, against a garrison of 8,000 men. Napoleon seems to have thought 60,000 men necessary. He failed in Egypt with 40,000 men.
Sir J. McNeill supposes the Persians to attempt the invasion with a larger force still.30
The cavalry portion of an invading army would prove the most uncertain of reaching India, as every cavalry soldier requires for himself and horse six or seven times as much grain as the infantry soldier.31 I say grain, for the sheep would, as well as the cattle of the country, be driven out of reach. The British Government could collect on the Indus a much larger force than the invading one could bring to it, a considerable portion of which would be European Infantry. The native regiments in the Company's army, with European officers, are superior to any
troops in Asia, European excepted. The artillery of India is equal to any in the world perhaps, as the guns are chiefly manned by Europeans, and we could produce on the Indus, three times the number of guns any invading force could transport to the banks of that river.
14. Sir J. McNeill32 says, "the invasion of India by Russia from her present frontier is impracticable; or at least beyond all probability from the facility with which we could multiply impediments on so long and difficult a line, and our power to throw troops into India by sea, in a shorter time than Russia could march them by land,-- possessed of Herat, there will no longer be any insuperable impediment to the invasion of India."33 Herat is alone 370 miles from Candahar. If the reader will peruse with attention, the nature of the route from Shikarpoor to Candahar, he will perceive that owing to the want of forage, we were obliged to move our small army by separate columns, and at times, by small detachments! If he will also read the account of the return of Hd. Qrs. with less than 1,500 men, he will see that we were obliged to march in two separate columns, and that besides the cattle of officers and others, the Government lost 1300 out of 3,100 camels, on the march between Cabool and Peshawer, a distance of only 193 miles. His opinion will, therefore, be confirmed as to the utter impracticability of a large invading army reaching India; and I need not insist on the inutility of a small force. The other routes are now I believe, pretty well known, and offer many obstacles to an invading army.
15. When Baber invaded India in 1525, he was in possession of the intervening countries, so that we will suppose in the view taken by Sir De Lacy Evans34 a
start to be made from Khiva.35 He allows of two campaigns from Khiva, Bokhara, and Samarcand to the Attok. He says "Let us suppose, that early in the following year there are 10 or 15,000 Russians, with 20 or 30,000 newly organised troops, assembled between Balkh and the ancient Anderab at the foot of the mountain; smaller columns being directed towards the Passes leading to Peshawer and Cashmeer.36
But, as there would be some little to be done in Affghanistan, and in the Punjab, before they reached our frontier, and a strong one too, we will call the whole, the operation of three campaigns. In the meanwhile that admirable plan of the command of the navigation of the Indus would, by the aid of steamers, throw European troops into India, and, making certain allowances for losses in the invading army, we could present a larger army of fresh troops: while our plan would be, to harass the enemy by light detachments, at certain points; to cut off stores and baggage; and to drive off all the means of supplies; while the Punjab would offer many obstacles to the progress of an invading force.39
16. Looking at the result of the expedition in all its bearings, I think the operations have been attended with beneficial consequences. I have in my XVIIth Chapter given the History of the "Dooranee Empire" from its foundation (1747) to the present period; and while its distracted state, for 30 years, will prove the impracticability of the regeneration of the country under Dost Mahomed Khan, the good effect which has already flowed from the operations of the "Army of the Indus," by the restoration of a kingly Government, with every prospect of the re-establishment of tranquillity and prosperity in Affghanistan; cannot fail to render that kingdom, a real and efficient barrier against the invasion of India; for while it remained in an unsettled state, with a plundering and discontented population, it was desirable to remove the cause: unless, indeed, it be argued that it were a matter of indifference whether Dost Mahomed possessed the country; or that it should become a Persian Province. But, in a commercial point of view, the regeneration of our northwest frontier, is of the very first importance; and the constant intercourse between us and the inhabitants of those countries, cannot fail, ere long, to convince the people, that the change has, in every point of view, been for their benefit.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TO CONTRIBUTORS.
Sensible of the great advantages which the present work possesses by the contributions of many friends, I take this opportunity of returning my best thanks for the kind aid afforded me in the progress of the preparation of this volume; which is designed to be a record of our operations.
To Lieut. A. M. Becher, 61st Bengal N. I. and D. A. Qr. Mr. Genl., for a most valuable Map, tracing the routes of the Army.
To Lieut. H. T. Coombe, 1st Bengal European Regt., for the views of Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabool.
To Lieut.-Col. Sir C. M. Wade, Knt. C. B. Resident at Indore, for materials for the continuation of the Dooranee Dynasty from 1809, &c.
To Jas. Atkinson, Esq. Suptg. Surgeon, Bengal Column, Army of the Indus, for a return of the admissions and deaths in Hospital, for the year 1839.
To Lieut.-Col. T. Monteath, C. B. 35th Bengal N. I. for a return of the sick in his Regt. at Cabool.
To Major P. Craigie, D. A. G., Bengal army, for a return of casualties in the Bengal Column, for 1839; and for access to the Genl. Orders of the Army.
To Major Sage, 48th Bengal N. I. late Post Master, Bengal Column, for the Register of the Thermometer for the year 1839; and also, for access to his Journal of the route, which I have made use of on many occasions.
To Dr. Jas. Thomson, 31st Bengal N. I. for the Register of the Thermometer at Quetta.
To Dr. Geo. Griffiths, Madras Army, for a copy of his Barometrical Heights.
To Capt. A. Watt, A. C. G. Bengal, for the return of a month's supply for the Army, &c. &c.
To Capt. E. F. Day, late Commissary of Ordnance, for the return of ordnance, ordnance stores, &c. taken with the Bengal Column.
To Lieut.-Col. N. Campbell, Qr. Mr. Genl. Bombay Army, for the routes of the Bombay Column.
To Lieut.-Col. Sir A. Burnes, Knt., (Bombay Establishment) for information on several subjects.
To the several officers who have afforded the returns of the loss of cattle, &c. &c.
The works of Sir A. Burnes, Dr. Jas. Burnes, K. H., and Major Jas. Outram; Major Leech and Dr. Lord's Reports, have been of great service to me.
Those of Sir John McNeill, Sir De Lacy Evans, and other authors referred to in the course of the work, I duly acknowledge: while the writings of the former, from his personal experience at the Court of Persia, for many years, are of paramount importance in regard to the position of Persia with reference to Russia.
I deem it a duty to acknowledge the above obligations, and I have always made it a rule to show the sources from which I draw my materials; by which I render justice to the authors, and add a value to the work, by the aid of so many authorities, which it, otherwise, would not possess.--W. H.
DETAILS OF THE ARMY OF THE INDUS; AND ITS RESERVES.
H. E. Lieut-Genl. Sir John (now Lord) Keane,40 K. C. B., and G. C. H. Comr.-in-Chief, Bombay Army. Comr.-in-Chief of the Army of the Indus.
Lieut.-Col. R. Macdonald, K. H., H. M. 4th Foot, (D. A. G. Q. T. Bombay) Offg. Mily. Secy. and A. D. C.
Lieut. E. A. W. Keane, H. M. 2nd Foot, A. D. C.
Capt. (now Major) Outram, 23rd Bombay N. I. Extra A. D. C.
Capt. T. S. Powell, H. M. 40th Foot, Persian Interpreter and Extra A. D. C.
Asst. Surgeon B. P. Rooke, Surgeon.
General Staff of the Bengal Column.
Major P. Craigie, D. A. G.
Major W. Garden, D. Q. M. G.
Capt. Geo. Thomson, Chief Engineer.41
Major J. D. Parsons, Dy. Commy. Genl.42
Capt. J. Patton, A. Q. M. G.43
Capt. A. Watt, D. A. C. G.44
J. Atkinson, Esq. Suptg. Surgeon.45
Surgeon R. M. M. Thomson, Field Surgeon.
Asst. Surgeon M. J. M. Ross, H. M. 16th Lancers, Medical Store-keeper.
Capt. R. Bygrave, 5th N. I., Pay Master.
Capt. E. F. Day, Arty., Commissary of Ordnance.
Rev. A. Hammond, A. B., Chaplain.
Bt. Major W. Hough, 48th N. I., D. J. A. G. Dinapore and Benares Divisions,46 D. J. A. G.
Bt. Major W. Sage, 48th, N. I. Executive Officer Dinapore Division, Post Master.46
Capt. C. Troup, 48th N. I. Baggage Master.47
Lieut. J. Anderson, Engineers, Surveyor.
Lieut. H. M. Durand, Engrs. ditto.
Lieut. J. Laughton, ditto, Field Engineer.48
Lieut. R. D. Kay, Adjt. 2nd N. I., Offg. A. A. G.
Lieut. A. M. Becher, 61st N. I., D. A. Q. M. G.
Cornet W. F. Tytler, 9th Lt. Cavy., Offg. ditto,
Lieut. G. Newbolt, S. A. C. G.
Lieut. G. B. Reddie, ditto.
Lieut. R. S. Simpson, ditto.
|Cavalry Brigade of the Bengal Column.|
|Divisional Staff.||Brigade Staff.||Corps.||Commg. Officers.|
|Major Genl. J. Thackwell, K. H. Comg. the Cavy. of the Army.
Major Cureton49 16th Lancers, A. A. G.
Lt. Roche, 3d L. D., A. D. C.
Lt. Crispan, 2d Lt. Cavalry, Do.
|Col. Arnold50 H. M. 16th Lancers, Brigr.
Lt. Pattinson, 16th Lancers, A. D. C.
Bt. Capt. Havelock,51 H. M. 16th Lancers, M. B.
Bt. Major Hay, 2d Lt. Cavy. A. Q. M. Genl.
Lt. Reddie, S. A. C. G.
|2nd Regt. Lt Cavy.
H. M.'s 16th Lancers.
3rd Regt. Lt. Cavy.
4th Local Hor. and Dett. Skinner's 1st Local Horse.
Not attached to the Brigade.
|Lt. Col. A. Duffin.52|
Lt. W. Persse.53
Lt. C. C. Smyth.54
Capt. J. Alexander.
|Artillery of the Bengal Column.|
|Brigr. Stevenson, Bombay Artillery.||Major Pew55
Bt. Capt. Backhouse, M. B.
Capt. E. F. Day Commy. of Ordnance.
Lt. Newbolt, S. A. C. G.
|2nd Troop, 2nd Brigade H. A.
4th Co. 2nd Bn. Arty.
2nd Co. 6th Bn. (Camel battery.)
|Capt. C. Grant.|
Capt. A. Abbott.
|Infantry Division, Bengal Column.|
|Divisional Staff.||Brigade Staff.||Corps.||Commg. Officers.|
|Major Genl. Sir W. Cotton, K. C. B. and K. C. H.56
Capt. W. Cotton, 44th Foot, A. D. C.
Capt. Havelock, H. M. 13th Lt. Infantry, A.D.C.57
Capt. J.D. Douglas, 53rd N. I. A. A. G.
Capt. J. Patton, (4) A. Q. M. G.
Lt. Laughton, Fd. Engineer.
Capt. A. Watt, D. A. C. G.
Col. Sale, C. B. H. M. 13th Lt. Infantry, Brigr.
Lt. Wood, H. M. 13th Lt. Infy. A. D. C.
Bt. Maj. Squires, H. M. 13th Lt. Infantry M. B.
Lt. Simpson, S. A. C. G.
Maj.-Genl. Nott,58 Brigadier.
Lt. Hammersly, 41st N. I. A. D. C.
Capt. Polwhele, 42nd N. I. M. B.
Lt.-Col. Roberts, Eurn. Regt. Brigr.
Lt. Gerrard, Eurn. Regt. A. D. C.
Capt. Tayler, Eurn. Regt. M. B.
|16th Regt. N. I.
H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy.
48th Regt. N. I.
42nd Regt. N. I.
43rd Regt. N. I.
35th Regt. N. I.
1st Eurn. Regt.
37th Regt. N. I.
Two Cos. Sappers and Miners.
The Bombay Column Army of the Indus. Major-Genl. Willshire, C. B. Commanding the 2nd Division of the Army.
Major Keith, D. A. G.
Capt. Hagart, A. A. G.
Major N. Campbell, Actg. Qr. Mr. Genl.
Lieut. J. Ramsay, D. A. Q. M. G.
Capt. A. C. Peat, Chief Engineer.
-----D. Davidson, senior A. C. G.
----- Stockley, S. A. C. G.
Lieut. Threshie, ditto.
----- Wardell, Actg. ditto.
----- Hogg, S. A. C. G. charge of bazars.
Capt. Swanson, Pay Master.
-----Warden, Commy. Ordnance.
----- Bulkley, D. J. A. G.
Lieut. Jephson, Post Master.
-----North, Field Engineer.
----- Marriott, ditto.
R. H. Kennedy, Esq. Suptg. Surgeon.
Surgeon Pinkey, Field Surgeon.
Asst. do. Don, Medical Storekeeper.
Rev. G. Pigott, Chaplain.
Ensn. Malcolm, Baggage Master.
|Cavalry Brigade, Bombay Column.|
|Divisional Staff.||Brigade Staff.||Corps.||Commg. Officers.|
|Major General Thackwell, K. H.||Lt.-Col. J. Scott, H. M. 4th L. D.
Lt. Campbell, 4th L. D., A. D. C.
Capt. Gillespie, H. M. 4th L. D., M. B.
|Wing H. M. 4th L. D.
1st Lt. Cavalry.
Poona Local Horse, (unattached.)
Lieut.-Col. Sandwith, Brigr.
Major D. Cunninghame.
|Artillery of the Bombay Column.|
|Divisional Staff.||Brigade Staff.||Corps.||Commg. Officers.|
|Lt.-Col. Stevenson, Brigadier.
Lieut. Woosnam, A. D. C.
Capt. Coghlan, M.B.
|3rd Troop, H. A.
4th Ditto ditto.
Horse Field Battery ditto.
|Infantry of the Bombay Column.|
|Major General Willshire, C. B. Comg. 2nd Division, Army of Indus.
Capt. Robinson, 2nd Queen's, A. D. C.
Lt. Halkett, do. do.
|Col. Baumgardt, 2nd Queen's Brigr.60
Capt. Kershaw, H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy. A. D. C.
Capt. Wyllie, 21st Regt. N. I. M. B.
|H. M.'s 2nd Q.'s Royals.61
H. M.'s 17th foot.62
19th Regt., N. I.63
Sappers & miners.
Lt. Wemyss Engrs.
|Shah Shoojah-Ool-Moolk's Force.|
|Major General F. H. Simpson, Comg.64
Capt. Griffin, 24th N. I., A. D. C.
Capt. McSherry, 30th N. I., M. B.65
1st Regt. Infy.
4th Lt. Infy. Regt.
5th Regt. Infy.
|Capt. W. Anderson, Bengal H. A. Comg.|
Lt. Cooper, ditto.
Lt. Turner, ditto.
Capt. Christie, 3rd Bengal Cary.
Capt. W. Anderson, 59th Bengal N. I.
Capt. Bean,66 23rd Bengal N. I.
Capt. Macan, 16th N. I.
Capt. Craigie, 20th N. I.
Capt. Hay, 1st Ruropean Regt.
Capt. Woodburn, 44th N. I.67
Shahzada Timoor's Force, under Lieut.-Colonel Wade. Lieut. J. D. Cunningham, Bengal Engineers, Mily. Secy. and Political Assistant.
|Artillery.--Two 24-Prs. Howitzers and two 6-Prs. (and 20 Swivels), under Lieut. Maule, Bengal Artillery,||4|
|British.--2 Co.'s 20th (Capt. Ferris) and 2 Co.'s 21st N. I. (Capt. Farmer),||320|
|Cavalry.--Mahomedans armed with swords, shields and matchlocks 400--irregulars 600,||1,000|
|Juzzailchees (rifles), 320. Infantry (matchlocks). Regulars 3 Bns. (683)--2,040. Irregulars 820,68||3,180|
British officers with these troops and commanding parties, Lieut. F. Mackeson, 14th;69 Lieut. Rattray, 20th; Lieut. J. G. Caulfield, 68th; Lieut. Hillersden, 53rd Bengal N. I., and Dr. Lord70 Bombay establishment, Dr. Alexander Reid, Bengal establishment, in medical charge.
The Sikh Contingent with the Shahzada's Force, under Colonel Shaikh Bussawun.
|Artillery. 1 Howitzer and 1 Mortar (French Legion). Horse Artillery guns (8--6-Prs. and 2--9-Prs.) 10,||12|
|Cavalry.--1 Squadron of Cavalry (French Legion) half Lancers and half Dragoons,||174|
|Infantry.--||1 Battn. of 5 Cos.,||602|
|2 Battns. (529 and 522),||1,051|
|2 Cos. Poorubees, (Hindustanees,)||215|
|Cavalry.--Missildars (feudatories) Moosulmans,||893|
|Infantry.--||2 Bns. Nujeebs (820 and 455),||1,275|
|1 Corps of Hill Rangers, Rajpoot, and Moosalmans, from hills N. of Sutluj,||1,000|
|1 Battn. of Ramgoles,71||686|
|Pioneer, or Beldars,||50|
|Cavalry, (Regular 174--Irregular 893,)||1,067|
|Infantry, (Ditto 1868--Ditto 2,961,)||4,829|
Lieut.-Col. Wade's Force.
|Shahzada Timoor's Force, (4,470)||4||40||1000||3500||200|
|Sikh Contingent, (6,146)||12||100||1067||4929||50|
Average strength of Corps, &c. of the Bengal and Bombay Columns which marched into Affghanistan.
|Bengal Column.||No.||Bombay Column.|
|Park--Mortars,||8 inch,||2||The Park not brought on to Candahar.|
|Field Pieces,||6 do.||2|
|Camel Battery, (native) 9 do.||6|
|1 Troop Horse Artillery, 6 do.73||6||--2 Troops H. A. 6-Prs.||12|
|1 Co. Foot Artillery, 6 do.73||6||--2 Field Batteries,77||12|
|Artillery--||Horse, and foot74||200||Artillery--||Horse||200|
|Cavalry--||1 Eurn. Regt.||480||Cavalry--||Wing Eurn. Regt.,||300|
|2 Native ditto,75||950||1 Native Regt.||500|
|1 Regt. L. H. & Dett.||1,000||Local Horse,||400|
|Infantry--||2 Eurn. Regts.||1,080||Infantry--||2 Eurn. Regts.||1,080|
|7 Native ditto,76||5,000||1 Native,||750|
|Sappers and Miners (native),||250||Sappers and Miners (native),||100|
Recapitulation of the Force.
|Bengal and Bombay Columns,78||50|
|Shahzada Timoor's and Sikh Contingent,||16|
|Bengal and Bombay Artillery, Horse 400--Foot 400,||800|
|Sappers and Miners.||350|
|Shah Shoojah's Force,||6,070|
|Force to act viâ Candahar and Cabool, total,||19,100|
|Shahzada Timoor's, and Sikh Contingent, to act viâ Khyber Pass and Cabool,||10,886|
|Left at Bukkur, &c. under Brigr. Gordon, 1st Grenrs., 5th and 23rd Bombay, N. I.,||2,200|
|Sindh Reserve force under Brigr. Valiant, K. H. 40th Foot.
At Kurachee--(with the park.)
|Artillery.--3rd Co. 1st Bn. Arty. and 5th Co. Golundaze Bn.,||200|
|Detail on Pioneers||100|
|H. M.'s 40th Foot,||550|
|2nd Grenrs., 22nd and 26th Bombay N.I.,||2,200|
|Major General Duncan's Reserve Force at Ferozpoor.79|
|Artillery.--3rd Troop, 2nd Brigade, H. A. and 3rd Co., 2nd Bn. Arty.,||200|
|Cavalry.-- Skinner's Hd. Qrs. Local Horse,||600|
|Infantry.--3rd Brigade, 27th N. I.; H. M.'s 3rd Buffs; 2nd N. I.,||2,000|
|5th Brigade 5th N. I.: 20th N. I.; and 53rd N. I. (Bengal,)||2,200|
|Total forces, for the operations in Sindh and Affghanistan, (See also page 5 of the work.)||40,186|
N. B. The total force now in Affghanistan, (including British troops) 20,000 men, and 70 to 80 guns. See note 67.
MARCH AND OPERATIONS
ARMY OF THE INDUS.
1. Kurnal (31st Oct. 1838).--The restoration of His Majesty Shah Shoojah-Ool-Moolk to the throne of Cabool having been determined on by the Government of India, a proclamation was published, dated the 1st October 1838, explaining the motives of the British Government in undertaking the expedition into Afghanistan.1 The Governor General (Lord Auckland) had on the 10th Sept. directed the formation of an Army to be employed on the expedition into Afghanistan; and the Commander-in-Chief in India, (General Sir H. Fane) issued orders dated 13th Sept. 1838, appointing the several regiments to compose the army, to rendezvous at Kurnal:--while His Excellency was himself solicited to assume the command.
2. March to Ferozpoor.--The troops were directed to march from Kurnal to Ferozpoor, in the following order. The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Brigades of Infantry to march on the 8th and 9th Nov. by Kythul, 16 marches. The 4th and 5th Brigades on the 8th and 9th, viâ Kotla Mullair, 17 marches. H. M. 16th Lancers and 2nd Lt. Cavy. from Delhi, on the 4th Nov. viâ Termana, Nughara, Moonuk, &c. The 3rd Lt. Cavy. the Arty, and 21st N. I. (the latter not attached
to the force) marched on the 8th Nov. viâ Umballah and Loodianah to Ferozpoor; 18 marches: and by the 29th Nov. the whole were assembled in one camp.2
3. Ferozpoor (29th Nov. 1838).--The whole of the troops were encamped to the W. and N. W. of the town,3 and the camp of the Governor General, who had come to be present on the occasion and to have an interview with Maharajah Runjeet Singh, was pitched some distance to the N. W. of the army, and about four miles from the Ghat on the left bank of the Sutluj, over which His Highness had thrown a bridge of boats, and on the right bank of which were the camp of the Maharajah and of the Sikh troops.
Before the march of the Army from Ferozpoor, Lord Auckland received a visit, in state, from the Maharajah, which his Lordship returned in due form; and the "Army of the Indus" then amounting to between 14 and 15,000 men, commanded by H. E. Sir H. Fane, in person, passed in review before the Sikh Chieftain and the Governor General, and performed a series of movements. The Sikh army, consisting of 25 or 30,000 men, commanded by one of their Generals, was, on a subsequent day, paraded in review order before Lord Auckland and Sir H. Fane, and performed many manoeuvres in very good style.
4. Reduction of Force (30th Nov. 1838).--The following notification, dated Ferozpoor, 30th Nov. 1838, in the Secret Dept., by the Governor General of India, was published on the 4th Dec. by H. E. the Commander-in-Chief in India. "The retreat of the Persian Army from before Herat having been officially announced to the Government as notified to the public on the 8th instant,4 the circumstances no
longer exist which induced the Right Honorable the Governor General to solicit a continuance of the services of H. E. the Commander-in-Chief, with a view to his conducting military operations to the west of the Indus." H. E. therefore published the following order, that "under these altered circumstances the command of the detachment of the Bengal army is to be assumed by Major General Sir W. Cotton, K. C. B. and K. C. H. and in an order dated the 11th Dec. 1838, directed that, "under the orders of the Right Honorable the Governor General, the 2nd division of Infantry of the Army of the Indus is to remain till further orders near the Sutluj, the Head Quarters at Ferozpoor; and to facilitate supplies, the 5th Brigade and the troop of H. A. may be placed at Loodianah, the other Brigade, and field battery, to remain at Ferozpoor." This reduced the army to about 9,500 men.5
5. Shah Shoojah's Force.--A Force had been raised for Shah Shoojah only about five months before, the contingent consisting of 6,000 men,6 officered by British officers; the whole commanded by Major General Simpson. This force, as intended, preceded the march of the Army. The Shah quitted Loodianah on the 15th Nov. and proceeded to Ferozpoor, from which he marched on the 2nd Dec. with the contingent, while the British army did not leave Ferozpoor till the 10th Dec. 1838.
6. The Sikh and Shazada's Forces.--Maharajah Runjeet Singh having signed the treaty by which he agreed to furnish his quota of troops,7 it was decided that after the
army had marched, the Governor General should pay a visit to His Highness at the court of Lahore, and the 21st N. I. and other troops accompanied his Lordship as an escort. On the 6th Dec. Lieut.-Col. Wade, Political Agent at Loodianah, left that place to proceed to Lahore to introduce Shahzada Timoor (Shah Shoojah's eldest son) to Runjeet Singh: and after the Governor General quitted Lahore, the Lieut.-Col. moved to Peshawer with the Shahzada for the purpose of forming and organizing a force of about 4,800 men,8 with British officers; the whole to be under the Colonel's command. Two companies of British N. I. formed part of the forte, and of the personal guard of the young prince.
The Sikh contingent, amounting to about 6,000 men,8 was assembled under General Ventura, at Peshawer. Both bodies were composed chiefly of Mahomedans, as the Sikhs were known to be disliked by the Afghans, as well as by the Khyberees through whose country and the famous pass, lies the road between Peshawer and Cabool. The general political and military control was vested in Lieut.-Colonel Wade: while a Sikh army of observation, under Koonwar Nao Nihal Singh,9 was assembled on the frontier at Peshawer. The Shahzada's force was organized by the 7th, and by the middle of May 1839, both forces were prepared to commence operations.
7. The Bombay Force.--The Government of India had directed the formation of an army at Bombay consisting of about 5,600 men,10 which, under the command of H. E. Lieut.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, Commander-in-Chief,
Bombay Army, was to land in Sindh, with a view to compel the Ameers of Hyderabad to sign a treaty agreeing to pay Shah Shoojah a certain sum in consideration of tribute due to him, and for the purpose of obtaining the free navigation of the river Indus; and to aid if required in the operations of the Army of the Indus in Affghanistan.
The Head Quarters embarked at Bombay on the 21st and reached the Hujamree mouth of the Indus on the 27th of Nov. 1838, where they found Major General Willshire, and a portion of the 1st Brigade; and the rest of the troops landed at Vikkur near the mouth of the Indus, on the 30th Nov. 1838, with the loss of some horses. "No preparations whatever had been made by the Ameers of Sindh, either for carriage for the troops, or for provisioning them."11
8. Total Bengal and Bombay, &c. Forces.--It being found necessary to send more troops to Sindh, a reserve force of about 3,000 men was despatched from Bombay, and landed at Kurachee on the 3rd Feb. 1839, after a slight resistance.12
I will here give a summary of the whole of the troops which were available for employment in the Afghanistan expedition.
|1st.--The Army of the Indus (Bengal) under Major General Sir W. Cotton,||9,500|
|2nd.--Major General Duncan's reserve division, at Ferozpoor, &c.,||4,250|
|3rd.--Shah Shoojah's Contingent,||6,000|
|4th.--The Bombay force under H. E. Lieut. Genl. Sir J. Keane,||5,600|
|5th.--The Bombay reserve Sindh force,||3,000|
|To act in Sindh and in Afghanistan,||28,350|
|6th.--The Shahzada's force,||4,800|
|7th.--The Sikh Contingent,||6,000|
|To move from Peshawer on Cabool,||10,800|
|8th.--The Sikh army of observation at Peshawer13||15,000|
9. Herat, if threatened.--Though the Bombay force under Lieut.-Genl. Sir J. Keane had to settle affairs with the Ameers of Sindh, still the main object of the expedition was to replace Shah Shoojah on the throne of Cabool, and to settle the country of Afghanistan. Now, though the Persian army had marched from Herat, still there was a contingency to be provided for in case of its falling into the hands of enemies; for owing to the gallant defence of the place, under the skill and science of Lieut. (now Major) Pottinger of the Bombay Artillery, and the long protracted siege of nearly a year, some danger was to be apprehended for its safety.14 In the event, therefore, of it being deemed advisable to detach a force to its aid, instructions were given by the Governor General to do so; provided that the sending such force did not compromise the ulterior design of the expedition in Afghanistan--the securely re-seating Shah Shoojah on the throne at Cabool.
10. Disposable Force.--Of the 28,350 men above detailed, about 19,000 actually marched through the Bolan Pass into Afghanistan,15 so that there were 9,350 men to form the force to be left in Sindh, and for Depôts between it and the pass, and including General Duncan's division; for the troops under Lieut.-Col. Wade, were to operate in a different
direction16 and were not available. So that it might have been practicable to send about 4 or 5,000 to Herat, and as the army did not leave Candahar till the 27th June, 1839, such an object might have been attained, as far as time and troops were concerned; but the difficulty would have been to furnish carriage for the stores, baggage, and provisions of such a force. The Bombay troops on landing in Sindh, found no carriage or provisions had been furnished by the Ameers.17 Had it been necessary to detach any force to Herat, the circumstances under which such necessity existed, would have, most probably, caused delay in the operations in Sindh, by giving confidence to the Ameers; and might have induced them to resist our demands, and thus have rendered it necessary to attack Hyderabad; after which the Bengal column might have marched on Candahar, and have there awaited the arrival of the troops destined to march to Herat, distant 370 miles. I state this to prove the importance due to the defence of Herat, and to show that it is easier to furnish troops, than to feed them, and carry the munitions of war!
11. March of the Army of the Indus from Ferozpoor18
(10th Dec. 1838.)--Preparations having been made19 for the advance of the troops, (Shah Shoojah having preceded) they marched in five columns, preceded by the engineers, sappers and miners in advance. The Hd. Qrs. (Major Genl. Sir W. Cotton, commanding) H. A. and Cavalry Brigade moved on the 10th. The 1st, 2nd and 4th Infy. Brigades; and the park of Artillery and 4th Local horse and the Commissariat supplies and stores, in separate columns, in succession, keeping a march between each column; and this was the order of march till the Army reached Rohree (Bukkur) in Sindh. The Commissariat supplies which accompanied the Army (amounting to about 9,500 and about 38,000, including camp-followers) were as follow: 30 days' supplies of all kinds, slaughter cattle for 2½ months; additional quantities of grain were sent down by water to Rohree, and Depôts were formed at Bhawulpoor, Shikarpoor, &c. A Reserve Depôt was established at Ferozpoor containing 50,000 maunds,20 and two months' supplies of other grain. 14,235 camels were employed (for supplies only) with the army on leaving Ferozpoor. Each column carried a certain quantity of supplies with it.
The sick and principal hospital stores were sent down by water. It was intended, had it been practicable, to have sent the ordnance stores, &c. by water, but boats could not be procured in sufficient numbers. Indeed, boats were required to be sent down to Bukkur, on the Indus, to form the bridge of boats; for which purpose timbers were floated down.21 It would have been desirable to transport all
the heavy stores by water and thus have saved the cattle. The march of the army down from Ferozpoor to Rohree, on the Indus, never being above 20, and often within a few miles of the river (which assumes the names of the Sutluj, Gharra, and Punjnud till it falls into the Indus) enabled the troops to have communications with the fleet of Boats.
H. E. Genl. Sir H. Fane, Commander in Chief in India, on the march of the army, embarked on board his boats, and proceeded down the river.
The Bombay army at this time, having landed in Sindh, were engaged in procuring carriage to enable it to move on Hyderabad, the capital. On the 24th Dec. the Bombay troops marched from Bominacote towards Hyderabad.
12. Camels and Carriage of the Army.--There must have been from 25, to 30,000 camels with the army (public and private) and so early as the 26th of Dec.22 it was found necessary to allow the camels, &c. to quit camp some hours before the troops, as they fell off in condition, owing to their arriving late in camp and being unable early enough to get forage or to graze. This will account, in some degree, for the loss of camels with the Army, as we often could not allow them to proceed in advance of the troops, owing to the danger of being attacked by plunderers or by the enemy; and so numerous were the camels, that though we marched in several columns, forage could not be obtained in sufficient quantity in many places, after we marched from Shikarpoor. The fact is, that most of the officers had too many camels, too large tents, and too much baggage: though Sir H. Fane had issued an order to caution all against taking large tents, or establishments.
13. Money Rations to the Native Troops (27th Dec. 1838).---When within two marches of Bhawulpoor we were all gratified by the receipt and publication in orders of the following extract of a despatch from the Secretary to the Government of India in the Mily. Dept. (No. 138), dated the 18th Dec. 1838. "The same advantages are extended to
the Native troops serving with the Army of the Indus, as were granted to those who served 'beyond the Eastern-frontier of the British Dominions, during the war with Ava,' from the date of crossing the Indus."23
We were now within 22 marches of the Indus, and while all were pleased at the liberality of Government, we still regretted that the measure had not been promulgated previous to the march from Ferozpoor. Before the army marched from Ferozpoor, several Native officers were invested with the order of British India, which was a well timed measure. It is a Boon attended with some extra expense to Government, but one which is amply repaid by the zeal of the Native troops; which has never been greater than on the service on which they were now employed in a foreign
country; and with the prospect of a long absence from their Native land.
14. Arrived at Bhawulpoor, (29th Dec. 1838.)--The Head Qrs. of the Army of the Indus arrived at Bhawulpoor to-day under a salute from the town, and found that Sir H. Fane had arrived in his boats. The army encamped to the W. of the town. The rest of the columns moved up on the following days. On the 30th, Sir H. Fane held a Durbar and received the Khan in state; presents were given to the Khan who did not seem quite at his ease, the fact is, that neither he nor his people (kardars) had been at all active in procuring the supplies required for the Army24 though ample notice was given.
On the 31st Dec. 1839.--Sir H. Fane returned the Khan's visit in company with Sir W. Cotton and the staff; when a a salute was fired from the town. In the evening the order of British India was conferred on three native officers, and we buried Lieut.-Col. Duffin, Comg. 2nd Lt. Cavy., the first officer who had died with the army. Lieut. Mackeson joined us here as the Asst. Political agent.
15. Bhawulpoor.--The town of Bhawulpoor, is on the left bank of the Gharra river, distant 229 miles from Ferozpoor, and about halfway between it and Rhoree (Bukkur) on the Indus. The town has a mud-wall all round it, without ditches, or bastions. It is said to contain about 4,000 houses, and 20,000 inhabitants.25 It is about 4 miles from the river. It is a wretched place, the houses and huts being of mud; and in a military point of view of no consideration. Bhawul-khan has about 4,000 infantry and some horsemen, and though dressed in uniform they do not make a very formidable appearance, but answer the purpose of preserving the tranquillity of the country; which the Khan keep in good order. The place is rich in woollens, carpets, and fruit: pears, apples, oranges and grapes; all except the grapes, are brought from Cabool. There is a manufacture of carpets and durrees. Indigo is exported from it to Mooltan. It is cultivated between this place and Khanpoor, which is 90 miles distant--to the annual value of 3 or 4 lakhs of rupees; and at Mooltan to the value of 6 or 7 lakhs of Rs. Indigo is sent from Mooltan to Sindh. The road between Ferozpoor and Bhawulpoor is jungly, the roads sandy; and we found several deserted villages, though the strictest discipline was maintained, and safeguards furnished to every village.
The Head Quarters marched from Bhawulpoor on the 1st January, 1839; and Sir H. Fane proceeded in his boats down the river towards Bukkur.
16. Ahmedpoor, (3rd Jan. 1839.)--The Head Quarters arrived here to-day. Halted on the 4th and marched on the 5th Jan. The town is large and contains about 6,000 houses and 30,000 inhabitants.25 It has no kind of fortification, but there is a pukha enclosure where the Khan (of Bhawulpoor) lives when in the vicinity; and the great bazar is pukha, and contains a handsome mosque with four beautiful minarets, seen for several miles before you reach
the town. This place exports coarse cotton cloths and indigo, and imports silks, woollens, fruit and grain. The country all round is a rich plain, covered with turnips, carrots, wheat, indigo;--and fruit trees of the apple, orange, pomegranate, grow in the fields; the oranges were covered in with matting, to protect them from the frost. There is a house built by Lieut. Mackeson, in which he resided here, as the British agent for the navigation of the Indus.
17. Khanpoor, (8th Jan. 1839.) The Head Quarters arrived here to-day. Camp one and a half miles beyond the town. The place is said to contain 10,000 inhabitants, and has many pukha houses in it. A salute of 21 guns was fired from two guns on our arrival. There is a canal running through the town. It comes from a branch of the river, which is about 18 miles off, and expends itself in a jheel. There are two Battalions of Bhawul-khan's in the town. There is a mart for rice, and brass utensils. The canal fertilizes the soil which produces rich crops of wheat and barley. We marched from Khanpoor on the 10th Jan.
18. Enter the Sindh Country, (14th Jan. 1839.)--Sir A. Burnes26 joined us yesterday, and to-day the Head Quarters arrived at Subzul ka kote, which is just on the frontier between the Bhawulpoor and the Sindh territories. The distance from the river is about 18 miles; two-thirds of this place belong to the Ameers of Hyderabad, and one-third to Roostum Khan of Khyrpoor (cousin to the Ameers). It formerly belonged to the Khan of Bhawulpoor.
19th Jan. 1839.--We, at this period, found that the Commissariat camels were dying faster than the grain was consumed; for though we had supplies at each stage, still not to the extent required for all the columns: and many of the carriage camels were carried off by the owners, which obliged the Commissariat to employ some of the hired or rewaree camels carrying grain, to carry the baggage of the men of one of the Regts. The owners of camels did not like the notion of crossing the Indus!
23rd Jan. 1839.--We heard this day that Sir H, Fane had been requested, from England, to remain as Comr.-in-Chief in India.
24th Jan. 1839.--The Head Quarters, to-day, reached Rohree (Bukkur) on the Indus, where we found Sir H. Fane. The Engineers had been sent on in advance with the sappers and miners, to prepare materials for the bridge of boats across the Indus. The Shah who had preceded us seven or eight days had arrived here, and crossed the whole of his force in boats in seven days, by the 17th January.
The Bombay army under Lieut.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, was within three marches of Hyderabad (Sindh); and Lieut.- Col. Wade with the Shahzada, was proceeding on his march towards Peshawer.
THE ARMY ARRIVES ON THE INDUS--MOVEMENTS OF THE BOMBAY TROOPS.
1. Arrival at Rohree, (24th Jan., 1839.)--Major-General Sir W. Cotton, with the Head Qrs., the H. A. and Cavalry brigade under Major-General Thackwell,1 arrived this day at Rohree, where we found H. E. the Commander-in-Chief Sir H. Fane, on board his boats. The other brigades, &c. moved up on the following days. The Engineers had made considerable progress in making the bridge of boats for the passage of the troops.2 In the afternoon Sir H. Fane held a Durbar to receive the son of the Ameer of Khyrpoor, at which the Major-Generals, &c. and staff were present, together with Sir A. Burnes. The young man and his attendants seemed much alarmed; no doubt, owing to the presence, of our troops, and the unsettled state of affairs at Hyderabad, being connected with the Ameers of that place.
25th Jan. 1839.--By subsequent intelligence3 it appeared, that Sir J. Keane with the Bombay troops, was at Jirrikh, only two marches from Hyderabad, which are both on the other side of the river, and I mention it here, to
show how far a knowledge of the proximity of the two forces operated on the minds of the Ameers of Sindh, regarding the treaty proposed for their signature; while the Shah's force having crossed on the 17th January, had reached Shikarpoor, which is only two marches from Rohree; so that there were three forces to act against Hyderabad; two of which were about twenty marches from their Capital.4 This night arrived the treaty from the Governor General ready signed, and addressed to Colonel Pottinger, the resident in Sindh, but it was sent, immediately, to Sir A. Burnes, the Political Agent with the force; by it the Ameer of Khyrpoor was to deliver up the fort of Bukkur situated on the island in the centre of the Indus, and near the town of Rohree; by which we obtained command of the river.
2. Visit of the Ameer of Khyrpoor, (26th Jan. 1839.)--To-day was appointed by H. E. Sir H. Fane to receive the visit of the Ameer of Khyrpoor himself, at half-past 7 a.m.; but he did not make his appearance till about 11 a. m. preceded by his minister, who was anxious for H. E. to go and meet his master, which was not complied with. He came in state, and was received by a guard of honor, consisting of four Cos. H. M.'s 13th Light Infantry, one troop H. M. 16th Lancers, and a party of the Bengal 3rd Light Cavalry. As soon as the old man reached the carpet, Sir H. Fane rose and welcomed him; then arose a confusion of tongues; then commenced struggling, pushing, and screaming for the seats of honor. At last silence ensued,-- speeches were made--then the duly ratified treaty was produced, upon which the Ameer said he would insist on Noor Mahomed Ali, of Hyderabad, agreeing to our terms. Sir H. Fane replied,5 "I have wasted time enough in treating; I will now march down, and attack him; and if you like, I will show you the troops I shall send to do it." The review of the Cavalry brigade, and 2nd T. 2nd B. Bengal H.
A. took place in the evening. The Ameer was astonished at the Military array, but expressed his fears on seeing the Europeans! As affairs were in an unsettled state at Hyderabad, Sir H. Fane suggested the propriety of detaching a considerable portion of the Bengal Column to Lower Sindh.
3. The Bridge--Order for march, (27th Jan. 1839.)--The river rose to-day 18 inches, and the bridge opened to some extent, and caused a good deal of anxiety, for it was not yet finished; the portion over the strongest part of the stream, i. e. on the left bank, was to be constructed, and it was highly important to have it ready as soon as possible. To-day the 1st and 2nd Infy. brigades marched into camp.
The troops in orders yesterday, to march to lower Sindh were as follows;--1st, The H. A. and Cavalry brigade to march on the 28th--2nd, The 1st Brigade of Infantry on the 29th, with the camel-battery--3rd, 2nd Brigade on the 30th Jan. 1839, a total of about 5,600 men, equal to Sir J. Keane's force; who would thus have had more than 11,000 men with which to act in Sindh. The 4th Brigade of Infantry, the 4th Local Horse, the Park of Artillery, and the Engineers, Sappers, and Miners, (the latter required to complete the bridge) were to remain at Rohree, the whole under the command of Brigadier Roberts.6 The order for the march was postponed, as we had not yet got possession of the Fort of Bukkur. Sir W. Cotton invested certain native officers with the order of "British India," in the afternoon.
4. Orders for march repeated--False alarm in Camp.--(28th Jan. 1839). The orders for the march were repeated to-day. Both yesterday and to-day many armed persons were observed to leave the town of Rohree, and from certain indications, it was supposed by some that an attack would be made on us. Enemies were talked of--picquets were strengthened after sunset--sentries were doubled, and their muskets were loaded. At 12 o'clock at night, a musket went off by chance, when the whole line turned out under arms, in the course of a few minutes,7 as the alarm spread through the whole Camp in a moment. It was a fine moon-light night, and the movements of an enemy could easily have been seen. On an examination at the picquets, and in the vicinity of the town, no enemy could be seen--it proved a false alarm. The real cause I believe to have been this. The people in the town most probably were in a state of alarm at the presence of an army near them, though guards to protect them were placed in the town, and were leaving the place, as we afterwards heard, with their families and property, through fear, but neither with an intention of attacking us, nor of proceeding to Lower Sindh, to join the Ameers at Hyderabad.8 In fact all
the people of the country are armed, and their going away in considerable bodies gave rise to the reports.
5. Possession of the Fort of Bukkur; and order for march, (29th Jan. 1839).--The Fort was to be given up to us by the Ameer of Khyrpoor to-day at half past three in the afternoon, four Cos. of the 35th Bengal N. I. under Lieut.-Col. Monteath, and the flank Companies of the 16th N. I. under Capt. Graves, were paraded for the purpose of taking possession of it. At about 5 P. M. the troops entered the boats, accompanied by Major Genl. Sir W. Cotton and staff, and the boats reached the fort in about half an hour. When two-thirds of the way across the river, we saw the garrison in their boats, half across the river. The troops landed, and the setting sun shone on the British Flag. A bag of gunpowder was taken by the party in the boats to blow open the gate had it been required, under the superintendence of Capt. A. Abbot, Arty. The treaty for the possession of the fort had arrived on the night of the 25th; so that four days had elapsed, and the delay was imputed by some to a desire on the Ameer's party not to fulfil his agreement; but, I believe, he had no such intention. The people in the fort did not like, as I was informed by Sir A. Burnes, to give up the keys of the fort to any but to those from whom they had received them: this caused delay on the 29th: but resistance was quite out of the question; because there were only about 20 or 30 men in the place, with one old gun; and besides, we could have crossed over in boats and have breached it from Sukkur, where the river is narrow.9 The troops were in orders to march for lower Sindh on the 30th Jan. Brigadier Roberts was ordered to
assume command of the Posts of Rohree and Bukkur (in which a force was placed) and adjacent country, on the left bank of the Indus; and to move his brigade nearer to Rohree and the river, and take up a military position. The stores, &c. left by the different brigades were directed to be placed in the fort. The treasure not required, was left here, likewise.10 It was at one time suggested to send down some troops by water, to Hyderabad; but a sufficient number of boats were not procurable: and it would have been unwise to have broken up the bridge for such a purpose.
6. The town of Rohree.--The streets of the town are full of filth and so narrow, that meeting a camel, &c. you are obliged to turn into a cross-street. The houses are all built of sun-burnt bricks, some have 3 or 4 stories, particularly those looking towards Bukkur. Descending a steep slope through the gateway, you come to a sandy-road, with the rock on which Rohree is built, on your left, and several isolated rocks on your right; and in front is a grove of date-trees on a rising slope. The river when filled by the freshes has washed the rock on which Rohree stands, so completely away, that men could walk under the over-hanging town. The rocks to the right were accessible, though evidently islands in the time of the freshes: and on one of them were the bones of all the chiefs and warriors of Rohree and Bukkur; passing these, you come to the river. The boats used are flat-bottomed, high in the stern, and the hull out of all proportion to the upper works, built in three pieces; the bottom and the two sides nailed together; so that if heavily laden, the bottom is apt to fall out, unless there be a pressure on the upper part of the sides, to keep them bearing on the bottom.
The town of Rohree has been of much consequence, and wide-spread ruins prove its former extent and magnificence. At present, it is said to contain 2,000 houses and about 8,000 inhabitants; six miles from it is the still more ancient capital of Arore, where a Hindu Raja once reigned in great splendour; the ruins occupy a space of four miles in depth, and the same in length. "The Meerwah canal runs from the Indus S. for 90 miles, and is lost in the sands."11 Rohree is seen 3 or 4 miles before you reach the river, and all at once strikes the mind in an imposing manner.12
7. The Fort of Bukkur.--When within 3 or 4 miles of the Indus, all at once Rohree, Bukkur, and the deep, broad winding Indus, burst on the view. From the right flows the mighty stream, sweeping from a magnificent reach, round the island of Bukkur, and dividing it from the town of Rohree. Pile above pile rear their heads on the island. This is the fort built by Alexander the Great, to bridle surrounding nations. Lieut. Leach, of the Bombay Engineers, gives the following description of the fort in his report to Govt. in 1838.
"It is situated on an island in the Indus, between Rohree on the E. bank, and the village of Sukkur on the W. near to the latter; it is conveniently situated, and if remodelled, would be an excellent situation for troops; it is built in the usual manner, partly of burnt and partly of unburnt bricks, and its walls are 30 to 35 feet high; the elevation of the island on which it stands above the river is 25 feet; it is loopholed, and has a weak parapet; on the E. there is an unfinished fausse-braye without a terreplein, acting merely
as a screen to part of the fort Walls; it looks, however, imposing from without, with its turrets and loop-holes; there is a low parapet wall to the west. It is commanded by the city of Rohree, where an enfilading battery would be advantageously erected, to cover the occupation of the island to the N. of the fort, well screened by large trees, from which island the escalading party could cross with no difficulty; as there is no current. There is at present a garrison of about 10 men and one gun on the ramparts,13 which have been partly destroyed by its discharge! The inside is in ruins, there being only a few huts, and a bungalow of the Ameer of Khyrpoor; the magazine in time of siege."14
8. March towards Hyderabad, (30th Jan. 1830).--Major Genl. Sir W. Cotton with the Hd. Qrs. marched this morning from the camp at Rohree; while Sir H. Fane, with a suitable escort, accompanied by the staff, went to Khypoor to return the Ameer's visit. This place was a few miles to the left of our route. After the visit Sir Henry returned to his boats at Rohree; and Sir W. Cotton and Staff joined the camp.
The order of march was as follows:
|1. 1 Squadron of Cavalry.
2. H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy.
3. The Artillery.
4. 3 Squadrons of Cavalry.
|5. 1 Regt. N. I.|
6. 2 Regts. of Cavy.
7. The Baggage.
8. 1 Regt. N. I.15
The road for the first six miles was so strong with enclosed walls, ditches, and forest, that 3 or 400 resolute men might have annoyed us much on our march, by firing from behind the walls; as we could not, as it was, move on quickly. The road was narrow, and very bad; the camels of the 9-pr. field battery fell into a ditch; and before the water-courses could be crossed, the pioneers were obliged to be employed. We saw a small camp of horsemen at a short distance on the right of the road, after we had passed the most enclosed part of the road, but met with no enemy, or opposition, on our march towards Hyderabad. We encamped on rather open ground; and found the rest of our march in Lower Sindh, to require the aid of the pioneers.
9. The Bombay Reserve Force in Sindh.--On the 3rd Feb. 1839, the Bombay reserve force of about 3,000 men landed at Kurachee on the Sea Coast, about 50 miles to the N. and a little to the W. of the Hujamree mouth of the Indus, where Sir J. Keane had landed on the 27th November, 1838. Kurachee town, according to Col. Pottinger and Capt. Maxwell, of the Indian Navy, lies a considerable distance from the anchorage, and the channel to it is narrow, and very shoaly even for boats at low water; the fortifications of the town are very mean and irregular, being in some places not above five or six feet high, and even there so broken down, that a horseman might ride to the top of them; while in others they are lofty and kept in excellent repair; the whole are built of mud and straw; and the side towards the creek, which flows up from the head of the harbour, the works are faced, to a certain height, with masonry. A fort built in 1797 on the promontory that forms the western side of the
Bay, is judiciously placed to defend the entrance.16 The Sindh reserve force landed under the fire of H. M.'s ship Wellesley of 74 guns17 with slight opposition. The fort fired into her, when she brought her broadside to bear, and it is said nearly reduced the parapets and bastions to one level.18
10. Operations on right bank of the Indus, (4th Feb. 1839.)--At about the time that the Bengal column was ordered to march down the left bank, Major General Simpson, with a part of the Shah's force, marched from Shikarpoor down the right bank of the Indus, and took Larkhana, belonging to the Ameers of Hyderabad. This place is 52 measured miles from Shikarpoor, and our column was pretty nearly parallel to Larkhana. We took the direct
route for Noushera, instead of marching by the river route. The place was found evacuated on the General's approach; it is a great mart for rice; and the place where the Ameers kept their artillery.
Sir J. Keane had been detained at Jerrikh19 two marches from Hyderabad ever since the 25th January; but this day he reached Kotre near Hyderabad.
The horses had commenced to fall off in condition, and this day an order was issued for the commissariat to serve out rations of eight seers (15 lbs.) of kurbee20 per horse of the H. A. and Cavalry, whenever there was a scarcity of grass, or forage of inferior description.21 The Bengal European Regt. attached to the 4th Brigade, and the Engineers had been ordered to join our column, as Sir J. Keane had now directed our advance, it being considered that operations against Hyderabad, and a siege were inevitable. The Engineers and supplies were ordered down by the river; and supplies were, also, to be sent by land, to join us.
11. Countermand of our March--Treaty signed--ordered back, (6th Feb. 1839.)--We had to-day arrived at Khundearee seven marches from Rohree, and four from Noushera, at which latter place the country of the Ameers of Hyderabad commences; and which is about half-way between Rohree and Hyderabad. At half-past 10 o'clock at night, our march for the next day was countermanded; and the baggage, which had gone on in advance, was ordered back.22 The Ameers of Hyderabad had signed the treaty which Col. Pottinger was anxious to effect, without having recourse to hostilities. The columns in our rear were
ordered to stand fast; and the troops, &c. ordered to join us, were directed to stand fast at Rohree. On the 9th February, we were ordered to retrace our steps, and the rear columns now became the leading ones, on the march back to Rohree.
12. Orders for crossing the Bridge of Boats over the Indus, (9th Feb. 1839).--Brigadier Roberts, Comg. at Rohree, was directed to move the ordnance and commissariat stores across the river. On the 10th February, the Baggage Master was ordered to proceed to Rohree to arrange with the Chief Engineer in communication with the Dy. Qr. Mr. Genl. for the passage of the troops and baggage across the river.
The Artillery and Ordnance Stores were ordered to be passed across the Bridge by manual labour, or to be ferried over the river in rafts, as the Chief Engineer might think fit. The troops crossed by Brigades. The baggage of Brigades was to be collected by regiments, and to move in rear of the troops, in the order of corps, the baggage of each regiment under an European officer, with a small detail of local horse.
The whole of the troops, baggage, bazars, and cattle, had all crossed by the 18th February, over the Bridge, without a single accident; for which the Baggage Master, (Capt. Troup) was thanked in orders.23
13. The Bridge of Boats.--The Bengal Engineers, under Capt. G. Thomson, and the two companies of sappers and miners, under Capt. E. Sanders of the same corps, had preceded the head-quarter column, under Major General Sir W. Cotton, about a week, for the purpose of cutting and collecting wood, and preparing materials24 with which
to form a road across the boats to form the Bridge. Boats had been previously collected there. The Bridge was commenced first over the narrowest part of the river, or from the right bank at Sukkur to the island on which the fort of Bukkur stands. The advantages of this selection were as follow:--1st, Materials were most easily procured close to Sukkur. 2nd, Shikarpoor being only two marches from the right bank, it enabled them to hold communication with that place and the Shah's force; and as we were encamped at Rohree, on the left bank, operations could be aided from both sides of the river. 3rd. The water being slack on the right bank, the operation was more easily effected. 4th, It established a direct communication from the right bank to the island on which the fort of Bukkur stands. Now as this portion of the Bridge was finished before we got possession of Bukkur; it is clear that, the plan adopted would have enabled us to attack it from Sukkur, as well as from Rohree.25
The extent of river bridged was 500 yards; 74 large boats were used in its formation, being 19 from Sukkur on the right bank to the Island, and 55 boats from the Island to Rohree on the left bank.
There were two pier-heads and 19 boats of an average of 220 maunds (about 80 lbs. each) on the smaller or western-stream, 400 feet broad; and two pier-heads and 55 boats, average 500 maunds, on the largest or eastern-branch of the river, which was 1,100 feet broad.
The two branches being 1,500 feet, or 500 yards of river bridged.
The western-branch was bridged in four days. On the eastern, it took 16 days; but had all the boats been ready, it might, and would have been completed in ten days. So that the operation was the actual work of 14 days; and the two bridges were ready on the 3rd February, 1839.
14. Thanks to the Engineers.--On the 15th Feb. 1839, on the arrival of Major General Sir W. Cotton, with the
staff at Sukkur on our return from Lower Sindh, he issued an order praising Capt. Thomson, the Chief Engineer, and Capt. E. Sanders, Comg. the sappers and miners, for the admirable manner, in which they had performed the arduous undertaking in forming the bridge of boats over the Indus, and for the military skill and abilities evinced on the occasion; and returned his thanks to the officers and men engaged on the work. On the 16th February H. E. General Sir H. Fane, Commander-in-Chief in India, issued the following order: (Para. 4.) "He feels it just, more particularly to notice the Corps of Bengal Engineers, and the sappers. The manner in which they have completed the important work of throwing a Bridge over the Indus (490 yards),26 reflects great credit on their skill and their industry; and H. E. requests that Capt. Thomson, the Chief
Engineer, and the commissioned, N. G. O. and soldiers under his command, concerned in the work, will accept his thanks."
15. Sir H. Fane's order on taking leave.--G. O. by H. E. Genl. Sir H. Fane, 6. C. B. and G. C. H. Comr.-in-Chief in India. Hd. Qrs. Bengal Column of the Army of the Indus, Camp, Bukkur, 16th Feb. 1839.
1.--"H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief being about to leave the Bengal Column of the Army of the Indus, in his progress where his duty calls him; feels it due to the troops, previous to his departure, to record what he has witnessed of their conduct, during their march from Ferozpoor into Sindh,27 to hold it up, as an example for their brother soldiers, on all occasions.
2.--"The excellent discipline and good behaviour of the troops have conciliated the inhabitants of the country wherever they have passed, and he is glad to be able to point out the consequences. These have been, not only the exaltation of their fame and character as soldiers, but these circumstances have greatly conduced to their personal advantage, because the confidence of the inhabitants, which such good conduct has produced, has led to their freely resorting to our camps with the produce of their villages, by which means we have been free from all wants and privations.
3.--"H. E. desires, that the officers of all ranks and departments will accept the expression of his approbation of their zeal, and of the good example they have set."28
16. Bukkur--Force left in the Fort.--The 35th Bengal N. I. was directed to stand fast in the fort of Bukkur, until arrangements were made for its relief; and Lieut.--Col. Monteath ordered to correspond direct with the Head Quarters of the column.
A sick Depôt was directed to be established at Sukkur, and a proper supply of medicines and surgical instruments to be left The recovered men in hospital were sent to join their corps.
A Fort Adjutant was appointed, and Lieut. Laughton, Bengal Engineers, to be Garrison Engineer, to receive instructions from the Chief Engineer; and to be under the commandant of the fort.
The heavy baggage of the Cavalry Brigade, which could not conveniently be carried on, was directed to be deposited in the fort; and to be sent in empty boats proceeding to Ferozpoor, where it was to be lodged.
The Commandant of the fort of Bukkur was authorized to disburse treasure from the military chest29 for the public service, without reference, on any emergency; payments to be made in presence of the Ft. Adjt.30
The Bridge of Boats was directed to be made over to Lieut. Wood, of the Indian Navy, and to be kept up till Shah Shoojah's Artillery should have crossed to the right bank; the larger bridge, or that in the main branch, was then to be broken up, 10 most suitable boats to be used for a Ferry, either at Rohree, or Uzeezpoor.31 The remainder of the boats to be made over to the Commissariat Department for transport of grain, &c. The other materials to be deposited in the fort, under charge of the Garrison Engineer, for the public service. The smaller bridge to be kept up as long as practicable, to facilitate the communication with Bukkur;
and when necessary to break it up, the boats to be transferred to the Commissariat, and the materials to the Garrison Engineer.
17. The Bengal and Bombay Columns--Army of Indus.-- Lieut.-Genl. Sir John Keane, K. C. B. and G. C. H. Comr.-in-Chief of the Bombay army, and in command of the forces in Sindh, was now, to assume the command of the "Army of the Indus" which occasioned the following arrangements to be made. The whole of the Cavalry (Bengal and Bombay) as originally intended, were to form a division under the command of Major Genl. Thackwell. The whole of the Artillery (Bengal and Bombay) to be under Brigr. Stevenson, Bombay Army. The Infantry of the Bengal column, to be denominated the 1st Infy. Division, under the personal command of Major Genl. Sir W. Cotton;32 the infantry of the Bombay column, to be the 2nd division under Major Genl. Willshire.
Major Parsons (Bengal) Dy. Commy. Genl. was directed to assume a general control over the Commissariat of the Bengal and Bombay columns; and Capt. G. Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Bengal column, became the chief Engineer of the "Army of the Indus" There were no other staff arrangements made.33
It was subsequently notified34 that the 15th Feb. 1839 was the period from which the Native Troops, and permanent establishments of both presidencies, were to be placed on a footing of perfect equality in regard to pay and allowances: being the date on which the Head Quarters of the
Bengal column were established on the right bank of the Indus.35
18. Bengal Column arrived at Shikarpoor.--The train of artillery marched into Shikarpoor on the 16th of Feb. 1839. The 2nd Brigade of Infantry reached it on the 17th Feb. The 1st Brigade of Infantry on the 18th Feb. The 4th Brigade on the 19th: and the Head Quarters, the H. A. and Cavalry Brigade on the 20th Feb. 1839, where we found the Shah, Mr. MacNaghten, the Envoy and Minister at his court; and the Shah's contingent, commanded by Major General Simpson.
The Chief Engineer was directed to entertain 300 bildars for the purpose of making roads; as the sappers and miners were required for other duties. Preparations were now to be made for the advance of the troops. The Bombay column was about 15 marches in our rear at Lukkee, one march on the other side of Sewun. The Dy. Commy. General, Major Parsons, wished to have remained about 20 days at Shikarpoor, to enable us to start with the greatest possible quantity of supplies; but it was urged, that it was highly expedient to push on to the Bolan Pass to secure it as soon as possible. We were just 10 marches from Dadur at the entrance to the pass, 18 marches from Quetta, and 32 marches from Candahar. No doubt it was expedient to move on to the pass, and to move through it, but as the Shah had reached Shikarpoor a month before us, the Chiefs of Candahar had ample time to have made 22 marches to occupy the pass, to which they must have known the invading force to be so near. It was proposed by one party that a brigade of Infantry only should be sent on in advance to occupy the pass; but as it could not be known whether Dost Mahomed Khan would join the Candahar Chiefs,36 and
whether they might not both have contested for the possession of the Pass;--great caution was required in risking an advance without the means of an immediate support.37 The Bombay column halted at Larkhana nine days (from 3rd to 11th March), and 10 days at Gundava (21st to 30th March) after the treaty had been signed at Hyderabad: and if Sir J. Keane could have pushed on with his escort from Larkhana,38 he would have reached Quetta by the time we did--whereas we had to halt there, from the 27th March to the 6th April 1839--11 days, by which we consumed our supplies, and were obliged to be put on half rations.39
19. Shikarpoor.--The town of Shikarpoor contains about 6,000 houses and 30,000 inhabitants, the houses are all built of mud, and it is a dirty place. It is a place of much resort, and the first of importance between Rohree and Dadur, near the entrance to the Bolan Pass. It has some pretensions to trade, but none to consideration from its
buildings. There are a number of Jews here, from whom Bills can be obtained or negotiated, on any place in India, or even on Constantinople, China or any place almost in the world:--in fact money transactions are the chief employment of the wealthy people of the place, and the merchants will contract to furnish large quantities of grain. Being so near the Indus, whenever the free navigation of the river increases the commerce of Sindh and Afghanistan, Shikarpoor will become a place of great commercial importance.
When Shah Shoojah visited Sindh in his last expedition to try to recover his throne in 1834,40 he obtained possession of this place, with the consent of the Ameers of Hyderabad. He tried to obtain money from Ameers, which they would not at first comply with. The Shah threatened to plunder Shikarpoor and Larkhana, if not supplied with money. A very severe action took place on the 9th Jan. 1834, seven koss (14 miles) beyond Rohree. The Sindhians lost 1,370 horse and foot soldiers, and a considerable number were killed and wounded on the Shah's side. The army of Talpoorians fairly fled from the field of battle; and the Shah obtained firm possession of Shikarpoor. They consented to the pecuniary aid in preference to hazarding another battle: and agreed to farm the place from the Shah at from 5 or 7 lakhs of Rupees.41 There were, now 15,500 troops at Shikarpoor; so that with camp-followers, there must have been nearly 100,000 people to feed.
MARCH FROM SHIKARPOOR TO DADUR NEAR THE BOLAN PASS.
1. Preparations to leave Shikarpoor, (20th Feb. 1839.)-- On the arrival of the Head Quarters with Maj. Genl. Sir W. Cotton at Shikarpoor, the whole of the Bengal column, and the Shah's contingent, were present,--a force amounting to about 15,500 men. Consultation was held between Sir W. Cotton and Mr. MacNaghten, the Envoy and Minister, the principal staff being present, as to the time of marching onwards to the Pass. Mr. MacNaghten had received a report that the Bolan Pass (10 marches distant) was occupied by the enemy;1 he, therefore, on the 18th Feb. had addressed a dispatch2 to Lieut.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, Commander-in-Chief of the army of the Indus, then in Sindh, pressing him to push on. It was resolved to march towards the Pass, at once, to secure its possession. The Dy. Commy. Genl. had represented that it was necessary to remain at Shikarpoor for about 20 days, to enable the commissariat to obtain the greatest possible quantity of supplies for all the troops; while halting at this place, the troops would not consume their stock of supplies, but procure their grain, &c. from the city, where a large quantity had been collected; and more was procurable for the rear columns, Bombay troops, &c. on the arrival of an expected convoy, with wheat, gram, &c. coming from Mooltan, &c. The Bengal Commissariat were to supply the Bombay troops, not only with grain
but with Camels.3 Before the resolution to move on immediately, was known, the Dy. Commy. Genl. had detached 4,000 camels to bring up from the rear grain, &c. He was also led to expect 10 days' supplies would be ready at Dadur4 (10 marches in advance), and 20 days' supplies at Quetta5 (18 marches in advance); while Candahar was 32 marches distant from Shikarpoor: so that, including halts, &c. 45 or 50 days' supplies were required for the troops up to Candahar:6 and as we marched with carriage for and with only a mouth's supplies from Ferozpoor,7 more carriage was required than could be procured at the time, both for the Bengal and Bombay columns,8 as well as for the Shah's force.
Supplies taken with the Bengal Column.--The Bengal Column marched from Shikarpoor with one and a half month's supplies, and a similar quantity remained in depot there, to follow if required. Rum for three mouths, accompanied the Bengal column.
2. Order for march from Shikarpoor, (21st Feb. 1839.)--The troops of the Bengal column were directed to march in the following order, in columns, and on the following dates:
1st. On the 22nd Feb.--The Engineer Dept., Ressalah of Local Horse, and a Company of Infy.
2nd. On the 23rd.--The Head Quarters. Cavy. Brigade and Horse Arty, and a wing of Native Infy.
3rd. On the 24th.--1st Brigade Infy. and Camel battery.
4th. On the 25th.--4th Brigade of Infy. and a Regt. from 2nd Brigade (temporarily attached.)
5th. On the 26th.--The Park, 4th Local Horse, and a Coy. N. I.
6th. On the 27th.--Field Commissariat stores, escorted by one Ressalah of Local Horse, and one Coy. of Infy.
7th.--The 2nd Brigade, with H. M. Shah Shoojah-Ool-Moolk.9
8th.--The field hospital with the 4th Brigade. A portion of treasure, and a party of Local Horse, attached to each Brigade.
Maj. Genl. Sir W. Cotton, inspected the Park of Arty, and the H. A. Cavy. and Infy. Brigades and Camel battery, on the 21st and 22nd Feb. previous to the march of the troops.
Review of Troops.--The troops were paraded in Review order before H. M. Shah Shoojah-Ool-Moolk, who was
pleased to present a donation of 8,000 Rs. (£800) to be divided, in equal proportions among the corps, European and Native.
3. March from Shikarpoor, (23rd Feb. 1839.)--Marched this day 17½ miles, the road through a jungly country to Jagan. 24th Feb. marched 11¾ miles to Janeedera, through a jungly country, but, except in a few places, open on both flanks. To prevent the Rewaree camels falling off in condition by coming late to the ground, they were allowed to go on at any hour during the night, under parties of Local Horse. Scarcity of water reported at next stage (Rajhan): Hd. Qrs. directed to halt to-morrow. The 1st Brigade to halt till further orders. The 4th Brigade to close up to it at Jagan. The Park and Field Commisst. to stand fast at Shikarpoor; till columns in advance have moved on in the order already directed.
Of the Shah's force, the 2nd Regt. of Cavy. and a Provisional Battn. of Infantry (900 strong) were left at Shikarpoor, on the march of H. M. from that place.
Major Leech joined the Hd. Qrs. to-day. He had been engaged in collecting supplies between Shikarpoor and Dadur.
Post office.--The Post Master, under the directions of the Envoy and Minister, agreed to lay daks and establish a post along the line of march, using horsemen, camels, and men, as the obstacles to be overcome, and the nature of the country and circumstances might dictate.
New order of March,10 (25th Feb.)--On the 27th Feb. H. A. and a Regt. of Cavy. to march; on 28th, remainder of Cavy., a wing of Infy., and the Hd. Qrs. of the column; on 28th Feb. 1st Infy. Brigade; on 1st March, 4th Infy. Brigade and Field Commisst; on 2nd March the Park and 4th Local Horse.
26th Feb.--Report of only three wells at the next ground. The Engineers in advance; H. M.'s 16th Lancers marched by wings.
27th Feb.--Hd. Qrs. marched to Rajhan, 11¼ miles. The road passed over the edge of the Desert. Scarcity of forage.
28th Feb.--The Hd. Qrs. halted.
1st March.--The 3rd Cavy. to march to Barshore tomorrow. The 2nd Cavy. and Dett. 48th N. I. to march tomorrow, from Janeedera to Rajhan.
The supply of Kurbee11 unequal to the demand, limited to rations for officers' chargers. Infantry officer for one horse only.
The mails going to and coming from Hindustan, plundered; one runner killed and two wounded. Heard of a Convoy coming on with grain, having been attacked.
2nd March.--The 3rd Cavy. marched over the desert. The Hd. Qrs., one Squadron 2nd Cavy., and one Coy. of N. I. to move to-night to Barshore, across the desert; and to wells near Cundah on the following day. Remaining two Squadrons of 2nd Cavy. and remainder detachment of Infy. to Barshore, on the 4th, and to wells on the 5th,--where the whole were to remain till further orders.
1st Infy. Brigade, with camel battery to Jagan on the 4th; remainder of troops, to stand fast till further orders.
4. Supplies and Forage, (3rd March.)--Supplies ordered to be pushed on to the Army, as a scarcity was found on the march hitherto. Capt. Lawrence 2nd Cavy. sent with a party to Cundah (eight miles W. of Meerpoor) to collect forage for the Cavy. (The Bombay Column to-day at Larkhana.)
The Desert (called the Putt). The distance over the Desert was 26½ miles. The troops moved at night to prevent the men suffering from the heat, or the reflection and glare caused by the rays of the sun, striking from the hard sandy soil. It was a clear moon-light night, and after leaving camp the desert appeared interminable. The troops, by the above arrangements, did not suffer in the least.12 There is not
a drop of water to be had, and when in the centre of the desert, if the traveller loses the proper direction, he may wander about, and die of thirst, as many others have done. We found strings of camels moving across in several lines with guides, so that we could not lose our way.
We found bad water at Barshore. There were a number of small wells, but the water so salt and muddy, that the horses refused to drink it, though they had marched so many miles without drinking. A large pukha well was ordered to be made here.13
4th March.--The Head Qrs. moved to-day to Meerpoor, distant, 14½ miles. The road much the same as that of the desert: wells in any number dug in the bed of the river, but water salt and bad.
Two Squadrons of 2nd Cavy. and three Cos. 48th N. I. march to Meerpoor to-morrow.
Intimation received of a party of Jahranee Belochees having descended from the mountains to carry off camels, and plunder stragglers. The Maj. Genl. warns officers Comg. columns, to take precautions to protect the baggage, &c. on the march. They usually move in parties of five or six men.14
Commsst. Cattle.--The Camels were obliged to be allowed to travel over night, as otherwise, owing to the long marches, want of forage, and heat of the weather. (98° to-day at 3 P.M.) they could not carry their loads of grain; to be protected by small parties of horsemen in front, on the flanks, and in the rear, and not to go far from Camp to graze, without a suitable escort.
5th March.--Head Quarters to-day at Ustad, distance 13¾ miles. There is a lake of fresh water here. The country on this march as barren as last march; a desert within a few miles of the hills. A chief of the Belochees has a
fort in the bills, and about 20 miles distant. A number of camels carried off in the night.15
5. Cavalry Horses, (6th March).--The Head Qrs. today at Bhag, distant 9½ miles from last ground. The Hd. Qrs. and Cavy. to halt to-morrow. Obtained 300 or 400 maunds of grain here.
Comsst. unable to furnish full rations of Kurbee; to issue an extra ration of one seer (two lbs.) of Jooar (barley) to each horse.
A number of more camels driven off by the Belochees to-day. The Governor paid the General a visit in the afternoon.
The camp-followers who went beyond the picquets, were plundered, and their cattle stolen.
The Crops, (7th March).--Warning against depredations committed on fields of growing wheat, and severe punishment denounced. Whenever necessary to assign growing wheat, or barley, as forage for Cavalry,16 a portion of a field to be marked off for each corps, by an officer of the Qr. Mr. Genl.'s Dept., and the owner paid by the Executive Commissariat officer of the Brigade, on statements of the number of rations, by Qr. Mrs. of the Regts., countersigned by Comg. officers.
The Shah marched from Shikarpoor on the 7th March, with 1 Regt. of irregular Cavy. and 5 Regts. of Infantry, (each 820.)
8th March.--Hd. Quarters marched to-day to Myhesur (or Myhsur) distance 16 miles, across a wretched country. The village stands on the bank of the Bolan river, which issues from the Pass.
Half-rations to Non-Combatants.--There being a difficulty in bringing on supplies from the rear, the Comsst. Dept. for the present, to issue Half-rations to men of the mustered establishments; paying compensation in money in lieu of
the other half: this order not to affect the troops. We were now, within 23 miles of the Pass.
9th March.--The Hd. Quarters moved to-day to Noushera 15¾ miles; road over a bleak, barren desert for 15 miles. Crossed a Pass about five miles from the last ground. If great care be not taken, the road may be blocked up at this Pass for hours. After quitting the narrow gorge of the pass, the road, though bounded on each side by low hills, is good. The country throughout is a desert. Plenty of good water from the Bolan river. The baggage to-day crowding at the pass, delayed the march of the troops for a long time.
9th March.--Camels with the treasure, &c. over-driven; orders not to force them on.
6. Arrive at Dadur, (10th March).--The Hd. Quarters, to-day, arrived at Dadur, a distance of 7½ miles. At 4½ miles from the last ground, crossed the Bolan river. Hence over a good road (the mountains closing in on all sides) three miles is Dadur near the entrance to the Bolan Pass.
Reconnoitring--Detachment in Advance.--A detachment of one troop of Cavy.17 and three Cos. 48th N. I.,18 under Major Cureton,19 was directed to move into the pass to-morrow, to escort the Dy. Qr. Mr. Genl. (Major Garden) to make his observations on the forage, and grass procurable; and on the obstacles to the passage of the troops.20
The Engineer Dept. also to move to Drubbee21
to-morrow; and proceed with their operations, in facilitating the passage of the Army through the Defile.
11th March.--To supply six or seven days forage for the Cavy., &c. horses, a quantity of green barley was directed to be supplied to each corps, to be cut, dried, and mixed with grass.22 Reports from the rear, of Camp-followers being robbed and cut down by the Belochees.
12th March.--Forage reported to be in the Pass. In the rear columns, the Qr. Mrs. of H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy.23 and 16th Bengal N. I., attacked by a party of Belochees, while riding on to take up new ground.
13th March.--The Maj. Genl. intimated to Comg. officers that the country, through which the army was now passing, abounds in a good description of carriage-bullocks, and afforded a good opportunity to complete the transport for their several bazars, to carry three days supplies; as required by the Regns. of the service.24 From the reports from the advance, it was stated that there were occasional patches of dry, coarse grass, to be found in the Pass. Caution published against lighting fires in or near the grass; all transgressors to be severely punished.
The Dâwk robbed, and the letters destroyed. Reports of more thefts in the 4th Brigade, in the rear. Good reports from the advance.
7.--Order for March into Pass, &c.--(14th March)-- The Hd. Qrs.--2 T. 2 B. H. A.--a Regt of Cavy. and 2 Regts. of Infy. from 1st Brigade, and half a Ressalah of Local Horse--to march on the 15th;--remainder of Cavy. and remaining Regt. of the 1st Brigade, No. 6 Lt. Fd.
Battery, and half a Ressalah of Local Horse, on the 16th 2 Regts. of 4th Brigade, and a Ressalah of Local Horse, and the Field Hospital, on the 17th;--The remaining Regt. of the 4th Brigade, in charge of Commissariat Field Depôt, on the 20th inst
The Columns actually marched a day later than the above dates, viz.--on 16th March, and following days.-- Each Column to carry with it its proportion of Commissariat supplies.
Order of March.--The order in which the leading Columns will enter the Defile.
The Infantry by Sections, right in front; the Artillery and Cavalry, conforming.
|1. H. M.'s 13th Infy.
2. Horse Arty.
3. 2nd Lt. Cavy.
4. Wing 48th N. I.
|6. Led horses of Cavy. &c.|
7. Hd. Qr. baggage.
8. Regtl. baggage, according to Regtl. seniority.
9. Local Horse.25
Two Cos. of Infy., when practicable, to move parallel with the guns; ready to afford aid to them, in getting over difficult parts of the road.
The Baggage Master to reconnoitre the gorge of the Pass, to make the necessary arrangements, for regulating the march of the baggage. A detail of Local Horse at his disposal. (March countermanded, at 10 p. m.)
The 1st Infy. Brigade, and the Camel battery marched into Dadur. Orders received from Sir J. Keane.
Yesterday the Dhoolee bearers of the 3rd. Lt. Cavy. ran away.26
15th March.--The 1st Column to march to-morrow, the rest on subsequent days, in the order above indicated.
Memo.--Compensation, in money, will be disbursed in lieu of the moiety of their rations, while on half-rations, to those belonging to mustered Establishments,--the difference between the price of Attah (flour) in the Suddur bazar, and the rate issued from the Commissariat stores.
Full rations to be restored as soon as supplies, in transitu, reach the army.27
8. Position of the Forces, (15th March 1839).--At this period the Bombay Troops were nine marches from Dadur. The Shah had marched from Shikarpoor towards Dadur, and Lt.-Col. Wade was within five marches of Peshawer.
We did not find here the 10 days' supplies of grain which we expected, and had been promised. Before leaving Shikarpoor, Mehrab Khan of Khelat wrote to say that the grain was collected for the Army, and "to send people to receive it, as he could not take care of it."28 The people at Dadur were under his authority, and from the way in which we were supplied here, we might somewhat judge of the conduct to be expected from this chief.--The Dy. Comy. Genl. left Camels and people with money to purchase grain in the Valley of Seistan, which is close to Dadur, but
only obtained about 500 maunds--not a tenth of what had been promised us.
A Depôt was, subsequently formed here, on the advance of the Troops, and a force was left here.
MARCH FROM DADUR--THROUGH THE BOLAN PASS--TO QUETTA.
1. Country between Shikarpoor and Dadur.--The distance between Shikarpoor and Dadur, is 146 miles, and 10 marches; but owing to the want of water on the road, the Hd. Quarters did not reach Dadur in less than 16 days, as it was found necessary to send the troops by detachments, and sometimes by wings of Regts. of the Cavy., as they require three or four times more water than Infantry Regts. From Rajhan, or after our 3rd march, we found the whole country between it and Noushera, a distance of 96 miles, and only six marches, a desert almost the whole way, except a little cultivation round the villages. The marches were long, and no water to be had at intermediate places; so that we found the troops much fatigued and the cattle much knocked up, owing to the length of the distance they daily travelled, and the difficulty of procuring water, and forage. A party of Cavalry was sent out to collect forage for the horses, and strict orders were given to prevent the columns closing up on each other. After crossing over the "Marshy desert" we left Sindh, and entered, at Barshore, Belochistan, the country which produces such numerous bands of plunderers,1 by which the troops were so much annoyed, so many of our followers killed and wounded, so many of our cattle carried off, and property lost and destroyed. It
is to be hoped that one of the benefits to be derived from our operations in Sindh and Affghanistan, will be the restoration of the country, between Shikarpoor and Dadur, so necessary to keep up our communications in that quarter, to some order, and to free it from these pests, and enemies to civilization.2
2. Entrance of the Bolan Pass to Kohan Delan, (16th March, 1839.)--Thermometer at 3 A.M. 62°. The Hd. Qrs. left Dadur this morning at day break, with the 1st Column. Dadur is 743 feet above the level of the sea. The road lay over the Bolan river after leaving camp. The entrance to the Pass might be disputed for a short time, by parties being stationed on the broken hills on each side; but an irregular enemy could not long oppose regular troops--who would dislodge those occupying the heights before the advance of the column was made! They might much annoy the rear, baggage, and cattle. It would be necessary to crown the heights to protect the advance of the troops, and the passage of stores, baggage, etc., and to post parties at such points, as those from which the enemy could descend from the hills to make an attack. Our column was not attacked, but the rear columns were.
After entering the Pass the road lay N. W., and after marching about four miles, the mountains began to close
on us from N. E. to S. W. The hills which immediately enclose the pass, are not very high--are irregular in height and barren; their strata most confused, and their formation of coarse pudding-stone, changing near the surface, to loose clay and pebbles. The distance from hill to hill, on each side, varied; but in few places within the command of musketry, though shots from Juzzails (rifles) would have reached us more frequently.3 The road lay over rough loose stones and shingle. We to-day crossed the Bolan river eight times, never deeper than three feet in any place. At about eight miles we came to a spot called "Drubbee," where there is a small valley, and green sward, as the name imports, where the Engineers had encamped. A clear stream runs by it, and 1,500 men might have their camp here. From this, the distance between the hills contracts again.
On the left hand side and close to camp, we saw six trees, not having seen one before. We found our camp at the distance of 11 miles from Dadur at Kohan Delan,4 where the valley of stones widens. But little forage here.
The H. A. and Cavy. were in one Camp just beyond the six trees. The five Cos. 48th N. I. in another across the river, which was fordable. The Hd. Qrs. near some grave stones, near a height situated between the two camps.5 We found nothing to prevent our tents being sent on in advance, with a party to protect them. The elevation of this place above the level of the sea was 904 feet, or 161 above Dadur---which, in a distance of 11 miles gives a rise of 1 foot in 360--Thermometer at 3 P.M. 86°. On entering the Pass you are in Khorassan.
3.--March to Kirta, (17th March, 1839.)--Marched before day-light; thermometer 3 A.M. 60° crossed the river on leaving camp,6; the darkness of the morning was increased by heavy clouds, and rain, with a cold cutting wind. Crossed the Bolan river 13 times, at no place deeper than three feet. The distance between the hills greater than on the last march, and on reaching Kirta, we found our camp. The village of Kirta was about a mile in advance, to the right, and did not contain many houses or inhabitants.7
The valley, here, is from 3 to 4 miles broad, and 6 or 7 miles long, in the direction of the next stage. The whole length of the valley about 10 miles. A Kalifa of merchants from Candahar came into camp at noon, on its way to India.
The same kind of road as last march, over loose stones, and shingle. Crossed the last time about three miles from camp just where we entered the valley. The country has the same sterile appearance; there is some long dry grass, and a few stunted bushes: little forage.
The distance marched 10 miles, 5 furlongs; the elevation above the level of the sea 10818 or 177 feet above Kohan Delan, which gives in to-day's march, a rise of one foot in 304; thermometer at 3 P.M. 80°: very close and cloudy weather.
4.--March to Beebee Nanee, (18th March, 1839.)--Thermometer at 5 A.M. 60°. Marched at 8 A.M. owing to the rain, early in the morning. The clouds hid the barrenness of the mountains, rolling down towards their base. The valley barren except a few bushes of coarse grass, Lanna,9 and dwarf Tamarisk. The march from Kirta for the first 6 or 7 miles, lies through the valley which is
here from 3 to 4 miles broad. The route lay close to the left towards the hills, and at the termination of this valley, which runs to the right to a considerable extent; entered another and smaller valley about a mile or 1½ mile wide, by crossing a small range of hills of clay and sand-stone, by a short gorge, about 18 or 20 feet wide.10 Up this second valley the road is better, at the distance of 3 miles from the gorge, saw our tents at Beebee Nanee, about a mile from which, we came to numerous tombs of stones, and one of brick, on both sides of the road. It is considered a Holy place, and the dead are brought to it for interment from a great distance, said to be the bodies of travellers, murdered by the Murhees; a tribe of lawless, cowardly robbers, who live in these wastes, who will not attack armed men, but will kill travellers when asleep, or entrap them and stone them, without running any risk themselves.11 Our camp at the further end of this valley, where we crossed the Bolan, at Beebee Nanee, much swollen and discolored by the rain of this morning. There are two caverns in the mountain, on the left, after crossing the river, which go by the name of Beebee Nanee;12 but no human habitation to be seen.
The Camp.--The Hd. Qr. and Infy. camp were across the river; that of the H. A. and Cavy. on the Kirta side of it. There were graves near Hd. Qrs.
Distance marched 9 miles, 1 furlong. The elevation today above the level of the sea 1695 feet, or 614 feet above Kirta,13 this gives the increased rise of 1 in 77 feet: thermometer at 3 P.M. 72°. Thunder and lightning
and rain at sun-set; a gale of wind, and some heavy showers during the night, and very cold: many tents blown down.14
5.--March to Abi-goom, (19th March, 1839).--Marched at 5 A.M., thermometer 50°. The road this morning had much more of ascent than heretofore, and the gusts of wind were so violent, that it was difficult to keep our seats on horseback. The same dreary waste was around us, and we saw snow-capped mountains, which we shall approach tomorrow. The road passed through two valleys, between which the distance of the hills which bound the road, may be 2 to 300 yards in some places; crossed the river several times; at one place it was 3½ feet deep, passing through thick grass, and marshy ground, about 3 miles from our new camp.--The site of our camp is the same from which the engineers, sappers and miners were driven a few nights ago15 , and every table, chair, and tent, was washed down by the sudden rising of the river, or mountain torrent. We encamped in higher ground. Running streams of good water, close to camp: strong wind at night. There are some houses on the left-hand side of the road. The distance marched to-day, 8 miles, 5 furlongs. The elevation above the level of the sea was 2,540 feet, or 845 feet above Beebee Nanee; being a rise on this march of 1 foot in 51--much greater than in the last march. The gale in full force, and thermometer at noon 60°. Strong wind during the night. There were low hills to our right, and close to camp, from which we could see the open road in advance for a considerable distance.
6.--March to Sir-i-Bolan,16 (20th March, 1839.)--Thermometer at 4 A.M. 52°. Marched to-day at 5 A.M. with a N. W. wind which pierced to the bone. The ascent this morning was greater than we had yet found it, while the road was still stony and pebbly, and lay through the bed of a mountain torrent. A slight descent, at first, in the road. The valley narrowed a good deal, and precipices of sandstone, pudding-stone, and loose earth and pebbles, overhung our route; while in our front glistened in the morning sun, the snow-capped mountains; the streams had lost their depth, and every thing indicated an increased elevation.
At about 6 miles came to Sir-i-Khijoor, where are some Khujoor (Date) trees on the right of the road, on a rising ground and some green fields, and a spring of water. Except "Drubbee" on the first march, this was the only green spot we met with in the Pass. There was some snow on the mountains a few miles off.
After marching 3½ miles more, we came to the camp at Sir-i-Bolan, distance from the last ground 9 miles and 5 furlongs. The elevation above the level of sea this march far exceeded that of the last, being 4,494, or 1,954 feet above Abi-Goom, giving a rise of about 1 in 25 feet, the greatest we found in the Pass. Thermometer at 3 P.M. 66°.
The destruction of animals, and camels, this day, has been very great, and the horses of the Artillery were greatly distressed--8 horses (2 additional) to each gun and the assistance of the Infantry, hardly sufficed to bring them into camp. The Horse Artillery were five hours in marching from the last ground (9½ miles).17
Here there is not a blade of grass to be seen. The road from Sir-i-Khujoor to Sir-i-Bolan was constantly intersected by the stream of the river. There is a spring in the rock at Sir-i-Bolan. on the left of the road, close to where our Camp was; and it is from this spring that the Bolan river has its source.18
Lt.-Colonel Wade this day arrived at Peshawer.
7.--March to Head of and beyond the Pass, (21st March, 1839.)--Thermometer at 5 A.M. 44°. The troops having a long march before them, they were ordered to cook and eat their dinners and be ready to march. The order yesterday was, "Camp to be struck at day-break, tents loaded, and sent to the mouth of the Pass, and the camp to be pitched in the valley; an escort to be sent with the baggage, which is to be allowed to move off till 11 A.M.--after which, not till the troops shall have marched.19 The troops to cook, and be prepared to move at 2 P.M."
The morning was clear and still. The camp laid before us, with the snow-clad mountains on the right, and the stream gushing from the mountain on the left,20 which gives the name to the Pass--the picture was fine and even grand; while the stream was tainted with the dead bodies of camels, &c. The road lay through the same bed of pebbles, until we passed the river Bolan, when the hills closed; and reduced the valley to about a quarter of a mile in width.
At about five miles there were some stunted trees on each side of the road, the precipices became more abrupt, and the confusion of the different strata was beyond description. The ascent was considerable, and the Pass gradually narrowed, until it wound through some high hills, the shadows of which left us cool for a little while; the sun and radiation of heat were far from pleasant.
There were groups of starved camels, and here and there a horse, and a bullock; men, women, and children crowded the road, and lay among the stones basking in the sun; every thing indicated our gradual approach to the head of the Pass.
The last three miles to the head of the Pass, the road is good in many places; but this is the most commanding part of the Pass. The road is in some places not more than 40 to 60 feet wide, with perpendicular rocks 100 feet high; from which an enemy could give a most destructive fire.21
At 10 miles, we reach the Ghaut, or head of the Pass. The ascent of the ghaut was gradual and only about 100 yards in length. The camels loaded, walked up and down it without stopping or resting.22
Descent from Pass.--After the descent, which is not great, a Plain covered with wild thyme lay before us, hills covered with snow, sparkled in the sun (near setting), and a cold, piercing wind from the N. E. swept over it, and took from the scene, its fierceness.23 The distance to camp was 2¾ miles; the road took a turn to the right; and we did not see the camp on first entering the valley, or Dusht-i-Bedowlut.24
The distance from Sir-i-Bolan to Dusht-i-Bedowlut was 12¾ miles. The elevation above the level of the sea is 5,793 or 1,299 feet above Sir-i-Bolan, which gives a rise of one foot in 41 in this march.
|Marches in the Pass.||Level above the sea.||Rise at each stage.|
|1. Dadur to Kohan Delan||11||0||904||1 in 360 ft|
|2. Kohan Delan to Kirta (or Gurm-ab,)||10||5||1081||" 304|
|3. Kirata to Beebee Nanee,||9||1||1695||" 77|
|4. Beebee Nanee to Abi-i-Goom,||8||5||2540||" 51|
|6. Ab-i-Goom to Sir-i-Bolan,||9||5||4494||" 25|
|6. Sir-i-Bolan to head of Pass,||10||0||5793||" 41|
The Bombay army was this day at Gundava, five from Dadur, and 11 marches from this place. Water was found at Dusht-i-Bedowlut, a collection of rain-water, after a fall of rain, two days before; otherwise, we must have made a march of 28½ miles. Thermometer here at 5 P.M. 60°; at day-break it was as low as 26°.
8. March to Sir-i-Ab,26 (23rd March, 1839.)--Thermometer 38° at 4 A.M. Marched at 5 A.M.27 The road, consisting of numerous foot-paths of sand and pebbles, lay, N. W. over the Dusht-i-Bedowlut, on which nothing but wild thyme was seen. The valley is extensive to the right and left, after leaving Dusht-i-Bedowlut. To the N. and S. were hills covered with snow; bleak mountains, crags, and steeps, bounded the plain on every side. The traveller may picture to his mind, the horrors of a winter in such a place. At 1½ miles from last camp, crossed two ghauts over dry ravines. Within two miles of the new ground near the
road, and by the sides of the hills we found some wheat-fields. At Sir-i-Ab, there were no human habitations to be seen. On the mountains were a few black sheep-skin tents, and a flock of sheep and goats. The plain is a wilderness covered with southern-wood (or old man). The crocus and tulip, bloomed in the waste.
There was a slight descent in the country at about 12 miles from the last ground.
Here for the first time, we saw a long line of Karezees28 running across the valley from N. to S.
To the left of Sir-i-Ab and S. from our camp is a valley which leads to the road to Khelat about 112 miles distant.29
The troops did not reach this ground till 11 A.M., and the whole of the baggage not till 2. P.M. About a mile before we arrived at Sir-i-Ab, (or near the Karezees) there was a dry nullah, over which the Pioneers had to make a road.30 Comg. officers of corps and Heads of Depts. reminded of the order against the destruction of growing crops of wheat, &c.
Distance marched to-day was 15 miles, 5 furlongs. The thermometer at 3 P.M. 75°.
To-night, unexpectedly, H. M.'s 16th Lancers marched into camp from Sir-i-Bolan, 28½ miles.31
9. Halt 23rd, 24th, and 25th March, 1839.--On the 23rd
March, 1839, Sir J. Keane marched from Gundava, 12 marches behind, to join us. This morning the 16th N. I., the 3rd Cavy. and camel battery, marched into camp.
At the request of Major Leech (P. A. at Hd. Qrs.) attention of officers Comg. Brigades, Corps, and at the head of Depts. called, requiring the troops and followers to be "careful not to interfere with, or Insult the prejudices of the people of the country, through which the army is about to advance."
"The mosques not to be entered by any one, not of the faith of those by whom they have been erected."
"The poles and flags, by the way-sides, are considered sacred by the people, being emblematical of the grave of a pilgrim; these are, on no account to be removed."
"The surwans and others, are to be directed to abstain from cutting fruit trees for forage, for their cattle, or for ether purposes; and signal example will be made, on the. spot, of any one who may be detected, in the act of committing this offence."
"Caution to European and Native soldiers from interfering, when in the bazars, or villages, with the women of the country; quarrels, and loss of life will attend a disregard of this warning."
"The substance of the above order to be particularly explained to the troops; and proclaimed by Tom-tom throughout the different bazars, and lines of the camp."
24th March.--The 4th Brigade marched into camp. Few of the corps have their baggage up, and in several the men have lost their quilts.
The wind rushing down the crannies in the mountains, sweeps clouds of dust into camp, and nearly blows down our tents. Hence, no doubt, the natives live in the caves in the side of the mountains, or in small, low tents. The 37th N. I. still at the head of the Pass.
To-day the Cavalry horses were put on half rations. Officers allowed none. Brigadiers to-day, directed to protect their own camps.
Order for March.--The whole of the troops (except the 4th Brigade, under Major-Genl. Nott.) will move
to-morrow morning towards Quetta, in the following order; right in front.
|1. The Cavy. Brigade.
2. Troop of H. A.
3. 2 Regts. of Infy.
|4. No. 6 Lt. Field battery.|
5. A Regt. of Infy.
The March countermanded; the Engineer Dept. and a Compy. of N. Infy. alone to march to Quetta, to-morrow.
10. March-order repeated, (25th March.)--Thermometer at 5 A.M. 44°. The order of yesterday repeated, except that no baggage animals to precede the column, or proceed over night; the baggage to follow the troops. The crops on the line of march to be preserved, and parties posted to prevent animals going over the corn-fields. On the arrival at Quetta, guards to be posted at each of the gates of the town, and orders given to prevent any soldiers, or followers, except the buneeahs of the different bazars, entering it.32
The Post, or Dâk, having been cut off for 10 days, 4 mails came in at once. One of the runners had been shot dead, and the blood-stained packet left on the road, and picked up by the next. Attah at 1½ seers per Rs. Oram, none.33 Thermometer at 3 P.M. 66°.
This afternoon Sir A. Burnes, accompanied by Lieut. Pattison, (16th Lancers and A. D. C. to late Brigr. Arnold) Lt. Simpson, S. A. G. G., and Moonshee Mohunlal, started for Khelat, the object being to induce Mehrab Khan to come to tender his submission to H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk;
and to obtain a supply of grain. Sir A. B. intended to reach his destination, a distance of 112 miles, in 3 days: an escort of 1 Duffadar and 15 troopers, 1st Local Horse, went with him.
March to Quetta, (26th March, 1839.) Thermometer at 4 A.M. 34°. Marched at day-break; the road was by an old foot-path, or bullock track; it wound up the valley, which, after a march of 3 or 4 miles, exhibited signs of cultivation. The mountain peaks, on our right and left, were covered with snow. These mountains divide the valley of Pesheen from Candahar. The route, had a straight line been drawn, would have been N. N. W. to N. W. by N. After a short but cold march, we reached Quetta--a most miserable mud town, with a small castle on a mound, on which there was a small gun, on a ricketty carriage. The peach and almond trees were in blossom. There is a garden, enclosed by a mud-wall, surrounded by poplars; numerous streamlets watered the valley, only a few inches broad, and as many deep; except a broad one near camp, which was deep. Camp N. E. of Quetta. Thermometer at 3 P.M. 60°.34
The elevation of this place above the sea is 5,637 feet, or 156 feet lower than Dusht-i-Bedowlut.
Sir J. Keane, to-day, met Shah Shoojah at Noushera, one march from Dadur, near the entrance to the Bolan Pass. Halt until further orders.
Brigr. Arnold (Comg. Cavy.) and Brigr. Sale (Comg. Infy.) were directed to protect their Camps, while at Quetta.35
QUETTA, AND MARCH FROM IT TO CANDAHAR.
1. Quetta, (27th March, 1839.)--To-day H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, the Envoy and Minister, and Sir J. Keane, arrived at Dadur, 8 marches in our rear. H. M.'s force had been attacked by the Belochees, between Shikarpoor and Dadur, and at one place lost 250 camels. They likewise suffered much from want of water and forage.
28th March.--The want of grain now began to be severely felt. After our arrival, we found the shops which contained grain, shut. Recourse was had to a strict search in the town, and at last, Major Leech, the Pol. Asst., ordered the grain-shops to be forced open; but the Commissariat only obtained a supply of about 3 or 400 maunds of flour, not equal to a day's supply for the troops. Some condemned this measure as likely to prevent people coming to the camp; but we were in want of grain.1 The following order was, therefore, to-day published: "In consequence of the limited quantity of supplies at present in camp, and the country so destitute as to afford nothing to replenish the Commissariat stores, Sir W. Cotton is sorry to be under the necessity of placing the European and Native troops and followers
on the following rations, until supplies come in: European soldiers, ½ seer (1 lb.) of Attah (flour) in place of bread; except to men in hospital. Native soldiers and followers half of their present ration."2
"The Native troops and followers will receive compensation in money, in lieu of their half-ration of Attah, at the Nerikh (price) of the day. Major Genls. Thackwell and Nott will cause it to be explained by Brigadiers, and by Officers Comg. Regts, to the Native Commissioned and European and Native N. C. O., rank and file, the urgency of the case; he fully relies on the military spirit which has always animated the Bengal soldier, and that they will meet him, willingly, in overcoming this difficulty; which he trusts will be of short duration."3 This gave the soldier a pound
of flour and 2 ounces of Dhall,4 and the servants half a pound of flour, and half an ounce of Dhall.
29th March.--Grain selling at 3 seers, and flour 2½ seers per Rs.; a small bundle of Lucerne for 5 Rs.; a maund of Bhoosa, 4 Rs.; a grass sheep, 3 Rs.
30th March.--(Genl. orders) "The store of grain for H. A. and Cavy. horses being consumed, and the Commissariat Dept. being unable to collect a sufficient quantity of Bhoosa,5 or other forage for a general issue of rations to troop horses; to preserve their condition, till a further supply of grain reaches the army, Officers Comg. Corps to make arrangements, under instructions from Maj. Genl. Thackwell, for the purchase of such forage as may be procurable, to serve out to the horses, at a rate not exceeding the Govt. ration." Statements certifying the quantity of forage, and rate of purchase, countersigned by Comg. Officers, to be sent to D. C. G., who will cause a refund to be made."
"To be clearly explained that no interference with the inhabitants of the country is to take place; armed-men not to enter their villages under any pretext. If conciliatory means be used, the Major Genl. is confident they will readily bring supplies to camp. Major Genl. T. to hold Comg. officers responsible."6
"The Arty. Park, on reaching Sir-i-Ab to remain halted there till further orders; the 37th N. I. with it, to rejoin its brigade."
"Comisst. Dept. to entertain an establishment of 10 Domes,7 to remove and bury all dead animals found near camp."
A dâk runner murdered in the Pass, but the mail found.
2. Camels driven off, &c. (31st March, 1839.)--About mid-day the enemy came down from the hills and drove off 200 camels. The history of the case is this: the Cazy or Governor of Quetta,8 in the valley of Shawl, had, for a certain consideration received from Major Leech, agreed to protect the gorge of a pass to the N. E. of our camp, distance five or six miles; he did post his people, and while there we had no attacks from that quarter; but they deserted last night, and the Governor also disappeared!9 Parties went out from camp in pursuit,10 but the camels were carried off, and the troops returned to camp in the evening. This was by the facetious called the battle of Cockatoo, the valley being near a hill called Tukatoo.
1st April.--The Major Genl., though he complimented the zeal of officers, directed that, "when a party is
detached, or ordered out, no officer, except those belonging to it, to proceed with it, as he may be wanted with his own corps."
A picquet was sent early this morning, consisting of two Cos. of Infy., (one of H. M's 13th Lt. Infy.) and a troop of 3rd Cavy. to the gorge of the Pass, to prevent camels entering the valley beyond it, to graze; or the ingress of the Kakurs.
The people appear alarmed, and are deserting their villages. Many camp-followers killed and wounded in the villages, to which they go to purchase grain,11 and the cultivation near them often destroyed in retaliation.
2nd April.--The picquet at the pass allowed their own camels to go into the proscribed valley, when the Kakurs came down, and drove them off. The Cavy. pursued, and returned in the evening without a camel; but they overtook the fellows, killed three, wounded four, and made one prisoner.12
The Arty. Park ordered to close up to the 4th Brigade to-morrow.
Provisions, (G. O.) "As the price of provisions daily increases, owing to private competition,13 the Maj. Genl., at the recommendation of Major Leech, A. P. A., publishes the following nerikh (price-current), and requests no higher prices may be given. Wheat or uncleaned rice, 2¾ seers-wheat flour, or cleaned rice, 2½ seers--barley 3 seers, and Indian corn 3 seers per rupee."
3rd April. A party with treasure and camels ordered to be sent from Sir-i-Ab, on the 5th instant, with Lieut. Marsh, 3rd Cavy. to the valley of Mooshtung and Nooshky, to purchase and transport grain for the army.
Repeated the order against armed people going into villages, under penalty of severe punishment. Officers Comg. Corps, and at the head of Depts. to explain the personal risk run, by people wandering about, or into the deserted villages.14
"The picquet at the gorge of the Pass to be withdrawn this evening; to be replaced by a troop of Native Cavy. to come on duty at sun-rise, and to fall back on camp at dusk."
Major Craigie, D. A. G. returned from his trip through the Bolan Pass, to meet Sir J. Keane.
Bearers and other camp-followers brought in during the day, killed or wounded while plundering. The people retaliated, and camels were stolen. They brought in beams and rafters for firewood from deserted villages. These people were severely punished when caught. Camels carried off and recovered by a party under Lieut. Meik, H. M.'s 16th Lancers.
Two Serjts. of Arty, trepanned while out shooting, and mutilated, while in the act of giving a Kakur, a pinch of snuff.15
3. To meet the Commander-in-Chief, &c. (4th April, 1839.)--Sir W. Cotton, and principal staff, rode with an escort to meet Sir J. Keane at Sir-i-Ab, where the Shah and Envoy and minister also had arrived. "The Arty. Park, its escort and the 4th Brigade of Infy. to move from Sir-i-Ab to Quetta, on the 6th instant."
5th April.--Regtl. Qr. Mrs. to employ their Bildars16 to remove and bury all dead animals found in or near the encampments.
Some camels were stolen and driven off towards a village. Cornet Toone, with a party of the 2nd Cavy. picquet pursued, when the thief was overtaken. The Cornet with one cut,
took off his head, and brought three prisoners, and the camels back. The Bombay column to-day reached Dadur, eight marches in our rear.
6th April.--A salute of 19 guns announced the arrival of H. E. Lieut.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, Comr.-in-Chief of the Army of the Indus, who marched in with his Escort of a Wing of the 1st Bombay Lt. Cavy., and of the 19th Regt. N. I.
A guard of Honor of Infy., with the Royal colors of H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy. and the Band, with No. 6, Light Fd. battery, marched to Sir-i-Ab, this morning, to salute H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, on his arrival there. A salute of 21 guns on his reaching his camp. The Shah and the Envoy and Minister, encamped to-day near the town.
Order of Thanks.--"H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief having arrived in camp, and assumed command, in person, of the Army, and having directed Maj. Genl. Sir W. Cotton to resume command of the Bengal Infantry, of the 1st Division, he (Sir W. C.) cannot give up charge of the Bengal column, without expressing in the strongest and warmest terms, his thanks to Maj. Genls. Thackwell and Nott, Brigrs. Sale, Arnold and Roberts, to officers Comg. Corps, and to the Officers and men generally, and to Maj. Craigie, D. A. G., Maj. Garden, D. Q. M. G., and Major Parsons, D. C. G., and to the officers of the several Depts., for the admirable manner in which their duties have been conducted, and for the good conduct and soldier-like behaviour of the troops during a march of more than 1,100 miles."
Order for March.--The Cavy., H. A., and 1st Brigade of Infy. No. 6, Lt. Fd. battery, with the sappers and miners, to move to-morrow, in the following order.
The sappers and miners, under an escort of 2 Cos., will quit camp at 4 A.M.17
|1. H. M. 13th Lt. Infy.
2. 2 T. 2. B. H .A.
3. 2 Regts, of Cavy.
4. No. 6, Lt. Fd. battery.
|5. A Regt. of Cavy.|
6. The Treasure.
7. Remg. Regt. of Infy.
(Column right in front.)
|Baggage to move in the following order.|
|1st. Of H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief, and Staff of Divisions, and Brigades--under Provost Marshal.||3rd; Commissariat Field Depôt, and grain cattle.|
|2nd. Baggage of Regts., collected, under an officer from each corps; and marched to new ground, in the order in which Regts. move in the column.|
|Rear Guard.--Of 2 Cos. of N. I. and one troop of Cavy., will bring up the whole, and the officer Comg. it will not quit camp till the baggage is off the ground.18|
4. Order by Sir J. Keane &c.--1. "H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief, having established his Hd. Qrs. with the advance column, cannot but express his gratification at the proud position in which he is placed by the command of such fine troops; also at having received charge from his friend, and former companion in the Field, Maj. Genl. Sir W. Cotton, to whom his thanks are due, for the able and judicious manner in which he has conducted the march of the Bengal column, over a great distance of country, from Ferozpoor to this, crossing the Indus; and overcome the difficulties between Shikarpoor to Dadur, and passage of the Bolan Pass, with Arty., Cavy. and Infy., and arrived in
Affghanistan in a highly creditable order, and the Comr.-in-Chief will not fail to report his sentiments, in these terms, to his lordship the Govr. Genl."
3."Maj. Genl. Sir W. Cotton, will resume command of the 1st Division; and Maj. Genl. Nott of the 2nd Brigade, from which these officers were, temporarily, transferred in G. O. of 4th December 1838."
4."Lt.-Col. Dennie, will deliver over the command of the troops at Shikarpoor, and proceed to join his Regt. the first favorable opportunity."
5."Brigr. Gordon, Comg. in Upper Sinde, will receive orders, to send on to the advance, as occasions may offer, the 3 Regts. of Bengal Infy. now at Shikarpoor; they will be sent by strong detachments, guarding provisions and treasure: the 35th Regt. to be the first sent on."
6."Depôts for ordnance and Comsst. stores, will be formed at Dadur, and at Quetta, and at each of those posts, a Regt. of N. I. will be quartered, with a ressalah of Local Horse, and such details of H. M. Shah Shoojah's troops, as may hereafter be specified."
7. "Maj. Genl. Nott, with the Hd. Qrs. of the 2nd Brigade, to remain at Quetta; and will exercise a general superintendence and military control within the province of Shawl.19 The 43rd N. I. to stand fast at Quetta, and 1 Regt. of Infy., with a ressalah of Horse from H. M. Shah Shoojah's force, also, will be left at that place."
8. "On the arrival of the 35th N. I. at Dadur, the 3 Cos. of the 37th N. I., now there, will be replaced by a similar detail from that corps; which, in its turn, will be relieved, and pushed forward on the arrival of the Regt. of the 2nd Brigade, destined to occupy that place."
10. "In a service of this kind, having in view the interest of the public, as well as that of the Army, and followers, it seems inexpedient that two distinct Comsst.
Establishments, drawing in connexion one with the other, should exist; it is therefore ordered that Major Parsons, the D. C. G., Bengal Army, shall take on himself the general direction of the Comsst. Depts. both of Bengal and Bombay."20
11. "Returns by the Heads of Depts. with troops of each Presidency, to continue; and all periodical papers and reports required by the Regns. of the service to the Hd. Qrs. of the Army of Bengal and Bombay to be transmitted."
12. "Maj. Genl. Thackwell and Brigr. Stevenson, Comg. troops both from Bengal and Bombay, will report for the information of H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief through the Staff officers of the Presidency to which the corps, or detachments happen to belong."
13. "The officers Comg. at Shikarpoor, Dadur, and Quetta, will report direct to the D. A. G. of the Presidency to which the troops belong, all casualties, and occurrences; and use their utmost influence to aid the officers of the Comsst. Dept., or their Agents employed in the collection of grain for the troops; and afford adequate escorts, when provisions are forwarded to the army."
14. "Officers, of whatever rank, must not fail, in passing through those stations, to report their arrival and departure, to the officers Comg. the posts in question, for the information of the Comr.-in-Chief."
5. Occurrences and state of affairs, (6th April, 1839.)--The Lancer patrol this morning was fired on from a loop-holed mud building; the picquet came up; a few of the men dismounted, and ran up to the building, and as the garrison presented their matchlocks, the Lancers seized
them, wrenched them out of their hands; unroofed the building, and pistoled the six men inside, killed 5 and wounded 1; the rest, outside, ran up the mountains.
Sir A. Burnes returned about this time from Khelat, but without any supplies. Mehrab Khan made many excuses for not furnishing grain, saying that he could not force the grain merchants to sell, while it was known that they were willing to sell, but dared not to do so without his orders. Another object of Sir A. B.'s mission was, to try and bring the Khan to tender his submission, in person, to the Shah. Here too, he interposed obstacles; he said he was a poor Beloch, and what harm could he do, that he was attached to the King's service,21 and that if the Envoy and Minister would give him the "Istiqbal" (or meeting) he would come.22 There were several interviews, during which the Khan would not allow even his minister to be present. The Khan, moreover, before he entered into any treaty, wanted to obtain Kurachee and its port in Sindh, hut he waived this claim on the British Govt. agreeing to stand between him and the king, and giving him 1½ Lakh of Rs. (£15,000); for which he said he would protect our supplies, convoys, &c.23
Not much grain was obtained by the Convoy which was sent to the valley of Moostung. To judge of the conduct of Mehrab Khan, who said to Sir A. B.--"You have brought an Army into the country; but how do you propose to take it out again?"--it is necessary to state, that it was, afterwards, ascertained, that the night before the departure
of Sir A. Burnes, a plan had been formed to murder the whole party, which was defeated by their unexpected departure.24
Distress of the followers.--So scarce and dear had grain become, that some of the camp-followers were known to have fried the skins of the sheep, and to have eaten them, and also to have devoured the congealed blood of animals, roots, &c. The thermometer, here, at 5 A.M. averaged from 30° to 55°; and at 3 P.M. from 58° to 76° while we had, at times, heavy rain and cold cutting wind. The Bombay Column was now at Dadur, near the entrance to the Pass, 8 marches in our rear. There were detachments of Bengal troops also there. The Belochees were daily attacking and carrying off the cattle belonging to the troops of both.
"All open communication with their front and rear, was entirely cut off, except by large detachments; and these were invariably menaced by strong bodies of Beloch horse."25
I must not omit to mention that while Sir J. Keane, was at Sir-i-Ab, one march in our rear, his camp was attacked by plunderers, when 11 were seized in the act, and the fact being proved, were summarily dealt with and shot. This example was necessary to deter others, and was warranted by the custom of war and by necessity.26
6. March from Quetta to Koochlâk, (7th April, 1839).--Leaving the force, above detailed27 at Quetta, the troops marched this morning. Shortly after leaving camp, we heard repeated firing, which turned out to be the shooting of 60 horses belonging to the Cavalry, which had been reported, by a Committee, as too weak to proceed on the march!
There are three roads or passes from Quetta towards Candahar; one to the right N. E.28, another to the N., and a third to the N. W. We marched by that to the N. W. The road lay down the valley over water-courses, ditches, and fields of corn. We saw a number of the dead bodies of camp-followers on the road, and the barbarous savages of such deeds, scowled on us, from their mountain-peaks.
At about 7 miles a slight ascent towards the gorge of the Pass. There are two ghauts, descended by both, (the guns went down by that to the right,) down to the dry bed of the river.
The road lay N. and N. W. to the Pass of Koochlâk. Moved through the bed of the river for about a mile; high hills on each side; then, turning to the right, entered the valley. The Ghauts were not very steep, and about 100 yards long. The bed of the river was stony. The heights near the Pass, command the road: we found no enemy.29
Two miles from camp crossed a deep water-course. The village of Koochlâk, W. of camp, deserted. Our rear (E.) was covered by the hills, and a deep water-course ran along our front (W.): distance marched 10¾ miles.
8th April.--Marched at 5 A.M. to Hyderzye. The road bad; crossed the Shahdeezy-Lora twice; the banks precipitous, and difficult for the guns and cattle. After a tedious march, came to a fine plain and the considerable village of Hyderzye. Most of the people had fled. The guns and baggage not up till 1 P.M. There are two roads hence, by one of which it is said you save a march.
Some baggage camels got in advance to-day, before the troops moved, which caused delay; the order of the 6th inst., repeated.
The Kakurs attacked the Shah's baggage, and were severely handled; six were killed, and the rest fled.
Distance marched 10¼ miles. This place is 5259 feet above the level of the sea; 378 feet below Quetta.
9th April.--Marched at 5 A.M.
The order of march this morning was as follows:
|1. 2. Regts. Cavy.
2. H. A.
3. 2 Regts. Infy.
5. A Regt. Infy.
|6. A Regt. Cavy.|
7. Treasure between the 2 rear Regts.
8. Rear Guard, 2 Cos. of Infy., and a troop of Cavy.
At 8 miles crossed a narrow river with high banks, and shallow water, and the spur of a hill, into the valley of Pisheen.
Grain is coming into camp; and the people have remained in the villages, and asked for guards. A Company of Infy. was posted in the town.
The Park of Arty., under the Escort of the 4th Brigade of Infy. and 4th Local Horse, marched this day from Quetta.
The Bombay Arty. (H. and F.) and H. M.'s 17th foot marched to-day from Dadur into the Pass.
The distance to Hykulzye 10 miles, 7 furlongs. The elevation 5063 feet, or 196 feet less than yesterday.
7. To left bank of the Shahdeezy-Lora, (10th April, 1839).--Marched at 5 A.M. The sappers and miners in advance. No baggage allowed to move in advance. At six miles crossed a dry nullah. At 7½ miles crossed the Shahdeezy-Lora river. The ravines near the river precipitous, and the banks so high and perpendicular, that the troops were obliged to pile their arms, and lower the guns, and drag them down and up the steep Ghauts, made for their passage.30 The river not broad, and not above two feet deep. The horses were taken out of the guns, and the camels from the camel-battery. There was a descent of about 150 yards, and after crossing the stream, a steep bank to ascend; then, at the distance of 150 yards, a second ascent, not very steep. The baggage, thus kept in the rear, did not all come up till 5 P.M. Distance marched 7¾ miles.
After crossing, the Cavy. and H. A. were ordered to move on immediately, as there was here, no forage, to Arumbee, distant 7 miles and 5 furlongs.
The Shah and his force, &c. remained encamped on the other (right) bank of the river.
The Envoy and Minister wrote to Sir J. Keane, to inform him that an attack on the camp at night, was threatened by 3000 men. The troops slept on their arms all night: no
attack was made. Grain brought into camp more freely to-day.31
11th April.--To Arumbee; distance 7 miles, 5 furlongs. The road over a level track of jungle of Tamarisk, interspersed with cultivation. The road good.
The Engineers went on in advance to the head of the Kojuk Pass, to prepare the Ghaut for the passage of the guns, &c. The 1st Brigade Infy. and Camel-battery marched this morning to Quilla Abdoollah Khan.
Lt. Simpson, S. A. C. G., left camp with a company, and went to the rear to purchase grain.
We to-day heard of a very gallant affair which occurred in the Bolan Pass, some days ago, while the 35th Bengal N. I. were marching through it;--a large body of Belochees and Murhees attacked the Rear Guard of the corps (one company) commanded by Lt. Towgood. The Belochees fired a volley with their matchlocks, and then rushed on the guard, sword in hand. The guard waited till they came within about 40 paces, when Lt. T. fired a volley; and, under cover of the smoke, came to the charge. They fled leaving 40 killed and wounded on the spot, and never again ventured within the range of the musketry!
12th April.--The Hd. Qr. marched to Quillah Abdoolah Khan, distant 7½ miles. The road lay over a flat, broken by small hills and the dry beds of mountain-streams, covered with loose stones, till we saw Quillah Abdoolah on our left, (N.) about 4 or 5 miles distant. The camp in a little open valley of stones, bounded by low hills. The fort was deserted. A Battn. of the Shah's Infy, was left here, and withdrawn on the formation of the "Bolan Rangers."32 A grove of trees, and a fine stream of water close to it. There is a tank in the fort, and a garden, and
room for a Battn. The Cavy. and Arty. order to encamp between this and the entrance to the Pass.
The remainder of the 16th N. I. pushed on to join the Sappers and Miners. The troops at Head Quarters halted to-day.
H. E. Sir J. Keane went this morning to look at the entrance to the Pass, where he breakfasted, and staid sometime.33 This day the remainder of the Bombay troops entered the Bolan Pass. Major Daly, Comg. the wing H. M.'s 4th L. D. saw a party coming in force towards him, and trying to surround him; he retreated from them till he enticed them on, and then, he charged them, and killed many of them.
13th April.--The troops at Hd. Qrs. halt to-morrow.
The sappers and miners, and the 16th N. I., in advance, were established to-day on the northern extremity of the Pass, in the valley.
The whole of the Cavy. and the two batteries marched into our camp.
8. Passage of the Kojuk-Pass, (14th April, 1839.)--The order of march published yesterday for to-day was as follows:
|1. Baggage of H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief--Genls. of Division, and Officers at Hd. Qrs.
2. Baggage of corps, according to position in the Brigade.
3. Fd. Comsst. and grain cattle.34
|At 3 A.M. the 1st Brigade of Infy. and Camel-battery will quit camp, followed by the baggage, in the order detailed in the margin; which is to be protected by the Dett. of Local Horse on duty with 1st Brigade; and a Coy. of Infy., as a rearguard.|
"The brigade of Cavy. with its Arty., to move on to the Pass."
"Working parties from the Cavy., and Infy., on the arrival at the ascent near the Sapper's camp, to be told off, to drag the Arty, of their respective brigades, across the Pass."
"The Baggage Master to be on the alert, at the commencement of the ascent, to prevent crowding, and to take care to stop the baggage, at intervals, before it enters the narrow gorge, to admit of the animals filing over with regularity; only one camel can pass up at a time, and H. E. impresses upon Officers, the necessity of having their own animals, as well as those of the men, as lightly laden as circumstances will admit; this will be the only mode of preserving their baggage; as every camel that falls, must be removed with his load, out of the path, and the eventual loss of property must be the result."
Thermometer at 2 A.M. 60°. At 3 A.M. the 1st Brigade of Infantry, and Camel-battery marched, and 5 A.M. the wing of 1st Bombay Cavy. (escort) and Hd. Qrs.
After leaving our last ground, the mountains soon closed on us, and the troops filed up a water-course, dry and stony, with a few stunted trees here and there.
At about 6 miles, the ascent of about 1½ miles in extent to the entrance to the Pass, commenced; the distance between the hills, here, was not more than 80 or 100 feet, the road confined by banks. The centre road had been made for the guns; it was very steep and difficult: there is a steep ascent first up to the left, then there was a turn to the right35 after the ascent; thence there was a descent, with a precipice on one side of the road, which rendered the operation of dragging the guns, &c. a service of great labour and
fatigue. There were two other roads, one to the left, and another to the right.
The left road, though the longest and circuitous, was the best for camels, being easier of ascent.
The right road was not fit for the passage of camels with loads; some men, bullocks and ponies went by it; it lay over a rocky path.
All the three roads met at the bottom of the Pass. The descent was about a mile by the centre road, and more by the right and left roads.
From the top of the Pass, you behold the road which leads to the valley of Candahar below; and distant hills, beyond which that city lies.
The elevation above the sea, at the halt in the Kojuk Pass was 6,848 feet; the summit of the Pass, 7,457 feet, the summit is 1,780 feet above the valley below, which gave us a commanding view.
9. Confusion in the Pass.--The Cavalry brigade and H. A. were ordered to march to-day at 1 P.M. Thus there were two batteries and six Regts. with their baggage, to move through the Pass, and make a march of 11 miles included in one day's operation! The Camel-battery was overtaken by camels and baggage. The Pass only admitted of one camel passing at a time.36 The ascent was so steep, that some did not like to ride up it; nor, for the like reason, to ride down the descent, for this was more difficult still; some camels fell, and stopt the rest behind. This state of things caused the march of the Cavalry and H. A. to be countermanded; but it was too late, their baggage was in the Pass; and it was clear, as it turned out, that it would take the whole day to cross and pass down the H. A. guns and troops, already in the Pass; for each gun, each tumbril, wagon, &c. was to be separately handed down by manual labor. Orders were given to turn back the camels, and make them go by a different route--that by the left.
This augmented the confusion, and the whole became one accumulated mass of troops, guns, and baggage. The ammunition wagons came into camp. Troops were ordered back to protect the baggage for the night. The whole of the Comsst. stores were in the Pass.
The Hd. Qrs. were established at the foot of the Pass at Chumun Chokee in the valley, which is about 2½ miles from the top of the Pass. The road down to the valley, runs between commanding hills, which may be distant 5 to 800 yards from each other. The camp at the Chumun Chokee was 5,677 feet above the level of the sea (40 feet above Quetta), 1,780 feet below the summit of the Pass. This would give, in 3 miles a fall of about 1 in 9 feet, but, as the descent only occupied about 1-3rd of the distance from the top of the Pass to the Chumun, the fall in it must have been about 1 in 3 feet. Thermometer at 3 P.M. 94°.
The troops at Hd. Qrs. directed to halt to-morrow.
15th April--(G. O.) "The Brigade of Cavy., and its Artillery, to encamp to-day at the foot of the Pass. The 1st Brigade (excepting the 16th N. I.) to be employed in bringing the heavy ordnance across the heights."37
16th April--The Cavy. Brigade and H. A., the Engineer Dept. and the 16th Bengal N. I. marched this morning to the Kudany river (Dundee Goolaee), the first march towards Candahar, to obtain forage and water.38
Some of the Bombay troops arrived at Quetta to-day. Mehrab Khan of Khelat was, then, said to be in close communication with Dost Mahomed Khan.39
17th April.--"A working party from H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy. to be sent to the Head of the Pass to-morrow morning. Every soldier in the 14th Brigade40 who can be spared from the duty of camp, to be detached to-morrow morning as a working-party, to assist in bringing over the heavy Artillery." A report of 3,000 of the enemy in the Plains.
The 4th Brigade and battering train were at the Pass. The Shah passed down the Pass this morning, and took up ground between the Hd. Qrs. and the Cavy., or a little in advance of us.41
The mules of the Bombay 9-pr. battery (at Quetta) were found to be completely exhausted, and arrangements were made for leaving it behind.
10. Head Qrs. march to Dundee Goolaee, (18th April, 1839.)--The Hd. Qrs. with H. E. and escort (wings of 1st Lt. Cavy, and 19th N. I. Bombay), and Staff, marched this morning. Before day-light we heard the sentries firing at the Achukzyes (mountaineers); 5 camels carried off from the
Hd. Qrs. camp. There was a considerable descent over a sterile plain. At about half-way, crossed the dry bed of the Kudany river. The road was over a succession of undulating, stony ground. At the point, about 3 or 4 miles to the right of our track, we perceived what we thought to be a cloud of dust. It had the appearance of Cavy., at a distance, charging down on us! Some officers rode out to see what it was, while we halted, to be prepared. All our glasses were in requisition to ascertain the cause. There was no enemy.42 Had there been, we were between the camp of the Cavy., and that at the Chumun Chokee. There was a long string of camels, with baggage, on our left.
The distance to Dundee Goolaee, where we found the Cavy. &c., was 14¼ miles. The elevation above the sea, at this place, was 4,036 feet, or 1,641 feet lower than the Chumun Chokee; so we descended considerably this march.
Found on the road the mutilated bodies of many camp-followers.
The 4th Brigade hard at work at the Pass to-day. Maj. Genl. Willshire, with part of the Bombay Column at Sir-i-Ab, to-day. His baggage attacked with considerable spirit at the head of the Bolan Pass; 49 camels' load of grain carried off, 5 horses killed, and 3 troopers wounded, many of the enemy said to be killed.
The Hd. Qrs. to halt to-morrow. A good tank of water to the right of camp, fed by the Kudany river; the stream got dry by the evening. The stream had been turned up to the next ground. Thermometer at 3 A.M. 62°, at 3 P.M. 97°.
19th April--Thermometer at 5 A.M. 54°, at 3 P.M. 102° The first Brigade Infy. with its Artillery marched from Chumun Chokee into our camp to-day. Halt for the 4th Brigade and Arty.; they are at the Pass still; hard work for the 1st Bengal European Regt. Twelve men and two women killed by the villagers, and two elephants belonging to the Envoy and Minuter, carried off. A party sent to bring back the stream of water, but returned unsuccessful. A party should have been kept there. The D. A. Q. M. Genl. (Lt. Becher) and a troop of the 1st Bombay Cavy. went out to feel for the enemy; but none seen within the distance of 11 miles. The Bombay Column at Koochlâk to-day seven marches in our rear; the enemy fired long shots at them.
The Shah this evening made a tour round the whole camp.
11. G. O. Camp duties, Crops, &c. (19th April, 1839.)--Heard to-day, that the Candahar chiefs, with 1,500 horse, were near our camp, and meant to attack us. "H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief directs that the duties of camp, shall for the future he conducted in the following manner."
1st. "A Brigadier of the day, who will be in charge of the whole of the picquets of the camp."
2nd. "A Field Officer from each Brigade, who will be in charge of the picquets of the Brigade, and who will report to and receive instructions from the Brigr. on duty."
3rd. "A main-picquet of a troop of Cavy. and two Cos. of Infy., will, when the camp is halted, mount every morning, at day-light; from which will be detached to a distance of 2 or 2½ miles, in advance, according to the nature of the ground, at sun-set every evening, a subaltern's party of Cavy."
"This party must be particularly on the alert, and no followers of any description to accompany it."43
4th. "In-lying-picquets equal in strength to the out-lying-picquets of Brigades, are to be told off for duty."44
5th. "The Brigr. of the day when coming off duty, will report, in person, to H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief."45
6th. "Brigades will, alternately, furnish an Adjt. of the day, to be, in attendance on the Brigr."
7th. "The main-picquet will mount this evening at 5 o'clock."
8th. "The officer Comg. the troops, forming H. E.'s escort, will communicate to the Brigr. of the day, the strength of the picquets they may have mounted, and will comply with such requisitions as he may make for additional men, to ensure a communication with the sentries in front and rear of the encampment."
"The Brigr. of the day will be furnished, by the D. Q. M. G., with a Plan of the encampment, which, on halting days, he will transfer to the Brigr. who may relieve him."469th. (Preservation of Corps.) "As the country through which the army is now moving, affords forage for the camels and good grass for the horses, H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief deems it necessary to acquire the strictest observance of the G. O., which have been issued prohibiting the cutting of
growing crops; and he desires officers Comg. mounted corps, distinctly to understand, that when circumstances may render it necessary to assign green crops for the Cavy. horses, the same will be duly notified to the troops in a G. O. but, without this authority, they are, on no account, to allow the grass-cutters to encroach on the fields."47
To-day died poor Lt.-Col. Jas. Thomson, Comg. the 31st (Bengal) N. I. The Regt. had just made its first march from Shikarpoor; the heat was intense. The thermometer at 135° in the sun. This Officer died of apoplexy. He was an excellent officer, universally respected and esteemed, and regretted as a great loss to the service, as well as to his family. I mention this fact, here, to prove the state of the weather between Shikarpoor and Dadur, in the month of April!
12. (20th April, 1839), Hajee Khan, Kakur.--To-day no water in camp. A party went and opened the bund: the enemy came down, when our party left, and closed it again. The 4th Brigade still employed at the Kojuk Pass. This afternoon came into camp, with a party of about 200 horsemen, the celebrated Hajee Khan, Kakur,48 chief of that
tribe, who tendered his submission; and was graciously received by the Shah; he pitched his tents in the king's camp.
The Hajee informed the King how he had arranged to get quit of the chiefs of Candahar!49 He said the chiefs intended to make an attack, at night, (Chuppao) on our camp; that he told them that they might expect to be attacked themselves; "You have" said he, "carried off two of their elephants;50 the English are not the people to allow this to be done with impunity. They will march with a large force, and guns, against you, and you are unequal to a contest with such troops. Stay where you are, and I will go and see if I can find out from what direction they are coming." "I got them to retire; I then moved off with my party, and so got rid of them; and I have now come to join your majesty!"
Two other influential men came in, also, to-day, G. O. "H. M. Shah Shoojah, having intimated his desire that the Cavalry be permitted to forage on the crops of growing corn, in the tract of country through which the army is now moving, and having deputed an Officer (Capt. Hutton) to apportion them to the several encampments (an equal distribution to each); H. E. the Comr-in-Chief appoints Maj. Hay, A. Q. M. G. of Cavy., to receive from that Officer, the portion assigned to the Bengal and Bombay troops; Maj. H. will then deliver over to Qr. Mrs. of corps a proportion according to the number of troops of which each is composed; and any infringement on that assigned to the Shah's force, on the part of the followers of the regular Army, is strictly prohibited. (Maj. H. to set apart a proportion for the Cavy. and gun-bullocks, still in the rear.) The prohibition to the destruction of the crops by the followers, and to camels, tattoos, &c. going into the fields; to be in full force."
"The three Cos. 37th N. I., not having been relieved by the 35th N. I. as contemplated in G. O. of the 6th inst., are to be sent on from Dadur with the first considerable despatch of stores, after the arrival at that place, of the corps of the 2nd (Bengal) Brigade, destined to occupy it."
The Bombay column to-day at Hyderzye, six marches in our rear. Their rear-guard was fired on by fifty men, crowning some little heights to the left of the column; no harm done. They found the village deserted. Thermometer at 5 A.M. 54°, at 3 P.M. 102°.
21st April, (Quilla Futtoolah.)--Marched to-day at daybreak. (At 3 A.M. Thermometer 54°.) The main-picquet, coming on duty, with the sappers and miners leading.51
The Cavy. Brigade, with its Arty., followed, and then came the Infy., with No. 6, Lt. Fd. battery.
The old main-picquet, reinforced by a squadron of Cavy.,
formed the rear-guard; and the Local Horse was distributed along the line of baggage animals.52
Marched over an immense plain to Quilla Futtoolah, distant 10½ miles; there is a small square mud fort, with bastions at the angles, about¾ of a mile from camp. It was empty, and the village deserted; we heard that the head chief, Kohun-dil-Khan, had returned to Candahar,53 taking Mr. MacNaghten's elephants with him. At 11 A.M. no sweet water in camp; great distress. There was a salt spring, of clear water, to the rear of camp, and about two miles off. The Bombay column when here, on the 26th April, discovered a small well; and opened other wells which had been filled up. The Fort was about¾ mile from the front of camp. At 3 P.M. no water in camp. The thermometer in the tent at 3 P.M. 102°; in the Sun 130°; great suffering among the soldiers, &c. European and native, and the cattle.
The elevation above the sea, here, 3,918 feet; only 118 feet lower than yesterday's camp (Dundee Goolaee).
The Park of Arty. over the Kojuk Pass to-day. There were 27,400 rounds of musket ammunition and fourteen barrels of gun-powder lost in the Pass, and destroyed to prevent their falling into the enemy's hands; and an immense quantity of baggage, and a great number of camels, tents, &c. The men of the 1st Bengal European Regt. were great sufferers; much of the sickness in the corps, is attributed to the very great exertions the men underwent in this Pass.
The Bombay column to-day at Hykulzye, still 6 marches behind us. Their Artillery horses beginning to knock up; no grain, and very scanty forage.54 They had a despatch from Sir J. Keane dated 19th inst. "No opposition
then, expected; two Sirdars had left Candahar; route unknown."
Our D. Q. M. G. (Maj. Garden), accompanied by 60 troopers, did not return from his trip to the next ground till near ten to-night.
13. March to Mehel Mandah, (22nd April, 1889.)--Thermometer at 2 A.M. 52°. Marched at day-break.55 After quitting camp, our road lay a little to the left of the fort, and passed up the Pass56 which the fort protects. The road lay in the front of our centre. A deep ravine ran between the fort and the camp. The Pass between the mountains was from¾ to 1 mile wide, over broken, stony, undulating ground. The length of the Pass was about five miles (a complete desert). At about half-way crossed the dry bed of the Kudany river. The country after quitting the Pass had such great ascents and deep descents, that it represented a sea of rocks and stones. As you ascended you lost sight of the troops descending, and when at the top of the ascent, you could not see those in the descent, to the front or rear, unless close on the brow towards it; thus we could only see the troops near us; the rest were lost to our view.
At about two miles from camp, crossed over several deep ravines; to our right the river Kudany in a small valley below.
Our camp was about two or three miles to the right, off the road to Candahar. We reached our ground at Mehel Mandah after a march of 12 miles.
When the Cavalry (Bengal) came up, not finding water immediately, the Brigadier asked for and obtained leave to go in advance to seek for some.57 We had marched 12,
and he marched ten miles further, before he found water at the Doree-river, which lay to the left of our road. They procured plenty of water and forage; but not till both men and horses had suffered dreadfully; 50 or 60 horses fell down on the road and died.58 The Lancers were obliged to dismount, and to goad on their horses with their Lances.
Much of the baggage belonging to our camp went on with the Cavalry; and did not come into camp till late in the evening.
The Park of Artillery and the 4th Brigade at the Chumun Chokee. Thermometer, at 3 P.M. 102°.
23rd April.--To the Doree river, (Tukht-i-Pool.)--Marched at day-break; thermometer at 3 A.M. 60°. H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy. led, followed by the H. A., the other two Regts. of 1st Brigade, Camel-battery, &c. After leaving camp, and marching about three miles we got into the high road to Candahar; a fine road, and through a cultivated country. The river Doree lay to our left about five miles, and when we had marched about eight miles, we saw the Cavy. camp to the left, so that they must have marched across the country to the river. We had some trifling ascents and descents; we found several Karezees (wells) of good water at about two miles before we reached camp. We encamped on the bank of the Doree river, the water of which is brackish; there was a sandy-desert on the other side of the river. The river was deep in some places. The hill called "Lylee Mujnoon" about three miles N. E. of camp. The distance marched to-day was 15½ miles. This place is 3,630 feet above the level of the sea, or 288
feet below Quilla Futtoolah; the thermometer at 3 P.M. 102°.59 The Park of Arty. and 4th Brigade at Dundee Goolaee to-day, at 6 P.M. The king went on in the afternoon to Deh Hajee.
14. 24th April. To Deh Hajee.--Thermometer 3 A.M. 62°. The Shah and the Envoy and Minister went on to-day to Khoosh-ab, within seven and a half miles of Candahar.60 We marched at day-break. The Cavy. and H. A. led, followed by the Infantry, and No. 6, Lt. Fd. battery. A good road, though rather stony. The rear of our camp, close to the walled village of Deh Hajee, by which runs a good stream of water. Candahar reported to be deserted. The 4th Brigade and Park of Arty. at Quillah Futtoolah. It was to this place the Candahar chiefs came; and not beyond it
25th April.--To Khoosh-ab. Thermometer at 3 A.M. 68° Marched at day-break, over a desert-like plain. At 7 A.M. heard a "Royal salute" and firing at Candahar, in honor of Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk's entry into the ancient Dooranee capital of Affghanistan. There were several villages on the right and left of the road on this march, and small distant hills. The last two or three miles, the country covered with fields of grain; the village of Khoosh-ab61 close to the rear of camp. There were a number of Karezees close to the front (N.) of camp of clear pure water. We had a distinct view of Candahar from the front of camp. The village of Khoosh-ab is a large place, with mud-walls and houses. The people had not all left it; a good number appeared on the roofs of the houses to gratify their
curiosity. All round the village the crops of wheat, and barley, were plentiful, and extensive. Part of our camp was pitched in fields of barley. The crops were all in ear.62
The orders of to-day directed for to-morrow's march; protection to the growing crops, to orchards, and villages. "The officer Comg. the advance-guard, to post videttes over any villages or gardens, he may pass on the road; with orders to remain till the arrival of the rear-guard."
"No soldier, or follower, to enter the city of Candahar, till permission be granted, which will be announced in G. O.; and passes afterwards given."
"On the arrival of the troops at Candahar, the Brigr. of the day will post 'safety guards' from the advance, in the different villages in the vicinity."
People bringing Provisions to camp--Marts.63--G. O. "A. Qr. Mr. Genls. of Divisions to assign convenient spots, in the vicinity of the different Brigades, where marts may be held for the sale of provisions, and of articles of country produce."
"The Provost Serjts. of brigades, and any steady soldiers who may be available for the duty, must be required to be on the look out for men bringing in supplies for sale, in order to conduct them to the different marts; at which places guards must be posted, that the Sutlers may not be molested, and that no injustice be done."
"If there be any plundering, H. E. will require the loss to be made good by the Brigade in the Mart of which the robbery may be committed."64
"Prohibition to enter the city of Candahar, for the present, to be published by beat of Tom-Tom in the different buzars."
"The order for the march of the troops to-morrow, countermanded; the Hd. Qrs. alone to move to Candahar." The 4th Brigade and Park were halting to-day at Quill ah Futtoolah.
The Bombay column at the entrance to the Kojuk-Pass, to-day.65 Thermometer 3 P.M. 99°; elevation, above the level of the sea 3,484 feet.
15. March to Candahar, (26th April, 1839.) State of affairs.--The Head Qrs. arrived at Candahar this day. The 4th Brigade and the Park, were four marches in our rear. The Bombay column was not quite out of the Kojuk Pass; and Lt.-Col. Wade was with the Shahzada Timoor, and his force, waiting at Peshawer.
The Bengal column, on reaching this city, had made a march of 1,005 miles from Ferozpoor, and 1,210 miles from Kurnal; while some of the troops had marched a greater distance.66 The people of the "Mustered Establishments" had been on half-rations since the 8th of March last, or for the preceding 48 days.67 The Cavy. and H. A. horses had been put on half-rations since the 24th March; so that they had been on reduced rations, with scanty forage, for 32 days. The troops and camp-followers had been on half-rations since the 29th March, and had now been 28 days on these rations, without having much opportunity to purchase grain, or obtain any vegetables as a substitute.
The Cavy. and H. A. horses had no grain since the 30th of March, so that for the last 26 days they were subsisted
on such green forage as might be procurable, and often on very bad grass.68
In this state of affairs, our Cavy. much reduced in amount by the loss of a great many horses, and owing to the weak condition of the rest,--were not fit for Service on our arrival at Candahar; and had the Sirdars come to attack us, we must have opposed them with Artillery and Infantry;69 as we could not have effected any thing with the Cavalry. But Hajee Khan, Kakur turned the scale in our favor; his defection occasioned the flight of the chiefs from Candahar on the 23rd April towards Girishk, a fort 75 miles distant, situated across the Helmund river, and belonging to one of the chiefs.
The rest of the troops were moving up from our rear. The pursuit of the chiefs was not deemed, at present, advisable by the Envoy and Minister.70
The thermometer at 3 A.M. 62°; at 3 P.M. 94°. The elevation above the level of the sea, 3,484 feet, or 146 feet below Tukht-i-Pool, three marches in our rear.
Herat understood to be secure at this period.
THE ARMY AT CANDAHAR--OCCURRENCES THERE--PREPARATIONS TO LEAVE IT.
Candahar,1 26th April, 1839.--Thermometer at 3 A.M. 62°. On the arrival of the Hd. Qrs. at Candahar, we had only half-rations for the troops for about two days, and the Cavalry horses had no grain; but there was plenty of lucerne, and good grass to be procured. We were now, to lay in a stock of grain, to recruit our horses, and to purchase others to complete our complement, to be prepared to move towards Cabool. Rest was required both for man and beast. Thermometer 3 P.M. 94°.
27th April. The Camp.--Thermometer 5 A.M. 62°. The troops left at Koosh-ab, marched in to-day, and a camp was formed. The Bengal Infantry and Artillery, had a camp to the S. E. of the city, distant about 2 miles.2 Maj. Gen. Sir W. Cotton, and the Bengal Staff camp, was close to the S. of the city; and half-way between these camps was that of Maj. Genl. Thackwell, Comg. the Cavy. H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief, Sir J. Keane, pitched his camp to the S. W. of, and in a garden near, the city. The 3rd and 2nd Regts. Bengal Cavy. were encamped about half a mile to the W. of the city; and H. M. Shah Shoojah's contingent was encamped in their rear. The Cavy. Brigade was at first encamped on the right of the Infy. The Bombay
column, on its arrival, had its camp, in front of the Comr.-in-Chief's.3
The whole of the camels of the army were ordered to be sent out to grazing ground at a distance, protected by a Wing of Native Infy. and a Ressallah of Local Horse, completed to 100 men.4
A special committee5 was formed for the purpose of admitting horses into the service. The committee were directed to record their opinion as to the fitness of the remounts, for H. A. Dragoons, or Bengal, or Bombay, Light Cavalry; but this committee was found not to work well, and Regimental committees6 were ordered to be formed; limited to the purchase of the number of horses
actually required to complete. But it was found difficult to procure horses in sufficient numbers of the standard height,7 and the Comr.-in-Chief, at the recommendation of the Maj. Genl. Comg. the Cavy., authorized8 committees to pass, into the service, horses somewhat under the standard; provided they were satisfied that the horses possessed sufficient bone, strength, and activity, and were unexceptionable in other essentials. But no horse admitted as undersized, to be hereafter rejected, or cast, on the score of being undersized.
There must have been a loss of more than 500 horses in the Bengal and Bombay columns. Capt. Outram states that there were 850 lost in the Bengal army,9 and about 150 horses10 of the Artillery and Auxiliary Cavalry of
the Bombay: this does not include the Wing of H. M.'s 4th L. D., nor the 1st Bombay Light Cavy.
The Bengal column had about 2,560 horses; so that the loss of 350 was about three in twenty-two horses.11 The Bombay column had about 1930 horses, and the loss of 150 would be about five in sixty-four horses. We lost more than two-fifths; and the Bombay column are said to have lost one-fifth; nearly 1,500 horses (Bengal and Bombay) were lost in the whole campaign!12 Thermometer 5 A.M. 50°. At 3 P.M. 88°.
2. 28th April 1839.--Passes were granted by officers to private servants, in limited numbers, to enter the city to purchase supplies. "All passes to be returned on the same evening to the person signing them, that they may be destroyed." Thermometer 3 P.M. 90°.
30th April.--Thermometer 5 A.M. 64°. The 4th Brigade and the Park of Artillery arrived to-day. Provisions were sent to meet the Bombay column. Cossids reported to-day, that the Persians were advancing on Herat. Thermometer 3 P.M. 96°.
1st May.--Thermometer 4 A.M. 54°. The Cavalry this morning, moved to new ground at Mergaum, about 4 miles on the road to Herat, for the greater facility of procuring forage. H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane held a Levee to receive, and be introduced to the Bengal officers, at half past 5 P.M.; and afterwards had an interview with" the Shah, to concert measures for procuring supplies; and as to the pursuit of the Sirdars of Candahar, then at Girishk, 75 miles off; who were said to be raising troops. Thermometer at 3 P.M. 98°.
2nd May.--Thermometer 5 A.M. 54°. It had been proposed to send a detachment of two Cos. of Europeans, 1,000 N. I., 300 Cavy., and two guns, to Girishk, to pursue the Sirdars; but owing to overtures received from the fugitives, its march was delayed for the present.13 Thermometer 3 P.M. 94°.
3rd May.--Thermometer at 4 A.M. 55°. Preparations were being made for the King's first public appearance. Thermometer at 3 P.M. 96°.
4th May.--Thermometer 5 A.M. 54°. The Bombay column, under Maj. Genl. Willshire arrived in camp to-day; consisting of two troops of H. A.; the Wing of H. M.'s 4th L. D.; Wing 1st Light Cavy.; (14) H. M.'s 2nd and 17th foot; Wing 19th N. I.;14 the Sappers and Miners and Dett. Poonah horse. It was estimated that 500 Belochees, Kakurs, and Affghans, had been slain by the Bengal and Bombay columns, since leaving Shikarpoor and Larkhana; the loss on our side being thirty or forty killed in open combat; besides some hundreds of followers murdered.15 Thermometer at 3 P.M. 99°.
5th May.--Thermometer at 5 A.M. 56°. The Shah's Artillery was at this time in the Bolan Pass, escorted by the 42nd N. I. and had hard work from the 3rd to 5th May, in protecting the guns, tumbrils and carts, as the cattle were unable to proceed. Five Cos. of the 37th N. I. were, also, engaged on this harassing duty.16 We heard that Mehrab
Khan, of Khelat, was desirous of coming to Candahar to tender his submission to the king; but it was too late. Thermometer at 2 P.M. 102°.
6th May.--Thermometer at 4 A.M. 60°. Permission given to the men entering the city, with Passes, to a limited number of well-conducted soldiers, daily; to make purchases; the indulgence if abused, to be withdrawn, on the first occasion of any misconduct. Comg. officers to make their own arrangements for N. C. O. being present in the city whilst the men are there on leave; to check irregularities.
The advance of our troops, or a part of them, to Herat was to have taken place, had the Shah of Persia returned to besiege it. Major Todd, P. A. and certain Engineer and Artillery officers, are to be sent to Herat, on a mission to Shah Kamran; and to repair and strengthen the fortifications. Thermometer at 3 P.M. 100°.
7th May.--Thermometer at 4 A.M. 62°. The Cavy. Brigade moved nearer to the city.
A convoy of camels with grain came in to-day from Shikarpoor; the convoy when it left Shikarpoor, consisted of 2,000 camels, and 8,000 maunds17 of grain; of which grain a little more than 1/5th reached Candahar.
This was a great loss and disappointment to the army. The convoy was occasionally attacked on its route; but the misfortune was, that too much trust was placed in the Native agents.18 The news of the occupation of Candahar
by H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, and the British army, was brought to Lt.-Col. Wade at Peshawer to-day; when a Royal salute was fired, by the British and Sikh Artillery in camp; and the Shahzada (Tymoor) held a Levee at 6 o'clock in the evening, to receive the congratulations of the officers of the British Mission and of his own party. Thermometer 3 P.M. 100°. At this time the force at Peshawer was ready to advance.
3.--Ceremony of the King's Installation, (8th May, 1839).--Thermometer at 4 A.M. 62°. The whole of the British army (Bengal and Bombay) was drawn up in line, at the dawn of day, in front of the city of Candahar to the N. amounting to about 7,500 men19 . A platform, or throne, was erected in the midst of an extensive plain. At sunrise, the guns of the palace announced H. M.'s departure. H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, with the Staff were awaiting the egress of the procession, at the Herat gate, whence the King proceeded on horse-back, through a street formed by his own contingent. On his coming near the line, a Royal salute (twenty-one guns) was fired, and on his passing down the line, there was a general salute, and the colors were lowered, as in the case of crowned heads. On his ascending the throne, a salvo was discharged from 10120 pieces of Artillery. Sir J. Keane, and the Envoy and Minister at his Court, offered presents on behalf of the British Govt. of 101 Gold-mohurs each21 , and then the officers, British, and native, in the King's Service, offered nuzzars (presents). The "Army of the Indus" then marched round, in front of the throne, in review order; this grand ceremony presented an imposing spectacle. There were about 3 or 4,000 Affghans
assembled, to view the scene, but they did not come on the parade.22
Hospitals.--Buildings having been found in the vicinity of camp, to afford accommodation to the sick of 2 T. 2 B. H. A.; of the Park; and of H. M.'s 13th Lt Infy. H. E. authorized their immediate hire, at a suitable rent.23 Thermometer at 3 P.M. 102°.
9th May.--Thermometer 5 A.M. 60°. The Sirdars having rejected the terms offered them, a detachment ordered to march against them; thermometer 3 P.M. 98°.
10th May.--Thermometer 4 A.M. 56°. The Bombay camp-followers in the greatest distress; flour at only 1½ seer (3 lb) per rupee. Thermometer 3 P.M. 98°.
11th May.--Thermometer 4 A.M. 56°. A riot at the city gates, and several merchants plundered. The unfortunate people shut up their shops, and fled, and many of the villagers fled to the mountains. Grain had become very dear, and though scarce, its excessive dearness was owing to the cupidity and rascality of the old Kothwal of the city. He insisted on high prices and large profits on the grain; this increased the dearness, and the camp-followers were almost driven to desperation.24 A party was sent into the city, to afford protection to the grain and public stores collected by the Commissariat. Thermometer 3 P.M. 100°.
4. 12th May, 1839, (Dett. to Girishk.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 56°. This morning a Detachment of the following
details marched for Girishk, under the command of Brigr. Sale: 2-18-prs., 2-5½-inch mortars, manned by Europeans, and the Camel battery (4-9-prs. and 1-24-pr. Howit.), with a portion of the Engineer Dept. (Capt. Sanders), and detail of sappers and miners. A Squadron of Cavy., made up by selections25 from the 2nd and 3rd Regts. of Bengal Lt. Cavy.; 100 men of H. M. 13th Lt. Infy.; and the 16th Bengal N. I., with a detail of H. M. Shah Shoojah's Infy. to complete it to 1,000 men; and 300 of the Shah's Cavy., Capt. Christie's--a total force of about 1,700 men.26 Girishk belonged to Kohun-dil Khan (the head chief and is distant 75 miles from Candahar.27 If the chief refused to surrender the place, it was to be stormed, and the garrison put to the sword, giving no quarter. The Post Master ordered to lay a dawk to convey letters to and from the above detachment.
Intercepted letter.--An intercepted letter was found in the city, said to be written to Dost Mahomed Khan, by Hajee Khan, Kakur, stating that our force consisted of 2,500
Cavy. and 7,000 Infy.28 and advising him to advance to oppose us. Subsequent events induce a belief that he was the writer of the letter.
Flour one seer per rupee! Thermtr. 3 P.M. 102°.
13th May.--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 56°. The people returned to-day and opened their shops outside the gate of the city, to sell provisions, &c. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 102°.
14th May.--Thermtr. 4 a. m, 56°. The grazing ground changed. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 102°.
16th May.--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 60°. "Intelligence received that the chiefs at Girishk have fled, with only 100 horsemen and the same number of Infy.; but in what direction not known."29 Thermt. 3 P.M. 104°.
17th May.--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 62°. The Europeans are going fast into hospital.30 Three or four deaths occur daily.
Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk's Leve.--All the British officers and those attached to H. M.'s contingent, were introduced to the king at his palace in the city. H. E. Sir J. Keane, Mr. Macnaghten, the Envoy and Minister, gave a present each, of 101 gold mohurs, Maj. Genls. 21, Brigadiers 11, Held officers 5, Captains 2, and Subalterns 1 gold mohur, each.
Khujawahs for the sick. (20th May.)--Khujawahs31 for the carriage of the sick on the march ordered to be made
up: for each European Regt. ten pairs; for each Native Regt. five pairs, and two pairs for a troop of H. A., and one pair for the Camel battery.32
A gun was ordered to be fired, daily, at noon.
Grain for horses.--The Commissariat Dept. having obtained a sufficient supply of grain for the horses, of mounted corps, directed to issue 3 seers (6 lbs.) of barley to each horse daily from to-morrow; and the purchase of it by Regimental committees, to be discontinued.33
5. Camels carried off, (23rd May, 1839.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 56°. A great number of camels carried off from the grazing-ground; and from the report of the officer Comg. the detachment on duty, there being reason to suspect that the Rewaree (hired) owners had exaggerated the numbers carried off, or had been grazing in a forbidden direction; the Comr.-in-Chief desired that Compensation34 should not, on the present occasion, be passed to the claimants; and to secure Govt. from imposition, on the part of the camel-owners, H. E. directed35 all claims for
camels, alleged to have been carried off by robbers, to be sent before a committee of officers, to be assembled in the brigade in which the loss may have occurred.
Commissariat. (24th May, 1839.)--Officers Comg. European corps and Detts. of the Bengal division, were directed to send the names of one steady N. C. O., and three privates, for selection for employment under the orders of the D. C. G.36
A Dram of Rum was about this time, issued out to each of the officers, who chose to indent for it; as we had long been without any wine, or spirits of any kind.37 Thermometer 3 p.m. 92°.
24th May.--Thermometer 4 A.M. 58°. Being the anniversary of Her Majesty's birth-day; a royal salute was fired at noon; and an extra allowance of liquor issued to each European soldier. Thermometer 3 P.M. 95°.
28th May.--Thermometer 4 A.M. 62°. This evening Lts. Inverarity and Wilmer, H. M.'s 16th Lancers, were returning from a fishing party near the Urghundab river, unarmed,38 they were attacked by a party of armed men, but separately; for Lt. W. had gone on in advance, and had despatched his servant with his gun;-Lt. I. staying a little behind for some purpose; at this time no persons were observed. Lt. W., having a stick, beat off the people and escaped to the nearest (the Shah's) camp, and gave the alarm, when a party was sent back with Lt. W. who, on his return, found his companion so dreadfully
hacked and cut through the back, that he only spoke a few words; asked for water, drank a little and expired. Thermometer 3 P.M. 96°.39
6. Order for march towards Cabool, (1st June, 1839.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 52°.--G. O.--" The whole of the troops except 1 Regt. N. I., to be held in readiness to march."
2."Brigr. Gordon, Comg. in Upper Sindh, to require four Cos. 42nd N. I., now at Shikarpoor, and a Regt. of Bombay N. I., to march as an escort to treasure consigned to the army; together with any Detts. of H. M. Shah Shoojah's horse which may still be in the District; and such details of Sindh Cavy., recently raised, as may be available."
3."On the arrival of the treasure at Dadur, the two Cos. 31st Bengal N. I. now there, will be relieved by a similar detail of Bombay N. I., and the former will join the escort, and proceed to Quetta; where the whole of the 2nd brigade of Bengal N. I., will be assembled."
4."The Bombay Battn. will not move beyond Quetta, till F. O.; but Maj. Gen. Nott will despatch the treasure to Hd. Qrs. under charge of a Regt. of Bengal Infy., the Sindh Cavy., and such details of Shah Shoojah's horse, as are available."
5."Maj. Gen. Nott will also send forward one troop of the Shah's Arty., now in Shawl; and two Cos. of the Shah's Infy.; these are to be attached to the guns, and to assist in passing them over difficulties."
6."Candahar to be garrisoned by 1 Regt. Bengal Infy., 1 troop of the Shah's Arty., 1 Regt. of the Shah's Infy. and Capt. Anderson's Ressalah of horse."
7."A Regt from the Bengal Infy. brigade, now at Hd:
Qrs., will be detailed for this duty, and Capt. Timings's (Native) troop H. A., for the present, to remain at Candahar; to which will be attached a Regt. of the Shah's Infy."
8. "On the arrival of the treasure from Shikarpoor, the Regt. of the second Bengal brigade, which affords it escort from Quetta, will be relieved from the charge, by the Regt. now here, and will remain at Candahar; the latter, till F. O. with Capt. T's troop H. A., and such details of horse (not less than 300) as may be available, will proceed with it to Hd. Qrs. of the army."
"The 4 18-pr. guns and such ordnance stores as the Brigadier may see fit, to be left at Candahar."40
2nd June.--Thermometer 4 A.M. 54°. A number of camels carried off. Thermometer 3 P.M. 104°.
3rd June.--Thermometer 4 A.M. 54°. The camels sent out to graze at Goondoo Memsoor Khan; the escort taking ten days' provisions. Thermometer 3 P.M. 105°.
4th June.--Thermometer 4 A.M. 66°. The public cattle called in from the grazing-ground; from the 5th to 10th June, was the time fixed for the march. The Govr. Genl., it is said, directed that we should not march with less than six weeks' full rations.41 As respects the health of the troops, there was more sickness at Candahar than we had before experienced,42 and we should be marching into a country with a lower temperature; so that, in fact, it was advisable, if we had secured the required quantity of supplies, to move as early as possible; since, having been here
thirty-nine days, we had recruited our men, horses, and cattle;43 and by a delay, the well-affected might cool in their zeal; and we were affording Dost Mahomed Khan, so much more time to strengthen himself at Ghuznee, and at Cabool: while we knew that Herat was not threatened.
7. Occurrences in our Rear.--On the 23rd May, 1839, a party consisting of detachments, and a wing of the 23rd Bombay N. I. marched from Shikarpoor, with treasure and stores. Dr. Hollaran (Bombay army), Lt. Chalmers, 43rd44 and Ensign Ste. Beaufort, 42nd Bengal N. I., who accompanied the party, fell victims to the tremendous heat; as, also, Conductor Havilland (Bengal), and Mr. Jervis, (Agent of Mr. Frith's, Bombay.) An expedition had been planned from Bukkur,45 of which some Europeans who had been left behind from the army, sick in hospital, formed a part. A subadar and nine sepoys, (Bengal) died in one day, near Meerpoor.46 The above events took place between the 2nd and 4th June, 1839. Thermometer 3 P.M. 106°.
Govt. sent to Tirhun, (5th June).--Thermometer 4 A.M. 58°. H. M. Shah Shoojah, sent a new Governor to Tirhun, about two or three marches from Candahar, to displace the old Governor; the latter resisted and killed twenty of the new Governor's followers; the king then sent a detachment against the place, when the new Governor was allowed to assume his office.
Peshawer.--About this time there was a good deal of sickness among the officers47 and men at Peshawer. Thermometer 3 P.M. 106°.
Afghans tried for Camel stealing, (6th June).--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 60°. The four Affghans tried by a Native General Court-Martial, for having stolen and carried away on the 2nd instant twenty-three camels belonging to the Bombay army48 and sentenced to be hanged, were to have been executed to-morrow morning, on the spot where the late Lt. Inverarity was murdered; but the king claimed them as his subjects! H. M. was not satisfied with the sentence, and appointed a Meerza to rehear the evidence, when the king pronounced them not guilty,49 upon the evidence taken
by the Meerza. Had the king wished to save the lives of these men, he might have asked Sir J. Keane to pardon them. For though Shah Shoojah was the sovereign of the country, still there were no Courts of Justice; the country was in an unsettled state. His authority was not firmly established. He was placed on his throne by a British army, and we had a perfect right to punish offenders, by whom the safety of that army might be endangered, if such offences were unpunished. The Duke of Wellington would not under such circumstances, have made over robbers to the Spanish or to the Portuguese Government.
Capt. Prole, 37th Bengal N. I. arrived to-day with treasure, and an escort consisting of 102 Europeans belonging to H. M.'s Regts., 3 Cos. 37th N. I., and 2nd Regt. Shah Shoojah's Cavy. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 106°.
8th June. Thermtr. 4 a. m, 54°.--To enable the D. C. G. to collect a supply of grain for the horses when on the march, obliged to limit the daily issue to mounted corps, from to-morrow, to three seers of barley per horse. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 106°.
9th June. Thermtr. 4 A.M. 62°.--Order for the pay of the troops before the march.50
Eighty camels carried off by the villagers. The escape of the four Affghans from their sentence, has induced these people, "not having the fear of Death before their eyes" to take to their old trade of thieving, &c.
The camels ordered to be in from the grazing ground; by the 12th instant, to enable the D. C. G. to distribute them to brigades. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 106°.
8. Order of march from Candahar, (10th June 1839).--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 74°. "The 4th Co. 2nd Bn. Bengal Arty. added to the garrison of Candahar, till F. O.; remaining troops to march in the following order:--"
1st column, "on the 15th51 under the personal command of H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief."
"2nd T. 2 B. Bengal H. A.; 1 T. Bombay H. A.; the Cavy. Division (Bengal and Bombay); the Camel battery; the Engineer Dept.; 1st Brigade Bengal Infy.; 4th (Bengal) Local Horse; Comsst. Field Depôt."
"H. M. Shah Shoojah signified his intention to march on the 16th instant.52 1 T. Bombay H. A. to march with H. M."
"The 2nd column53 under Brigr. Roberts to quit Candahar on the day subsequent to that on which H. M. the Shah may move; consisting of--The Bengal Park of Artillery; the 4th Brigade Bengal Infy; a Ressalah and a half of Local Horse, and the field hospital."
"The 3rd column, on the succeeding day, consisting of the remainder of the troops54 and establishments of the "Army of the Indus," under Maj. Genl. Willshire"
"The Genl. Staff of the Bengal army, to march with the 1st column. That of the Bombay army, with the 3rd column.55 Column right in front, (order of march.)"
4.--No. 6, Lt. Fd. battery (camel.)
5.--1st Brigade Infy. (to which 1 Regt 4th Brigade added.)
6.--4th Local Horse.
"Camp colormen of the mounted corps, and Qr. Mrs. of
corps formed on the reverse flank of leading squadron, ready to move with the D. Q. M. G."56
Rear Guard.--"A rear-guard of one troop Light Cavy. and one Coy. N. I. to remain on the ground till the baggage be loaded and in motion; and to afford protection to the camp."
Baggage.--"To protect the baggage on the march, the Maj. Genl. Comg. the Cavy. to leave N. C. O.'s parties of Cavy. alternately on the right and left of the road, at intervals of one mile from each other,57 and to prevent straggling."
"A Ressalah of Local Horse at the disposal of the baggage Master, to prevent baggage or followers preceding the column, or moving on its flanks."
"Baggage of H. E. and Staff at Hd. Qrs., to follow the column, under the Provost Marshal, of corps, (under an officer from each) as corps stand in column."
"Comsst. camels, under the Sergts. at the disposal of the officers of that department, to follow the baggage of Regts."
Treasure.--" The Treasure between two Regts. of the Infy. brigade, covered by flanking parties of Infy."
Main Picquet.58 --"On the arrival at the new ground, a main-picquet of two guns,59 a squadron of Cavy., and two Cos. of Infy., under a field officer, to be posted as the Brigr. of the day directs; from this picquet, a subaltern's party of Cavy. to be detached, at sun-set, four miles in advance, on the main-road; to fall back on the main-picquet it felt by the enemy. With this party, no syces or grass-cutters must be sent, the horses to remain bridled up."60
"Parties from the main-picquet will patrol up to the advance, at intervals, throughout the night."
In-lying picquets.--"An in-lying picquet of one troop or company, from each Regt. to be told off for duty, ready to move out in support, when called for."
Cordon at grazing ground.--"The Maj. Genl. Comg. the Cavy., will form as soon as possible after the arrival of the troops, a Cordon around the spot selected as grazing ground for the cattle, the troopers to drive back, with blows,61 any surwan attempting to push camels beyond the line."62
"Officers Comg. Regts. and Detts. to send parties of their own men with their cattle, promptly to oppose the attempts of robbers63 to approach the grazing ground. Camels to be brought in before sunset; those of brigades to be carefully parked near the bazars and within the rear-guards. Of the field Depôt, in rear of the Local Horse."
9. Party and Mission to Herat, (11th June, 1839.)--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 56°. The details66 of officers and men to
be in readiness to march towards Herat, under Capt. Sanders, Bengal Engineers; except Capt. J. Abbott (Bengal Arty.) appointed in the Pol. Dept., Assist. to Major Todd (the Envoy) the officers were--
|Capt. E. Sanders, Bengal Engr
Br. Capt. J. Abbott, do. Arty.
Lt. R. C. Shakespear, do. do.
Dr. J. S. Login (Asst. Surg.) do. Estt.
|Lt. C. F. North, Bombay Engineers.|
Dr. Ritchie (Asst. Surg.) Bombay;
|One European Sergt. and 25 Sappers (Natives); one Naick and three Golundaz, (Bengal Arty.)67|
|1st Bombay Cavy.||*15||* Joined Capt. Outram at the Kaloo Pass (from Cabool), about 12 miles from Bameean, with 250 Afghan Horse, under their chiefs; so that Capt. O. started with only 525; besides 200 Afghan followers mounted on Yaboos, (ponies.)|
|2nd Bengal Cavy.||50|
|3rd ditto ditto,||*15|
|1st Local Horse,||25|
|Poonah Auxy. ditto,||25|
|Afghan Horse, (about,)||550|
G. O. "A Dett. of Cavy. under Major Cureton8 will quit camp at noon to-day on special duty, and go on to Cabool. Lt. Simpson, S. A. C. G. will accompany it. The Brigr. Comg. the Artillery will send an officer, and a party with this Dett."9
"The whole of the troops to move towards Cabool."
"The Cavy. to lead, followed by the Artillery. The 1st Division of Bengal Infy., and the Bombay, next in succession."10
Great numbers of Kuzzulbashes came in to the Shah to-day.11
4. To Mydan, 18½ miles (4th August, 1839.)--Thermometer 1 A.M. 62°. The gun fired at 2 A.M., marched 3 A.M. and the troops reached their ground at 9½ A.M. The first part of the road was tolerably good, and open; with the exception of a short defile about 2½ miles from the last ground. The last half rather heavy and confined.
At about a mile from our camp at Mydan, crossed the Cabool river, after crossing which the road turns up to the right, close under low hills. At the point where the hills commence on the right of the road, is an old fort. The valley from its entrance, marked by the fort, is narrow, and well calculated for defence.12
Camp. The valley of Mydan is beautiful and well cultivated. Snow seen on the mountains all around. Low hills to the front; the river Cabool to the rear, in which direction the valley has a gradual and shelving slope, and the country is covered with orchards, and cultivation.
Great numbers of Affghans were drawn up on the roadside to salute the Shah. Triumphal Arches were erected, (the Qoran surrounding all) for him to pass under. Presents of fruit came in from Cabool; nor would the people, here, sell their fruit; it was a day of joy, and they would accept
of no payment. The Vizier of Dost Mahomed came in to the Shah at this place. Thermometer 3 P.M. 88°. The elevation here is 7,747 feet or 274 feet above the last ground; but Quilla Sir Mahomed between the two is 8,051 feet, so that we made both an ascent and descent from Shahkabad.
To Moogheera 13 miles, (5th August.)--Thermometer 2 A.M. 62°. Marched at 3 A.M. A Regt. of Cavy. and 2 Cos. of Infy. moved at gun-fire. The road13 was constantly intersected by deep ravines, and defiles, and then passed through a very deep cut; which employed the sappers and miners for some time to make it passable for the guns. At 8 miles we entered the narrow valley of Arghundee, across which were found drawn up Dost Mahomed's deserted guns, 23 in number.14 They were loaded and pointed to the front, rear, and flanks. The latter part of the road bad with many deep ravines.
The country near where the guns were drawn up, was much broken and full of ravines. This ground, while it would have opposed obstacles to the movement of guns, and of Cavalry, would have afforded cover for the advance of Infantry close up to the guns; and their fire having been previously silenced by our Artillery, which was nearly double in amount to that of Dost Mahomed; their fate would have been soon decided.15
The road from Arghundee to Moogheera is bad till you reach a village on the right of the road about 3 miles from camp; from this village the valley is open.
Camp. Cultivation and the river to the front. To the rear, the hills; from the top of which Cabool is visible.16
G. O. "The troops to move to-morrow, Cavalry (left in front). The Artillery with the sappers and miners, on the left flank. The Infy. (right in front)."
"When the ground admits, it will be required to form up the Cavy. on the right of the Arty., and the Infy. on its left; in columns of troops and Cos.¼ distance. The Artillery will move by the main road."
"Neither followers, nor baggage, to precede the troops. A gun at two, (General.) At 3 A.M. the Assembly to be sounded. The troops to move up, and to march when H. E. orders." Thermometer 3 P.M. 88°. The elevation here (or at Quilla Kazee) is 6,508 feet, or 1,120 feet below the last ground.
5. To 3 miles W. of Cabool, 10½ miles. (6th Aug. 1839.)--Thermometer 2 A.M. 68°. Marched at 3 A.M. The troops moved in one column; there being no road for more. The road very stony, with many bad ravines. The first part over rocky ground. Half-way, crossed the stony bed of the Cabool river; the bed of the river very extensive, and a bad road leading down to it. After passing the river, the road thence passes through confined ground, with
cultivation and gardens on the right. Hence the road is bounded by low-hills on each side.17 Crossed canals, much stony ground, till we reached the gardens and the high-road. The road passed over canals, swamps, and stony ground, in constant succession. Our camp was 3 miles W. of Cabool, near Nannochee, where, on the left, is a salt-water lake.18
Camp. On rocky ground, W. of Cabool. To the N. the village of Nannochee, and the salt-water lake.19 Thermometer 3 P.M. 92°. There is a slight fall from "Quilla Kazee the elevation at "Babels" tomb being 6,396 feet or 112 feet less: this place being 1,330 feet lower than Ghuznee. Our Artillery fired a Royal salute on H. M. Shah Shoojah's arrival in camp.
G. O. "Officers Comg. Brigades will make suitable arrangements to protect the fields and gardens in the vicinity of their encampments, and will hold Comg. officers of Regts. responsible that no injury be done to fruit trees, or cornfields, by their soldiers or camp-followers, in the neighbourhood of their lines. To send out patrols and plant safeguards, at their discretion; and will hand over to the Provost Marshal, his deputy, or any of his Assts., individuals found trespassing, or committing any outrage on the inhabitants. They will afford every protection to the villagers who may enter their camps for the purpose of selling provisions, &c."
2. "No soldier, or camp-follower, to enter the town of Cabool without a written pass from the Comg. officer of the one, or the master of the other; which are to be returned
to the officer signing, to be destroyed, that no improper use may be made of it, by being handed over to another person; as was done occasionally at Candahar."20
"Any soldiers entering the town must be properly dressed, and have their side arms on."
3."A picquet of a squadron of Cavy. will mount this evening at 6, in such position in front of the H. A. and Cavy., as the Brigadier of the day may think fit. Officers Comg. Brigades of Infantry will make their own arrangements."
4. "The Detts. under Major Cureton will rejoin their Regts."
6. The result of the Campaign.---The "Army of the Indus" had, now, arrived at its final destination. After a march of 1,527 miles21 from Kurnal, where the Bengal troops first assembled to join the army, they had accomplished, all the objects of the expedition, by fully restoring H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk to his throne; by obtaining the possession of Candahar; by taking the fortress of Ghuznee by storm; and by reseating the king after a lapse of 30 years, at the Capital of the kingdom of Affghanistan.
He entered the city on the afternoon of the 7th August, accompanied by the Envoy and Minister; H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief and the Staff, &c, and attended by an escort of Lancers and Dragoons.
Though the troops had much to contend with, owing to various changes of temperature prejudicial to their health; and were for a long time on half-rations; were deprived of
many necessary comforts, owing to the harassing hostility of plunderers; no troops in any warfare, perhaps, ever suffered so much with such soldier-like feeling; and never did any army marching in a foreign country commit so few acts which could prejudice the inhabitants against it; while the people begin to acknowledge the beneficial effects of the change from anarchy to monarchy.
OCCURRENCES IN THE ARMY OF THE INDUS WHILE AT CABOOL.
1. Shah Shoojah's entry into Cabool.1 (7th August, 1839.)--At 4 P.M. H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, accompanied by the Envoy and Minister, H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, the Major-Genls., Brigadiers, Sir A. Barnes, the Staff, and all the officers of the mission and of H. M.'s force, as well as by many other officers, left camp to proceed in state, into the city of Cabool, about 3 miles distant, and to the E. of camp. He was escorted by a troop of Horse Artillery, 1 squadron H. M.'s 4th L. D., and 1 squadron H. M.'s 16th Lancers, who were paraded in review order in front of the lines, and on the road leading to Cabool. A royal salute was fired as H. M. approached the escort, and the squadrons saluted him as he passed; after which, they wheeled up, and followed in procession to the entrance of the town, where they were agained formed; and where another royal salute was fired. The people were very orderly; there were immense crowds, every place in the town was filled with them. As the king advanced, they stood up, and when he passed on they reseated themselves.
This was the only demonstration of joy exhibited on the occasion.2 His majesty led the way into the palace and
gardens. The former were so much dilapidated after the lapse of nearly 30 years, that the old man3 wept, while he explained to his grandsons and family, the state of its former splendour. It was difficult to get out of the city again, the whole of the king's baggage passing into it at the time; as the streets do not admit, in many places, of two animals going abreast.
9th August. The Hd. Qrs. Arty., and Cavy. changed ground to-day, and the whole of the Infantry on the following day.4 The Head Qrs. and all the troops, except the Bengal Infantry Division, were now 6 miles to the W. of Cabool; and moved by the Quilla Kazee road, which was good. The Bengal Division of Infy. were half way between us and the city; the Bombay Division were to our right; and all the Cavalry were in our front.
12th August. Owing to instances of irregularities committed by Europeans visiting Cabool, officers Comg. Regts., to grant passes to enter the city to men only on whose sobriety and steadiness dependence can be placed; these men to be duly warned, that any abuse of the indulgence will cause the privilege to be withheld from all. This order to be read to each Regt. at three successive parades.
2. Changed ground. (13th Aug., 1839.)---The Hd. Qrs. changed ground to within two miles of the city; H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief's camp being close to Baber's tomb.
14th August. Lieut.-Col. Wade's approach to Cabool, opened the route for the mails from India viâ Peshawer,
and the Punjab; instead of by the circuitous route viâ Shikarpore, the Bolan Pass, and Candahar, and Ghuznee.
15th August. To-day, grain ceased to be issued from the Commissariat stores, as rations, to soldiers, and camp-followers. There was an excellent open, and not dear, market in the city.
18th August. The party under Capt. Outram, returned this morning after an unsuccessful pursuit of Dost Mahomed Khan; no doubt they failed in coming up with the Ameer owing to the treachery of Hajee Khan, Kakur. There were many reasons to suspect his sincerity. When the army left Candahar, instead of marching with his Affghans, this "Defender of the state"5 made excuses; that he had no money to pay his troops; and when he did march to join the king he kept at a respectable distance; and it was not till the fall of Ghuznee convinced him of the "rising fortunes" of his master (the Shah), that he hastened to congratulate him on the success! The intercepted letter at Candahar,6 was the premier-pas of his line of policy. His object was to serve any chief, whose fortunes would propitiate his own advancement; and this is Taj Hajee Khan, chief of the Kakurs. Having been, under Dost Mahomed, the Govr. of Bameean, he well knew the road he was going. He knew, too, that if the party failed, his life might be the forfeit; for the "Dost" would, most certainly, thus have recompensed his numerous treacheries. Had Capt. Outram succeeded; he thought, no doubt, that he would lose caste among the Affghans, by any overt act against his old master: the deserting his (Dost Mahomed's) brothers was, perhaps, he thought a pardonable offence: for the Dost had deserted them himself; such is the close tie of brotherhood in Asiatic nations. Whereas, if the Dost escaped, and ever regained power, his (the Hajee's) star might yet have been in the ascendant; at ail events he tried
the experiment. However right (politically speaking) in his theory, he was wrong in practice: he had to deal with one (Capt. Outram) well known for his zeal, promptitude of action, and indomitable perseverance and courage in the field; and here the Asiatic over-reached himself: had he calculated on such a contingency, in his cooler moments at Candahar; he would, certainly, have been staunch to the royal cause from motives of self-interest.7
The Hajee threw every obstacle in the way to prevent Capt. Outram's party overtaking Dost Mahomed. Capt. O. told him he would attack the Dost without him. The Hajee hinted that whilst many of our own Affghans were traitors, on whom no dependence could be placed; the Ameer's followers were men whose fortunes were desperate; and bound in honor to sacrifice their lives in defence of their families by whom they were accompanied. If such were
his sentiments, why did he not decline to go in the first instance. Had he truly represented the real amount of the Ameer's force, more British troops would have been sent, and success must have been certain. He now says, "I am a prisoner, and can have no object in speaking a falsehood. Had Capt. Outram pushed on with his then force, the whole would have been sacrificed, and the Ameer would have escaped. I saved the party." There can be but one opinion; which is, that the Hajee ran no risk himself; for, if the Affghans would have turned against Capt. O's party he (the Hajee) would easily have escaped; knowing as he did all the bye roads and passes. But he preferred dishonor and a prison.
3. Return of Hajee Khan, Kakur, (19th Aug. 1839.)--The celebrated Hajee Khan, Kakur, came into Cabool this morning after the unsuccessful pursuit of Dost Mahomed. In consequence of Capt. Outram's report of his misconduct, and treachery, the king would not see him. The Envoy and Minster saw him, and on a report to the king of the whole of his conduct, Hajee Khan was placed in close confinement in the Bala Hissar, with a guard of a Company of Native Infy. over him, and the officer Comg. it received orders, that, in case of a rescue being attempted, the guard were to fire into the room were he was confined, and to destroy him.8
20th August. Brigr. Arnold died to-day. An officer much respected; he had seen a great deal of service.9 He was buried next day in the Armenian burying ground, S. W. of Cabool, and about 1½ miles from it.10
22nd August. The Hd. Qrs., H. A. and Cavy. changed ground to the E. of Cabool, distant about 2 miles. The two Divisions of Infy. changed ground, the next day, and encamped half way between the Hd. Qrs. camp and Cabool, on the low ground to the right of the road.
25th August. Dr. Lord came in to-day, in advance of Lt.-Col. Wade's party.
27th August. An order was issued for the disposition of the troops to remain in Affghanistan; which was subsequently changed.
30th August. "H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, having intimated his intention, should Her Britannic Majesty be graciously pleased to permit them to be worn, to confer "Medals" on the troops employed in the operations before Ghuznee, as a mark of the high estimation in which he holds their gallantry and discipline, H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief is pleased to direct a nominal roll of all officers European and Native, and a numerical return of all N. C. O. and privates who were actually present with their corps, or Detts., on the 21st and 23rd of July last, to be prepared and forwarded, in triplicate, to the D. A. G. of the army of the Presidency to which they belong."
2nd Sept. The Bengal and Bombay Horse Artillery were reviewed before the king this morning, when he was delighted at the rapidity of their movements, and firing.
4. Arrival of the Shahzada Tymoor and Lt.-Col. Wade's force, (3rd Sept. 1839.)--Shahzada Tymoor, (the king's eldest son,) with the troops under Lt.-Col. Wade marched into Cabool this morning. Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton, the principal Staff officers and Sir A. Burnes, went to meet the Shahzada, and marched in with him. A guard of honor consisting of a troop of H. A., a squadron H. M's 4th L. D., and one of H. M.'s 16th Lancers, and H. M.'s 17th foot, was formed near the camp of the Infantry, facing the highroad, the 17th foot on the left. On the approach of H. H. Prince Tymoor, a royal salute was fired by the Artillery, and the rest of the guard paid him the usual honors. All standard and Qr. guards of Regts. saluted the Prince as he passed.
After he had passed in front of the guard of honor, the squadrons wheeled up, and followed H. H. to the city-gate, and thence returned to their lines: a troop being sent to escort H. H. to the palace of H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk in the Bala Hissar.11
H. M.'s 16th Lancers were reviewed this morning.
5th Sept. This day was buried poor Lt.-Col. J. Herring, C. B. Comg. the 37th Bengal N. I. He was marching in charge of a treasure convoy from Candahar. On his arrival at Hyder Khel,12 he went up to the hills, near camp, with two other officers of the corps. (Lts. Rind and Carlyon), a Havildar and one or two Sepoys. He passed a party of Affghans as he was going out of camp. When he got to the top of the hills, a party, concealed, fired at them, and killed the Lt.-Colonel. His body was brought on to Cabool by bearers sent out from our camp, and was buried this afternoon, in the Armenian burying ground.13
Capt. Fothergill, H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy. was also buried this evening.
Review of the Horse Arty. (6th Sept.)--To-day the Comr.-in-Chief, reviewed the Bengal and Bombay Horse Arty. The object was to test the working of both, and though not an Artillerist, I must say that the detachment system appears tome to be the best.14
5. Camel-battery, (7th Sept)--G. O. "No. 6, Lt Fd. Battery to be prepared for Horse Draft, the whole of the camels attached to the battery, and the harness and gear, to be handed over to Major Pew, to be taken back to Hindoostan."15 This was in consequence of the number of
Baugree16 camels required to complete the complement, not being procurable. The camel-battery worked well during the campaign. The camels were in better condition, than the horses, in going through the Bolan Pass. They had marched 1,600 miles in 10 months. It is only in wet and slippery ground that they ever fail.
Grand Review.--This afternoon there was a grand review of the following troops, viz.; 2 troops H. A., H. M.'s 4th L. D., 16th Lancers, 1st Bombay Cavalry, and H. M. 2nd and 17th foot, under the command of Maj.-Genl. Willshire, before H. M. Shah Shoojah, and H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane. The king was received by a Royal salute on coming to and leaving the ground; the colors being dropped on presenting arms. Several good movements were performed. There was one which had a pretty effect. Guns having been thrown out, were supposed to be attacked by the enemy; the artillery-men retired into the squares of Infy.; and the enemy being driven off, the gunners returned to serve the guns, and play on the retiring enemy.
Capt. Outram, (Bombay) and Lt. P. Nicolson (Bengal), with a party of Capt Christie's horse and 300 Affghan
horse, marched this morning towards Hyder Khel the place where the late Lt.-Col. Herring was murdered, with orders "to surround the village and mud-fort, and to let no one out, until the murderers, who seemed to be known, were secured; and if they be not given up, by the chiefs, the place to be stormed, and every male put to death." To-day, also, arrived the 37th Bengal N. I. under the command of Capt. Barstow with treasure from Candahar. A Committee was appointed for the examination of the treasure.
Cabool Races, (9th Aug.)--The races at Cabool commenced this morning.
Dost Mahomed was reported to have made his appearance near Bameean. A Dett. consisting of the 4th T. 3rd. B. H. A. (native) under Lieut. Murray Mackenzie (Bengal) Arty., the Shah's Goorkhah Bn., and 200 of the Shah's irregular horse were ordered to be sent to Bameean.17
Recovered Prize property sold to-day.
12th Sept. A Committee18 ordered to inspect the camels furnished by the Bengal Comsst. for the Bombay column, under orders to march back viâ Khelat. The 48th Bengal N. I., Lt.-Col. Wheeler, and three guns, No. 6, Lt. Fd. battery (recently horsed) marched this morning for Ghuznee, to escort to Cabool Hyder Khan, and the other prisoners from the above place; and to escort back the wounded officers and convalescent men.19
This evening died Capt. Timings, Comg. 4 T. 3 B.. (Bengal) H. A. He was a most excellent officer; and was completely worn out by the wear and tear of a long campaign.
6. Occurrences, (13th Sept. 1839.)--To-day a drunken European soldier struck an Affghan in the city and knocked him down, and is said to have denied the dinner he was
cooking. The Afghan rose and went to seek for Sir A. Burnes; not finding him at home he returned, and clasping the European round the body so as to confine his arms, threw him down, and sitting on his body, beat out his brains with a stone.20
14th Sept. This evening21 ended the Cabool races, being for a sword given by the king. The king went to see this race. His Majesty was saluted on coming and going away, by his own Artillery.
16th Sept. The Bombay column marched this morning to the W. side of the city of Cabool.22 The 4th Local Horse occupied the ground left by the Infantry of the Bombay column.
7. Durbar at the Palace, (17th Sept.)--A Memo. in the G. O. yesterday informed us that H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, would hold a Durbar to-day, at the palace at the "Bala Hissar" Accordingly at 5 o'clock this evening all officers off duty were invited to attend. The object of this Durbar was to confer the order of the Dooranee23 Empire on certain officers. His Majesty invested H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir John Keane, Mr. (now Sir W. H.) Macnaghten, and Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton with the 1st class of the order; and informed the other officers present, on whom the order was to be conferred, that a sufficient number of stars of the order had not yet been prepared, to enable him to invest, on the spot, all the Civil and Mily. officers, on whom he was anxious
to confer the honor of knighthood; but that the order should be speedily sent to them. The names of the officers selected for this honor, were then read over, and each, on being named, went up and made his bow to the king. Sir J. Keane made a speech to the king, declaring that if his sovereign would permit him, he should be proud to wear the order. This was translated to His Majesty in Persian by Capt. Powell, the Persian interpreter.
1st Class of the Order.
The Earl of Auckland, G. C. B. Gov. Genl. of India.
Lt.-Genl. Sir John (now Lord) Keane, G. C. B. and K. C. H. Comr.-in-Chief.
Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton, G. C. B. and K. C. H. (Queen's) Comg. Bengal Infy. Division.
Mr. (now Sir W. H.) Macnaghten, Envoy and Minister.
Lt.-Col. Sir A. Burnes, Knt. (Bombay.)
Lt.-Col. (now Sir C. M.) Wade, Knt. and C. B. (Bengal.)
Maj.-Genl. (now Sir T.) Willshire, (Queen's,) Comg. Bombay Infy. Division.
Maj.-Genl. (now Sir Jos.) Thackwell, (Queen's,) Comg. the Cavy.
Maj.-Genl. C. H. Simpson, (Bengal,) Comg. Shah's Contingent.
Brigr. (now Major-Genl. Sir R. H.) Sale, (Queen's.)
Brigr. A. Roberts, (Bengal.)
Brigr. (late) R. Arnold, (Queen's.)
Brigr. Beaumgardt, (Ditto.) Brigr. Scott, (Ditto.)
Brigr. Stevenson, (Bombay.)
Lt.-Col. Macdonald, C. B.
(Queen's), Mily. Secy. D. A. G. H. M. F. (Bombay.)
Major Keith, D. A. G. Bombay. Major Parsons, D. C. G. Bengal.
Major A. Campbell, Offg. Q. Mr. Genl. Bombay.
Major Garden, D. Q. Mr. Genl. Bengal. [Bengal.]
Major Craigie, D. A. G.
Major Todd, Arty. (Mily. Secy. to the E. and M.)
Capt (now Maj.) G. Thomson, Bengal Engineers, C. B.
Capt. (now Major) Peat, Bombay Engineers.
Capt. Outram,24 Bombay, A.D. C. to Sir J. Keane, &c.
Lt.-Col. Dennie, C. B. (Queen's,) H. M. 13th Lt. Infy.25
Lt.-Col. Orchard, C.B. 1st Bengal European Regt.
Lt.-Col. (late) Herring, C. B. Bengal 37th N. I.
Lt.-Col. Monteath, Bengal 35th N. I.
Lt.-Col. Wheeler, Bengal 48th N. I.
Lt.-Col. Persse, (Queen's) 16th Lancers.
Lt.-Col. Croker, (Queen's) 17th foot.
Lt.-Col. Smyth, Bengal 3rd Cavy.
Lt.-Col. Sandwith, Bombay 1st Cavy
Lt.-Col. Stalker, Bombay 19th N. I [Cavy.
Major Salter, Bengal 2nd
Major (now Lt.-Col.) Warren, 1st Bengal Eurn. Regt.
Major Thomson, Ditto.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) Carruthers, (Queen's) 2nd foot.
Maj. (now Lt.-Col.) Tronson, (Queen's) 13th foot.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) Pew, Bengal Arty.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) Cureton, (Queen's) 16th Lancers.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) McDowell, (Queen's) 16th Lancers.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) Daly, (Queen's) 4th L. D.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) McLaren, Bengal 16th N. I.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) Pennycuick, (Queen's) 17th foot.
Major Deshon, (Queen's) 17th foot.
Major Thomas, 48th Bengal N. I.
Major Handcock, Bombay 19th N. I.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) C. J. Cunningham, Bombay 1st Cavy.
Major Leech, Bombay Engineers, Pol. Asst.
Capt. (late) J. Hay, Bengal 35th N. I.
Capt. Davidson, 17th Bombay N. I. A. Comy. Genl.
Capt. Alexander, 5th Bengal Cavy., Comg. 4th Local Horse.
Capt. Sanders, Bengal Engineers.
Capt. McSherry, 30th Bengal N. I., M. B. Shah's Contingent.
Capt. Johnson, 26th Bengal N. I. Pay Mr. &c. Shah's Contingent.
Lt. G. H. Macgregor, Bengal Arty., Asst. to the E. and M.
Lt. F. Mackeson, 14th Bengal N. I., A. P. A.
P. B. Lord, Esq. M. D. Bombay, Pol. Asst.26
I omitted to mention that Sir R. H. Sale was, as Captain, in the 12th foot, engaged with the party which attacked the French guns, on the landing of the British troops, at the Mauritius, 1810.
8. March of Bombay column, (18th Sept. 1839.)--The Bombay column marched this morning en route for Quetta and Khelat They took the route by Ghuznee and Toba, the direct line on Quetta, leaving Candahar to their right; by which the distance was 85 miles less.27
G. O. "The Transport Train--bullocks and hackeries now with the Park are to be made over to the D. C. G. to be employed in Comsst. purposes.28 The whole of the Park, except such as is to be left at Cabool, to return to the provinces, under the orders of Capt Day, Commissary of Ordnance.
2. Warm clothing.--"The D. C. G. to make arrangements to supply every soldier remaining in Affghanistan, with two pairs of worsted stockings, and one pair of gloves; those at Jellahabad, and Ghuznee, and Cabool, each with a Pooshteen."29
"Order of Merit.--A Court was assembled30 to
record the claims, of certain Native officers and soldiers of the Bengal sappers and miners, to obtain the Order of Merit for distinguished conduct at Ghuznee." The chief Engineer and Lts. Durand and Macleod, and the claimants, attended the court.
23rd Sept.--Officers Comg. corps remaining in Affghanistan, to send reports to the D. Q. M. G. shewing what tents are required to complete their corps to the prescribed complement. This afternoon H. M. Shah Shoojah reviewed the Sikh troops arrived with Lt.-Col. Wade's mission, under the command of Col. Shaik Bussawun; when they performed a series of movements in good style, keeping up a good fire from two field-pieces and musketry.
27th Sept.--The 3rd Cavy. marched towards Jellalabad to reinforce a convoy of treasure in progress to Hd. Qrs.; taking ten days' supplies.
29th Sept.--G. O. "The result of an attack on a horde of Banditti by a Dett. under Major MacLaren, Comg. 16th N. I., is published in orders."
"That officer with a promptitude highly creditable to him, at the requisition of the Political Agent, Capt. Outram, moved with a wing of his Regt. from the fortress of Ghuznee, and after a march of 50 miles in little more than 24 hours, joined Capt. O. at Killoogoo, on the morning of the 18th inst., and assumed command of the troops; having heard that the Kujuck tribe of plunderers had descended from the mountains, he marched at midnight on the 21st to attack them, with the details in the margin."31
"The Dett. came in sight of the robbers at day-light on the 22nd, when Major MacLaren, made such admirable disposition of his force, as completely to hem them in."
"The robbers are described to have defended themselves with bravery, but were speedily overpowered by the
gallantry of the troops; and the whole hand has been either killed or taken prisoners."32
9. Troops to remain in Affghanistan. G. O. 2nd Oct. 1839.--1. "The whole of the 1st (Bengal) Division of Infantry, the 2nd (Bengal) Lt. Cavy., and No. 6 Lt. Fd. battery, will continue in Affghanistan, and a Dett of 30 sappers under an Engineer officer."33
2. "Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton will command the troops in Affghanistan, and all reports to be made to him after the 10th inst."
3. "Capt. J. D. Douglas A. A. G. will perform the duties of the Adjt-Genl.'s Dept. Capt. J. Paton, A. Q. M. G. will have charge of the duties of the Qr. Mr. Genl.'s Dept. Capt. Watt, A. C. G. will be the senior officer of that Dept. Supg. Surgeon Atkinson will remain. Orders hereafter will be issued for cantoning the troops."
4. "The 2nd T. 2nd B. H. A., H. M.'s 16th Lancers, and 3rd Lt. Cavy., 4th Local Horse,34 the remainder of the sappers and miners, a Coy. of 20th N. I., with Capt. Farmer's Cos. 21st N. I., and the Dett. now in progress to Hd. Qrs. under Capt. Hopkins, 27th N. I., will move towards Hindostan, on such day and order, as will be hereafter issued."
5. "Indents for Pooshteens, gloves, and socks for the corps and Detts. to remain in Afghanistan, to be supplied without delay."
6. "The Fd. Hospital will be broken up, such portion
of the Estbts. not necessary, will be sent to Ferozpoor, and there be discharged."
7. "The medical stores remaining in Affghanistan, to be under charge of such officer to be selected by the Suptg. Surgeon, and hold with it that of the corps."
8. "Assts. Baggage-Master abolished from this date."
9. "Capt. F. Wheeler, 2nd Cavy., to be D. J. A. G. to the troops in Affghanistan, from 10th inst."35
10. "The Dy. Provost Marshal, and Provost Serjt. Harmon, will remain under the orders of Capt. Douglas A. A. G."
11. "Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton, will be pleased to nominate an officer to act as Post-master to the troops under his command."
12. "Capt. Bygrave will continue as Pay-master; subject to the pleasure of the Govr. Genl."
13. "A special Committee,36 to assemble on the 5th inst., for the purpose of reporting on men of H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy. and of the European Regt., who are deemed unfit for further service. No man to be presented, who is likely to recover his health by a residence in Affghanistan."37
14. "Officers Comg. corps in the 1st and 4th Brigades to furnish the drafts for the 9th Cos. with arms and accoutrements, to march to the provinces."
10. 4th October, 1839.--G. O. "The D. C. G. is directed to comply with the Indents of the officer Comg. the 2nd Cavy., for an extra blanket, for every horse."
"The Maj. Genl. Comg. the Cavy. will order a casting Committee on the horses of the 2nd Cavy."
5th Oct.--Lt.-Col. Wade marched from Cabool on his return to Loodianah.
8th Oct.--Treasure amounting to 13 Lakhs Rs. (£130,000) arrived to-day at Hd. Qrs., under convoy of 2 Cos. 27th N. I. commanded by Capt. Hopkins, together with some troops from Jellalabad. This convoy came through the Khyber Pass with 2 Cos. The 3rd Lt. Cavy. came in with the convoy having met it at Jugdaluk, six marches from Cabool.
A special Committee40 was held at the Comsst. Fd. Depôt, to inquire into and report on the cause of the loss of carriage and supplies, sustained by a late convoy.
Passes.--"To guard against irregularities, officers Comg. corps will withhold, for the present,41 passes to enter the town. Men desirous of making purchases, to signify their wish to the orderly Serjts. of troops or companies, at evening parade, and those deserving of the indulgence are to be inarched down to the city, under N. C. O., to be held responsible for conducting the whole of the men back to Camp."
"The Provost Marshal, with his Deputy, and Assts., supported each by a small guard, will patrol in the town, at intervals throughout the day; with instructions to arrest disorderly persons."
11. Disposition of troops in Afghanistan, Cabool, (9th Oct. 1839.)--G. O. "H. M.'s 13th Lt. Infy., three guns of No. 6 Lt. Fd. battery, and the 35th Native Infy. to remain at Cabool, and to be accommodated in the Bala Hissar."42
The Hd. Qrs. of the Shah's 1st Cavy. were also left, and some of his Artillery.43
Lt.-Col. (now Brigr.) Dennie, C. B. was left in command at Cabool.
"The public cattle, as well as the Rewarree camels, to be sent for grazing to Jellalabad; and the Envoy and Minister will be solicited to place a body of Affghan horse to keep up the communication between Cabool and that place."
Jellalabad. "The 48th N. I., the 4th Brigade, and Dett. of sappers and miners, and 2nd Cavy., with a Ressalah of Skinner's horse, to be cantoned at Jellalabad."
Three guns of No. 6 Lt. Fd. battery to be stationed at Jellalabad.44
Ghuznee. "Ghuznee to be garrisoned by the 16th N. I., a Ressalah of Skinner's Horse; and such details of H. M. Shah Shoojah's available, the whole to be under the command of Major MacLaren."45
"The Kajawahs now in use to be retained with corps."
Candahar. "Candahar will have for its garrison the 42nd, 43rd N. I., 4th Co. 2nd Bn. Arty., a Ressalah of 4th Local Horse, and such details of H. M. Shah Shoojah's troops
as may be available. Major-Genl. Nott, will command. Orders will be sent through the D. Q. M. G. to Lt.-Col. Stacy, senior officer, to put the troops under cover.46
12. Troops returning to India, (11th Oct. 1839.)--"The troops to return to the provinces will move in the following order."47
"1st Column. Hd. Qrs., H. M.'s 16th Lancers, Capt. Farmer's Coy. 21st N. I., and a Ressalah of 4th Local Horse," (completed to 100 suwars.)
"2nd Column. 2nd T. 2nd B. H. A., 3rd Lt. Cavy.; 4th Local Horse; Capt. Hopkins's Dett., 27th N. I. and Detts. under Majors Squires,48 Warren,49 and Capt. Prole,50; under the command of Maj.-Genl. Thackwell."
13th Oct. "Officers Comg. corps in Afghanistan, to transmit to the Commissary of Ordnance, Delhi Magne., statements, countersigned by Brigadiers,51 for articles urgently required." (In anticipation of the annual Indents.)
Capt. John Hay, 35th N. I. and M. B. 4th Brigade, died, and was buried this afternoon in the Armenian burying ground. This officer was Persian Interpreter to the late Sir H. Fane. He joined his Regt. on this expedition and commanded the false attack at Ghuznee. He was a good officer; and much esteemed.
14th Oct.--G. O. "The Ressalah 4th Local Horse to be attached to the 1st Column, half as a rear guard, and the remainder to be in rear of H. M.'s 16th Lancers, followed by Capt. Farmer's 2 Cos. 21st N. I."
"The 1st Column to march to-morrow."
"The 2nd Column to march on the 16th inst."52
Lieut. Palmer Intr. and Qr. Mr. 48th N. I. was appointed Post-Master to the force remaining in Afghanistan. Major Sage continued as Post-Master with the troops returning to India.
Mahomed Hyder Khan, Dost Mahomed's son, the late Govt, of Ghuznee, and Hajee Khan, Kakur, returned with the 2nd Column, under charge of Capt. (now Major) McSherry to India.
DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY OF CABOOL.
1. Nature of the country.--The province of Cabool lies between the 32½ and 35½ degrees of N. Latitude; and between the 62¼ and 71½ degrees of E. Longitude.
The city of Cabool is in 34° 30' 30" Lat. N. and 68°, 31' Long. E. It has to the N. the Hindoo Koosh; to the S. the Sufed Koh; to the E. Peshawer, and to the N. W. and W. Bameean, and the Hazara mountains. Cabool is one of the gates to Hindostan; and Candahar is the other. Baber1 describes the country of Cabool as situated in the 4th Climate,2 in the midst of the inhabited part of the world.3 It is a narrow country, but stretching to a considerable extent. Its length is in the direction of E. and W. It is surrounded by hills on all sides.
"The country of Cabul4 is very strong, and difficult of access, whether to foreigners or enemies. Between Balkh, Kundooz, and Badakhshan, on the one side, and Cabul on the other, is interposed the mountain of Hindu Kush, the Passes over which are seven in number."
"During the summer, when the waters are out, you can go by the Pass of Shibertu, only by taking the route of Bamian and Seighan; but in the winter season they travel by the way of Abdereh. In winter all the roads are shut up for four or five months, except this alone; such as then proceed to Shibertu through this Pass, travel by way of Abdereh. In the season of spring when the waters are in flood, it is as difficult to pass these roads as in winter; for it is impossible to cross the water-courses, on account of the flooding of the torrents, so that the road by the water-courses is not passable; and as for passing along the mountains, the mountain track is so difficult, that it is only for three or four months in autumn, when the snow and the waters decrease, that it is practicable."5
"The road from Khorasan leads by the way of Candahar. It is a straight level road, and does not go through any hill Passes."
"From Hindustan there are four roads which lead up to Cabul. One of these is by the way of Lamghanat (the great road from Cabul to Peshawer) and comes by the hill of Kheiber, in which there is one short hill Pass. In all the rest of the roads there are Passes of more or less difficulty."6
"In the country of Cabul there are many various tribes. Its valleys, and plains are inhabited by Turks, Aimaks, and Arabs. In the city and the greater part of the villages, the population consists of Tajiks. Many others of the villages and districts are occupied by Pashais, Parachis, Tajiks, Barekes, and Affghans. In the hill country, to the W. reside the Hazaras7 and Nukderis. Among the Hazara and Nukderi tribes, there are some who speak the Moghol languages. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Cabul; Arabic, Persian, Turki, Mogholi, Hindi, Afghani, Pushtoo, Pashai, Parachi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghani. It is dubious whether so many distinct races, and different languages, could be found in any other country."
2. Divisions of the country.--"The country of Cabul is divided into fourteen Tumans (districts.) On the E. lies the Lamghanat, which comprehends five Tumans and two Baluks (Talooks.) The largest of the Tumans of Lamghan is Nangenh&r.8 It lies to the E. of Cabul, 13 farsangs (more than 50 miles) of very difficult road. In three or four places there are some very short Kotuls, or steep hill Passes, and in two or three places there are narrows or straits. The Gurmsil (or region of warm temperature) is divided from the Surdsil (or region of cold temperature) only by the steep Pass of Badam-cheshmeh, (i. e. Almond-spring.) The Pass of Badam-cheshmeh lies S. of the Cabul river, between little Cabul and Barik-ab. Snow falls on the Cabul side of this Pass, but not on the Kuruk-sai and Lamghanat side. The moment you descend this hill Pass, you see quite another world. Its timber is different, its grains are of another sort, its animals of a different species, and the manners and customs of the inhabitants are of a different kind.
"There are a number of other districts belonging to Cabul.11 On the N. W. of Cabul is Kohi-Baba. (The Helmund and the river of Cabul both rise there. The river of Balkh rises in the N. W. of the same mountain. The river of Eibak, and the Surkhrud, which descends by Kundoz, rise at no great distance.) It is a high snowy mountain, on which the snow of one year generally falls on the snow of another."12
"The different districts of Cabul lie amid mountains which extend like so many mounds; with vales and level plains expanding between them. The greater part of the villages and population is found on these intermediate spaces."
3. Eastern and Northern Mountains.--" The mountainous country13 on the E. frontier of Cabul is broken and of two kinds, and the mountainous country on the W. of Cabul is also of two sorts, in which it differs from the hilly country
in the direction of Anderab, Khost, and the Badakhshanat, which are all covered with the Archeh, or mountain pine, well watered with springs, and abounding with soft and smooth heights; the vegetation on these last, whether on the hills, the gentle heights or eminences, or the valleys, is all of one sort, and is of good quality. It abounds with grass named Kah-but-keh, which is excellent for horses."14
"Nijrow,15 and the hilly country of Lamghanat, Bajour, and Sewad, are of another kind, having many forests of pine, fir, oak, olive, and mastick, but the grass is by no means equal to that of the hill-country just mentioned.16 Though these mountains are not nearly so elevated as those that compose the other hill country, and appear diminutive in comparison, yet they are singularly hard hills; and there are indeed slopes and hillocks which have a smooth, level, surface; yet the hillocks and hills are equally hard, are covered with rocks, and inaccessible to horses."
Western Mountains.--" The mountainous country which lies to the W. is composed of the hills which form the valley of Zindan, the vale of Suf, with Gurzewan, and Gharjestan, which hills are all of the same description. Their grazing grounds are all in the valleys; the hills, or hillocks, have not a single handful of grass such as is to be found on the mountains to the N., nor do they even abound with the Archeh pine. The grass in the grazing ground is very fit for both horses and sheep. Above these hills, the whole country is good riding ground, and level, and there all the cultivated ground lies. The courses of the streams are generally profound glens, often quite perpendicular, and incapable of being descended.17 The hill countries of
Ghur, Karbu,18 and Hazara, are all of the kind that has been described. Their pasture grass is in the valleys and plains. They have few trees, and even the Archeh pine does not grow in them. The grass is nutritive to horses and sheep. The deer are numerous; and the rugged, and precipitous places, and strengths of these hills, are also near the bottom."
Southern Hills.--"This hill country, however, bears no resemblance to the hills of Khwajeh Ismael, Desht, Daman, Duki,19 and Affghanistan, which have all an uniformity of aspect, being very low, having little grass, bad water, and not a tree; and which are an ugly and worthless country. There are, perhaps, scarcely in the whole world such dismal looking hill countries as these."
4. Trade, Fruits and Climate.--" On the road between Hindustan and Khorasan, there are two great marts; the one Cabul, and the other Candahar.20 Caravans, from Ferghana, Turkestan, Samarkand, Balkh, Bokhara, Hissar, and Badakhshan, all resorted to Cabul; while those from Khorasan repaired to Candahar. The productions of Khorasan, Rum, (Turkey), Irak (Persia), and Chin (all China), may be found in Cabul, which is the very emporium of Hindustan."
Fruits.--" In the districts dependent on Cabul there is a great abundance of the fruits both of the hot and cold climates, and they are found in its immediate vicinity. The fruits of the cold districts in Cabul are grapes,21
pomegranates,22 apricots, peaches,23 pears, apples, quinces, jujubes, damsins, almonds, and walnuts; all of which are found in great abundance. The cherry24 is also here. The fruits it possesses peculiar to a warm climate, are the orange, citron,25 the amluk, the sugar-cane, which are brought from the Lamghanat.26 They bring the Jelghuzek27 from Nijrow. They have numbers of beehives; but honey is brought only from the hill country on the W. The Rawash (Rhubarb) of Cabul is of excellent quality;28 its quinces and damask plums are excellent, as well as its badrengs."29
The potato was introduced by Sir A. Burnes, at Cabul, in 1837. He found some in 1839, in the garden of the Nuwab Jubbar Khan; and it is his intention to send some to Ghuznee, Candahar, and Jellallabad.
Climate.--"The climate is extremely delightful, and in this respect there is no such place in the known world. In the nights of summer you cannot sleep without a posteen.33 Though the snow falls very deep in the winter, yet the cold is never excessively intense."34
"In the spring the N. winds blows incessantly; they call it bade-perwan, the pleasant breeze, (but probably it means the breeze of Perwan, from the town of that name N. of Cabul.) From the 6th August to the 14th October, 1839, we had the wind from the N. W., E., N. E., and N. W. The N. W. wind in September and October caused falls of snow in the mountains."
On the N. E. is the Auleng of Sung-Korghan, at the distance of about 2 kos, (4 miles.) It is a fine plain, and the grass agrees well with horses; there are few musquitoes37 in it. To the N. W. lies the Auleng of Chilak, about one kos (2 miles) from Cabul. It is extensive; but in summer the musquitoes greatly annoy the horses.37 On the W. is the Auleng of Deveren, which consists properly of two plains; the one the Auleng of Tibah, the other that of Kush-Nadir, which would make the Aulengs of Cabul 5 in number.38 The Auleng of Siah-Seng lies on the E. of Calral. Between this last Auleng and the currier's gate, stands the tomb of Kutluk Kedem.39 Adjoining to this last valley is that of Kemri. By this computation it appears that there are six Aulengs about Cabul, but we hear only of the four Aulengs."
The Cabul river runs through the plain, and there are numerous springs of water by means of which the valleys can be highly cultivated, to support a larger population, as soon as the country shall become settled, and the distinction between "meum and tuum" be rightly understood.
About 15 or 20 miles to the S. E. of Cabool there is a very extensive forest which supplies the city with timber, and fire-wood.
6. The City of Cabool.--1st. The city of Cabool is not as described by Forster a walled-town;40 and is about 3
miles in circumference. It is situated on the E. and between two ranges of hills, which protect it from the N. and S. winds, owing to which circumstance its site appears to have been been selected. From the Candahar side, you enter by the W., passing through a winding range of hills till you meet the entrance, between the hills on each side of it; they rise up nearly perpendicular and are fortified, in the Asiatic style, by double-walls with small bastions, the walls being loop-holed.41 On the S. W. of the city there is a small hill, which is called Baber Badshah.42 Baber's tomb is just below this hill. It is not large, nor in a good style of architecture. From the above hill a clear crystal stream issues. The ground on which the tomb stands is higher than any in the city, and is enclosed by a wall all round. South from the city and to the E. of Baber Badshah, there is a lake nearly 4 miles in circumference.43 The view from the E. side of the city is the best.44 From the E. the city of Cabool is seen to advantage; the Bala Hissar being to the S. E., and from the hills to the N. E. you obtain the entire view of both; the whole of the city being seen, with the Bala Hissar to the left of the landscape.
2nd. The length of the city is from E. to W.; the N. and S. being contracted by the hills. On the E. and S. E. side is the Bala Hissar,45 which, now, as formerly under
the kings, is the residence of the Governor; and even in the time of Dost Mahomed. The Bala Hissar division is about½ mile long and¼ mile broad, the length being from E. to W.46; and has a stone-wall all round. Just on entering you come to the spot where the barracks are built, beyond which on the left is a large square for stables. There has been a small gate built to the E. entrance into the square, on passing into which, a road leads down to the left to the palace in which the Envoy and Minister lives. The king's palace is on the right side of the great square; the S. and N. sides of which to the rear, are occupied by the palaces and gardens. The large square is about 200 yards square. Beyond this square there is another in which the Shah's troops were encamped. Then you come into the street containing the bazar. The Bala Hissar (or upper fort) is to the S. of the side where the Envoy and Minister lives; it is on a high commanding hill, overlooking the city.47
The Kuzzulbashes have a division of the city to themselves on the W. side. After entering the city from the W., and proceeding about½ a mile to the E., there is a road which turns to the left, (N.) and leads into the Seistan road, running to the N., and the first turn to the right takes you to the E. passing a village, bringing you out of Cabool; the city then being to your right, and gives a front view of the king's palace. There is an entrance into the city, from the S. W. side leading from Baber's tomb, which, on your reaching the outskirts, turns to the left to get to the W. entrance. The road to the right leads to the S. side of the city.
3rd. There are no gates to the entrances to the city. That to the Bala Hissar division could easily be protected. The other entrance on the E. side, is called the Lahore entrance. The entrance by the N. is by the Seistan road. There is none directly from the S. There are four spacious bazars in the centre of the city,48 where articles and goods of all kinds, English, Russian, Indian, and from almost every part of the world, are to be sold. The entrance on the Lahore side (E.) leads into the most crowded bazar I ever saw. The streets are narrow, and in some parts do not admit of two horsemen passing abreast. The streets are paved with large stones, but are much out of order; particularly in that part leading from the Bala Hissar entrance into the city, and the road outside the gate-way towards the river, and after passing through the first bazar in the direct line from the bridge; in many places there are deep hollows in the centre of the road. The houses have two, some three stories; and at the top of the houses a wattled framework is erected to render them more private; here the people sleep in the warm weather. Many of the houses of the
principal people have gardens attached to them. The shops are on the ground-floor, and the traveller procures an excellent dinner for about one penny. Fruit of all kinds are to be had. The grapes and other fruits are to be seen piled up in tiers in the front of the shops. Fruit and cook-shops are to be met with in, or near all the bazars; but iron, &c. wares, clothes, &c. are in particular quarters. Ice and sherbet and all the luxuries of an Affghan dinner may be had for about three halfpence.
4th. The Citadel, Suburbs, &c.--Dost Mahomed had commenced to build a Fausse braye to the Bala Hissar. He commenced it from the S. side,49 and this is the only part of Cabool which could be defended. There is a wet-ditch round it, deepest on the S. side; to the E. it may be 3 or 4 feet deep. To the S. W. distant about 1½ mile, is the Armenian50 burying ground which is surrounded by a wall, and where all our officers were buried. A Cemetery should be, and no doubt will be built at Cabool.
In the Mahomedan burying ground near and to the S. E. of the city, there is a tomb-stone with this inscription, "Here lyeth the body of John Hicks, son of Thomas and Edith Hicks, who departed this life, the Eleventh of October 1666."51 Near the hills to the N. E. of the city are some mosques close under the hills. To the S. E., on the
hills distant about 8 or 9 miles from the city, are two lofty pillars, said to have been built by Alexander the Great: the inscriptions on them have not yet, I believe, been decyphered. To the N. E. of Cabool about 5 miles there is a beautiful plain where the races were held and the troops reviewed. To the W. and N. W. of the city distant about 2 and 4 miles, there are several summer houses, enclosed with walls and gardens; and there are villages in various directions. The view, therefore, from the Bala Hissar, and from the hills which enclose the city, is very extensive and grand.
5th. Revenue, Population, Army.--The Revenue of Cabool,52 Bootkhak and Koh Damun is said to be about 5 Lakhs Rs. (£50,000.) The last year of Dost Mahomed's rule, the whole revenue of the Province of Cabool was 26 Lakhs Rs. (£260,000) including Ghuznee, Jellalabad, &c. The district of Cabool on his accession yielded 50 or £60,000. Out of this revenue he had to pay his army 21 Lakhs Rs. (£210,000) so that he had little left for other purposes. The population has been variously stated at 60,000 and 100,000, and Sir A. Burnes thinks it exceeds 100,000; and that it was never so high as in Dost Mahomed's time. It appeared to me to be greater than that of Candahar; and the houses at Cabool contain more stories. The army was paid partly in money, by grants of lands, and by giving so much grain.53 Dost Mahomed's regular Army was
about 14,000 men, of which 6,000 were Cavalry, with about forty guns, besides those in Ghuznee, &c. The fear of invasion by the Sikhs, and his proximity to the country of, and disputes with Moorad Beg, caused him to maintain an army much beyond his means.54 The system of paying the troops was, that a Sirdar, or Chief, received so many villages, or so much land, and a portion of money, and grain, for the maintenance of his quota of troops.55
To meet the contingencies of increased demand on his treasury, he, of late years, had recourse to increasing the taxes paid by the merchant and trader; as well as to borrowing money by way of loan: these acts naturally tended to lower his dignity, and would, in time, have placed him in the bauds of his chiefs and subjects: there could be no stability in such a Govt.56
6th, Provisions, Police, &c.--Provisions are said to have been more plentiful and cheaper under the rule of Dost Mahomed, than under the kings. This may have been caused by the kings granting the most valuable lands to their favorites, and thus a monopoly would result; but, the necessities of the state had brought Dost Mahomed to a low financial ebb; and it does not seem to me how it would have been practicable to have supported him in a high and useful position in Affghanistan, without a great pecuniary sacrifice, and without the aid of a subsidiary force, on nearly as expensive a scale as that which will be the cost under a king; who must feel gratitude to the British for an asylum and pension for nearly 24 years from our Govt., by whose means he has recovered his throne.57 The country was
infested with robbers immediately the troops were withdrawn from Jellalabad; and though they were employed about two months in the year to collect the Revenue, still no steps seem to have been taken, to secure the safety of the roads by stationing troops, or by any police arrangements.
Indeed even in the city of Cabool during the summer months, it is said not a night passed without several houses being broken into. This58 was usually practised by the Affghans who brought their flocks into the neighbourhood of Cabool; and by others who repaired there to avoid the heat of the surrounding country.59
Cabool is a healthy place, though it is said that the people do not attain a great age. Here as well as at Candahar the people are subject to fever during the autumn.60 The elevation of Cabool above the level of the sea is (at Baber's tomb) 6,396 feet, which is 1,330 feet below Ghuznee, and 2,912 feet above Candahar. This gives Cabool a temperature of nearly 21½ degrees lower than at the level of the sea,61 and from 16 to 17 degrees lower temperature than at most of the military stations in India.62
The range of the thermometer at Cabool from the 6th to the end of August, at 4 A.M. was from 46° to 74°, and at 3 P.M. was from 72° to 96°.
In the month of September, at 4 A.M. 50° to 64°, and from 3 P.M. 70° to 90°.
From the 1st to 14th October, 1839. At 4 A.M. 30° to 56° and from 3 P.M. 64° to 92°.
MARCH Of THE HEAD QUARTERS FROM CABOOL TO THE KHYBER PASS.
1. Cabool to Boot-khak, 8½ miles, (15th Oct. 1839.)--H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, Comr.-in-Chief of the army of the Indus, and Hd. Qrs., with the first Column, consisting of H. M. 16th Lancers, 2 Cos. 21st N. I. and a Ressalah of 4th Local Horse, quitted Cabool this morning under a salute. Thermometer 4 A.M. 44°. Marched at 6 A.M. The road, after descending from the high ground near the E. of Cabool, proceeds by the famous plain to the N. E., and passes through some low ground. At about 3 miles1 it crosses to the left by bridges over the Loghar and Khoord (small) Cabool rivers; it thence runs through a swamp. The road is raised and covered with stones, rendering it difficult for horses and camels. This compelled us to take the road close to the left of the raised road. The latter part of the road is much better, though so narrow, being confined between ravines and a high bank, that it is bad for guns. The appearance of cultivation was lost after the sixth mile; and the road ran to the right close to the hills, to the S. and was free of stones, but the whole was barren, no vestige of grass, or any sort of vegetation was to be seen. Our camp was a mile beyond the village of Boot-khak, which is a small place. The Khoord Cabool river E. and close to camp. Thermometer at 3 P.M. 64°. Lieut. F. Mackeson, Pol. Asst. accompanied our column. The elevation here is 6,247 feet or 153 below Baber's tomb at Cabool.
To Khoord Cabool, 9 miles 1 furlong, (16th Oct. 1839.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 36°. Marched at day-break. The
2nd column, under Maj.-Genl. Thackwell left Cabool to-day2 with the state prisoners, Mahomed Hyder Khan, and Hajee Khan, Kakur, in charge of Capt. McSherry. Shortly after leaving camp the road lay close under the hills to the S. From Boot-khak there is a Kafila (caravan) road (the Luttabund Pass) which runs about S. E. from camp and passes over the mountains to the left of the entrance to the Pass.3 At 14 mile from camp you enter the Pass of "Kotil Khoord Cabool."4 The Pass is formed by two chains of high mountains between which runs the Khoord Cabool river, confined within a very narrow channel. The cold was intense; the height of the mountains kept the rays of the sun from us. The length of the Pass is about 6 miles, and the width not more than from 100 to 200 yards, the road crossing the river 23 times. The mountains are of the most barren description, of basalt, and iron-stone, broken into precipices, and crags, and without a particle of vegetation. On leaving the Pass, there is a perceptible ascent. The entrance to the Pass is about S. E. and its termination about E.5 Having debouched from the Pass the village of Khoord Cabool is about 1½ mile distant, the road taking a turn
to the left, and there being a perceptible ascent. The elevation at the village is 7,466 feet, or 1,219 feet above our last ground. Thermometer 3 P.M. 64°. Camp. The river to the rear. Hills to the front. The village about a mile to the rear of the left. Many camels lost to-day.
The Tezeen 127/8 miles, (17th Oct.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 30°. Marched at 6 A.M. The road was a moderate ascent to the E. for about 3 miles and good. About half way crossed several slight ascents and descents and some few streamlets. Thence commences the Huft Kotil,6 or so many ranges of bills over which the road runs. It then enters the bed of the Rood7 Tezeen, running nearly due N., after a winding descent through mountains variously stratified, it opens into the valley of Tezeen. The last descent is about¾ of a mile and very steep. The first half forms nearly a semicircle to the left, and the last half is nearly direct to the valley, the direction of the march was E. and then N.8 There is another road to the left which leads into the valley lower down, and beyond our camp, which was opposite to the debouche of the Pass. The Rood-i-Tezeen which runs down the Pass, discharges itself into the Cabool river at Tarobi.9 The village of Tezeen was about a mile S. from camp.
Further S. the valley is crossed by a range of mountains, wooded from their base to their summit. To the W. of N. and to the E. are other mountains. The valley is not above 1,000 yards broad, and is barren, with the exception
of a few patches of cultivation.10 Thermometer 3 P.M. 66°. The elevation of the Tezeen Pass is 8,173 feet, 707 feet above the last ground; that of the Tezeen valley 6,488, or 1,685 feet below the Pass; and as the chief descent is in the last 5 miles, it would give a fall of one foot in sixteen; the greatest we had yet met with.11
2. The Giant's (or Fuqueer's) Tomb at Ararent on the Tezeen, 8½ miles, (18th Oct. 1839.)---Thermometer 4 A.M. 50°. Marched at day-break. The road descended the bed of the Rood-i-Tezeen due N. generally, or ascended some spurs of the mountains which ran into it. The valley was about 1,000 to 1,200 yards wide, crossing the same streams frequently as on the last march. The whole of the way was covered with round, loose, stones, and more difficult than the Bolan Pass, over a continual ascent and descent of loose stones, splitting the bullocks' feet, and rendering them incapable of moving. The valley widened a good deal during the march; but, still, it was a valley of stones, and worse than the "Bolan Pass," equally sterile, with bad, instead of good water:12 the latter part of the road worse than the first. The only forage were a few stunted bushes, and coarse grass for the camels.13 About half-way there is a small tower, on the hills to the left. The Tezeen empties itself into the Cabool river, about 15 miles to the N. of Tarobi. The Kafila road (Luttabund Pass) passes down from the hills to the left, by a steep descent about a mile beyond the Giant's tomb. A descent in to-day's march. Thermometer at 3 P.M. 75°.
To Rood-i-Kutta-Sung, 4¾ miles, (19th Oct.)--Thermometer at 4 A.M. 48°. Marched at day-break. The road straight in a continuation of the valley of Tezeen. We took the road to the right, nearly due E. For half a mile passed over a stony level road. Then commenced the first ascent. There are four ascents and descents. At the end of the second descent, and between it and' the third ascent, is a stony valley, and a small stream, called the "Bareek-ab."14 There is an old fortification on a hill by the side of the stream. The third ascent is the steepest. The last is the longest and greatest descent. The whole road stony, and must be very difficult going to Cabool. The valley in which the camp was, is called "Rood-i-Kutta-Sung" No village, nor cultivation seen. "Bareek-Ab,"15 is 5,313 feet, or 1,175 feet below the valley of Tezeen. Thermometer 3 P.M. 72°.
To Jugdulluk, 7½ miles, (20th Oct.)--Thermtr. 5 A.M. 54°. Marched at day-break. The road lay first 3 miles E. over some steep spurs, or hillocks, running down to the Kutta-Sung. Then the valley widens, and you pass a Chokee on the left. At 4 miles enter the gorge of the "Puree-Duree"16 Pass, taking a direction to the S. The Pass is the bed of the Jugdulluk river. It is about 3½ miles in extent. It is very narrow and stony, with an ascent. The Pass winds several times almost at right-angles. The average width is about 40 or 50 yards; but there are three places where it is less than 10 feet, indeed one only 6 feet, so that if any animal fell, the road would be stopped till it should be removed. The almost perpendicular cliffs, on both sides, appear as if
threatening the destruction of the traveller. A small party of armed men would stop the passage of any force which had entered it. The road passes so much over water that, in certain seasons, it would much impede the march of troops. This difficult Pass is, in some respects, not unlike the defile of the "valley of hell" between Neustadt and Fribourg.17 To the W. of the Pass, a road crosses the mountains, which completely turns the Pass.18 Lt.-Col. Wade moved by the road over the hills, but his guns went through the Pass. From the entrance to the Khoord Cabool Pass to Jugdulluk, a distance 42 miles, there is a succession of Passes and defiles, more difficult than any road we had yet seen. They beggar description.19
The Jugdulluk country belongs to the Jeebhar Khel tribe, of which Uzzeez Khan, the chief, was, at this time, adverse to the Shah's Govt. There is a garden here, to the W. in a grove of mulberry trees. There are the remains of four bastions on the raised mound it occupies. We found some of the 3rd Cavy. here whose horses had been left on the return of the Regt. with the convoy to Cabool; having been knocked up. It was at Jugdulluk that Sir A. Burnes, received his last letter from Dost Mahomed. Thermometer 3 P.M. 72°. Jugdulluk is 5,375 feet, or 62 feet above
Bareek-ab. We buried this afternoon Capt. W. Hackett, H. M.'s 17th foot, who died last night.
3. To Soorkh-ab20 13 miles, (21st Oct. 1839.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 40°, when we marched. The road E. for the first 1½ mile was an ascent up the river. Then came a very steep ascent for about 300 yards, very trying for loaded animals. This can be avoided by passing over a small kotil (Pass) to the right, on descending which there is a ruined fort, but it is a circuitous route; some baggage went that way.
On attaining the top of the steep ascent you are on the crest of the ridge of the Kotil-i-Jugdulluk, where the river has its rise: thence there is a rather precipitous descent for about 3 miles.21 For 7 miles the road crossed a succession of steep ravines, covered, with loose pebbles, and of a most dreary aspect. To the S., the mountains of the "Sufed-koh" covered with deep snow, bounded the view. At about 1 mile from the valley of Hissarah, there is a very steep descent over ledges of rocks,22 into the bed of the Soorkh-ab river, which is crossed by a bridge of one arch, through which the river rushes a perfect torrent. Though only 1½ foot deep it was difficult to cross the stream below to the left of the bridge. To the right near the ledge of rocks, are the ruins of an old fort. To the N. E. of camp is a small tower on the hills. To the S. W. is the bridge. The river here runs from W. to E. The direction of our route to-day was E., and last half a little N. The valley still stony, and the width from½ to¾ of a mile. The valley particularly to the S. W. and village of Hissarah, has many orchards, vineyards and cornfields on the banks of the river, affording a pleasing
contrast to the country we had hitherto passed through. The camp was supplied with corn, bhoosa, and abundances of the finest grapes, pomegranates, and vegetables. At about half-way from the last ground Lieut. F. Mackeson, recovered two of the guns left by Mahomed Akbar Khan, on his retreat from Jullalabad to Cabool. Thermometer 3 P.M. 80°. The elevation at Soorkh-ab is 4,373 or 1,002 feet less than at our last ground.
It was here that Shah Shooja, "having marched from Peshawer23 to attack Cabool, met the army of Mahmood (who deposed Shah Zeman) consisting of 3,000 men, at Eshpaun, in a narrow plain surrounded with hills and having the brook of Soorkh-ab in their front. Shah Shoojah had at least 10,000 men, was at first victorious; but his troops took to plundering, and got into confusion. The Bareekzyes under Futteh Khan24 defeated him, and Shah Shoojah escaped with difficulty to the Khyber hills, where he remained till a fresh opportunity offered of asserting his claim to the throne."25
4. To Sufed-Sung, 9¾ miles, (22nd Oct. 1839.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 56°. Marched at day-break. The road ran to the E. through the valley, 800, or 1,000 yards wide, and for about two miles was as stony and difficult with ascents and descents as any we had passed over; and crossed by several rivulets winding their way to the Cabool river. The valley now widened. At about 4 miles a tolerable road, crossing ravines and rivulets running from S. to N.; then a steep ascent, a mile beyond which is Gundumuk, on the left of the road. The elevation is 4,616 ft. or 243 ft. above our last ground. Thence the road is good till within 3 miles of Sufed-Sung, when it has most rugged descents crossing the Gundumuk river with a stony bed. There is a bridge with a broken arch at Sufed-Sung. The road to our camp crossed the stream to the left of the bridge, with a steep ascent up to it. Camp S. W. 4 mile from the bridge, which except
the arch, is repairable. The walled village of Gundumuk is prettily situated. It is surrounded with wheat-fields, cypresses and a considerable forest group, through which the river issues, and with the distant snow-capped Sufed-koh, formed a beautiful scene, and a contrast to the bleak hill on which our camp was pitched. Thermometer 3 P.M. 78°.
23rd October.--Thermometer 5 A.M. 54°. Halt. No account of the baggage-wagons. The rear column lost one jemadar, one havildar and three sepoys, by the fire of the thieves at the last ground. They halted, to-day, at Gundumuk, the usual stage. Thermometer 3 P.M. 75°.
To Futehabad, 12 miles, (24th Oct. 1839.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 52°, when we marched. The road to-day lay to the N. of E., and leaving the valley of Neemla on the right, ascending the heights along which it wound. In the valley of Neemla, 2½ miles from the last ground is a celebrated garden, lt is a square and contains some magnificent plane and cypress trees. There are four raised planes of masonry for pitching tents upon, surrounded by the largest cypresses, planted at equal distances. Shah Shoojah occupied this garden, in 1809, and his army was encamped in the valley where he was defeated about the end of June 1809, shortly after Mr. Elphinstone's mission had left Peshawer.26 The king fled to the mountains, losing his kingdom the second, and last time, his jewels, and treasure. The river Neemla runs through the valley of that name, and leaves it crossing the road, and runs into the Cabool river, at its N. extremity.
The road hence has a precipitous descent (the valley along it to the right) over loose round stones, and crossing the Neemla, turns to the S. E. (left) and ascends an opposite hill, the steep of which is difficult for loaded camels, and wheeled carriages. The next 6 miles the roads are ascents and descents; there are three passes or defiles,
crossing so many streams, over loose stones of all sizes, until it enters the valley of Rood-Croad,27 covered with grass. Camp at Futehabad the elevation of which is 3,098 feet, or 1,518 feet below our last ground. A fine view of the "Sufed-koh" to the S. W. Thermometer 3 P.M. 80°.
5. To Sooltanpoor, 7½ miles, (25th Oct 1839.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 54°. Marched at day-break. The road just after leaving camp passed over a water-course, then over a low flat, sometimes of loose stones and again crossing a slight sandy soil. To the S. is seen the "Sufed-koh" To the N. flows a rivulet (Soorkh) running to the Cabool river. Along the banks of this stream were villages, and patches of sugar-cane. The last¾ of a mile is a deep, heavy sand. The camp near the village of Sooltanpoor. The elevation, here, is 2,286 feet, or 812 feet lower than our last ground. Sooltanpoor, from the ruins near it, appears to have been a large place. The cultivation extends to the banks of the river, about 3 miles N. Lieut. F. Mackeson went into Jellalabad to-day. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 90°. As we were now approaching the Sikh frontier the following G. O. was issued. (Adverting to the steady discipline which, during the present campaign, had secured the approbation of Govt.) "While passing through the "Punjab" and protected Sikh states, all are required to abstain from killing pea-fowl, the Neelghy, or the domestic pigeons, or from offending, in any way, the prejudices of the Sikhs; and the D. C. G. will prohibit, in the strictest manner, the slaughtering of cattle."28
"Major-Genl. Thackwell,29 and Brigr. Persse30 will use every means in their power, in restraining camp-followers from injuring, or trespassing on the cultivation; and parties under the Provost Marshal and his assistants
must be early on the new ground, daily, to place safeguards in the villages, and over the corn-fields."
"The Provosts are enjoined to deal strictly with those they may find tresspassing, or committing any act of oppression."
"Officers Comg. must remind their men that the army is passing through the territory of an ally, and that as the soldiers of that prince, from not possessing the same degree of discipline of which the British army can boast, may be more ready to enter into quarrels, and to make use of offensive expressions; it will be the duty of all, to keep a guard on their temper, and to be careful not to allow themselves to be forced into collision, with those whom the Government requires that they shall look upon as friends."31
To Jellalabad, nine miles, (26th Oct.)--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 54°. The road the first part sandy, the next part stony, and the last part sandy. There is a sandy plain E., W. and S. of Jellalabad. This was once a flourishing town. The elevation, here, is 1,964, or 322 feet below our last ground. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 92°.
We here, found some troops which had been left by Lt.-Col. Wade and Lieut. W. K. Hillersdon32 the Assist. Pol. Agent.
It was at this place where Dost Mahomed kept his Cavy. and the greatest portion of his Juzzailchees. The town we
found to be a small dirty place, with mud-walls, round towers, and narrow streets. It stands on the right bank of the Cabool river. The inhabitants are said to be about 2,000. It is bounded by sterile mountains.
27th and 28th October, halted.-- (Thermtr. the same as on the 26th.) While we were here the Khyber Pass was attacked.33
6.--To Ali Boghan, 6¾ miles, (29th Oct. 1839.)--Thermtr. 4. A.M. 56°. Marched at day-break. The road ran due E., first part sandy, over a level plain, the greater part of which was under cultivation, for nearly 3 miles. Thence crossed over a bed of stones; the rest of the road good, excepting two not difficult ravines, and two or three water-courses, then a thick jungle of reeds through which there was a path, which terminated in ravines and sandy hills, about the sixth mile. At 42 minutes past 3 P.M. a shock of an earthquake. Thermt. 3 P.M. 92°. The elevation, here, is 1,911 ft. or 53 ft. below the last ground.
To Char Deh, 14 miles, (30th Oct)--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 56° when we marched. The road lay almost due E. and for the first 3 miles was good and level, but on ascending a small lull, we entered a wide, barren valley or stony desert, called the "Soorkh-Denkor," (surrounded with low hills,) where in the months of April and May, the deadly simoom prevails. This track was marched over for 9 miles, and there seemed to be desolation all around. About 14 mile from camp was the small dilapidated village of Bareek-ab; water-courses near it. The road then was sandy and brought us to the banks of the Rood-Buttur-kot and cultivation; and crossing this stream, we reach the village of that name, and in the valley was our camp. The Cabool river running to the N., the desert to the W., the "Sufed-koh" to the S., and to the E. the Khyber range. The elevation at Bareek-ab is 1822 ft. or 89 below our last ground. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 88°.
To Huzarnow, 11¾ miles, (31st Oct.)--Thermtr. 4 A.M. 54°. There were two roads leading out of camp.34
The first part sandy. At about 3 miles crossed the dry bed of a nullah, and crossed between this and Huzarnow, two dry stony beds of hill streams. The middle part of the march, the road stony for 2 or 3 miles. The road generally pretty good, but sandy and stony, and crossing several small water-courses. Direction the last half E. The road passing over the Dusht (plain) led to Huzarnow, a cluster of villages, some of which have mud-walls and towers; and a good deal of cultivation around the villages.35
The village of Basool is at an elevation of 1,509 feet or 313 feet below Bareek-ab.
To the N. of Huzarnow, distant 2 or 3 miles is the village of Chuhkouree. Thermometer 3 P.M. 88°. Good grass, and grazing for the cattle. Bhoosa procured.
To Dakka, 9 miles, (1st Nov.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 56°. Marched at day-break. The road skirted the hills for some distance avoiding a swamp, when it turned to the E. along a level, gentle rise, over a good country for about 4 miles; then crossed several very small rivulets, and some arable lands, and at 6 miles ascended the Pass, or narrow defile, of Kum or Khoord Khyber, or little Khyber.36 On quitting the defile, the road lies through the valley, and at two miles you come to Dakka, where are two walled villages, to the left of the road and distant about a mile; the Cabool37 river runs by them from W. to E.38 The ground at Dakka is covered with an efflorescence of Soda for some distance from the river, and the ground is in consequence very damp; the surrounding land is covered with stones and hard sand. We found supplies here and a party of troops recently raised by Mr. Mackeson. The elevation, at Lalpoora is 1,404 feet, or 105 feet lower than Basool. It was N. W. and Dakka, E.
of our camp. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 87°. The Khyberees on the side of the Pass towards Peshawer, were hostile to the Shah, and it was only on the 38th October, that they had ceased from their attacks on the Sikh Dett.; hence the "Post" had been delayed for some days: and we were to move through the Pass with caution.
THE MARCH OF THE HEAD QUARTERS AND TROOPS THROUGH THE KHYBER PASS TO PESHAWER.
1. To Lundee-Khana, 9 miles, (2nd Nov. 1839.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 48°. Marched at day-break. The entrance to the Pass was a mile distant from camp. The road was to the S. of E., over beds of loose stones, and up a gradual ascent. The mountains on the N. and S. gradually contracting the Pass, which turned at several points, being the bed of a mountain torrent. At about half-way in the Pass, the road was good, and less stony. The width of the Pass varies from 100 to 200 yards in the centre. In the last half there is a sensible rise. The Pass narrows the latter part. The hills are generally precipitous, covered with stunted bushes. Our direction the last part of the march was E. The hills are not very high; on the highest to the S. near camp, there is an old fort.1 The village of Lundee-Khana is S. E. of camp, close under the hills on rising ground, distant about a mile, near which there is some cultivation; our camp was on high broken ground to the N. The Pass near camp about¼ mile wide. Water close to camp.2 The elevation, here, is 2,488 feet, or 1,084 feet above Lalpoora. Thermometer 3 P.M. 78°. As the Pass is no where above 200 yards wide, it is clear that it can be commanded by the native rifle from either side.3
To Ali Musjid, 13¾ miles, (3rd Nov.)--Thermometer 69°. Marched before day-break. There are two roads from Lundee-Khana, which, after the ascent of the Pass, unite at the bottom of the descent. The lower is in the bed of the river, and is the most precipitous. The commencement of the steepest ascent was close to camp, and very abrupt for about 150 yards,4 after which the rise is moderate, excepting two rather steep parts of no great extent. The road is about 12 feet wide, and to the right there is a precipice towards the valley. After an ascent of about 2 miles you reach the top of the Pass, at an elevation of 3,373 feet, or 885 feet above Lundee-Khana, or, a rise of about one in fifteen feet the greatest we had yet met with. The direction from the ascent was about E., and the road described a portion of a circle to the S. E., where there is a Police Chokee stationed.5 The descent from the hill is for about three miles, and the road and country more open. At the bottom of the descent you enter the valley of Lalbeg, or, Lalbeg-gurhee.6
After entering the valley there is an old fort on the hills to the right, which if in repair would annoy any troops moving towards Lundee-Khana.7 The valley of Lalbeg-gurhee
is about 6 miles long and 1¼ broad and is cultivated.8 There are small villages on each side of the road, and you cross two dry stony beds in the valley. At the end of the valley towards Ali Musjid there are towers9 on either aide of the road. On the left on the top of an isolated hill is a Tope (or Barrow) somewhat resembling that at Munikiala, but is disfigured by a tower, said to have been built by Aurungzebe, on the top of it. Just before you leave the valley and to the W., is Lohwargee, which it is said would answer for a cantonment; hence 1½ mile to Ali Musjid.
The valley was soon lost, and the bed of the stream was confined by rugged hills, until the road narrowed to about 70 feet, and did not widen much near Ali Musjid. We passed several springs, one of large volume issuing from the rocks, which formed a considerable stream, down which lay the road to Ali Musjid. The Pass, here, very much contracts, and in one place is not above 40 or 80 feet wide,10 crossing almost entirely the rocky stream, till you arrive at Ali Musjid, which is situated on a hill to the right. We encamped about a mile to the E. of it. Thermometer 3 P.M. 82°.11
Halt 4th Nov. 1839. We halted to-day in consequence of the non-arrival of our baggage, and it being thought advisable to take steps to protect the line of march between this and the debouche of the Pass,12 in consequence of which the second column under Major-Genl. Thackwell, moved close to us, and encamped to-day, between us and Ali Musjid.
2. Ali Musjid.--The fort of Ali Musjid is situated on a hill to the right coming from Jellalabad. The elevation above the level of the sea is 2,433, or 940 feet below the summit of the Pass at Lundee Khana. The fort is about 150 feet long and 60 feet wide, but the whole of the enclosed place is about 300 by 200 feet. There are three hills within from 200 to 300 yards of the fort, on which there were posts. The width of the Pass here is about 150 yards. On the opposite side, the hills are not high. In the centre of the Pass below is a Sungah. There were likewise Sungahs on the hills opposite to the fort. From the fort to where our camp was (the road taking a turn to the left) is the most important section of the Pass. Our camp had to its front, S. W., some heights on which there was table-land. This table-land leads to the fort to the W., and to the Khyberee cantonments.13 To the rear of camp N. E. was a detached hill on which there was a Sungah; beyond this is a valley and a high range of hills, a road leading over it to the left rear. The width of the Pass here is about 150 yards. To the E. of camp is the foot-path leading over the hills to Jumrood. To the S. E. is a tower (Jaghir) and a Sungah which commands the main Pass, which led from the left of our camp in that direction.14 In the fort of Ali
Musjid there is no water, but there is a covered passage leading down to a well. Thermometer 3 P.M. 82°.
To Kuddum beyond the Pass, 10 miles, (5th Nov.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 60°. Marched at 5 A.M. The road lay through the bed of the river. After leaving camp our route was to the right, leaving the tower (Jaghir) on our left, on which side there is high ground, and two other towers within 3 miles of camp, and close together. The Pass from camp was for 3 miles from 200 to 150 yards wide, sometimes only as many feet. It then narrows to about 60 or 80 yards in some places; widening again at the debouche. The hills are higher for the first 3 miles, after which they are lower and rocky, and more perpendicular. The road the first 3 miles over stony ground, crossing the river often; the latter part over shingles with a slight descent to the valley of Peshawer. The Choorah stream, which issues from the Pass, irrigates the country near Kuddum. From our last ground to the debouche of the Pass is 7 miles. There is a foot-path which leads over the hills from Jumrood, and is three miles shorter than the route by the main-road of the Pass; but, it is not a gun-road. Thermometer 3 p.m. 86°. Capt. H. P. Burn,15 the officer left in Political charge at Peshawer, came to our camp. Our camp was close under some low hills on which there is table-land to the W., Jumrood (where the Sikh camp is) is a mile off, and close to the fort of Futehgurh. We met some Sikh Battalions entering the Pass, as we were leaving it.3. The Khyber Pass and its Defence.-- The Khyber Pass from the entrance, on the Jellalabad side, to the debouche (2 miles short of and from Kuddum), is 28 miles in length, and excepting the valley of Lalbeg-gurhee,16 6 miles long and 1¼ broad, there are 22 miles of Pass which can be commanded, and in which there are few places where an army advancing could find cover.
Suppose a convoy to enter the Pass from Peshawer, by the main road of the Pass to Ali Musjid. At about 2 miles on the left, there is a small road which turns into the left and re-enters the main-road about¼ mile higher up. From this to where the two first towers are seen on the right of the road, is about 2 miles. When the Khyberees had possession of the road, attacks were made from the left, by parties coming from Ali Musjid, or from the neighbouring cantonment. Those from the right were made by the troops in possession of the towers and Sungahs. Our possession, therefore, of the towers and Sungahs on the right, while holding Ali Musjid and the hill on the left opposite to the great tower (Jaghir), would prevent them occupying the hills in any numbers between the entrance to the Pass and these points. There might be Sungahs erected on the right and left of the hills to render these more secure.
In that portion of the Pass from the tower (Jaghir) to Ali Musjid, Sungahs, on the hill running from the left to the fort, might be erected to secure that line. On the opposite (right) side of the Pass, the detached hill might have a Sungah to command the valley on the other side; the entrance into which by the gorge, should be closed up by another Sungah. The path-way which leads to Jumrood should be protected by a Sungah.
As on entering the Pass from the Jumrood (or Peshawer) side, attacks from the left are most likely to be made, there should be towers, at certain intervals, along the whole line up to the fort; as on that line are the cantonments of the Khyberees.
In the valley of Lalbeg-gurhee there is open space. The possession of the summit of the Lundee-Khana Pass, with a good work, would secure it. There is a hill beyond it on which there are the ruined walls of an old fort;17 on which might be erected a small work if necessary.
The remaining portion of the Pass from Lundee-Khana to the debouche near Dakka, might have a tower erected about half-way, on some rising ground at Huft-chah. The Tatara, Kadapa, and Ab-khana Passes, being narrow, might be easily secured by Sungahs.
Now that a corps of Khyberees has been raised, it would seem that these men would be the best to employ, to garrison the towers and Sungahs proposed to be erected.
As the point to be chiefly guarded is the line on which Ali Musjid stands, the object appears to be, to have a proper garrison for the fort, with some work on the plain leading to Choorah, sufficient to hold a body of men equal to repulse an attack.
Owing to the sickness of our troops in the hot months and rainy season after its capture in July, 1839, Lt.-Col. Sir C. M. Wade directed Dr. A. Reid to report upon the best site for a cantonment,18as our troops could not live in Ali Musjid during the hot, or the rainy season, in fact only in the cold months; Lohwargee seems to offer the best
place for a cantonment, and is sufficiently near to afford constant relief to the parties in Ali Musjid, and at the posts; and the troops would be able to move, at a short notice, to take up any position that might be required to protect any convoy, &c. passing through the Khyber Pass.
4. The Khyberees are divided into two classes, the Afreedees and the Shanwarees, and are all Mahomedans. In the time of the kings of Affghanistan they are said to have received the following sums, viz.
|Abdal Rahman's Ancestors, Kukee Khels, Afreedee||Rs.||25,000|
|Khan Bahadar's, ditto, (Malakdeen Khel,) Afreedee||"||25,000|
|Mahomed Ameer Khan, (Lepa's ancestors,) Afreedee,||"||25,000|
|The brothers of Mintaza Khan and Sardalla Khan, Zakee Khel, Afreedee||"||25,000|
|The Malak of the Meerdad Khel, Shanwarees,||"||10,000|
|The Malak of the Peroo Khel, Shanwarees,||"||10,000|
|The Malak of the Khuga Khel, Skanwarees,||"||10,000|
The body of Khyberees supported themselves by theft, and when called into service, they only received rations.
Before the engagement with the Sikhs in 1837, the Khyber Pass did not cost Dost Mahomed, more than 10,000 Rs. a year; but, after the above affair he paid nearly 20,000 Rs. yearly, viz.
|Rs.||No. of Sword|
|Alladad Khan, and Fyzullah (Fyztullub) Zakee Khel,||4,000||3,000|
|Khan Bahadar, Malakdeen Khel,||5,000||4,000|
|Abdul Rahman Khan,19 and Jangeer Khan, Kukee Khels,||3,000||3,000|
|Salem Khan, Lepa, Sadulla Khan, Gango, and Anar Khan, Shanwarees,||1,500||6,000|
|Noor Mahomed, Kambar Khel,||750||1,500|
|Samandar Khan, and Bakar Khan, Aka Khel,||750||1,500|
|Alif Khan, Kambar Khel,||1,500||3,000|
However, subsequently, he paid, it is said, 28 or 32,000 Rs.
It would seem that under the kings the Khyberees did not collect the tax, or toll, levied on the passage of animals laden or unladen, and on passengers; but under Dost Mahomed this was permitted.20
I believe the Shah has agreed to pay Rs. 120,000 (£12,000) annually, but insists on collecting the tax, or toll. Without this arrangement there could be no certainty of the use of the Pass for the transit of commerce; and in a military point of view, the Shah's Govt, would have been liable, on any change of policy at the court of Lahore, to an unsettled state of the Pass. The Sikhs paid a certain sum of money, annually, for a supply of water from the Pass; this, under the treaty with Shah Shoojah, was to be adjusted with his Govt. In viewing the conduct of the Khyberees, regard must be had to the sum offered them in the first instance, which was less than has since been allowed them; and which is about that which they received under the kings; then, to the depriving the chiefs of the collection of the tax, or toll, to which they had been accustomed for 30 years; and in fact to an alteration of their mode of existence.21 Nadir Shah, in 1739, paid £100,000 for the passage of his army through this Pass!
5. To Koulsir, 7 miles, (6th Nov. 1839.)--Thermometer 4 a. m, 58°. Marched at 6 A.M. The road lay E. over a level plain; shortly after leaving Kuddum, the country is more open, the hills are more distant, and run into a low and distant range to the right. On the left about one mile is Jumrood, where the Sikh force is encamped, and beyond it is the fort of Futehgurh, about 2 miles from Kuddum, and reaching which a salute22 of 17 guns was fired in honor of H. E. Sir J. Keane's passing it. The fort has a double wall, and a white pukka citadel in the centre, and has two or three guns in it. The road was over a sandy level, and then stony plain, on which were seen many Tumuli. The road towards Koulsir was sandy with small stones; there is cultivation near where our camp was, and a round circular breast-work erected by Lt. F. Mackeson on the Shahzada's troops marching from Peshawer. There was a descent in this day's march. Jumrood is 1,670, or 763 feet below Ali Musjid. Thermometer 3 P.M. 86°.
The second column under Maj.-Genl. Thackwell moved, to-day, out of the Pass to our last ground (Kuddum); some of the Sikh troops were sent to the Pass to protect its
baggage. Some 50 or 60 Khyberees showed themselves on the hills, but made no attack.
To Peshawer, 8¾ miles, (7th Nov.)--Thermometer 5 a.m. 62°. Marched at day-break. The road was due E., crossing two small canals, which were bridged, and which appeared to take a direction to the N. to join the Cabool river. We also crossed some ravines. As we neared Peshawer we saw the Sikh cantonments on our left, where, leaving the main road, we passed round them, and saw the king's garden to the N. E. of the fort; we passed to the left of the town, keeping the fort on our left. Our camp was to the E. of the city of Peshawer. We breakfasted with Genl. Avitabile, the Govr. Thermometer 3 P.M. 92°. The elevation above the sea at Peshawer is 1,068 feet, or 602 feet below Jumrood, which gives a fall of about 1 in 76 feet. Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton, the Hd. Qr. Staff, and the officers with the 1st Column, dined in the evening with Genl. Avitabile, who illuminated his house, and exhibited fire-works before dinner; after which he gave the party a nautch and produced all the best vocalists of Peshawer.
PESHAWER--MARCH FROM IT TO ATTOCK.
Peshawer, (8th Nov. 1839.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 52°. The 2nd Column, under Maj.-Genl. Thackwell marched in this morning. Our camp was to the E., and that of the 2nd column beyond our's to the S. E.
The following Genl. Order,1 was issued regarding the conduct of the troops marching through the Sikh territories. "The leading column having entered the Sikh territory, H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief calls the attention of Comg. officers to the injunction laid down in G. O. 25th ult."2
"All officers are specially enjoined to lend their utmost aid to preserve order among the followers, and to bring to punishment any one found plundering the fields, or committing acts of oppression."
"H. E. is requested by the Govr. Genl. to give publicity to the following despatch3 and to require strict obedience to the instructions it conveys on the part of the troops."
1. "The Govr. Genl. has noticed in the Lahore Akbars the circumstance of British officers who happen to pass through that capital, and visit the Durbar, receiving Khilluts4
from the Maharajah, and that sums of money, as Zeafut,5 are, also, sent to their tents, or the places where they reside during their stay at Lahore."
2. "The practice being contrary to the established Regulations of the British Govt., applicable to all its servants, and highly objectionable, on many accounts, and being likely, if permitted to continue, to entail a heavy expense on the Lahore Govt., his Lordship requests that you will take prompt and effective measures to ensure its total discontinuance, and explaining to the Durbar that the custom is prohibited in the case of the servants of this Govt., at all Native Courts; and that it is the particular wish of the Govr. Genl. that the Lahore Durbar should conform to the general practice, when British officers visit that place."
"His Lordship would acknowledge with all courtesy, and gratitude, the spirit of kindness in which the practice has originated; but, would hope that the Maharajah will readily consent to prohibit its repetition; particularly on your explaining that this prohibition is not meant to extend to those occasions of interviews between the Heads of the two Govts., or the reception of special notifications of officers of high rank; or of missions from one Govt. to the other, on which such observances have been already established, and will remain in force as heretofore; and in which there is a due observance of reciprocity."6
The city of Peshawer.--The city of Peshawer is in Lat 34° 6' N. Long. 71° 45' E.; it was founded by the Emperor Akbar,7 who encouraged the inhabitants of the Punjab to resort to this new settlement, as the Affghans
were averse to commerce. From the convenience of its position, it unites Persia and Affghanistan, by a commercial intercourse, with India. The markets are abundantly supplied with provisions. The city is said to be about 5 miles in circumference, and consequently more extensive than Candahar and Cabool. The principal streets are much like those of Cabool, but are not so clean, and have narrow gullies leading into the enclosures, with gates and walls; and the town is much larger and more compact than Cabool, not being increased by orchards, gardens, canals, and water-mills. There is a mosque outside to the N. wall, which is the chief place of worship; and two others, with only a single dome, to distinguish them from the other buildings of the city.
The Govt. (Genl. Avitabile) states that there are 10,000 houses inhabited by Mahomedans and 1,400 by Hindoos, and that there are 100,000 inhabitants.8
Since the time of Mr. Elphinstone a great change has taken place. When Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk fitted out his last expedition to recover his throne (1833-34) he promised Peshawer to Maharajah Runjeet Singh. In 1834 when the Shah was defeated at Candahar, he fled towards Khelat. The Sikhs having taken possession of Peshawer, Sultan Mahomed Khan, (the Govr.)9 retreated to Cabool, where Dost Mahomed collected a force of Ghazees, (crusaders,) and accompanied Sultan Mahomed Khan to Peshawer, and the Sikh and Affghan armies remained opposite to each other for fifteen days; when Runjeet Singh intrigued with Sultan Mahomed Khan, to get Dost Mahomed to retire, which he did; himself remaining more dependant than before on Runjeet Singh: and Peshawer is now a province of the Punjab.
The present Govr. (Genl. Avitabile) has built a fort on the site of the Bala Hissar, or former palace of the king, which is to the N. of the city. The whole of the W. E., and N. faces are covered with low swampy ground. The only gate it has is to the N. The lower part of the fort is commanded by the citadel. The ditch was not finished.10 The south face seems to afford the only assailable point; this would first render necessary the occupation of the city, on the N. side, as owing to its nearness to the fort, it would take the breaching batteries in reverse. A salute was fired from the fort on our arrival on the morning of the 7th inst.
3. The city is to the S. of the fort and is walled all round, and Genl. Avitabile is constructing a second wall, about 100 yards outside the inner one. The Govr. lives, in a large square, or Caravanseraee, in which he has built a large three-storied house, the walls of which, as well as of the large square, are loop-holed; and the bastions of the square have guns in them. The Govr.'s house overlooks the whole city. The houses of the city are built of brick, and about three stories high. The streets are narrow, and have a gutter in the centre, but are not paved. Part of the town is said to be flooded during the spring rains, which makes it then an unwholesome residence. The shops display for sale, dried fruits, nuts, bread, meat, boots, shoes, saddlery, bales of cloth, hardware, ready-made clothes, books, sheep-skin cloaks, &c. The general keeps the inhabitants in good order.11 The revenue of Peshawer has been
variously estimated. Forster12 says, "seven lakhs were remitted to the capital.' At present the province may yield about 15 lakhs Rs. (£150,000;) though it is said to be capable of yielding £250,000 yearly. The Affghans had a force of 3 or 4,000 men, and several guns; but the Sikh force kept up is said to be more than 12,000:13 sufficient to absorb the whole Revenue.
The soil of the plain is a black mould, and abundantly supplied with water. The orchards scattered over the country produce a profusion of plum, peach, pear, quince, and pomegranate trees, and the greatest part of the plain is in a high state of cultivation, being irrigated by many watercourses. Thirty-two villages have been counted within a circuit of 4 miles. These are generally remarkably neat, adorned with mulberry and other fruit-trees; and over the streams are bridges of masonry, having two small towers at each end.
The wheat and barley crops are off the ground by the month of April.
During the summer the heat is very great, and in the height of the solstice the atmosphere is almost insupportable, although in the immediate vicinity of everlasting snow: but the simoom, does not, I believe, prevail at Peshawer.14 From the plain of Peshawer four ranges of mountains are distinctly seen to the N. Towards the end of February the snow disappears from the lowest, the tops of
the second continue covered, and the third half-way down. The height of one of these peaks was estimated by Lieut. Macartney at 20,493 feet, and in June, 1809, was covered with snow.
4. 9th Nov. 1839. Thermometer 5 A.M. 52°.--The Column to halt till F. O. Thermometer 3 p.m. 82°.
10th Nov. Thermometer 5 A.M. 60°.--This morning a Dett. consisting of two guns 2nd T. 2nd B. H. A., a squadron of the 3rd Cavy., two Cos. of sappers and miners, and every available soldier of the Cos. of the 20th and 21st N. I. marched as an escort to provisions intended for the garrison of Ali Musjid. It was not intended that the Artillery and Cavalry should enter the Pass, unless circumstances should render the measure absolutely necessary.15 Six days' supplies were taken with the Dett.16 While we remained at Peshawer the issue of grain from the Comsst. stores, was suspended. Officers wishing to visit the city were instructed to apply to Capt Burn's servant at the gate-way leading to Genl. Avitabile's house, for persons acquainted with the town, to attend them. Thermometer 3 P.M. 68°.
11th Nov. Thermometer 5 A.M. 50°.--Accounts came in that the convoy had arrived at Ali Musjid, and the grain had been thrown into the fort yesterday afternoon; but that on the return, the Khyberees had attacked the party and carried off 4 or 500 camels. Lt F. Mackeson, the Pol. Asst. who accompanied that party lost all his property. There was a Regt. of Sikhs with this party, who, immediately the Khyberees made the attack, ran off and never stopt till they got out of the Pass; this misconduct of the Sikhs threw the whole into confusion. The loss of the camels was serious, as we could not supply others, and much crippled our means of transport; having lost, before,
1,300 out of 3,100 camels since we left Cabool. Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
14th Nov. Thermometer 5 A.M. 52°.--This morning marched a Dett. consisting of the drafts proceeding to join the 2nd European Regt., one Coy of sappers and miners,17 Capt. Farmer's two Cos. 21st N. I., the two Cos. of the 20th N. I. and Capt, Prole's Dett. of drafts for the 9th Cos. of Regts., to reinforce the garrison of Ali Musjid, and to hold it till the arrival of the 37th and 48th Regt. N. I. under Lieut.-Col. Wheeler, from Jellalabad. The Infantry to take 200 rounds per man (40 in pouch), and eight days' provisions.
Memo. "The Govr. of Peshawer has requested it might be intimated to the troops, that he cannot be responsible for the safety of officers going out of camp to shoot, unless they apply to him for a guard."18 Thermometer 3 P.M. 85°. Dr. A. C. Gordon, Pol. Asst., joined the Hd. Qrs. for the purpose of accompanying the troops through the Punjab. The party sent the second time, took a quantity of ammunition for the troops at Ali Musjid. They succeeded in this object, but on their return were attacked, two officers were wounded and several men killed and wounded. Lieut. N. Macleod, Engineers, made a gallant charge up a hill and drove off the Khyberees.19 The Dett. of Europeans (63 men) alone fired 3,000 rounds.
6. 29th Nov. 1839. Thermometer 5 A.M. 54°.--The Hd. Qrs. changed ground to the E. of Peshawer, camp, dis-
tant from the city 2¾ miles. Crossed a stream about a mile from Peshawer, also some water-courses, and two bridges; the bridge to the left of the road destroyed, the arches entire. The river to the S. To-day Lt.-Col. Wheeler's Dett., two guns, and 37th and 48th N. I. arrived at Ali Musjid. The Lieut.-Col. had been directed to march on the Khyberee cantonment of Choorah, instead of coming direct; but his march was countermanded.20 Thermometer 3 P.M. 79°.
21st Nov. Thermometer 5 A.M. 44°.--Lieut. Mackeson reported that he expected the Khyber chiefs to come in as negotiations were being entered into. Terms were agreed on late in the evening.21 Thermometer 3 P.M. 75°.
22nd Nov. Thermometer 5 A.M. 42°.--The Khyberees broke the treaty they had entered into. Lt.-Col. Wheeler's Dett. was to have marched to Choorah; but owing to pending negotiations, was directed to move on Ali Musjid. On the 19th November, it entered the Pass and marched to Lundee Khana. An advance party of 43 men (37th and 48th N. I.) with the Qr. Mr. Serjts. of both corps, was attacked, on clearing a Pass, at day-break, by at least 500 men. The enemy was most gallantly repulsed, and thrice charged with the bayonet, and ultimately driven off, without the loss of any thing. The cool and daring courage of Qr. Mr. Serjt. Wallace, 48th N. I., was most conspicuous. The 37th N. I. had three sepoys killed, two naicks and two sepoys wounded. The 48th N. I. one sepoy wounded. Two Cos. 37th N. I. were sent round the hills to try to cut off their retreat, and 50 men were pushed up a hill under Lieut. H. Palmer, 48th N. I.; and the enemy were driven off.
On the 23rd Nov. the Lieut.-Col. marched for Ali Musjid, with the Fd. Comsst. treasure, and about 3,000 camels. On his arrival there, he assumed command of all the troops.
Negotiations were being carried on, but the tops of the hills close outside camp were covered with large bodies of the enemy. The troops halted on the 21st; negotiations still going on; late at night it was intimated by Capt. Mackeson, that the chiefs (of Choora and other chiefs, between Ali Musjid and the Jumrood side) had acceded to the terms; but that they were not to be trusted. The cattle had been without forage for two days, and it was resolved to march for Jumrood next morning.
22nd Nov.--The Dett. marched at 7 A.M. The hills were, on every height, covered with people. The chiefs had promised to assemble with the more influential of their followers, to prevent any infraction of the treaty. They were waving flags demonstrative of amity. The Dett. had marched about 4 miles, when it was halted to close up the baggage. Two parties of 20 men each from the two corps, were placed at a point which covered a broad ravine in which and its neighbourhood, a great many had assembled; but still preserving every appearance of being friendly, telling the people to move on without fear; that no one would hurt them. The Dett. had scarcely moved, when a most treacherous attack was made on the baggage.22 The Lt.
Coy. 48th N. I. was thrown up the height, took the enemy in flank, and drove them off. The sepoys at the ravine, though hotly opposed, pursued, recovered and brought off most of the camels.
Having full confidence in the Native troops, the Lieut-Colonel determined not to employ the European Dett., unless as a last resource.
The Lieut.-Colonel reported that the rear guard under (late) Lt. Collinson, 37th N. I., and the Lt. Coy of that Regt. under Lt. Steer, Lt. H. Palmer, (48th N. I.) Dett. Staff, Lt. Hasell, (Adjt.) and Lt. Thomas, 48th N. I., who commanded parties, behaved with great gallantry. Lieut. N. Macleod, with a Dett. of sappers and miners, without orders, followed the Lt. Coy. 48th N. I. and gave great assistance. The whole of the troops behaved exceedingly well. The Lieut.-Colonel also highly praised the conduct of Capt. J. Paton, (58th N. I.) A. Qr. Mr. Genl.
The European Dett. had one Serjt. and one private killed. The 37th N. I. had three killed, one naick and four sepoys wounded. The 48th N. I. one Havr. one naick, and sixteen sepoys wounded. Total five killed, and 23 wounded. Of the enemy eighteen killed were counted in one spot. 91 camels were lost. Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
6. To Pubbee, 12 miles, (23rd November, 1839.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 46°. Marched at 6 A.M. We had moved 3 miles from Peshawer on the 20th inst. The road from Peshawer had been laid under water to prepare the fields for the plough.23 The crops of Indian corn on the ground were most luxuriant, and the villages had a few scattered trees near them. The road from last camp was due E. over a country covered with cultivation in most parts. The soil was of the finest garden mould. The
country is well watered, as we crossed a river about halfway, being the third, since leaving Peshawer.24 Some camels carried off at this ground, but recovered. The Cabool river 4 or 5 miles N. W. of camp. Thermometer 3 P.M. 66°.
A Memo. in G. O. "The sword of the Govr. of Ghuznee, is now in the hands of the Prize Agents, and will be sold for the benefit of the Captors, by auction, on the arrival of the Hd. Qrs. at Ferozpoor, which will probably be about the 7th Jan. next."25
To Noushera, 9¾ miles, (24th Nov.)--Marched at daybreak, the road first part rather sandy for 2 or 3 miles. The middle part good, the last part a little stony. At about 4½ miles on the left is a circular loop-holed building. At about 7 miles there is another.26 About half a mile before reaching Noushera, on the left, are the ruins of an old cantonment. Marched through the bazar to camp S. E. distant¼ mile, on the right bank of the river which runs N. W. to S. E., and has a bend lower down to N. E. A low range of hills N. W. to S. E., on which there is table-land.27 The fort, here, to the right of the village of Noushera, was built by Genl. Avitabile. It has four bastions, and double rows of loop-holes.28
On the other side of the river is the town of Noushera, the field of battle between Runjeet Singh and the Eusufzyes in 1823, in which the Sikhs gained the victory. There is a low range of hills beyond the town of Noushera, where there are graves which mark the scene of action. Sir A. Burnes states,29 "He (Runjeet Singh) here encountered the Affghans for the last time; but their chief, Azeem Khan, was separated from the greater part of his army by the river of Cabool. The Sikhs defeated the divisions on the opposite side" (left bank) "mainly through the personal courage of Runjeet Singh, who carried a hillock with his guards," (Akalees) "from which his other troops had three times retreated. Azeem Khan, of Cabool, fled without
encountering the successful army, which had partly crossed the river to oppose him."
The 2nd Column marched from Peshawer this morning; joined by the two Cos. 20th N. I. Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
To Akorah, 12 miles, (25th Nov.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 50°. The road rough and stony, intersected by numerous dry nullahs and deep ravines, cut by the rains, and draining the water from the country into the Cabool river. Though the road ran close by the river for some distance, there was little cultivation to be seen, till we came near the village of Akorah, where there is a table-land of the finest mould, which was under irrigation.30 The village, built of white stone with mud cement, is of a good size. It has a stone square, the walls of which are closely pierced with loop-holes. The camp was 2½ miles E. of Akorah. Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
To Attok, 10
the hills on the left, is a commanding view of the Cabool river, running into the Indus. A mile from the bridge on the left side of the road is a large Baolee.32 The bridge over the Indus at the Attok.33 The bridge was an excellent one and was constructed with 24 boats.34
The fort of Attok is on the left bank; there is another on the right bank at Khyrabad, opposite to the former; both are commanded by the neighbouring heights. H. M's 16th Lancers crossed the bridge mounted. The town is contained in the fort of Attok, which is not a strong place. From the bridge the road to our camp passed under the fort over the deep sandy bed of the river; at the end of the range on which the fort stands, the road to camp turned to the right. Thermometer 3 P.M. 74°. Some officers, on the application of Dr. Gordon, the Asst. Pol. Agent,
to the Govt., went in the afternoon to see the fort; and found the people very civil. There are plunderers near Attok called Khuttuks.
27th Nov. Halt. Thermometer 5 A.M. 46°.--The 2nd Column, under Major-Genl. Thackwell marched in this morning. Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
Shah Shoojah lost his throne after the battle of Neemla, (1809); during his subsequent flight, Maharajah Runjeet Singh offered him Attok as a place of refuge. This was an act of gratitude rendered, no doubt, to Zeman Shah (the brother) who had left Peshawer with the females of the royal family, on Shah Shoojah's marching from it, and had entered the Punjab: Zeman Shah had, when king of Affghanistan and in possession of the Punjab, made Runjeet Singh his viceroy at Lahore. Runjeet obtained possession of Attok, after the battle of Chuch in 1811.
THE MARCH OF HEAD-QUARTERS FROM ATTOK TO FEROZPOOR.
1. Attok to Shumsabad, 9¾ miles, (28th Nov. 1839.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 40°. The first part rather sandy for 2 or 3 miles, crossing two dry water-courses. Passed two small villages within 4 miles. Passed over much fine arable land. Camp E. of the village; there is another village N. E. of Shumsabad, and of the same size (300 houses); both built on mounds. The Himalayas are seen to the N. E., and the Cashmeer range below them. Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
To Boorhan, 13 miles, (29th Nov.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 34°. The road lay a little to the S. of E. The road first part good; at 2nd to 3rd mile rather sandy. At 3rd mile a small village. At 5 miles cross the sandy bed of a stream, beyond which, on the right, is a Fuqueer's house. Cultivation here and there near the road, and villages in the distance. At 7 miles the road runs through some ravines, for a mile. At 8 miles cross the Harroo river, a small, clear stream,1 3feet deep, which has considerable velocity; 1½ mile further cross a water-course: 2 miles further on is a nullah of some depth with steep banks. Camp E. of Boorhan. Thermometer 3 P.M. 78°. There was no grass here.
To Vah, 8 miles, (30th Nov.)--Thermometer 4 A.M. 33°. The road lay principally through a jungle of Byr,2 and thorny shrubs, full of gullies, and ravines, and many turns to the S. and N. of E. for about 3 miles, when the Chumlah river is crossed, about 60 yards wide and 3 feet
deep.3 The road thence lay E. for a mile through ravines. At 6 miles Hussun Abdool a small village;½ mile beyond cross the Dhoomrah, a small stream near camp to the E. of Vah.4 We were now in a well cultivated valley, surrounded by considerable hills,5 over which the snowy peaks of the Himalaya are seen. Thermometer 3 P.M. 74°.
To Janee-ka-Sung, 14 miles, (1st Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 36°. The road6 marched over to-day was the roughest we had yet travelled. The ascent considerable over bare rocks, dangerous for man or beast, if they missed their footing. Thence the country more open; direction E. At half-way is the Kalee-ka-Seraee, before reaching which on the left is a large Baolee with 100 steps. Here the road turns to the right or S. of E., with broken ground. Hence through a low, thin, Byr jungle. At 8 miles is a stone bridge7 over the Kalee river, a deep stream, thence broken ground on each side, and low jungle. At 10 miles there is a stone causeway8 of some extent, beyond this many ravines, so deep and narrow, that only one camel could pass.8 The road thence through a rather
thick jungle, and very stony. Camp S. E. of Janee-ka-Sung, after crossing the Baboodra river. Thermometer 3 P.M. 72°.
G. O. "The practice of breaking down hedges and removing thorns from them for burning is prohibited, and the Provost Serjt. and Asst. Baggage Mr., will inflict summary punishment on the spot, on any camp-follower infringing this order, to be proclaimed by beat of tom-tom in the different bazars."
To Rawul Pindee, 13¾ miles, (2nd Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 34°. The jungle and ravines rendered it difficult to get out of camp into the road, the first 6 miles of which are full of ravines, narrow and difficult, obliging the camels and cattle to pass through singly. The country to the left is low with distant villages. At 7 miles cross the stony ghat of the Seel (or, Chekul Jungee) river. It is partially dry. The ghat bad for hackeries; not far hence on the right is a dry tank, on the left½ mile beyond it is another tank filled with water.9 To the right the country low, and distant villages. Crossed the Leh river, and encamped N. of the town of Rawul Pindee. It is a large town surrounded with walls with bastions, and has an old castle from which a salute of four guns10 was fired. It is a celebrated place for old coins.11 There is a house here, built, Sir A. Burnes.
states,12 by the ex-king of Cabool. Thermometer 3 P.M. 75°.
G. O. "A Duffadar's party of the Local Horse will proceed to-morrow morning, under the orders of Naeb Russaldar Hussein Beg, towards the Jheelum river. The Naeb Russaldar will receive his orders from the D. Qr. M. G."
3rd Dec. Halt, and the 2nd Column closed up, and encamped on the other side of the river. Thermometer 5. A.M. 40°; 3 P.M. 64°.
2. To Hoormuk, 9 miles, (4th Dec. 1839.)--Thermtr. 5 A.M. 48°. The road passed over much broken and raviny ground. About half-way, to the left, the country is very low; we were on high table-land. At about 5 miles the ravines were so deep and narrow that only one camel could ascend and descend at a time. To the river the descent was so difficult, that a single horseman was alone able to pass through the defile. To the plains below, is a descent ½ mile long, close to the end of which we crossed the river Sawun, a stony-bed, not broad, and one foot of water. Our camp was near the village of Hoormuk.13 Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
To Muneekyala, 10 miles, (5th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 36°. Shortly after leaving camp, the road passed through ravines for 2 or 3 miles.14 The country was under cultivation, the divisions of the lands are marked
by hedges of thorns.15 The ravines and deep chasms caused by the periodical rains made the march a tedious one. At 6 miles, on the left of the road, is a very large Seraee, now quite in ruins, called "Rabat-ke-Seraee" There is also a temple to the N. of considerable size. From the Seraee we saw the Tope of Muneekyala, The country became more open as we approached the Tope. Our camp was S. of and close to it, and N. of the village. There is another and larger village of the same name N. of the Tope. The Tope is a circular building; it is about 60 or 70 feet high from the top of the mound to the top of the building, whose circumference is 375 feet. It is arched over, the outer coating is of plain hewn large stones; the inside is of rough stone and mud: there is a well in the centre. The stones are all polished.16 It is erected on a mound about 20 or 25 feet high; a flight of steps lead you to the top of the building. Thermometer 3 P.M. 74°.
To Seraee Pukkee, 12¾ miles, (6th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 48°. The road over a fine broad plain for about 44 miles, whence there is a considerable descent through a ravine into the bed of a dry nullah, beyond which there is a small village to the right. Near this the ravines were of great size and depth and very tortuous. Near camp came through a deep, narrow, ravine, about a mile in length. Thence the road went up the bed of the Kasee river, only a few inches deep,17 crossing which the road turned up to the left, and the camp was at a place called Mull, E. of Seraee Pukkee. Thermometer 3 P.M. 82°.
To Tameehak, 14¾ miles, (7th Dec.)--Thermtr. 5 A.M. 38°. Crossed the river Kasee near camp by descending into the bed of the river. The direction to the E. At 1¼ mile ascended a difficult, and in places, dangerous ravine.18 This obstacle surmounted, the road was tolerable, the
country falling to the E., in a succession of regular levels, here and there with deep ravines, and rocks protruding above the surface. At 11 miles descending into the bed of the Kasee19 river a few inches deep, then ascended another ravine, and crossing two or three smaller, reached camp. The village of Dhumuk was on the rising ground N. W. of our camp; water procured from a spring near the village of Boorj a mile S. of camp. There were towers to both villages.20 Thermometer 3 P.M. 74°.
To Bakerala, 9 5/8 miles, (8th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 42°. With much difficulty a road, or path-way, was found down a steep, stony, ghat which led to the river, the road into the bed of which was very narrow and precipitous;21 the Lancers were obliged to dismount and moved by twos leading their horses. On the left was a fearful precipice into the bed of the Kasee river. The banks of the river, were cliffs of perpendicular red and grey sand, and its bed was narrow and winding.22 The rest of the road was through the bed of the river to camp, on high ground. The village
W. of camp, a mile distant.23 Low hills on each side of the river half a mile distant. Thermometer 3 P.M. 75°. Rather confined ground for a camp.
To Udhurana, 8¾ miles, (9th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 48°. The road lay almost due S. along the bed of the river, which was sandy and heavy in many places, but open for the baggage cattle.24 At 6 miles the Dhamoyl river falls into the Kasee, and in the rains must form a considerable stream. The camp close to the bed of the river. The village close and N. W. Confined ground for a camp.25 The bed of the river ran about N. W. to E. round camp. Crossed the river near camp. Thermometer 3 P.M. 80°. No village, or cultivation here. The hills were covered with stunted trees and bushes; and some fine Oleanders were to be seen.
3. To Rhotas, 8 5/8 miles, (10th Dec. 1839.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 38°. The road lay through the bed of the river, occasionally crossing some spurs of hills and ravines. Rhotas was built by Shere Shah, the Affghan, the same who took the fortress of Rhotas in the province of Behar, in A.D. 1542 by stratagem. It is a walled town nearly half a mile long, running N. E. to S. W. The walls are of great thickness. It was in former times, a frontier post. It is a place of no strength against European science. Its site is on a hill of gentle declivity and overlooks the
river Kasee,26 the bed of which is a Pass into the strong country between the Jheelum and the Attok.
The camp was on the left bank, N. W. of Rhotas, and N. W. of camp was a garden ¼ mile distant, and a durgah27 is just beyond it. Lower down the river, on the right bank on which Rhotas stands, is a large white mosque. Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
G. O. "The Asst. Baggage-Master, with a suitable party, will take post at the ferry28 early to-morrow morning; and will prevent the people crowding into the boats."
"The Provost Serjt. will be posted at the Ford, with his Dett. and will see that the camels are sent across the river in the order they come up to its bank; and that no crowding is allowed."
To Jheelum, 12 miles, (11th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 40°. The road lay through the bed of the river Kasee, for about 6 miles, when the route turned to the N. E. and crossed a well-cultivated country, extending to the bank of the Jheelum. The river Jheelum runs close past the town, from E. to W. The ford lies about¾ mile higher up the river, (E.) There is a village½ mile from the town, between it and the ford. From the point a little above the village, the ford takes a diagonal direction to the left down the river to the centre, and then takes another diagonal direction up to the left; so that the ford describes two sides of a triangle, which, where the two sides meet, points down the stream: the fords at each side of the river being opposite to each other on the N. and S. side of the river. The ferry is close to the town, where there were 20 large and six small boats. H. M.'s 16th Lancers arrived near the town of Jheelum at about 4 past 8 A.M. From the report of the Duffadar who had been sent on some days before, the depth of water was reported to be up to the middle of a man, and was not considered too deep for cavalry to ford. Stakes had been driven in to mark the direction of the ford. From the
information obtained also from Lt. Conolly,29 whose party had crossed about 23rd Nov. it was concluded that the ford was practicable. The Adjt. of the Lancers had ridden across, and came back announcing it to be practicable. The Regt. entered the ford by threes, and passed to the centre of the river without any accident; but on arriving at the centre, there being a number of camels crossing at the time by which a sight of the stakes was lost, the leading portion of the Regt. tried to pass them by going beyond them to the right, going lower down the stream; they immediately got into deep water, and the strength of the stream. So deep was the river, here, that the horses began to swim. From the opposite (Jheelum) side, the scene was most awful and distressing, to witness the struggle of the animals on getting suddenly into deep water; we could observe horse after horse and rider disappear, and suddenly rise again; the impression was that a troop at least would be lost. The remainder of the Regt. averted the danger by taking the ford to the left. Boats were despatched to the ford, but could not arrive in time to save many. On mustering the Regt. it was found, that Capt. Hilton, a corporal and nine privates and their horses were drowned. The bodies of Capt. H. and of two or three men were brought on shore, and every medical aid tried in vain to restore them to life; but failed, except in the case of one or two privates. Lt.-Col. Cureton was nearly drowned by his horse being frightened at some camels, and falling back in the water, thus compelling him to swim hampered with his sword and cap fastened under his chin; and he with difficulty reached the bank. Lt. Pattle had a very narrow escape, and was saved by private Dobbin.30 Sir J. Keane came to the spot and remained for some time; evidently affected by the distressing scene. The river was about 300 yards wide opposite the town, but more at the ford; and by the
circuitous direction the ford extended over a line of about 500 yards, and had more than 3 feet of water; and a strong current near the S. bank; and what made it worse was, the water was very cold, and the crossing being made after a long march. This sad event cast a gloom over the whole camp; nor were its results confined to the past.31 Thermometer 3 P.M. 72°.
4. Left bank of the Jheelum, (12th Dec. 1839.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 38°. Halt. The 2nd Column, under Maj.-Genl. Thackwell, arrived on the opposite bank this morning; encamped on the right bank, close to the town of Jheelum. Thermometer 3 p.m. 64°.
G. O. "It is with much sorrow that H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief notifies to the troops, that, in fording the Jheelum river, yesterday morning, Capt. Hilton, H. M.'s 16th Lancers, one corporal and nine privates of the same Regt. unfortunately lost their lives. H. E. deeply deplores the circumstance, and sympathizes with the afflicted friends, and comrades of the deceased."
"Brig. Persse will be pleased to give such orders for the interment of the bodies, this afternoon at ½ past 4 o'clock, as may be proper."
"All officers off duty belonging to the troops are requested to attend."
The funeral took place accordingly, and the bodies of the late Capt. Hilton and four men (the rest have never been found) were interred close to our camp, opposite to the town of Jheelum: his body being placed in the centre grave. Steps have since been taken by the Regt. to build a tomb on the spot. This was indeed a melancholy event at the close of our campaign; it cannot fail to be remembered, as a lesson of dear-bought experience: and as Napoleon said, "Les passages des riviere de cette importance sont les operations les plus critiques."32
Left bank of the Jheelum, (13th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 30°.33 The 3rd Cavalry crossed over this afternoon at 3 P.M. to prevent the horses suffering from the cold water in the morning, particularly after a long march. The officers were ordered by Sir J. Keane, to come over in boats, as well as all of the troopers who could not swim. The horses were ordered to come over in watering order, (the saddles, &c. being sent over in the boats.) The horses of each troop came over singly, with a horse's length between each; each troop being led by a guide (Mullah) procured from the town. There was no accident. The Asst. Qr. Mr. Genl. (Lt. Becher) was sent with boats to station them in a position on each side of the centre-point of the river near the ford, to prevent any horses or camels, &c. passing below the line of demarcation: and the river had been fresh staked. We went to the ford to witness the passage; the horses did, at times, get into deep water. At the time of crossing, two or three elephants belonging
to Lenah Singh,34 were driven straight across the river, at the imminent risk of frightening the horses: luckily such an event did not occur. We saw the advantage of the horses crossing singly.
There were many camels lost, owing to their becoming benumbed with cold; they were seen to stand with their loads, or without them, incapable of moving: they sat down in the river, rolled on their sides, and were carried down the stream, floating for a time, and then sinking. Thermometer 3 P.M. 68°.
The town of Jheelum35 is on the N. bank of the river, and extends about½ a mile on the right bank, running from E. to W. In the centre, between the town and river, is a
large mosque. To the W. is a garden and temple for Hindoo worship. There is a village to the E., distant½ a mile. Some of the houses are of pukka brick, and of considerable height. The Punjab here commences; the country between the Attok and Jheelum, contains no Sikhs, the population being all Mahomedan; though under Sikh rule.
Lieut, (now Major) Pottinger, from Herat, came into camp to-day, en route to Calcutta.
5. To Khoar, 12¼ miles, (14th Dec. 1839.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 32°. The direction of the road varied often. The country a low flat, intersected by seven or eight heavy dry, sandy, beds, which are so many streams in the rains. At 3 miles a village on the left. Half-way, ascend and descend a ridge of hills. At 7 miles a village on the left with a small mud fort. Half a mile beyond another village, near which is a pukka well. No cultivation seen except near the villages, which are small. Crossed several ravines, and a low grass jungle on the road. We saw byr, sissoo, and neem36 trees, around the villages, lt was a heavy march. Camp¼ mile N. of Khoar. The troops had to file through and round the village, by a narrow road. There is a small mud fort here. Fine young crops of wheat and barley near the town. Thermometer 3 P.M. 73°.
To Dheengee, 14¼ miles, (15th Dec. 1839.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 42°. The road more to the E. but at no great distance from the Jheelum, for 5 or 6 miles, crossing the dry sandy beds of several water-courses, in some parts deep sand. The road then passed through Dhak and grass jungle, and then over a low ridge of hills, when it ran due E., and after crossing it, we entered on a very extensive plain.37 Four miles from this we came to Noor Jheelum; the country tolerably well-cultivated. From the ridge of hills is seen the Ascesines (Chenab) winding along in the distance. Passed four villages on the road; they are raised on mounds, with walls and mud towers. The town of
Dheengee said to contain 2,000 houses, some built of brick and high. A small pukka-walled garden, near it. Camp S. of it¼ mile: plenty of hogs and hares at this place. Thermometer 3 P.M. 68°
To Pareewallah, 11¼ miles, (16th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 40°. The road good, ran nearly E. and for the first 5 miles through a Dhak and grass jungle, some places thick. Passed four villages, on mounds. Other villages seen in the distance. Passed the village of Lalah with a square mud fort; beyond it, one mile, is Pareewallah, a large village of a similar description. The late Maharajah Runjeet Singh kept his stud here, the water and grass being esteemed excellent. The famous horse Lylee38 was here. Camp N. of Pareewallah. Thermometer 3 P.M. 72°.
An order was issued to-day against igniting patches of grass on the road.39 Any camp-follower found lighting a fire by the road-side, and in a situation where flames were likely to spread, was severely punished.40
O. O. "The Head Qrs. and sappers to move across the Chenab and encamp at Ramnuggur; no baggage of the 16th Lancers to go across till the whole of that of Hd. Qrs. and the sappers has passed over."
To Ramnuggur on the left bank of the Chenab 10 miles, (17th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 a. m . 40°. The road lay over the same extensive plain, bare of trees. Passed three or four villages; 71 miles to the ghat (right bank.) The ford is lower down to the right, a round of 2½ miles, with three streams; and 3 feet of water in the middle one. The ghat
is good, and has not high banks. Cross over heavy sand for 1¼ mile, at the end of which cross four beds which would be 3 or 4 feet deep with water on the rise of the river.
Our camp was about 2 miles from the left bank, and about 2 miles N. W. of the town of Ramnuggur, and½ mile S. of a large clump of trees. There were 12 or 14 large and some smaller boats at the ghat. The Chenab must be more than a mile broad in the rains, and have a depth of from 14 to 16 feet of water; and is said to be free of rocks, so it is well suited for the passage of boats of a large size in the rainy season, and for good-sized boats at other periods. Ramnuggur is a large walled town.41 Some
natives here remarked to us that we had surrounded42 the country (Punjab), taken Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabool and said "how can Lahore and Umritsir escape?" Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
To-day was published the G. O. of the Govr. Genl. of India, (in the Secret Dept.) dated 18th Nov. 1839, expressive of the sense entertained by His Lordship of the soldier like spirit and conduct, of the Army of the Indus, throughout the late campaign: and granting a donation of six months' full, or Field Batta, to every officer, European and native, and to the N. C. O. and privates of the native troops.
G. O. "H. M.'s 16th Lancers to send forward their baggage, in the course of the afternoon, and to cross the river, to-morrow morning; the men, with their saddles, &c.
are to be sent by the ferry; the horses by the ford in charge of the syces."43
"The Artillery and Cavalry horses (of the 2nd Column) to be sent by the ford in charge of the syces; and the men, guns, harness and saddles by the ferry."
Burning of grass.--" The corporal's party of Lancers with the Provost Serjt., for the purpose of preventing this practice, to be increased, and the men composing it to be furnished with whips, to use them on all followers they may find standing over burning grass, by the road-side, even although they may not be the individuals who set it on fire."44 18th Dec. Halt. Lenah Singh waited on Sir J. Keane to sound him as to his intention of visiting Lahore. Sir John replied that he had received no invitation. Dr. Gordon was sick; he was, strictly speaking, the channel of communication.
6. To Naeewalla, 12 5/8 miles, (19th Dec. 1839.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 38°. Shortly after leaving camp crossed a small dry nullah, which must be rather deep in the rains; thence the road sandy for a mile. Then over a flat plain with villages, on mounds, at intervals, in the distance. The soil rich and highly cultivated around the villages. About half-way on the right, is the large town of Akaligurh;45 having passed it we saw four or five white Hindoo temples close under the walls. There were several villages passed on the same side of the road. Camp½ mile S. of Naeewala, which was surrounded by fine crops of wheat.
&c. There is a very extensive plain, here, and on our route to-day. Thermometer 3 P.M. 78°.
To Thabool, 10¾ miles, (20th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 38°. The direction of the route S. and S. E. and then E. Passed two villages on the road, which was good, and the country very open; but little cultivation. Camp½ mile S. W. from the village. About½ mile N. W. of it is a Hindoo temple, and some trees. We lost our road to-day.46
Memo, "It is to be proclaimed by tom-tom, in the different bazars, that the cutting down of Peepul47 trees, for feeding elephants, or camels, is prohibited; and any follower detected in destroying such trees will be severely punished."
The people, here, said that the Sikh troops rob them of all they have, when they are marched across the country. I believe the Sikh people are not averse to the British; the Sikh soldiers are: they have every thing to lose; the former every thing to gain! Thermometer 3 P.M. 72°. About this time we heard of the capture of Khelat by the troops under Maj.-Genl. Willshire; and all were glad that the gallant general, had an opportunity of distinguishing himself in the Affghanistan campaign.
To near Mutta, 8½ miles, (21st Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 38°. The route over the same extensive plain, road excellent. About 7 miles from Thabool are two large villages, called Nysbara,48 between which the road passes;
two miles further was camp N. W., about a mile short of Mutta. Thermometer 3 P.M. 72°.
To Mullyan, 15 miles, (22nd Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 38°. The road lay over the same extensive plain. Passed two villages. A village about 2 miles short of Mullyan, passing which we had some ravines to cross; from which we passed through some low jungle, after which there was an extensive plain. Camp S. W. of Mullyan. At this place an invitation came to Sir John Keane to pay a visit to Lahore, which was accepted. Thermometer 3 P.M. 70°.
23rd Dec. Halt. Thermometer 5 A.M. 36°. 6. O. "The 2nd Brigade H. A., H. M's 16th Lancers, a Ressalah of the 4th Local Horse, will accompany H. E. as an Escort to Lahore; the remainder of the troops will move towards Ferozpoor, under Maj.-Genl. Thackwell. In addition to H. E.'s personal staff, the following officers of the General staff, are directed to move with Hd. Ore. to Lahore, vizi The D. A. G., D. Q. M. G., D. C. G., D. A. Q. M. G., the Offg. A. A. G. and S. A. C. G."
"Such officers of the staff, and those not belonging to the troops forming H. E's Escort, as may be desirous of visiting Lahore, are requested to communicate the same to the D. A. G., through the Maj.-Genl. Comg. the Column, and if their services can be dispensed with, they will have permission to accompany Hd. Qrs."49 Thermometer 3 P.M. 76°.
7. To Dhingee, 13 7/8 miles, (24th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 36°. H. E. Sir J. Keane, and his Escort inarched this, morning, taking the direct road to Lahore;50 we took the
route to Ferozpoor. Our route, the direction varying, was over arable land for about 5 miles, passing several villages. At about 6 miles passed round a village, then over some broken ground, and thence, by a path-way, through much cultivation: the last 3 or 4 miles, the road lay through jungle grass. Crossed near camp a nullah, with a few inches of water. Camp N. E. of the village.51 Thermometer 3 p.m. 68°.
To Surrukpoor, 10 miles, (25th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 44°. The road lay over a grass jungle for 2 miles, then over arable land. About the middle of the march, cultivation and two villages were passed. Then we arrived at the village of Surrukpoor. There being symptoms of rain, the order to cross the Ravee (Hydraotes) was issued after breakfast, to move at 12 o'clock. The ghat on the right bank was 2½ miles distant. At 1½ mile crossed a nullah, with rather steep banks.52 The Ferry-ghat is a mile from it. The river about 250 yards wide. The ford was a good one, the river there, wider. After crossing the river to the left bank, passed over a bed of sand for½ mile to camp, pitched in some Jow jungle. On
this march there was, half-way, a cross-road to Lahore. The wind (N. E.) threatened to blow down our tents.
There was a rumour to-day that the Sikhs intended to attempt the rescue of our prisoners, Mahomed Hyder Khan, and Hajee Khan, Kakur; but no such attempt was made.53 Thermometer 3 P.M. 64°. We spent our Christmas dinner, in the mess-tent of the sappers and miners; and with the aid of a little good wine (which had been a scarce article) passed a pleasant evening; and went to bed without any fears of our slumbers being disturbed, unless the wind should blow down our tents.
26th Dec. Halt. Thermometer 5 A.M. 36°. No fresh alarms. Thermometer 3 P.M. 70°.
To Gunjatee, 11½ miles, (27th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 40 . The first part of the road was through low jungle.54 Crossed the first mile, two dry beds of nullahs. The road then ran E. At 4 miles there is a village; thence the road turns to the left, or N. of E. About half-way we found a great expanse of plain, or desert, and some low jungle. To the right, distant 5 miles is a village, with high
houses. Camp E.¼ mile from the village.55 Thermometer 3 P.M. 70°.
To Sulleeanee, 13 7/8 miles, (28th Dec.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 44°. The direction varied little from E. The road the first half over an open country, with low jungle. No regular road. About half-way the village of Ahphur.56 At 10 miles the village of Nuddeepoor (both small villages.) From the last village the jungle is thicker. Camp¼ mile W. of the village. Thermometer 3 P.M. 75°.
8. To Kussoor, 10 miles, (29th Dec. 1839.)--Thermtr. 5 A.M. 40°. The road first half over a jungly country, a village on the right half-way; hence the road is free from jungle, and a well cultivated country is entered. Camp to the E. close under the walls of Kussoor. It is as ancient as Lahore; there are, or rather were, 12 divisions, and the inhabitants are all Mahomedans.57 It is of great extent. An army might make a good stand here; as not only are there heights here, but each division of the town might be turned into a fortified position. Thermtr. 3 P.M. 75°.
30th Dec. To the right bank of the Sutluj, (9 5/8 miles.)--Thermometer 5 A.M. 44°. The road to the E., and first part over the ruins of Kussoor, about one mile in extent; the road then descends into a low, flat, tract, taking a direction to the S. E. Passed by much cultivation, and a village on the road. Breakfasted on the right bank, which is not very high; encamping ground sandy. After breakfast crossed over, and encamped on the left bank. There were 60 or 70 boats of sizes. The stream was of no strength, and the bed is shelving, to the left bank. It was about
400 yards wide. After crossing to the left bank, at about ¼ mile, crossed some water, in some places 2½ to 3 feet deep. Camp on the left bank, on sandy ground with low jungle, distant from the Ferozpoor-ghat, about 1½ mile (deep sand between); and about 5 miles from the cantonment. Thermometer 3 P.M. 75°.
Left bank near Ferozpoor, (31st Dec.)--The 3rd Cavalry crossed over this morning, by boats. Halted for the arrival of Sir J. Keane, from Lahore. We did not cross the Beah, (or Hyphasis) which you do in the regular route from Lahore to Loodianah.
1st Jan., 1840. H. E. Sir J. Keane reached the right bank of the Sutluj (Hysudrus) and crossed over next morning to the left bank, and encamped between us and the ghat. We now learnt the result of the visit to Lahore.
Sir John Keane, being unwell, he sent a deputation, consisting of Brigr. Persse and ten or twelve other officers, to wait on the Maharajah, Kurruk Singh,58 and the visit was returned; the deputation also waited on Konwar Nao Nihal Singh, the son. The party before leaving Lahore, were shewn a large portion of the Sikh army; consisting of 32 Battns. of Infantry each of eight Cos. of 100 men each, 6,000 Cavalry; 96 Horse Artillery, and 64 Foot Artillery guns; and a large body of Irregular troops. This gives a regular force of 31,600 men and 160 guns. The real amount of the Sikh regular army is about 50,000, of whom one-fifth are Mahomedans, the rest Sikhs.59 The regular
Sikh force was drawn up in line, the Artillery on one flank, and the Cavalry on the other: the Irregular troops were drawn up at right angles with them. The Maharajah sent a present of 26,000 Rs. (£2,600) to be distributed among the British troops. The British Govt. gave 11,000 Rs. (£1000.) A G. O. was issued on the 2nd Jan. 1840, by H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, breaking up the "Army of the Indus;" the Bengal portion of which had marched 2,070 miles,60 between the 8th Nov. 1838, to the 31st
Dec. 1839; the longest distance ever marched by an Indian army.
On the 7th Jan. Sir J. Keane embarked on boats at Ferozpoor for Bombay;61 on which and on the following day, the troops, &c. marched to their respective destinations: and thus terminated the "March and Operations of the Army of the Indus"
I shall, in the following Chapter, endeavour to exhibit the state of affairs, Political and Military, in Affghanistan, since Mr. Elphinstone left Shah Shoojah at his court at Peshawer in June, 1809, to the time of his full restoration at Cabool in August, 1839; which will prove, that owing to the distracted state of that country for 30 years, it was impossible without the aid of the expedition, to have regenerated that kingdom.
THE HISTORY OF THE DOORANEE DYNASTY.
1747.--1. Ahmed Shah, Abdalee,1 was the founder of the Dooranee empire. He fought his way through the greater part of Khorasan, and passing the fortified places without attacking them, repaired to Candahar, where he arrived with 2 or 3,000 horse. He there found and seized a treasure coming from India to Nadir Shah. In October 1747; he was crowned at Candahar,2 and was said to have been only 23 years old. He spent the winter at Candahar, settling the country, and preparing his army for future expeditions: he had to found a monarchy over a warlike, and independent people, not attached to the kingly form of government; such as prevailed in Persia.3
1748.--He marched from Candahar in the spring of 1748 with 12,000 men, composed of Dooranees, Belochees, and others. He reduced the Ghiljies, and appointed Dooranee Governors over them, and proceeded to Cabool. His army increased by the Affghans of Peshawar, he proceeded to the invasion of Hindustan, advanced rapidly through the Punjab; defeated the Indian troops, and entered Lahore in triumph, and prepared to advance upon Delhi. He crossed the Sutluj, and defeated, at Sirhind, the army of Mahomed Shah. Affairs in the Punjab being arranged, he marched back to Candahar; settling on his way the Governments of Dera Ghazee Khan, Dera Ismael Khan, Shikarpoor, and Mooltan.4
1749.--In the spring of this year he assembled an army of 25,000 men, from the western part of his dominions. He first marched against Herat, which surrendered. He then advanced to Meshed; reducing all the places on his route.
From Meshed he marched against Neeshapoor; and detached a force against Muzeenaun and Subzewaur; he failed in his attacks against those places, and was compelled to retreat to Meshed, and retire to Herat.
1750.--In the spring of this year he marched against and took Neeshapoor5 and returned to Herat.
1751.--In the winter, (1750) or early in the spring of this year, he was recalled to, and crushed a rebellion at Meshed. At this time, also, he made an attempt on Asterabad, which was repelled by the Kudjirs.
1752.--In the summer of this year, Ahmed Shah marched into the Punjab, and reduced a revolt; conquered Cashmeer and obtained, by cession, the country as far E. as Sirhind, from the great Mogul: he returned to Candahar; and appears to have spent the years 1753-4-5 in tranquillity, except quelling an attempted insurrection of the Ghiljies.
1756.--The Emperor of Delhi sent a large force into the Punjab, and annexed it to the Mogul empire. Ahmed Shah left Candahar, crossed the Indus, recovered the Punjab; marched to and entered Delhi. He sent a sirdar who took Bullumgur, and Muttra; but was repulsed at Agra by the Jauts. Ahmed Shah returned to his own dominions at the end of the year. On the marriage of his son Timoor (at Delhi) with a princess of the royal family, the Emperor was compelled to bestow the Punjab and Sindh on Timoor Shah; who was left to command the provinces on the E. of the Indus. The king wintered at Candahar.
1757.--2. The Mahrattahs took Sirhind; and drove Timoor Shah from the Punjab, in the middle of 1758, and obtained possession of the whole of it to the E. of the Jheelum.
1758.--Ahmed Shah marched in person into Belochistan, and took Kelat, after a siege of 40 days; during which the Dooranee Cavy. suffered severely from the scarcity of forage.
1759.--Ahmed Shah, during the winter, entered the Punjab; and crossed the Jumna, near Seharunpoor. He next
took Delhi. He pursued the conquest of the Dooab, and marched as far as Anoopshuhr. The Mahrattahs besieged Delhi which was surrendered after a spirited defence, by a small party of Dooranees.
1761.--On the 7th January, Ahmed Shah fought the celebrated battle of Paniput, which was fatal to the Mahrattah power; and many years elapsed before they resumed their enterprise under Madhojee Scindia;6 whose troops were disciplined in the European manner. After this battle the whole of Hindostan appeared to be at Ahmed Shah's mercy. He contented himself with the portion formerly ceded to him, and bestowed the rest of the country on such of its Native chiefs who had assisted him; and in the spring of 1761, returned to Cabool. From its remoteness, he could with difficulty retain the Punjab, where the Sikhs had become very powerful; and their successes compelled him to return to India in the beginning of 1762.
1762.--He now completely expelled the Sikhs from the plain country, but in 1763 he was obliged to quit the Punjab, and in the course of a few years the country was in greater confusion than ever.
1763.--This year he was obliged to return to Candahar where there was an insurrection.7
1767.--The Sikhs had become masters of all the open country as far W. as the Jheelum.
1771.--He went in person against them, and drove them again into the mountains; but this expedition, the last he made in India, was attended by no permanent benefit: as
soon as the Shah quitted the country, the Sikhs appeared in greater force than ever, and before the end of the year they crossed the Jheelum, and took the famous fortress of Rhotas from the Dooranees.8
1773.--In the spring of this year, he left Candahar for the hills of Toba, in the Atchukzye country.9 Here his malady (a cancer in his face) increased, and in the beginning of June, 1773, he died at Murga, in the 50th year of his age.
His military courage and activity are spoken of with admiration, by his subjects and by those of other nations with whom he was engaged in wars or alliances. The memory of no eastern prince, is stained with fewer acts of cruelty and injustice.
With the Dooranees, he kept up the same equal and popular demeanour, which was usual with their Khans, before they assumed the title of king.
His policy was to conciliate the Affghans and Belochees. He applied himself to the whole people of Affghans, and only to the chiefs in the other.
At his death (after a reign of 26 years) his dominions extended, from the W. of Khorassan to Sirhind, and from the Oxus to the sea.
1773.--3. Timoor Shah.--Timoor Shah, the son and successor of Ahmed Shah, was born at Meshed in Dec. 1746. He was educated at his father's court, and accompanied him on many of his expeditions. He came to the throne at the age of 27 years. It was owing to his system of policy, that the power of the Dooranees first became stationary, and has since declined. Timoor Shah removed the seat of
government from Candahar, in the midst of the Dooranee country, to Cabool, which is inhabited by Taujeks, the most quiet and submissive of all the subjects of the Affghan monarchy.
1774-5.--He defeated a rebellion of his relation Abdool Khaulik Khan, which probably happened in 1774-5, who was defeated and blinded; and the tranquillity of the Dooranee country was soon restored.
1779.--In 1779, there was an insurrection for the purpose of murdering Timoor Shah, and placing his brother, Prince Secunder, on the throne; from this till 1781, there were insurrections of various extent and consequence in Balkh, Khorassan, Seistan, and Cashmeer.
1781.--In 1781 Timoor Shah went in person to recover Mooltan, which had been betrayed by the governor into the hands of the Sikhs. The city was taken after a siege of a few days.
About this time broke out the rebellion of the Talpoorees, which ended in the expulsion of the Governor of Sindh.10
The Talpoorees again recovered the whole of Sindh.
1786.--It was probably as late as 1786, before Timoor Shah sent another army into Sindh. On the Talpoorees again agreeing to pay the former revenue to the king,11 Meer Futeh Ali was appointed Governor. The reduction of Azaud Khan's rebellion in Cashmeer, took place during the interval between the expeditions to Sindh, and that against Bahawul Khan, in the beginning of 1788.
1788.--Nothing of general importance to the kingdom occurred till the summer of this year, when a war broke out with the Uzbek Tartars.12
1789.--In the spring of this year, Timoor Shah marched from Cabool with an army which his subjects reckoned at 100,000 men, against Shah Morad; who sued for peace which was granted; Shah Morad retaining all his possessions. Timoor Shah failed in every object of this expedition, except securing his remaining possessions.13 He allowed to be put to death Arsilla Khan, chief of the Upper Memunds, who had rebelled against him.
1793.--In the spring of 1793, Timoor Shah was taken ill on a journey from Peshawer, and died at Cabool, on the 20th May, 1793, aged 47; and after a reign of 20 years.
4. Character of Timoor Shah.--His finances were well regulated, and he observed the strictest economy; by which means he rendered himself independent of military expeditions for the ordinary expenses of his government; and was able to lay up a treasure against any unexpected emergency. He retained the Dooranee chiefs about his court; but as he had no troops of their tribe at the capital, they were entirely in his power, and had no means of disturbing his government. The only troops he kept at all times embodied, were his own guards, the Gholam-i-Shauhs; which were strong enough to keep the country in order, and being mostly Persians and Taujeks, were unconnected with the Affghan chiefs or people, and entirely devoted to the king. These troops were well paid, and received much countenance from
the king; and were invested with some privileges, of a nature which tended to separate them from the rest of the people.
This policy succeeded moderately well in maintaining internal tranquillity; the provinces immediately under the king remained quiet, and though there were some conspiracies during this reign, and two rebellions of pretenders to the throne, they were either discovered by the king's vigilance, or defeated by his full treasury and his well-appointed guards; but the remote provinces gradually withdrew from the control of the court: the government lost its reputation and influence abroad; and the states which had been obliged to preserve their own territories by submission to Ahmed Shah, now began to meditate schemes for aggrandizing themselves at the expense of the Dooranees.
The decay was not severely felt in Timoor Shah's time, but its commencement was even then observable; and it has advanced by rapid strides, under the reigns of his successors.
He had named no heir to the throne, and at the time of his death the succession was not settled. The eldest and most conspicuous of his sons14 was absent, and Governor of Candahar. Mahmood15 held the same office at Herat. Prince Abbas16 was Governor of Peshawer, but had joined his father, on hearing of his illness. The other princes17 were all at Cabool, except Feeroz, the full brother of Mahomed18 who was with that prince at Herat.
1793.--5. Shah Zeman.--Timoor Shah was no sooner dead, than an intrigue was set on foot to secure the crown to Shah Zeman. It was carried on by Timoor Shah's favorite queen, who prevailed on Sirafrauz Khan, the head of the Barukzyes, to join in her scheme; and by his means
secured the interest of most of the Dooranee Khans.19 He was immediately proclaimed king, a largess was issued to the guards, the princes were sent into confinement in the upper fort of Cabool; and from that moment Shah Zeman entered quietly on the administration of the government. Means were taken for assembling an army to establish the authority of the new king, and to subdue the rebellions that might be expected from his brothers. Shah Zeman could not have been above 28 or 29 years of age at this time.20
Shah Zeman took possession of Candahar, and soon after received the submission of prince Mahmood,21 and then set off for Cabool.
As soon as Shah Zeman had secured himself from his competitors for the throne, he appears to have determined on an invasion of India.22
In December, 1793, Zeman Shah marched to Peshawer with the intention of immediately invading India; but he was convinced his own dominions were not sufficiently settled to admit of foreign expeditions.23
Shah Morad24 invaded Balkh immediately on Timoor Shah's death. The extensive and ruinous city of Balkh was abandoned; but the fort held out for three or four months, notwithstanding the utmost exertions of the enemy.25 Shah Zeman, after his success in Khorassan, arrived at Cabool.
1794.--The rest of 1793, and part of 1794, was occupied in reducing Cashmeer, which had rebelled on Timoor's death; and in settling the S. provinces, whither the king went in person: on that occasion he compelled the Ameers of Sindh, to pay 2,400,000 Rs. (£240,000), on account of the tribute due from them; after which he returned to Cabool.
6. Mahmood (his brother) again rebelled. The king marched against him with 15,000 men. They met at the Helmund26 and Shah Zeman (narrowly escaping a defeat) obtained a complete victory: Mahmood fled, and reached Herat in safety. The king sent a force to take possession of Furrah, returned to Candahar,27 proceeded to Peshawer, and again began to collect an army for the invasion of India; but his designs were again frustrated by fresh disturbances
excited by his brother Humayoon; who captured Candahar: but Zeman, returning to the West, Humayoon's troops deserted him, and he escaped to the hills.28 Zeman returned to Peshawer. His claim to the throne was now undisputed, and his authority was established over all the country left by Timoor Shah.
1795.--Shah Zeman's first invasion of the Punjab, was commenced at the close of the year 1795. He crossed the Indus by a bridge of boats at Attok, got possession of Rhotas: but the invasion of the W. of Khorassan, by Agha Mahomed Khan, Kujjur, king of Persia, recalled him to the defence of his own dominions.29
1796.--He returned to Peshawer on the 3rd January, 1796. He proceeded to Cabool and prepared for war against the Persians, but Agha Mahomed's return induced him to change his mind. No sooner had the king of Persia withdrawn, than Zeman set out for Peshawer, and prepared to return to the Punjab. He assembled 30,000 men, (one half Dooranees,) and in the end of November, began his march for India. This alarmed all India.30
1797.--He advanced unopposed to Lahore, which he entered on the 3rd Jan. 1797; but news of a rebellion in his own dominions caused his retreat. Prince Mahmood, still Govr. of Herat, had 20,000 men, and but for Zeman's speedy return would probably have attacked Candahar. On the 8th September, 1797, Zeman marched from Candahar, and by the treachery of Mahmood's adherents, he became master of Herat; and Mahmood fled to Toorshish with his son Kamran.
1798.--7. Shah Zeman, a 3rd time, turned his attention to the Punjab. He left Peshawer on the 25th October, 1798, and advanced without molestation to Lahore;31 and Runjeet Singh (late king of the Sikhs) did him homage in person. About the end of 1798, the Shah received news of the invasion of Khorassan by Futeh Ali Shah, (the new) king of Persia, and set out on his return to Peshawer; before which, however, he wrote to the Emperor of Delhi to state that, at present, circumstances prevented his marching to Delhi; but, that he would embrace the earliest occasion of returning, to replace him on his throne,32 and cause the Mahomedan to be the paramount power in India.
1799.--Zeman reached Peshawer on the 30th January, 1799. His guns were lost in the Jheelum, on his return, by a sudden rising of the river; but they were dug out and restored by Runjeet Singh and Sahib Singh. About this period, it would seem, Zeman appointed Runjeet Singh, his viceroy at Lahore.
After a short stay at Peshawer, Zeman repaired to Herat. Futeh Ali Shah, failed in his attempts in Khorassan, and retreated. Zeman withdrew to Candahar during the winter
of 1799. An unsuccessful attempt was made on Herat by Shah Mahmood, with 10,000 men: Prince Kyser33 was then Govr. of Herat; Shah Mahmood fled.
During this time six of the principal Dooranee and Kuzzlebash lords, disgusted with the power and insolence of Wuffadar Khan,34 conspired to assassinate that minister, to depose Zeman, and to place his brother Shoojah on the throne. Sirafrauz Khan,35 and other conspirators were beheaded. These sanguinary measures increased the danger of the king and his minister; from this time the spirit of rebellion, which occasioned Zeman's downfall, took its rise.36
1800.--In the spring of 1800, Futeh Ali Shah a second time invaded Khorassan,37 accompanied by Mahmood, whom he promised to place on the throne of Cabool. Zeman marched to Herat, remained there during the summer, and in early autumn set off with all expedition for Cabool.38 Mahmood with Futteh Khan repaired to Candahar and with a large army besieged it 42 days. He obtained
possession of it by a stratagem of Futeh Khan, and the treachery of the Govr. Zeman heard of this event at Peshawer, which caused him to lay aside a fourth and last attempt to invade Hindostan, and he returned to Cabool.
8. At this time Zeman seized and tortured Abdoollah Khan, Alekhozye, Govr. of Cashmeer, on which his brother Sydaul Khan, who was at Candahar, went over to Mahmood with his whole clan. Instead of employing his army to quell the rebellion of Mahmood, Zeman detached 15,000 men to Cashmeer. He left a considerable force at Peshawer, under his brother Shoojah-ool-Moolk (present king of Cabool), and went to Cabool; where security was succeeded by the utmost disquiet and alarm.
The king marched against the rebels with 30,000 men. He kept a march or two in rear of his army. Ahmed Khan who commanded the vanguard, deserted; the king gave up all for lost and fled towards Cabool. Mahmood sent 2,000 men under Futeh Khan to Cabool, and soon after marched there himself. Shah Zeman pursued his flight till he reached the Shainwarree (Khyber) country, worn out with hunger and fatigue. He attained an asylum at Moollah Ashik's castle; who took measures to prevent his escape, and sent intelligence to Mahmood at Cabool, who sent a surgeon to put out his brother's (Zeman's) eyes.39 Zeman was taken to Cabool and confined in the Bala Hissar, during all Mahmood's reign, after a reign of about 74 years.
Character of Shah Zeman.--Notwithstanding some defects in his character, and some erroneous maxims in his policy, Shah Zeman would probably have succeeded, if he had resolved to govern for himself; but committing the whole powers and duties of Govt. to an unworthy favorite (Wuffadar Khan), he involved the ruin of his own fortunes, and of the prosperity of his nation. Instead of obtaining the support of his own tribe, the original plan
adopted by Ahmed Shah, and thereby securing the internal quiet of his country; he widened the breach between the Dooranees and the court. In his foreign policy he should have defended Khorassan against Persian encroachment, in place of weakening his resources in vain attempts to invade India.40 The more desirable object of reducing the Punjab was not to be accomplished by a hasty incursion.41
The source of all his errors was his choice of Wuffadar Khan for the office of Vizier, and the implicit confidence he reposed in him. He was a Suddozye42 who had gained the king's confidence, and had used his ascendancy to overturn the power of Sirafrauz Khan43 and all the great officers of the army and state. Shah Zeman, though proud and imperious, was easily led by flatteries; and with all his fondness for activity and enterprise, he had not patience or application to manage the details of state affairs.44 Nor had he any share of the order and economy which distinguished his predecessor.45 He caused his elder
brother, Humayoon, to be blinded for his rebellion. The execution of Sirafrauz Khan, was the punishment due for his attempt to dethrone him. [This I apprehend caused the original feud between the Suddozyes, and the Barukzyes.] Shah Zeman took the life not only of Gool Mahomed Khan but of eight others the principal officers of his court.46
1800.--9. On the flight of Shah Zeman, Mahmood Shah sent Futeh Khan, with 2,000 men to Cabool, whither he himself followed. Mahmood's accession was at first joyfully welcomed by all ranks of men. The Govt. was left entirely to Akram Khan, Alizye,47 and Futeh Khan, Barukzye. Mahmood's Govt. was now fully established in the capital; but the provinces were as yet by no means under his authority. The utmost licentiousness prevailed among the soldiery, on whom the court relied; and his reign more resembled the temporary success of a military adventurer, than the establishment of a regular government.
Herat was given to his brother Feeroz, who acknowledged his authority, but governed as if he were an independent prince. The N. E. tribes still held out for Zeman: the other provinces declared for neither party.
After the first panic that followed his brother's defeat, Shoojah-ool-Moolk proclaimed himself king, and prepared for a regular contest with the usurper. He distributed large sums among the tribes round Peshawer; and soon
saw the greater part of the Berdooranees50 flock to his standard.
This caused alarm to Mahmood who had already become unpopular, from the general relaxation of all Govt., which left the bulk of the inhabitants of the country at the mercy of the courtiers, and the soldiery. The arrest of Mookhtar Oodowlah, who had formed a plot in favor of Shoojah, put an end to present danger.
1801.--On the 10th September, 1801, Shooja-ool-Moolk, marched from Peshawer to attack Cabool. About half-way he found Mahmood's force consisting of 3,000 men, commanded by Futeh Khan, at Eshpaun. Shoojah who had at least 10,000 men, was at first victorious, but he lost the battle, and the royal treasures; and escaped with difficulty to the Khyber hills.51
An insurrection at this time broke about among the Ghiljies. They offered Abdooreheem52 the crown, who accepted the proposal with reluctance. Their operations extended to Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabool. Mahmood's army left Cabool on the 12th November, it met the Ghiljie army (20,000 men)53 at Sejawurd. The Dooranees drew up in line in three Divisions, with their camel-swivels in front. The Ghiljies rushed on in a confused mass, regardless of the fire kept up,54 seized the guns and
made a furious charge on the line: the victory seemed in favor of the Ghiljies, till the unbroken Dooranees wheeled in on the flanks of the enemy. Though broken, the Ghiljies retreated in a body to Killaee Zirreen, a fort of their own in the hills, 6 miles from the field of battle,55 the winter setting in, prevented further hostilities.
1802.--10. In the spring of 1802, the Ghiljies rose as suddenly as before, and with more arrangement.56 Their force is said to have amounted to 50,000 men. They were defeated by the Dooranees in three actions, in the month of March.57 On the 11th May, part of Mahmood's force defeated 10,000 Ghiljies at Moollah Shaudee; the last stand that tribe made.
The severities of the Govt. ceased with the campaign; when tranquillity was restored, the Ghiljies were treated as before their rebellion.
Shah Shoojah who had advanced against Peshawer, sustained a great defeat in March of this year, at the head of
2,000 Khyberees, by the regular troops of the city; they suffered great slaughter, and vast numbers perished from heat and thirst, before they reached their mountains. Shoojah with difficulty, escaped to his former retreat (Khyber hills).
1802.--He was in this condition in the depth of the winter of 1802, near the town of Shawl, or Quetta,60 in Belochistan. In this extremity he was advised to plunder a Caravan just arrived; his troops surrounded it, the merchants gave up their property, and received notes, in his name, promising to pay the value at a future time.61 He raised troops and made an attack on Candahar, which failed, and he retired, (a third time,) into the Khyber hills, where his army soon after dispersed. Quiet was restored to the kingdom; but the government was deplorably weak; few of the provinces had been reduced; the Khan62 of the Belochees, and many of the Affghan tribes, refused to acknowledge so unsettled a government, and an empty treasury left Mahmood destitute of the means to restore his authority.
The Persians in one campaign, almost completed the
conquest of Persian Khorassan.63 The last place they took was Meshed.
Though the court was freed from all immediate danger from without, dissensions arose among the ruling party, particularly between the two great leaders, Akram Khan, Alizye, and Futeh Khan.64
1803.--11. In the meantime Mahmood's government was hastening to decay. Frequent complaints were made of the conduct of the Gholam-i-Shahs (king's Kuzzlebash guards), but were disregarded by Mahmood.
On the 4th and 5th June a serious tumult and battle took place between the Soonees and Kuzzlebashes65 at Cabool.
On the 8th July, Mookhtar-Oodowlah,66 who was in favor of Shoojah,67 fled from Cabool. When Mookhtar-Oodowlah (Akram Khan) returned with Shoojah-ool-Moolk, on the 12th July, he found Shah Mahmood besieged in the Bala Hissar, which was closely invested by the populace. Shoojah encamped outside the city, engaged in collecting troops to oppose Futeh Khan who drew near with 8 or 10,000 men. An action took place soon after; Futeh Khan was at first successful; he routed the part of the enemy immediately opposed to him, and was advancing to the city when the desertion of a great lord to Shoojah, threw the whole into confusion; his own party then fell off by degrees till he found himself almost alone; and was obliged to fly.
Next morning (13th July) Shah Shoojah entered Cabool in triumph.68
The gates of the Bala Hissar were thrown open on the king's approach; and Mahmood, deserted by all his adherents, suffered himself to be quietly conducted to the upper fort, where the princes of the blood were confined. His eyes were spared by Shah Shoojah,69 and even poor blind Zeman made a personal request to preserve the eyes of a brother by whom he had himself been deprived of sight.
The character of Shah Mahmood.--The character of Shah Mahmood was calculated to disappoint the expectations of all ranks; unprincipled, indolent, and timid, he shared as little in the cares of government, as in the toils and dangers of war; and while his own care and safety were secure, he was indifferent to the conduct of his ministers and to the welfare of his people. Shah Zeman had deprived of sight his elder brother, Humayoon, who had rebelled against him when his king; but Mahmood dethroned his king, and elder brother, and also deprived him of sight. These are the only two instances in the Dooranee dynasty. Shah Mahmood reigned about two years.
12.--Shah Shoojah had been for two years a fugitive in his own dominions, during which period he had made several attempts to expel his rival. He had consequently incurred great obligations to the Dooranees and other chiefs. These were rendered of the more importance by his own disposition, which was susceptible of gratitude and permanent attachment.
All the honors and appointments in the gift of the crown, were insufficient to reward the king's adherents, and he gave away a large portion of his permanent revenue, in grants to such as remained unprovided for: thus almost the
whole of the revenue of Peshawer was settled on the Khyberees as the reward of their attachment;70 and much of the royal dues were alienated in other places in favor of Dooranee chiefs. What remained of the revenue passed through the hands of the Vizier (Mookhtar Oodowlah, Akram Khan) who, as soon as his interests were separated from those of the king, applied a large portion of the public money to his own use.71 The first act of his reign was to release his brother Shah Zeman; and soon after Moollah Ashik who had betrayed Zeman, was apprehended, and suffered the punishment of his perfidy and ingratitude. This was the only execution that followed the change of government. All the other measures of the Vizier's internal administration, were calculated to conciliate, and to efface the memory of the civil dissensions which had so long prevailed. He applied himself with great vigor and success to reduce the rebellious provinces; and to bring the empire into its ancient state.
The first expedition was sent to Candahar, still held by prince Kamran72 and Futeh Khan; it was taken without difficulty, and Futeh Khan submitted to the king, but retired from the court in disgust.73
1804.--13. His defection was early and severely felt. In January, 1804, the king assembled 30,000 men, at Peshawer, and was about to complete the settlement of his dominions, by intimidating the chiefs of Cashmeer and Sindh, when he heard of a rebellion at Candahar, which obliged him to relinquish his design.74
The whole of the West being now settled, the king marched from Candahar in the end of September to Sindh, compelled the chiefs to acknowledge him, and to pay 17 lakhs Rs. (£170,000); after which he moved up his Eastern frontier, and settled all the provinces in his route.
1805.--He reached Peshawer in April, 1805, and soon after received an ambassador from the king of Bokhara who came to propose a renewal of the alliance concluded by Zeman,75 and to negotiate the marriage of Shoojah to the daughter of the king of Bokhara, which was agreed to.
Kyser continued to serve the king with zeal and fidelity in the government of Candahar. He seized Futeh Khan, and had nearly been persuaded to gratify the revenge of his father (Shah Zeman), by putting him to death;76 but Kyser set him free.
Futeh Khan repaired to Girishk, where he made preparations for placing Kyser on the throne; but on his return to Candahar, he found Kyser had been dissuaded from the design of rebelling.
Futeh Khan now engaged to deliver up Candahar to Kamran (Mahmood's son), whom he invited to occupy it. Kamran advanced with troops to the Eedgah, a few miles from Candahar. Kyser was about to quit the city, when Futeh Khan changed to his side, and recapitulated his designs in favor of Kyser.77 Futeh Khan's plan of placing Kyser on the throne, was now resumed; apparently with the prince's full concurrence; but its execution was artfully delayed by Khojeh Mahomed.
Shoojah had prepared an expedition at Peshawer for the reduction of Cashmeer, the only province in rebellion.
Akram Khan, the Vizier, marched with 10,000 men. He encountered the first opposition at Mozufferabad, where he
found the high, and rocky bank of a rapid branch of the Jheelum occupied by the Cashmerian army: he effected his passage in four divisions; and drove the enemy from their position. One of his sons was wounded in this battle. The rest of the road to Cashmeer was through steep and barren mountains, and often along the face of precipices. The vizier's advance was consequently slow, and his provisions began to fail long before he reached the valley.78
He, therefore, began to treat with Abdoolah Khan.79 The armies were still separated by the Jheelum. At length Abdoolah Khan threw a bridge over the river in the night, and crossed it without delay. The Cashmeer army was routed, and driven back on the river.80 Great part of the army, and Abdoolah Khan, were forced to swim, and many were cut to pieces by the victors, or drowned in the river.
Abdoolah Khan took refuge in his fort, and prepared for a long siege; the king's troops were prevented by the season and by the fatigues they had suffered, from attempting any operations during the rest of the winter.
1806.--14. Early in the spring (1806) the fort was attacked, and had held out for two months, when Abdoolah Khan died. It held out now, for two months, but surrendered on condition81. Cashmeer was then reduced under the king's authority.
The reconciliation between Futeh Khan and Kyser was of no long duration; Futeh Khan retired to Girishk; and once more renewed his intrigues with Kamran; who joined Futeh Khan, and they advanced towards Candahar: Kyser fled into Belochistan. The king, then at Peshawer, sent to
recall his vizier from Cashmeer; but, was obliged to command in person against the rebels. Before he reached Candahar, his troops had been again defeated by Kamran, who was reinforced by 6,000 men from Herat, under the son of Prince Feeroz.82
The Persians threatened an attack on Herat. The success of the Persians at first excited a strong sensation among the Dooranees; and the king at one time, intended to have moved to Herat in person, but the internal state of the kingdom did not admit of foreign enterprises.83
The king now heard that the vizier had proclaimed Prince Kyser, king at Cabool; and not long after learnt that Peshawer had fallen into the hands of the rebels.
1807.--The king succeeded in recovering Peshawer by the end of February, 1807. About this time the vizier and Kyser arrived in its neighbourhood with 12,000 men.
1808.--After a fruitless negotiation, the parties engaged on the 3rd March, 1808. The royal troops were broken on the first onset, and the king himself was about to quit the field, when the vizier imprudently charged him at the head of a few men. The Khans about the king made a desperate resistance, and the vizier was shot in the struggle. The king's troops rallied on this event, and the battle was soon turned in their favor; and the king entered Peshawer in triumph.84 This victory entirely restored the king's affairs in Peshawer; but Cashmeer still held out, for the
vizier's party, under his son Atta Mahomed Khan; but more urgent difficulties at Cabool and Candahar, prevented any operations against that province.
15, Meer Waez, who had remained at Cabool, no sooner heard of the defeat and death of his friend (vizier), than he set all the imprisoned princes at liberty; and prepared the capital for a vigorous defence. He was obliged to desert the city on the king's approach; but he retired with Kyser into the strong country of Kohistan, where he continued, for some time, to resist the troops sent against him. At length Kyser came in, and was freely pardoned, and the king marched against Mahmood, who had been joined by Futeh Khan, and had taken Candahar. The rival kings met on the E. side of the city, Mahmood was defeated, and Candahar fell into the hands of the victor.
The king was, now, about to move towards Sindh, but was anticipated by a payment from that province.
1809.--He left Candahar, and reached Peshawer on the 10th January, 1809.
From Peshawer he immediately despatched Akram Khan with all the force be could collect, against Cashmeer. On the 23rd April, he received intelligence of the entire defeat and destruction of Akram Khan's army.85 Akram
Khan after his flight from Cashmeer, crossed the Indus, and reached Akorah,86 where he received those who went to meet him, without the smallest abatement of his former pride. Of the whole army, not above 2,000 men arrived at Peshawer, dismounted, disarmed, and almost naked.
At the same time authentic intelligence arrived of the advance of Shah Mahmood, (the deposed king,) of the capture of Cabool; and of the immediate advance of the enemy towards Peshawer.87 The enemy were found to have remained at Cabool, and it was now certain that they were disputing among themselves. Akram Khan had returned to Peshawer, and began to assemble the wreck of the Cashmeer army, together with such troops as had been left at Peshawer, or could now be raised. The king's situation, however, was still far from promising. Every thing depended on money with which he was very ill provided. Many of the chiefs could have, at once, remedied this evil, but few were zealous at this crisis; and even Akram Khan, the vizier, who had occasioned most of the king's misfortunes, and who knew he must stand or fall with his master, was so blinded by his avarice, that he refused to give or lend any part of the
large treasures which he had inherited from his father, and had amassed himself.88 During this time the king was exerting himself to get together an army. The army, indeed, was generally disaffected.
16. It was at length (June, 1809) determined by Shah Shoojah, to march to Cabool, and taking leave of the king, the mission marched from Peshawer towards India on the 14th June, 1809.89 The king's affairs were now in a highly prosperous condition. He had equipped a tolerable army, and was ready to move against the enemy, whose dissensions had come to such a pitch, that Futeh Khan had seized his rival90 in the midst of the court, and had thus occasioned the defection of two of the great Dooranee clans. Accordingly all parties seemed to look forward, with certainty, to the success of Shah Shoojah's cause; an event which was called for by the prayers of the people, to whom the Shah's moderation and justice had greatly endeared him.
The king marched from Peshawer, with an army of about 14,000 men, and a train of Artillery. The army was attacked by a small force under Futeh Khan, as it was straggling on, mixed with the baggage, after a very long march through the mountains. The king and Akram Khan (vizier) were
in the rear; but the latter who had on his armour, rode straight to the scene of action. He had not above one or two hundred men when he set off, and most of these were left behind as he advanced. The day was decided before he arrived; but he, nevertheless, pushed on, and had penetrated to the place where Futeh Khan was, when he was overpowered and slain, after a very brave resistance.91 The king fled and returned to Peshawer, hence he hastened to Candahar, which he at once recovered, without a battle. Shah Mahmood, having settled his authority at Peshawer and Cabool, proceeded to Candahar, where, in the battle between him and Shoojah, the latter was again defeated, and took refuge at Rawul Pindee.92 The battle at Candahar was fought four months after that at Neemla.
1810.--This year Toorshish (N. of Tubbus) the last place belonging to the Affghans in Khorassan, was taken by the Persians.
Shoojah at Attok, and offered, if the Shah would resign that place95 to his brother, they would replace him on the throne. Jandad Khan obtained the fort of Attok, took the ex-king to Peshawer, of which he possessed himself; but proposed such degrading terms of allegiance to Shah Shoojah, that he would not consent to them. Ata Mahomed Khan, being informed of Shah Shoojah's resistance to their will, laid a plot, seized and carried Shoojah, captive, to Cashmeer.
1811.--Futeh Khan was appointed by Shah Mahmood to the Vizarat of his kingdom; while Azeem Khan, the vizier's next brother, was sent to recover Peshawer from Jandad Khan, who retired to Attok. Shah Mahmood and Futeh Khan now came to Peshawer, and designed the invasion of Cashmeer. They opened a negotiation with Runjeet Singh, who gave them an auxiliary force.96
The Sikhs and Affghans both advanced in force to Cashmeer. Ata Mahomed was seized; and Shah Shoojah set at liberty, by both parties. On the release of Shah Shoojah, Futeh Khan entreated him not to trust himself to the Sikhs but to accompany him to Affghanistan, where he would provide for him; but the Shah was afraid of treachery;97 and preferring the offer of the Sikhs, accompanied their commander, Dewan Mokun Chund, to Lahore.98
About this time99 the Governor of Cashmeer, after being blockaded in the citadel for a few days, surrendered himself and was treated with distinction. The eldest brother of the
vizier, Mahomed Azeem Khan, was now appointed Governor of Cashmeer. At this time, the Ruler of the Punjab received secret overtures from the commandant of Attok, for the cession of that fortress. It was held by100 a brother of the ex-governor of Cashmeer, and the offer was at once accepted. Runjeet Singh acquired this valuable possession at the small sacrifice of a lakh Rs. (£10,000), and prepared to defend his new acquisition. Futeh Khan quitted Cashmeer and marched on Attok. He found the Sikh army encamped on the plains of Chuch, about two miles from the fort.101 The vizier had a contempt for his opponents. Dost Mahomed Khan, who headed a body of 2,000 Affghans, commenced the conflict by an advance on, and the capture of the whole of the Sikh artillery. He had dismounted two of their guns, and was proceeding to improve his victory, when he found himself without support, and that the whole of his brother's army had fled.102 It only remained for him to retreat, which he effected with honor, and crossed the Indus. Since this disaster, the power of the Affghans has ceased on the eastern side of the Indus, and that country has been ever since annexed to the dominions of the Sikhs.
1814.--18. About this time the king of Persia demanded a tribute from Herat. The government was held by a brother of Mahmood (Hajee Feeroz) who was requested to treat the demand with scorn; and the vizier (Futeh Khan) marched there to oppose the Persians. On reaching Herat, Futeh Khan made himself master of the person of the Governor, though a brother of his sovereign, and not only extracted the whole of his wealth from him, but violated his harem in searching for it. He then seized Herat, and
prepared to meet the Persians. A battle ensued, which was not decisive. The Persians fled, but the Affghans also left the field, and their victory, with the greatest precipitation.103 The vizier reaped the full harvest of the campaign, since he refused the tribute and beat off the army sent to enforce it. He strengthened the western frontier of the kingdom, by seizing the Governor of Herat, who, though he professed allegiance to his brother Mahmood, was at best a dubious friend. By this war, however, the garrison of Cashmeer was much weakened; since he drew levies from it, which in the end proved most injurious to the interests of Mahmood in that part of the kingdom.
1815.--Shah Shoojah had, since his defeat at Neemla (1809), being wandering as a fugitive in various corners of his dominions.104 He was as before stated, released at Cashmeer,105 and permitted to join his family at Lahore. His queen, Wuffadar Begum,106 the most influential lady of his harem, had used every persuasion to prevent his placing himself in the power of Runjeet Singh; but he disregarded her advice, which he had ample reason to regret having neglected. She was of the most bold and determined character; and her counsel had often proved valuable to her husband, in the days of his power and adversity.
While at Lahore, and absent from the Shah, she preserved her own and his honor in an heroic manner. Runjeet pressed her to surrender "the Diamond" and evinced intentions of
forcing it from her. He also desired to transfer the daughters of the unfortunate king to his own harem.107 She succeeded in the end in escaping from Lahore, disguised as a Hindoo, and planned the deliverance of her husband, which shortly followed. This was only effected at the expense of the great diamond.108 Imprisonment of the closest nature, insult, and even hunger, fell to the lot of this unfortunate monarch.
The queen had established herself at Loodianah. She caused horses to be placed on the road; and Shoojah and his people, made every exertion in Lahore. They hired all the houses adjoining those in which they lodged; and opened a passage into the street by cutting through seven walls. A few hours after the household had retired to rest, the king descended by the aperture, and issued into the street in the dress of a native of the Punjab. The city wall had yet to be passed, and the gates were shut. Shoojah crept through the common sewer of the city, and fled, with two or three servants, towards the hill country of Kistwar. Here he once more raised the standard of a monarch, and planned an attack on Cashmeer, in which he was assisted by the Rajah of Kistwar. The expedition would have been successful, for the Governor of Cashmeer had evacuated his frontier position, but an untimely season blocked the roads with snow, interrupted the arrival of supplies; and once more frustrated the hopes of Shah Shoojah. Wandering by a cheerless and ungenial country, the Shah at length reached the British station of Sabathoo109 in the outer Himalaya, from which he repaired to Loodianah, in Nov. 1815, where his family had found an asylum.
1816.--19. The reign of Mahmood was thus far successful beyond the most sanguine expectations of his partisans; he held Cashmeer, the revenues of which afforded the means of
protection to his other provinces. He exacted the usual tribute from Sindh, and warded off an attack from Persia, the only quarter from which he apprehended danger. The king himself, rioting in debauchery, owed his successes to his vizier, who managed the whole affairs of the kingdom. Futeh Khan distributed the different governments of Cabool among his numerous brothers. He evinced no want of respect or allegiance to his sovereign; and Mahmood seemed satisfied, but his son, Prince Kamran, was discontented at the vizier's proceedings, and resolved to rid himself of a person so formidable, opposed as he was to some ambitious designs which he himself entertained. The prince at last worked upon his father, and persuaded him that he might govern his country, now that it was consolidated, without the aid of his vizier. He, therefore, determined on ridding himself of that powerful chief, his friend and benefactor. Kamran availed himself of an early opportunity, seized Futeh Khan at Herat, and gave an immediate order for his eyes being put out.110
1818.--When Shazada Kamran confined Futeh Khan at Herat, and deprived him of sight, his brother Peer-dil Khan of Candahar, seized and imprisoned Mahomed Rahm Khan, the Amir-ool-Moolk, while Sher-dil Khan, another brother111 of Futeh Khan, fled to Girishk, where he took shelter in the fort of Now Ali, one of the possessions of his family.
Kamran, meanwhile, negotiated peace with Futeh Ali Shah (late) king of Persia, on which he placed his own (second) son, Syf-ool-Moolk and Yar Mahomed Khan, in charge of Herat; and went to Candahar.112
This year (1818) Mahmood Shah, claimed for himself the sovereignty of Cutch, and required the renunciation of all interference with that country, as a component part of the Affghan dominions. The vizier, Futeh Khan, wrote
a letter more explicit to Capt. McMurdo, the Political Agent. This demand did not alarm the mind of the Govr. Genl. (Marquis of Hastings), who wrote a reply, treating it as a forgery; at the same time, in express terms, informing the king that the British Government, while it did not "misuse its strength by wantonly trespassing on its neighbours, it has never been attacked without destroying those who unjustly assailed it."113
20. Shah Mahmood, nominal king, sent for the vizier (Futeh Khan) and observed that having lost his sight, it was advisable for him to send for his brothers. Futeh Khan advised him to send for Peer-dil Khan, who was made vizier, but fled to his brother Sher-dil Khan at Girishk. It was then conferred on Ata Mahomed Khan (son of Mokhtar Oodowlah.)
Shah Mahmood despatched Shazada Jehangeer114 and Dost Mahomed Khan, son of Bedil Khan, Populzye, and Bagar Khan, Karota, with the Kuzzlebash chiefs in attendance, to Cabool. Nuwab Samad Khan, Governor of Cabool, no sooner heard this news, than he left the city and repaired to Peshawer, while Jehangeer advanced and entered Cabool.
When Mahomed Azeem Khan, the next brother to the vizier (Futeh Khan) heard of his brother's imprisonment, and Nuwab Samad Khan's flight, he appointed his brother,
the present Dost Mahomed Khan115 to the government of Peshawer, and proclaiming Shahzada Sooltan Ali as his sovereign; Azeem Khan proceeded with him to Cabool.
Ata Mahomed Khan, the new vizier, meanwhile, wrote to Dost Mahomed Khan, that if he, also, would advance with his troops towards Cabool, he would betray the Shahzada into his hands. Dost Mohomed Khan, with his brothers, left Peshawer, and by hasty marches arrived at Bootkhak;116 where he had a secret interview with Ata Mahomed Khan.
Shahzada Jehangeer, hearing of his arrival, retired within the palace of the Bala Hissar, while Dost Mahomed Khan and Ata Mahomed Khan occupied the city. Hearing this, Shah Mahmood hastened with117 a considerable army towards Cabool.118 He did not advance beyond Ghuznee, where the Shahzada and his immediate adherents rejoined him.
21. From hence the Shah proceeded viâ Obaguk to the fort of Door Banna.
Dost Mahomed taking his newly-acknowledged sovereign with him, moved from Cabool to oppose Shah Mahmood. While both parties were engaged watching each other's motions, Dilwas Khan, Nawaz Khan, and Akbar Khan, joined Dost Mahomed. Shah Mahmood lost all confidence and returned towards Ghuznee, while Dost Mahomed Khan returned to Cabool in triumph. Mahomed Azeem Khan quitted Cashmeer, returned to Peshawer, and left Cashmeer in charge of his brother Nuwab Jubbar Khan.121 On his
way, Mahomed Azeem Khan had an interview with Shah Ayoob,122 and sent his brother Peer-dil Khan and Madad Khan to conduct Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk,123 from Dera Ghazee Khan (where he had arrived on his first expedition) to Peshawer. Shortly after the Shah's arrival, Azeem Khan demanded the dispersion of the Shah's troops, and delivery of his artillery. The Shah refused, and leaving Peshawer he stationed himself at Takal where he was attacked; one of his magazines of gunpowder exploded; and many persons lost their lives, and a defeat was the result. The Shah then, once more, escaped to the Khyber hills. Mahomed Azeem Khan and Shahi engaged to declare Shah Ayoob, viceroy of Peshawer, to which they retired.
When Mahomed Azeem Khan, eldest survivor of the family, returned from Cashmeer, he resolved to dethrone the murderer of his brother; Mahmood, afraid to encounter the rebels, fled to Herat, which involved a virtual resignation of his power; he retained Herat and the title of king; but sunk into a vassal of Persia.
Azeem Khan, says Sir A. Burnes, "now took the extraordinary step of recalling Shoojah-ool-Moolk from his exile. He offered him the crown of Cabool, and sent a Koran to the ex-monarch, under his seal, according to the custom of the country, as proof of his sincerity. Shoojah repaired with every despatch to Peshawer."124
Dost Mahomed Khan hearing of these events, wrote requesting his brother Mahomed Azeem Khan, if he had any regard for him, to depose Shah Ayoob; as he (the Dost) had declared Sooltan Ali, the king at Cabool.
Mahomed Azeem Khan wrote that, if he, Dost Mahomed Khan, had any intention to aspire to the chief authority, he would retire to Peshawer: Dost Mahomed, finding he could not gain the ascendancy, abandoned the cause of Sooltan Ali; and owned the supremacy of Mahomed Azeem Khan. Mahomed Azeem Khan, then, accompanied by Shah Ayoob, entered Cabool; and soon after his arrival, he advised Shah Ayoob to sanction the murder of Sultan Ali.125
1819.--22. On leaving Cashmeer, Mahomed Azeem Khan, entrusted the government of it to Nuwab Jubbar Khan,126 and about this period Runjeet Singh contemplated the reduction of Cashmeer. When news of the approach of the Sikh troops reached Cashmeer, Nuwab Jubbar Khan marched out of the city at the head of his forces, and after various operations, being reinforced, the Nuwab boldly attacked, and struck terror into the ranks of the enemy. Next day he made a night attack127 in which he failed, was wounded, and fled with 1,000 suwars: he reached Peshawer, and afterwards moved to Cabool.
The murder of Sooltan Ali, gave great offence to Dost Mahomed Khan;128 but he concealed his anger, (though
he tried to raise troops to oppose him;) and at length acknowledged the supremacy of his brother (Mahomed Azeem Khan), and became reconciled.129
Dost Mahomed Khan proceeded from Cabool towards Candahar. On his arrival at Ghuznee, he disguised himself in the habit of a khidmutgar, and entered the fort (under the pretence of buying provisions) with a few followers. Abdoorrehman Khan, the Governor of Mahomed Azeem Khan, went up to Dost Mahomed Khan, in order to ascertain who he was. No sooner were they confronted, than Dost Mahomed Khan shot his visitor dead on the spot, and made himself master of the place.130 Mahomed Azeem Khan proceeded with his troops to Ghuznee. Dost Mahomed Khan fortified himself within the fort, and prepared for a vigorous siege.
For some days an irregular cannonade was kept up on both sides. At length Dost Mahomed wrote to Nuwab Samad Khan his determination never to resign the place; adding that he came there with the view to take away the Governor's life, and would omit no opportunity to take his (the Nuwab's) unless he were allowed to keep possession. The Nuwab conciliated Mahomed Azeem Khan, and Dost Mahomed Khan, who, leaving Gbuznee under Ameer Mahomed Khan, went to Cabool.
23. When Mahomed Azeem Khan received131 intelligence of the arrival of Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk at Shikar-poor, he proceeded to Candahar accompanied by Dost Mahomed Khan, Nuwab Jubbar Khan, and his other brothers. He despatched half his army under his brother Sher-dil
Khan. At Dadur, Sher-dil Khan was overtaken by Mahomed Azeem Khan, with the rear of his army; and here the Sirdar was visited by Mehrab Khan, the Beloochee chief, who came to do him homage.132
1822.--About the end of this year a deputation was sent by Maharajah Runjeet Singh to Sirdar Mahomed Azeem Khan, desiring him to resign all claim to Cashmeer.133
1823.--Sirdar Mahomed Azeem Khan proceeded to Noushera, in January, 1823, where was fought the action already described134 in which the Affghans were defeated, and on which occasion Dost Mahomed Khan did not support the character which might hare been expected from his conduct at the battle of Chuch, in 1811.
Runjeet Singh wrote to Mahomed Azeem Khan that, if he would send a deputation to him, he would restore Peshawer; he did so, and Runjeet fulfilled his promise. Mahomed Azeem Khan then proceeded towards Cabool, and was taken ill on the road; Dost Mahomed Khan repaired to Cabool, and Sirdar Mahomed Khan died shortly afterwards, to the great sorrow of the people.135
On the fourth day after this event, Dost Mahomed Khan and Tar Mahomed Khan, conferred on the son (Habeeb Oollah Khan) the robe of Sardaree; and declared him the Ruler of Cabool, in the place of his father. Owing to the intrigues carried on by the above Khans, Habeeb Oollah Khan sent a message to them to inform them that they were of no service to him, in consequence of which Dost Mahomed Khan and Yar Mahomed Khan, quitted Cabool, and joined Shah Ayoob; between whom and Habeeb Oollah Khan, they began to sow the seeds of ill-will; and seduced the simple Ayoob into their view, and plans. He (Ayoob) conferred the office of vizier on Tar Mahomed Khan, and that of Sirdar on Dost Mahomed Khan, which were duly proclaimed.
Habeeb Oollah Khan ordered his troops to lay siege to the Bala Hissar. When Shah Ayoob heard of this, Dost Mahomed Khan began to raise commotions, but failing in his object, he fled to Ghuznee, still in his possession; and Tar Mahomed returned to Peshawer.
24. Four months after this insurrection Dost Mahomed Khan set out on his return to Cabool, with the view of creating fresh disturbances, but on his approach to the fort
of Hashif, his progress was checked by Habeeb Oollah Khan's troops; peace was restored between the combatants; and Dost Mahomed Khan and Habeeb Oollah Khan returned together to Cabool; where the former went to reside in the Muhalla of Jawan Sher.
A few days afterwards, Habeeb Oollah wrote to (his uncle) Peer-dil Khan of Candahar, and entreated him to come to his aid with troops; he marched immediately, and on reaching Ohuznee left his party there, and hastened on with only a few followers (suwars). He confirmed the reconciliation between the contending parties. The mountain tracts were conferred, in Jaghier, on Dost Mahomed Khan, on which he retired to Chareekar. Peer-dil Khan next went with 400 suwars to the Bala Hissar, and on the pretence of a visit to Shah Ayoob, he seized him (Ayoob); put one of his sons to death, and secured the whole of his property.136
Shah Ayoob was then released. He went to Peshawer, and afterwards to the court of Runjeet Singh, who gave him a stipend, which he enjoyed till the day of his death some time last year.137
Peace and order being established at Cabool, Peer-dil Khan returned to Candahar.138
Habeeb Oollah Khan, as soon as his suspicions were raised by Dost Mahomed's proceedings, desired the latter to appear before him; but, he, fearing he would be seized and imprisoned, made his escape, and went towards Mydan;139 and induced a majority of the Ghiljie tribe to adopt his cause.
Habeeb Oollah, hearing of this, proceeded, at once, with his army to Mydan, and besieged Dost Mahomed Khan (in his fort) who made a good defence. Ameer Mahomed Khan shortly after arrived from Ghuznee to the relief of his brother. An action took place which ended in the total defeat of Ameer Mahomed Khan; and Dost Mahomed Khan surrendered the fort to the enemy; and went to Ghuznee. Mehr-dil Khan at the same time, left Candahar, and joined Habeeb Oollah. Six months after this defeat, Dost Mahomed Khan was joined by Hafiz Jee at Ghuznee. Dost Mahomed Khan and Ameer Oollah Khau proceeded to the fort of Khairandesh, where Habeeb Oollah Khan soon made his appearance; and an action took place. Meanwhile Habeeb Oollah received intelligence that Cabool had been attacked and occupied by Hafiz Jee. He resolved however, to risk a battle; was defeated, and fled to Cabool.
25. Mehr-dil Khan, who had joined Habeeb Oollah Khan wrote to Sher-dil Khan140 and Peer-dil Khan to come to Cabool. Sher-dil Khan came with a few attendants. He reproved Dost Mahomed for his past conduct, and soon reconciled him with Habeeb Oollah Khan. Dost Mahomed Khan was to keep Chareekar and the mountain tracts; and the rest of the country141 was to be held by Habeeb Oollah Khan; Sher-dil Khan to be appointed Naeb142 to Habeeb Oollah Khan, who was to reside in the Bala Hissar; and Sher-dil Khan to reside in the house of Habeeb Oollah Khan inside the city.143
Some time after this iniquitous transaction, Sher-dil Khan invited both Dost Mahomed Khan144 and Habeeb Oollah Khan, to his house, and treacherously put them in confinement. Having thus secured the person of Habeeb Oollah Khan, he liberated Dost Mahomed Khan; and then laid siege to the Bala Hissar, which was captured the fourth day.145
No sooner had he settled himself in the Bala Hissar, than Dost Mahomed Khan146 asked him to fulfil their agreement. In consequence of which Sher-dil Khan sent him some valuables and a sum of ready money, altogether equal to about one lakh Rs. (£10,000), as well as one of the wives of Mahomed Azeem Khan.
At the same time Dost Mahomed Khan was desired by his brother (Sher-dil Khan) to meet him in the Bala Hissar, when, in concert with each other, they would consider and settle the matter.147
This affair not being adjusted to his satisfaction, Dost Mahomed Khan commenced hostilities, by raising commotions in the house of Ameer Oollah, where an action ensued between him, on the one side, and Mehr-dil Khan (another brother), Ameer Oollah Khan, and Abdoolah Khan, on the other; but the contest was of very short duration, because the latter soon feeling their inability to overcome Dost Mahomed Khan, fled to the Bala Hissar, setting the house of Ameer Oollah Khan on fire. This success induced the citizens, the mountaineers (Kohistanees) and the people of the Ghiljie and Kuzzlebash tribes (except Ameer Oollah Khan and Hafiz Jee, who still continued attached to Sherdil Khan) to embrace and support the cause of Dost Mahomed Khan, who, encouraged by the general rise in his favor,148 proceeded to lay siege to the Bala Hissar.
26. Sher-dil Khan, finding himself unable to resist Dost Mahomed Khan, sent a message to his brothers at Candahar, desiring them to send him a re-inforcement.149
For more than three months, civil war raged in Cabool, which now became a scene of general anarchy and confusion. Numerous lives were lost on either side, and still there was no end to their disputes. At last the people, reflecting that neither of the rival parties was subdued, while thousands of their followers fell victims in their quarrel, came to the resolution of putting, first Dost Mahomed Khan, and then Sher-dil Khan, to death; but if the former would go, alone, to the camp of the latter, and kill him with his own hand, his life would be spared.
When intelligence of this design reached Dost Mahomed Khan, he sent word to Sher-dil Khan, urging him to an interview on the following day, and threatened, with an oath, that he would take his life, if he refused to come.
Early next morning, when both parties were drawn up in sight of each other, Sher-dil Khan, with two attendants, went to the tent of Nuwab Samad Khan, where a meeting was held.150
A treaty was concluded between the parties, by which Dost Mahomed Khan was to hold the reins of government, and Habeeb Oollah, to do him homage.
The whole property belonging to Mahomed Azeem Khan was to be retained by Sher-dil Khan and Peer-dil Khan; for the purpose of meeting the expenses of foreign wars.151
Sher-dil Khan and Peer-dil Khan, returned to Candahar with the property which they had plundered, and sent Habeeb Oollah Khan, Akram Kban, and Imam Verdi,
under charge of Moollah Peer Mahomed, the Qazee of Jawan Sher, and Dost Mahomed of Jawan Sher, to Sirdar Dost Mahomed Khan.152
1824.--27. The whole of the country of Cabool was, now, divided into five unequal portions, and possessed by each brother, according to his means and pretensions, viz.
1st. The territory of the Ghiljies was held by Jubbar Khan.
2nd. The Kohistan and Koh-i-Damun, together with one half of Cabool, by Dost Mahomed Khan.
3rd. Sukar, Loghur, and the other half of Cabool by Sooltan Mahomed Khan, and Tar Mahomed Khan.
4th. Jellalabad, by Mahomed Zeman Khan.
5th. Ghuznee, by Ameer Mahomed Khan. For two years this arrangement lasted.
1826.--At this time Dost Mahomed Khan, combining with Habeeb Oollah Khan, compelled Sooltan Mahomed Khan to retire from Cabool; and made himself sole master of that place.
He also deprived his brother, Jubhar Khan, of the Ghiljie country, and Mahomed Zeman Khan of Jellalabad.
At the request of Habeeb Oollah Khan, Dost Mahomed conferred Sukar on him; he held it only for six months, was deprived of it, and turned out of Cabool.
Habeeb Oollah Khan proceeded to Peshawer, where Yar Mahomed Khan settled on him an annual allowance of 50,000 Rs. (£5,000), which he held till the death of Yar Mahomed Khan.153 Habeeb Oollah Khan quitted Peshawer, and went to Mahomed Zeman Khan, the Ruler of Jellalabad; where he incited the Bujor tribe to espouse his cause; and prepared to take vengeance upon Sooltan
Mahomed Khan.154 Being deserted on all sides, on account of his crimes, Habeeb Oollah went towards Candahar to join, it is said, Shah Shoojah; on his arrival at Dera Ismael Khan, Habeeb Oollah became insane and murdered some of his slave girls.
1829.--28. This year Shah Mahmood died at Herat155 and was succeeded by his son, Shah Kamran, who now reigns there.
1830.--This year Syud Ahmed, the fanatic made his appearance in Cabool, and was treated by Dost Mahomed with the respect he thought his avocations156 ought to secure for him. He retired to Peshawer where he was joined by Sultan Mahomed Khan,157 Yar Mahomed Khan also joined him, and several engagements took place with the Sikhs.
1831.--This year Syud Ahmed was killed in an action with the Sikhs; and thus terminated the religious warfare.
1832.--This year Sir A. Burnes went to Cabool (in the progress of his travels into Bokhara) and for the first time became acquainted with Dost Mahomed Khan, and his brother Jubbar Khan.
1833.--On the 17th Feb. 1833, Shah Shoojah left Loodianah on his second expedition to endeavour to recover his throne. In the month of May he obtained possession of Shikarpoor, with the consent of the Ameers of Sindh.
1834.--Shah Shoojah158 fought a very severe action
with the Sindhians, on the 9th January, 1834, seven kos from Rohree. The Sindhians lost 1,370 horse and foot soldiers. On the Shah's side a considerable number were killed and wounded. The army of the Talpoorians fairly fled from the field of battle, and the Shah got possession of Shikarpoor.159
The Shah, then, marched to Candahar, where he was defeated on the 2nd July, by Dost Mahomed Khan,160 and was obliged to fly, and take refuge at Khelat.
1835.--The Shah was expected to go to Bombay, and that Government was authorized, in such case, to give a Zeafut of 100 Rs. a day.163
This year Dost Mahomed Khan sent a mission to Persia, the object of which has since been made manifest. Had it been to seek protection, he had, in 1837, an opportunity of seeking it from the British, instead of from the Persian Government. This year, also, Abdool Ghias Khan, son of Nuwab Jubbar Khan came to Loodianah, under the sanction of the Government of India; and the Home authorities approved of his hospitable reception.164 Such a measure was a proof of the desire of the British Government to cultivate terms of friendship with the ruler of Affghanistan; free from all distrust arising from the residence of his nephew at our frontier post.165
1837.--29. This year Sir A. Burnes was sent on a mission of a purely commercial nature to Cabool,166 but affairs took a political turn, the result of which proved that Dost Mahomed Khan was determined to adhere to his Persian alliance; and which caused the mission to leave his court.
1838.--Lt. Leech had in 1837 been sent to Candahar on a commercial mission which, like that to Cabool and from the same cause, was converted into one of a Political cast. In 1838, he was sent to Khelat.
This year the Persian army was before Herat, but owing to the remonstrances of the British Govt., the king withdrew from the siege of that fortress on the 9th Sept, though the event was not known to the Govt. of India till the 22nd of October. On the 1 st of October the Govr. Genl. of India published his Proclamation, declaratory of the object of the expedition into Affghanistan.
When Dost Mahomed Khan heard of the retreat of the Persians, he was absorbed in thought and speculation; always engaged in holding consultations. He was engaged with the chief Koondooz. At one time he stopped the march of his troops to Jellalabad; and then he recalled his son and party from Balkh.
On the 10th Dec. 1838, the "Army of the Indus" marched from Ferozpoor.
1839.--On the 26th of April, 1839, Shah Shoojah arrived at Candahar. On the 8th of May he was installed in that city. On the 23rd July the fortress of Ghuznee was earned by assault; on the 6th he arrived at Cabool, which he entered in triumph, on the 7th of August, 1839.167
Thus, after having been the ruler of Cabool for 13 years, Dost Mahomed Khan's ambition lost him the power, to attain which had occupied as many years; and which he might have retained, had he possessed the prudence of his brother Nuwab Jubbar Khan, who advised him "to cultivate friendly relations with the British Govt."168
Affghanistan was governed by the kings for about 62 out of the 92 years since the foundation of the empire by Ahmed Shah in 1747;169 so that there have been 30 years of anarchy; a longer period than falls to the fate of other empires. It is now but the shadow of its former greatness. But time and good Govt, will, I hope, restore it to tranquillity and prosperity.
30. Character of Dost Mahomed Khan.--Dost Mahomed Khan came to power in troubled times, when each man's hand was raised up against his neighbour. He tried to propitiate the soldier more than the citizen,--a course which can never last beyond a time of warfare. Though liberal in his commercial policy, his exigencies made him
exact more from the merchants than was consistent with good policy, or was beneficial to trade. His revenue did not admit of his keeping up an army equal to the accomplishment of his views of external policy, and conquest. History should have instructed him to view a Persian alliance, as that kingdom was then situated, as the forerunner of his ultimate subjugation. He presided in the court of justice, and added its emoluments to his own treasury. When in want, he borrowed money from the wealthy, which he often neglected to repay, though from time to time called upon to redeem his pledge, and bond. His failing to keep his promise, had at times, caused a rebuke from the lowest Affghan: when he would renew his promise, which was not confided in. He is about 45 years of age, 5 ft. 9 inches in height, with a fair complexion and intelligent countenance. When intent upon any scheme, he would observe his company by furtive glances, as if desirous of penetrating into their characters, unknown to themselves. When relating his past deeds of arms (which he delighted to make known) his large black eyes would first dilate to an unusual size, the sockets reddened; the eye-balls revolved, exhibiting but a small portion of the eyes, with a glare most piercing, but as unpleasant as extraordinary. The frankness of Dost Mahomed was, probably, natural; but he was too familiar for the dignity of his situation; or to command the respect of his inferiors.
He owed much to the chiefs of his own tribe (Barukzyes); but he had no control over them. His mother was, by birth, a Persian; so that he might have secured the attachment of the Kuzzlebashes. He is connected, by marriage, with Shah Shoojah; both having married sisters.
The Barukzyes were not more numerous than the Suddozyes; therefore, there was no pretence to pre-eminence, in virtue of the importance of his tribe. He placed but little confidence in his eldest son, who is said to possess most talent. He placed two of his sons in the Govts. of Ghuznee and Jellalabad, of whose fidelity he was secure; but he effected his object by the unseasonable removal of others, and
thereby lost the confidence of those, whose merits gave them claim to retain appointments, which had been the rewards of their services.
His Military character partook more of the partisan than of a skilful general. The battle of Chuch (1811) proved his bravery; but he should not have left the field on the report of Futeh Khan's defeat. At the battle of Noushera (1823) he evinced no desire to renew the action next day: but he never liked to act under the command of another.
He might have retired with honor, had he accepted a liberal provision, instead of being, now, a prisoner at Bokhara; and he should have learnt from the Emperor Baber, the dignity of submission when resistance was hopeless.
"If you are fettered by your situation, submit to circumstances. If you are independent, follow your own fancy."170
31. Shah Shoojah's claim to the throne, and character.--As to the claim of Shah Shoojah to the throne, it is sufficient to state that he was its last legal possessor. He succeeded Shah Zeman who was declared king, his father (Timoor) not having nominated a successor. The usurpation of Shah Mahmood (the half-brother who stood between Zeman and Shoojah) must be set aside. Shoojah, therefore, was the next brother,171 and I have the best authority for saying that, Shah Zeman declared him to have the best right to the throne.
The character of Shah Shoojah has been already given by the Hon. Mr. M. Elphinstone, so that it were almost presumption to add to what he has pronounced in such favorable terms. When he came to the throne in 1803, he was about 23 years of age,172 so that much allowance was to
be made for his inexperience in the art of Govt., and for his placing too much confidence in his minister (Akram Khan). Even at that time, during the absence of Akram Khan, he took the field in person; and his two several attempts to recover his throne, evince much energy of character.
I have endeavoured to continue the state of affairs since 1809, to explain the state of anarchy and misrule in Affghanistan for the 30 years preceding the Shah's restoration. I have only given, in an abstract form, as much of the Dooranee dynasty of the former period, as was necessary to give a connected series of events for 92 years, the whole period of its duration; for Barukzyes being Dooranees as well as the Suddozyes, the rule of the former, though an usurpation, is embraced in the history of its dynasty. I trust that, with the rising generation, the Shah's kingdom will continue to prosper; it must be the work of time; the old leaven of faction must die away, and "good measures and men" must take the places of misrule, ambition and habits of plunder.
The chief defect in Shah Shoojah's character, is the exhibition of a certain hauteur, which is no element of greatness of mind, or even a symbol of royalty. Let him but reward his true friends, and requite the services of all, whether Suddozye or Barukzye, who by their allegiance, or by the performance of any service to the state in any civil or military office; have claims to his consideration, without partiality, or favor.173
The Shah is about 60 years of age. His personal appearance is commanding. His demeanor is that of a nobleman of high birth, accompanied with much dignity, and his manners are affable. Of all the kings of the Suddozye race he is the most humane.174
From having found an asylum under the British Govt. for 24 years, gratitude is, I believe, his predominant feeling. The residence of a British Envoy and Minister at his court, is well calculated to give a superior tone to his Govt., and to guard His Majesty from any act, which might be likely to weaken the moral effect of the change. His restoration may be viewed both in the light of justice and policy. Those who are admirers of a democracy, may exclaim with Baber175 in favor of Dost Mahomed Khan.
"Ambition admits not of inaction;
The world is his who exerts himself."
Those who are in favor of kingly power; will hope, as I do, that Shah Shoojah may never experience the Emperor's picture of a king.
"In wisdom's eye, every condition may find repose;
But royalty alone."176
TABLES OF ROUTES.
Reference to the Tables of Routes, marched by the "Army of the Indus," from 8th Nov. 1838, to 31st Dec. 1839.
|No. 1. From Kurnal to Loodianah,||124||6||0|
|No. 2. " Loodianah to Ferozpoor,||81||0||0|
|No. 3. " Ferozpoor to Bhawulpoor,||229||6||40|
|No. 4. " Bhawulpoor to Rohree (Bukkur)||224||6||20|
|No. 5. " Rohree to Lower Sindh and back to Sukkur,||145||6||0|
|No. 6. " Sukkur to Candahar,||404||6||150|
|No. 7. " Candahar to Cabool,||318||0||0|
|No. 8. " Cabool to Peshawer,||193||4||30|
|No. 9. " Peshawer to Ferozpoor,||347||1||40|
|Total number of miles marched by Bengal column, nearly 11 1/3; miles per march,||2,069||60|
|Digression to Lower Sindh,||145||0|
|In the direct Route,||1,923||6||60|
|No. 10. " Route of Bombay Army from Bominacote to Dadur,||476||0||0|
|No. 11. " Ditto, from Cabool to Khelat,||494||2||0|
|No. 12. " Ditto, from Khelat to Kotree (Sindh)||173||5¼||0|
|Add from Dadur to Cabool,||551||0||0|
|Add from Kotree to the Sea Coast,||402||¾||0|
|Total march of Bombay column, miles||2,057||0||0|
So that the two columns marched nearly the same distance during the campaign, in a little more than a year.
|N. B. The distance of Calcutta from Cabool is viâ Meerut And Kurnal, by the Punjab route (Nos. 8 and 9)||1713 miles.|
|Ditto by the Bolan Pass, and Candahar,||2350 do.|
|The route from Calcutta to Candahar through the Bolan Pass is,||2033 do.|
|Ditto viâ Ferozpoor, Punjab, and Cabool,||2031 do.|
Tables of Routes.1
No. 1.--From Kurnal to Loodianah.
|8||1||Leelokheree,||11||0||0||Road good--plenty of water.|
|9||2||Thanesur,||12||4||0||Ditto do. do.|
|10||3||Shahabad,||14||2||0||Ditto do. Stage bungalow.|
|11||4||Kotkuchwa,||8||0||0||Cross the river Gumbur on leaving Shahabad.|
|13||5||Umballa, Rajpoor,||9||4||0||A large town--plenty of supplies and water.|
|14||6||13||0||0||3 miles from Umballa, cross the Kuggur river 2½ feet water, bad ford for guns.|
|15||7||Patarsee,||8||4||0||Road good--plenty of water.|
|17||9||Kunhaka Seraee,||11||0||0||Ditto do.|
|19||10||Douraka Seraee,||0||0||Ditto do.|
|20||11||Loodianah,||14||0||0||Ditto do. A large town.|
No. 2.--From Loodianah to Ferozpoor.
|21||12||Ghouspoor,||10||0||0||From this to Bahuk Bodla ke|
|22||13||Boondree,||7||0||0||Mohunke--in the Protected Sikh states, except marches 14, 15 and 16.|
|24||15||Dhurumkote,||10||0||0||Ditto Kurruk Singh.|
|26||16||Jheerah,||15||0||0||Ditto Sher Singh.|
|29||18||Ferozpoor,||16||0||0||Marched 3 miles short of it on the 28th Nov.|
No. 3.--Route from Ferozpoor to Bhawulpoor.
|10||19||Mumdote,||14||0||0||Road rather heavy--plenty of water.|
|11||20||Mohun ke,||12||3||90||Road good--do.|
|12||21||Bagge ke,||12||4||16||Ditto do.|
|13||22||Bahuk Bodla ke Mohun ke,||10||6||60||Ditto do.|
|14||23||Lukke ke,||17||0||170||Road good--plenty of water.|
|17||25||Ruhmoo ke,||10||2||0||Ten kos W. across the river is Pauk Puttun.|
|18||26||Chukko ke,||13||0||110||Road good--plenty of water.|
|19||27||Mamoo ke,||13||4||190||Ditto do.|
|20||28||Kasim ke,||13||5||30||Ditto do.|
|21||29||Mahtah Jhedoo,||13||7||130||Ditto do.|
|22||30||Bhadere,||14||0||120||Camp 1 mile S. of|
|24||31||Hussilpoor,||11||0||200||Do.¾ mile S.|
|25||32||Kaem Raees ke||10||3||30||Do. 1¾ mile S.|
|26||S3||Khyrpoor,||13||3||110||Do. 1¼ mile S.|
|27||34||Goto Noor Mahomed,||12||3||150||Do. 1 mile S. W.|
|28||35||Bakkeda ke Dera,||11||5||0||Do. E. of it.|
|29||36||Bhawulpoor,||13||3||180||Do. the W. of the town.|
No. 4.--Route from Bhawulpoor to Rohree on the Indus.
|1||37||Khairpoor,||13||3||16||Camp 1½ mile beyond: 18 wells.|
|2||38||Husseen ke Bustee,||9||1||0||Do. ½ mile beyond: water abundant.|
|3||39||Ahmedpoor,||9||7||80||Do. 1 mile S. of the town, do. 40 wells.|
|5||40||Chuneekhan ke Gote,||15||0||90||21 wells.|
|7||42||Mamoodee kundee,||12||0||0||16 do.|
|8||43||Khanpoor,||17||6||140||11 do. A canal near it coming from the Indus. Camp 1½ mile from the town.|
|10||44||Sumabada Gote,||14||2||200||24 wells.|
|11||45||Noushahra kalan,||13||3||0||13 do.|
|12||46||Kathee ka Bustee,||14||4||0||11 do.|
|14||48||Subzeel ka Kote,||5||3||40||2/3rds belong to Ameers of Hyderabad, and 1/3rd to Khyrpoor. A great improvement in the country on entering Sindh. The river 20 miles of.|
|15||49||Oobowrah,||10||1||100||Camp E. of it*.|
|17||50||Bagoodrah,||14||3||100||12 wells. The river 3 miles off.|
|18||51||Surhud,||8||3||0||Last half road through low jungle.|
|19||52||Gothee,||8||0||80||Road through low jungle.|
|22||54||Choonga,||8||7||90||Ditto do., but country more open. A Lake N. of Camp.|
|23||55||Uzeezpoor,||4||4||30||Heavy sand on this march. The ghat on the Indus 5 miles distant.|
|24||56||Rohree, (Bukkur,)||11||4||0||On the left bank of the Indus.|
No. 5.--Route from Rohree to Lower Sindh and back to Sukkur, in Upper Sindh.
|30||57||Mahomed Ludanee,||9||0||0||Enclosed country--cross water courses.|
|31||58||Beeraloo,||7||0||0||Country more open, but jungly.|
|2||59||Peer Gote,||10||2||0||Do. more open than last march--cross water-courses.|
|3||60||Bhara khundee,||11||4||0||Road through jungly country. Cross water-courses.|
|4||61||Nova Gote,||13||4||0||Ditto do. do.|
|6||62||Dera Mohobut,||12||4||0||1st part close country--then through an open country. Cross water courses.|
|6||63||Khundearee,||11||0||0||At 7 miles cross a dry nullah: move up its bed for 2 miles.|
|10||64||Dera Mohobut,||12||0||0||Did not encamp on our old ground, marching back.|
|11||65||Nova Gote,||12||0||0||To the old ground.|
|13||67||Peer ke Gote,||11||7||0|
|15||69||Sukkur,||15||4||0||Crossed the bridge of boats to Sukkur, on the right bank.|
*The Doodah Nuddee distributes the water of the Indus for irrigation.
No. 6.--Route from Sukkur to Shikarpoor and Dadur through Bolan Pass to Quetta, and Candahar.
|19||70||Kaee,||14||2||0||First part bad road in rainy weather. Cross a dry nullah 3 miles from it.|
|20||71||Shikarpoor, 250 feet above level of the Sea.||12||0||0|
|23||72||Jagan,||17||6||170||Road through a jungly country.|
|24||73||Janeedera,||11||7||120||Ditto do.--was deserted.|
|27||74||Rajhan,||11||1||70||But little water. The country From this to Noushera, a desert for 96 miles.|
|Mar.||Over the desert. In Beloochistan.|
|10||81||Dadur, 743 feet,||7||4||0||Do. near the entrance to the Pass--but little forage between this and Shikarpoor.|
|16||82||Kohan Delan, 964 feet,||11||0||0||1st march in the Pass, plenty of water.|
|17||83||Kirta,||10||5||0||Plenty of water.|
|18||84||Beebee Nanee, 1,695 feet,||9||1||0||Do.|
|19||85||Abeegoom, 2,540 feet||8||5||0||Do.|
|20||86||Sir-i-Bolan, 4,494 feet,||9||5||0||Do.|
|21||87||Dusht-i-Bedoulut, 5,793 feet,||12||6||0||The march out of the Pass, into the valley. Want of water.|
|22||88||Sir-i-Ab,||15||5||0||Plenty of water (Karezees)|
|26||89||Quetta, 5,637 ft,||8||7||0||Properly Kot, (in the province of Shawl.) There are 3 roads hence to Candahar.|
|7||90||Kutchlak,||11||6||0||The Kutchlak Pass 7 miles from Quetta.|
|8||91||Hyderzye, 5,259 feet,||10||2||0||Bad nullahs to cross.|
|9||92||Hykulzye, 5,063 feet,||10||7||0||Cross a river.|
|10||93||Rt. bank of the Lora,||7||6||130||Cross the Loro river--steep banks.|
|12||95||Quilla Abdoolah Khan,||7||4||0||The fort 4 miles N. of Camp.|
|14||96||Khojuk Pass, the summit of 7,457 feet,||11||0||0||The halt in the Khojuk Pass-foot of the main ascent 6,848 feet: see Chapter V.|
The valley of Candahar at Chumun Chokee 5,677.
|18||97||Dundee Goolaee, 4,036 feet,||14||2||110||1st part road stony--an open plain.|
|21||98||Quilla Futtoollah, 3,918 feet,||10||4||0||Road over undulating stony ground.|
|22||99||Mahel Mandah,||12||0||0||Through a pass, and thence over very stony and rocky ground.|
|23||100||Near the Doree river, 3,630 feet,||15||4||0||First 3 miles over undulating ground--then over good road.|
|24||101||Deh Hajjee,||8||4||0||The road stony, but good.|
|25||102||Khoosh-ab, 3,484 feet.||12||1||0||Cross dry bed of Kudany river: road good-country open.|
|26||103||Candahar, 3,484 feet,||7||4||0|
|Grand Total,||1005||0||210||The grand total is 1005 miles from Kurnal, but we went 145¾ down to lower Sindh, (see No. 5) out of our direct route.|
No. 7.--Route from Candahar to Ghuznee and Cabool.
|27||104||Abdool Uzeez,||5||7||210||Country open, and barren.|
|28||105||Quilla Azeem, 3,945 feet,||9||7||40||The road good--Camp¾ mile E. of the fort.|
|29||106||Quillah Akhoond, 4,418 feet,||16||3||160||Road good, rather stony. Camp 1 mile S. E. on right bank of the Turnuk river.|
|30||107||Shuhur-i-Suffa, 4,618 feet,||11||6||0||At 3 miles a defile. Cross water courses. Camp 1 mile E. of the fort--Turnuk river to the rear.|
|1||108||Teerundaz, 4,829 feet,||10||3||10||At 3 miles water-courses to cross--some very steep ascents. The Turnuk S. of camp.|
|2||109||Tool or Toot,||11||5||210||At 3 miles a defile. At 6 bed of a nullah. The Turnuk S. of camp.|
|3||110||Assia Hazareh,||10||2||30||Road good. Camp near the river.|
|4||111||Kelat-i-Ghiljie, 5,773 feet,||12||5||180||Half-way cross a nullah. Camp near the ruins of the fort, and country below it. The river 1½ mile off.|
|6||112||Sir-i-Usp, 5,973 feet,||10||2||0||At 3 miles a wet nullah. At 6, water-courses. At 8, another wet nullah. Camp near the river.|
|7||113||Nouruk, 6,136 feet,||9||3||0||Cross a broad water-course, ascents and descents--Camp near the river.|
|8||114||Ab-i-Tazee, 6,321 feet,||8||7||0||Cross a nullah. At 2 miles road along the brow of a hillock--cross water courses; ascents and descents. Camp near the river.|
|10||115||Shuftul, 6,514 feet,||6||4||0||Cross 3 ascents and descents. Camp near to the Turnuk.|
|11||116||Chusma-i-Shadee, 6,668 feet,||10||4||0||Half-way cross a nullah. Camp near the river.|
|12||117||Punguk, 6,810 ft.,||7||0||0||At 2½ miles a nullah. At 4 miles a water-course. The river near and E. of camp.|
|13||118||Ghojan, 7,068 feet,||12||0||0||At 5 miles a deep ravine, and several others, bad for guns. At 7 miles a nullah (Jaffirs.) Springs of water. The river 3 or 4 miles off.|
|In the Cabool country.|
|14||119||Mukoor, 7,091 ft.,||12||3||0||At 10 miles 20 or 30 karezees; cross ravines. Here is the source of the Turnuk. Camp N. of the river.|
|16||120||Oba, 7,325 feet,||14||2||40||At 6 and 10 miles cross a dry nullah, the first with steep banks. Springs of water.|
|17||121||Jumrood, (Karabaugh district,) 7,426 feet.||12||3||160||Cross ravines and dry nullahs 2 or 3 times--road heavy for guns. Half-way karezees, and some near camp.|
|18||122||Musheekee 7,309 feet,||8||6||120||Road heavy first 5 miles--several water-courses. Camp S. of the heights--springs of water.|
|19||123||Arghistan, 7,502 feet,||9||4||110||First 5 miles sandy. Watercourses. Heights in front of camp.|
|20||124||Nannee, 7,420 feet,||7||4||0||Road sandy, heavy and stony. At 6 miles pass between two low ranges of hills.|
|21||125||Ghuznee, 7,726 feet,||11||0||0|
|30||126||Shushgao, 8,699 feet,||13||5||160||Road undulating. At 8 miles a Pass, (9,000 feet.) Camp rear to the bills. A stream of water.|
|31||127||Huftasaya, 8,420 feet,||8||3||0||At 3 and 5 miles defiles--road much undulating. Camp rear to the hills. Streams of water.|
|1||128||Hyder Khel, 7,637 feet,||10||7||180||Half-way cross a dry nullah--cross water-courses.|
|2||129||Shakkabad, 7,473 feet,||9||5||0||Road contracted and difficult--particularly last part. Cross the river.|
|4||130||Mydan, 7,747feet,||18||3||140||Last half rather heavy, and confined. Cross a defile. The river Cabool to the rear of camp.|
|5||131||Moorgheera,||12||7||10||The road bad and confined. Camp, cultivation and water to the front; hills to the rear.|
|6||132||Cabool, 6,396 feet,||14||0||0||Camp W. of Cabool--first encamped 2½ miles from it at Nannochee.|
|Deduct for No. 5,||145||0||0||March to lower Sindh.|
|From Kurnal to Cabool,||1385||0||0|
No. 8.--Route from Cabool to Peshawer.
|15||133||Boot Khak, 6,247 feet,||8||7||0||Cross the Laghar and Khoord Cabool rivers.|
|16||134||Khoord Cabool, 7,466 feet,||9||0||0||Through a pass 6 miles long. Cross the stream 23 times.|
|17||135||Tezeen, the Pass, 8,173; Valley, 6,488 feet,||12||7||0||The road crosses over 7 Kotils (Passes). Camp in the valley. Water from the river.|
|18||136||Ararent, or the Giants' tomb,||8||6||0||Road over a valley of stones. Water not good.|
|19||137||Rood-i-Kutta Sung||4||6||0||Ascents and descents, road over stones. Cross the Bareekab 5,313 feet|
|20||138||Jugdaluk, 5,375 feet,||7||4||120||A contracted Pass for 3½ miles, crossing the stream often.|
|21||139||Soork-ab, 4,373 feet,||13||0||210||Ascents and descents. Last part very difficult road. Camp near the heights.|
|22||140||Sufed Sung (Gundumuk, 4,616 ft.)||9||6||0||Ascents and descents. Enter valley of Gundumuk (usual halting place.) Lasts miles bad road.|
|24||141||Futehabad, 3,098 feet,||11||7||180||Valley of Neemla to the right. Ascents and descents. Cross the river Neemla. Ascents and descents (defiles.)|
|25||142||Sultanpoor, 2,286 feet,||7||4||210||Road over a low flat and stony desert.|
|26||143||Jellalabad, 1,964 feet,||8||7||70||Road over a sandy tract. The Cabool river¾ mile to S. of the town.|
|29||144||Alee Boghan, 1,911 feet,||6||6||200||First part sandy. Last 3 miles over stony road. A jungle of rushes 3 miles from camp.|
|30||145||Chardeh, (Bareek-ab, 1,622 feet,)||14||1||100||First part an ascent, thence enter a wide valley, where the simoom prevails in the hot season. At 9 miles village of Bareek-ab. Cross the Rood-i-Butter Kot.|
|31||146||Huzarnow, (Bassool, 1,509 feet,)||11||6||0||There are 2 roads which join at Bassool. The nearest in an E. direction, the other S. E.|
|1||147||Dakka, (Lalpoora, 1,404 feet,)||9||0||0||At 6 miles the small Khyber Pass, Dakka on right. Lalpoora on the left bank of Cabool river.|
|2||148||Khyber Pass, Lundee Khana, 2,488 feet,
Summit of Pass 3,373 feet.
|8||7||160||At 1 mile from Dakka, enter the Pass.|
|3||149||Ali Musjid, W. 2,433 feet,||13||6||0||In the Pass, 12 miles, we encamped 1½ beyond it.|
|5||150||Kuddum, out of the Pass, (Jumrood, 1,670 feet,)||10||1||0||Road through and out of the Pass.|
|6||151||Koulsir,||7||0||0||Pass on left the fort of Futehgurh. The road sandy and stony.|
|7||152||Peshawer, 1,068 feet,||8||5||100|
No. 9.--Route from Peshawer to Attok, and through the Punjab to Ferozpoor.
|23||153||Pubbee,||12||1||30||First part road swampy. Cross 2 bridges. At 4 miles cross a stream. A ruined pukka bridge. The Cabool river 4 or 6 miles N. W. of camp.|
|24||154||Noushera,||9||7||170||Camp close to the village on right bank of the Cabool river.|
|25||155||Akorah,||11||7||120||The road rough and stony, runs close to the Cabool river. Camp 2½ miles beyond and E. of Akorah.|
|26||156||Attok,||10||5||0||At 6 miles the narrow Geedur-Gullee Pass--cross the Indus over a bridge of boats (in the rainy season by ferry-boats). Camp beyond the fort.|
|28||157||Shumsabad,||9||6||0||First part sandy. Cross 2 beds of streams. Camp E.|
|29||158||Boorhan,||13||1||0||First part good. Then sandy. At 7 miles a defile. At 8 miles the river Haroo, knee-deep.|
|30||159||Vah,||8||0||140||At 2½ miles cross the Chumlah river, deep in some places--2 fords (the left ford best). Ravines. At 6 miles the village of Hussunabdal. Cross a wet nullah close to Vah--camp to the E.|
|1||160||Janee ka Sung,||14||0||40||2 roads, the left for hackeries. The road narrow at first. Country then opens, direction E. Half-way is Kallee ka Seraee, hence road to right, through a Byr jungle. At 8 miles a pukka stone bridge. At 10 miles a stone causeway. Last 4 miles thick jungle. Camp S. E.|
|2||161||Rawul Pindee,||13||6||0||Road through jungle and difficult ravines. At 8 miles cross the Seel (or Chehul Jungee) partially dry. Cross the Leh river. Camp N. of the town.|
|4||162||Hoormuk,||9||0||0||Road good for 5 or 6 miles, thence bad ravines. Cross the river Sawn. Camp near Hoormuk.|
|5||163||Muneekyala,||10||1||0||Extensive ravines for 2 or 3 miles; thence country open. At 6 miles Robat ke Seraee in ruins. At 8½ miles ravines. Camp S. of the tope of Muneekyala.|
|6||164||Seraee Pukkee,||12||5||0||At 4½ miles a deep ravine. Then a village: 3 or 4 ravines. Camp E. of Seraee Pukkee. The Kasee river close to it.|
|7||165||Tameehak,||14||9||0||Cross the Kasee river near camp. Road along the bed of it. At 1¼ mile, a dangerous ravine; thence descends into the bed of the river--an ascent. Camp N. W. of Tameehak.|
|9||5||40||Bad road to the river; the road through its bed. Camp E. of the village. The best water in the Punjab from a well here.|
|9||167||Udhurana,||8||6||0||Road along the bed of the river. Camp close to it and S. E. of the village.|
|10||168||Rhotas, left bank,||8||5||20||Road along the bed of the river. First 3 miles 2 ravines. Half-way a ravine. Camp N. W. of Rhotas.|
|11||169||Jheelum, on right bank of the Jheelum,
||12||0||0||First 3 miles through the bed of the river; thence good road across the county. The river runs from E. to W. The town on the N. and right bank. The ferry opposite the town; the ford is nearly a mile up the river, and is a dangerous one, and deep. Crossed and Camp on left or S. bank.|
|14||170||Khoar,||12||2||0||The road crosses 7 or 8 beds of sand, (hill-torrents in the rains.) Half-way ascend and descend a ridge of hills. At 7 miles a large pukka well. Camp¼ mile N. of Khoar.|
|15||171||Dheengee,||14||1||140||For 5 or 6 miles over a sandy road. Pass through a dhak jungle. Camp¼ mile S.|
|16||172||Pareewala,||11||4||0||For 5 miles through a dhak jungle. A ravine 1½ mile from camp. Camp N. of some trees.|
|17||173||Ramnuggur, left bank of the Chenab river,||10||0||0||It is 8 miles to the Ghat on the right bank. Crossed and camp 2 miles N. W. of and from the town, and S.½ mile from a clump of trees. After crossing, 1¼ mile of heavy sand.|
|19||174||Naeewala,||12||5||0||Road crosses a dry nullah, then sandy. Half-way is the town of Akaleegurh. Camp½ mile S. of the village. Country open this march.|
|80||175||Thabool,||10||6||0||The road good and country open. Camp½ mile S. W.|
|21||176||Mutta,||8||4||0||Good road over a very extensive plain. Low jungle on parts of the road. Camp N. W. a mile distant.|
|22||177||Mullyan,||15||1||0||Over a large plain. Camp S. W.|
|24||178||Dhingee,||13||7||0||Cross a wet nullah near the village. Camp S. W. of it mile.|
|25||179||Surrukpoor, 3 miles across the Ravee,||13||0||0||At 10 miles a village where we encamped. Moved and at 1½ mile crossed a wet nullah. Crossed the river Ravee; 2½ miles to the Ghat. There is a ferry and ford; the latter good. Camp on the left bank.|
|27||180||Gunjatee,||11||4||0||First part cross 2 dry nullahs. Half-way great expanse of plain, or desert; low jungle. A cross road half-way to Lahore. Camp¼ mile E.|
|28||181||Sullianee,||13||7||0||Half-way village of Abphur. A cross road hence to Lahore. At 10 miles Nuddeepoor. Camp¼ mile W. of the village.|
|29||182||Kussor,||10||0||0||First half of road jungly. Camp E. close to the town.|
|30||183||Left bank of Sutluj,||10||6||0||Road first part over the ruins of Kussoor. 9½ miles to the right bank; cross the river to left bank. Camp 1½ mile from the Ghat, and 5 miles from Ferozpoor.|
No. 10.--Route of the Bombay Army from Bominakote to Dadur.
|24||Bominakote,||A small village 2 miles from Vikkur and Gorabaree.|
|1||Julalkote,||9||1||A small village, crossed the river on Pontoons.|
|25||2||Somanakote,||7||7||Moderate village, fine Tope of trees.|
|26||3||Goolamshaw,||18||4||A large village on N. B. of Bugaur river: crossed the Bugaur branch of the Indus.|
|28||4||Tattah,||11||4||Camp on S. W. of the city.|
|23||5||Shaik Radaw Peer,||9||2||No village, 2 large tanks, and Peer on small hills.|
|24||6||Soonda,||13||3||A large village, 2 miles from the Indus.|
|25||7||Jirrikh,||9||5||Ditto do. on bank of the river.|
|Feb.||Camp on do. do.|
|4||9||Kotree, near Hyderabad,||13||6||A large village on do. do.|
|10||10||Bada,||9||2½||A village do. do.|
|11||Oonderpoor,||11||3½||A large do. do.|
|12||12||Kassye and Gopang,||11||2 villages do. do.|
|13||13||Majinda,||10||0||A large town on a creek 1½ mile from the main river. A large place,½ mile from the river.|
|14||14||Sun, or, Sen,||12||1|
|15||15||Amree,||10||7½||A small village on bank of the river.|
|16||16||Lukkee, (a Pass,)||11||1||A large village, and fine sheet of water.|
|21||17||Sewun,||13||1||A large town. Arrul and branch of the Indus rivers, cross.|
|23||18||Terooty and Bullalpoor,||8||1||One mile apart, both small villages. An extensive lake.|
|24||19||Bombia Jullow,||9||4||A moderate village, 1½ mile from the river.|
|20||Moondra,||11||3||A large town, wells, and standing water.|
|25||21||Rookun,||6||7||A large village on the bank of the river.|
|26||22||Gulloo,||10||2||A moderate village, a small lake.|
|27||23||Nowadera,||15||6½||Camp 1½ mile on left of the village--bank on the Indus.|
|28||24||Chunna,||6||2||A moderate village, on a branch of the river.|
|1||25||Futehpoor,||7||0||A large village, and fine sheet of water.|
|2||26||Bukranee,||15||6||A moderate village near the Narrah river.|
|3||27||Larkhana,||9||7||A large town, and Larkhana river now dry. (The Maiee river not fordable on the 26th and 27th Jan.)|
|12||28||Kumber,||15||1½||A large town with good wells.|
|13||29||Dost Ali,||9||7½||A moderate village where Kafilahs assemble going N.|
|14||30||Shudautpoor,||15||4||Do. near the Runn, or desert-lately deserted.|
|16||31||Keechee,||30||0||Cross the Cutch Gundava desert. A village near the hills.|
|18||32||Jhull||19||1||A large town, the principal one of the Moongassee Belooches, and fine streams of water.|
|20||33||Punjook,||13||5½||Do. village of the Moongassee Belooches.|
|21||34||Gundava,||11||3½||A large town do. do.|
|31||36||Gugur,||5||3½||Do. village do. do.|
|1||36||Shoorun,||14||3||A moderate village, but the principal one of the Rind Belooches.|
|2||37||Sooner,||23||3½||A small village--cross a perfect desert.|
|3||38||Noushera,||18||1||A large place, with a good Bazar.|
|5||39||Dadur,||7||4||A large town, the principal of the district.|
No. 11.--Route of the Bombay Column from Cabool viâ Ghuznee, and Quetta (leaving Candahar to the right) to Kelat.
|18||1||Urghundee,||14||4||(Reckoned from 2½ miles E. of Cabool.) Several killahs, and a good stream on the right of the road.|
|19||2||Mydan,||12||4||An extensive cultivated valley, with many killahs, and a fine river.|
|20||3||Benee Badam,||7||4||4 killahs on right, and a small stream of water.|
|21||4||Shahabad,||11||3||A large place, fine river, and cultivated valley.|
|23||5||Hyder-khel,||7||5½||1 killah, on left, and 1 killah and river 1 mile on right.|
|24||6||Tukea,||6||4||Several populous killahs, much cultivated ground, and good stream of water.|
|25||7||Shushgao,||13||5||6 killahs on right, aqueduct of water, and considerable cultivated ground.|
|26||8||Ghuznee,||14||4||A fortress, important bazar, line river, and many populous killahs, and villages.|
|29||9||Siriwana,||6||4||Several killahs, fine cultivated plain, and aqueduct of water.|
|30||10||Nanee,||7||0||The town 1½ mile on left, a small river with good stream crosses the road from the hills on right; the plain on left highly cultivated.|
|1||11||Mooshakee, (Road turns off from the Candahar road.)||12||4||Several populous killahs and villages in a cultivated plain. The road runs to the left of the Candahar road from this.|
|2||12||Bushkee,||10||2||Several populous killahs, cultivated plains, and streams of water.|
|4||13||Ootuk,||10||0||A large killah, some villages near, and aqueduct of water.|
|5||14||Mookoor, (Road entirely diverges from the Candahar road.)||13||3||Many killahs and villages in an extensive cultivated plain, the road diverges to the left, here, entirely from the Candahar read, and the valley of the Turnuk river.|
|6||15||Tajh||12||2||A killah and village 2½ miles from the road on right, and aqueduct of water.|
|7||16||Munsoor Karez,||5||3 small villages on the banks of the Abistada lake which is salt, and some aqueducts of water.|
|8||17||Bara-khel,||13||2½||Several large villages in the cultivated plain, and aqueduct of water.|
|10||18||Jumzet,||11||0||2 or 3 small villages in the same plain, and aqueduct of water.|
|12||19||Kishainee,||8||0||A small village in the same plain, and small stream of water.|
|13||20||Ghoondan,||11||0½||An aqueduct stream, and some cultivated ground at Ghoondan mountain, several villages 3 or 4 miles to the right, the road across a low range of hills very difficult for guns.|
|15||21||Moossu-khel,||10||0||3 small villages, and small stream of water, the road crosses another low range of hills.|
|16||22||Speenwarree,||11||5½||A mound (ruins of a city) near a river in a cultivated valley: the inhabitants encamp generally in the hills.|
|18||23||Soorkh-ab,||10||2||A few huts on the banks of the river Soorkh-ab, which winds through a range of hills; road difficult for guns.|
|19||24||Sir-i-Soorkh-ab,||10||0½||A few huts and places of native encampment near the bed of the Soorkh-ab river, the road winding by the river bed through the same range of hills, laborious and difficult for guns.|
|20||25||Khoodoo Chumun,||13||3½||Some cultivated ground (the natives encamp) on the banks of a small river; at the foot of another range of hills, the road reaches the summit of the Soorkh-ab range half-way; then descending, crosses an undulating valley, in general very difficult for guns.|
|21||26||Kudinee,||7||6||A few huts on the bank of a small river, the road winding by the river bed, and crosses another range of hills, also difficult for guns.|
|29||27||Koturrik,||11||0½||A few huts and places of native encampment on the banks of the Koturrik river, the road crosses another range of hills, mid-way|
|Oct.||ascent and descent, rugged, atony, and very difficult for guns.|
|24||28||Cutch Toba,||12||3||Some huts and several places of native encampment, and cultivated ground on the banks of a small river. The road winds by the river bed, through a very hilly country, nearly all the way.|
|25||29||Toba, See the Map and direction leaving Candahar to right.||7||3||Camp 2½ miles W. of Toba killah, at a few huts, and small stream of water. The killah, the residence of Hajee Khan, Kakur's family; the road winds through another range of hills.|
|26||30||Shahur Gullaee,||12||6||Several small villages on the banks of a small river, in a very hilly country. The road winding over another range of hills, stony, rugged, and very difficult for guns.|
|27||31||Burshahra,||8||2||5 or 6 killahs, and several small villages along the Burshara river. The road along the river bed, nearly all the way.|
|28||32||Soorkh-ab Paunde Khan Killah,||16||4||A large killah, open village, and aqueduct of water; at 7 miles the road, which winds through the hills by the river bed, reaches the extensive, and cultivated plains of Pisheen.|
|29||33||Hyderzye,||14||2||2 large villages. River and cultivated plains.|
|30||34||Kuchlak,||9||4||Several villages and killahs, cultivated plains, and fine streams of water.|
|31||35||Quetta (or Kot) in province of Shawl,||10||4||Several villages and killahs, cultivated plains and fine streams of water.|
N. B. By this Route the Bombay Column saved 85 miles of march to Quetta. The Bengal Column made 43 marches from Quetta to Cabool.
|3||36||Ispunglee,||5||4||A large village, and aqueduct of water.|
|4||37||Burg Karez,||7||8||An aqueduct of water, 4 or 5 small villages at 2 or 3 miles distant on right, towards the hills.|
|5||38||Kanuk Karez,||12||6||An aqueduct of water, some huts, much cultivated ground; the village of Kanuk 2½ miles on S. W.|
|6||39||Moostoong,||15||2||A large walled-town, many villages near, in an extensive cultivated plain.|
|8||40||Sheereen-ab,||11||6||The bank of Sheereen-ab river, a small but good stream, no village near.|
|9||41||Dost Mahomed Karez,||9||3½||A small village, and aqueduct of water.|
|10||42||Zirid,||12||2||About 8 small villages and aqueduct of water, in an extensive cultivated valley.|
|11||43||Burem Chinao,||9||4½||An aqueduct stream and much cultivated ground, in an extensive plain, 2 or 3 small villages from 2 to 3 miles distant.|
|12||44||Guranee,||17||7||A small village and aqueduct stream; about 2 miles short of the large villages of Zyarut, there was no water on the road from Burem Chinan.|
|13||45||Kelat,||8||2||A strong fortress and lofty citadel, a considerable town, outside, on the right; and another on the left, with many villages, in a cultivated valley.|
|Miles from Cabool to Kelat,||494||2||By this route the Bombay Column saved 85 miles of march to Quetta.|
No. 12.--Route of Bombay Column from Kelat to Kotree in Sindh (viâ the Moollah Pass) 7 miles from Gundava.
|In Kelat territory.|
|Nov.||46||Rodenjo,||14||7||A village of about 50 houses, and a fine stream of water.|
|47||Soorma Singh,||12||0||Name of a river, 1 mile W. of the halting place.|
|48||Sohrab,||16||3||A collection of several villages; water in streams from the hills.|
|49||Anjeera,||14||1||3 or 4 houses, and a stream of water. The Sonmeanee road runs off to the right from this.|
|50||Bapow,||11||6¾||A moderate village, 1 mile to the N. of the road. The road runs along the bed of the Moollah river, which runs through the Pass, water in pools.|
|51||Pesee Bent, (the Moollah Pass,)||12||5||No village, but means an opening in the valley. At 10½ miles the hills on each side, suddenly closed and approached to within 20 or 30 feet, and at least 500 feet high, almost perpendicular.|
|52||Putkee,||11||7||No village, but at 7 miles the deserted village of Mordana. Crossed the river several times, which has now a good stream running; with a good deal of Tamarisk jungle.|
|53||Paeesht Khana, (Out of the Kelat territory.)||10||4||No village near. The first 5 miles very tedious, having to cross the river several times, and is very stony. The hills from this opened into a large plain, with better road. The river meets another stream from the N. from Pandarang.|
|54||Nurd,||11||6||At 3 miles pass Peer Luttoo, a Fakeer's tomb. Cross the river several times in the first part of the march. Another stream joins in from the right, by which a road comes in from Khozdar by Guzgooroo and Zehree. A few huts; some supplies were brought in here.|
|Dec.||55||Jungi-kooshta,||12||2||From Bapow to Nurd the direction was S. E. when it changed to N. E., with considerable descent. At 6½ miles pass the tomb of Sokka, the adopted son of Shah Bhaz.|
|56||Bent-i-Jah,||10||4||At 7 miles pass the village of Katachee. The road good leaving the river to the right. A village here and some supplies.|
|57||Camp½ mile short of Kohow,||11||The valley is very confined here. The river is left to the right the first part of the way, but is crossed several times in the last 2 miles, passing the halting-place, called Paneewan, about mid-way.|
|58||Kullaz or Keelan (a Pass,)||10||2¼||The first mile of road very bad, when it ascends some elevated ground, descending into the river bed again at 6 miles, and enters the pass of Nowlung-this is a ruined village and the end of the Pass.|
(See Route No. 10, march No. 34 for the route back to the sea coast.)
|13||2¾||Left the river which runs E. into the plain at Keelan Pass. Peerchuttai at 6 miles, where there are some fine trees and cultivation, with a fine stream of water, or small river, which runs to Kotree. For a short distance from Peerchuttai, the road is indifferent and stony where it crosses the river. Passing halfway from Chuttai the tomb (a handsome building) of Mahomed Ettazai. Kotree is a large place, with a good bazar, principally inhabited by Hindoos from Shikarpoor. It is 7 miles from Gundava, and the 7th Camp from Larkhana of the (Bombay) army in its advance in March, 1839. See Route No. 10, march No. 34, then Nos. 33 to No. 1.|
1.The Right Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. of India having, with the concurrence of the Supreme Council, directed the assemblage of a British force for service across the Indus, His Lordship deems it proper to publish the following exposition of the reasons which have led to this important measure.
2. It is a matter of notoriety that the treaties entered into by the British Govt. in the year 1832, with the Ameers of Sinde, the Nawab of Bahawulpore, and Maha Rajah Runjeet Singh, had for their object, by opening the navigation of the Indus, to facilitate the extension of commerce, and to gain for the British Nation, in Central Asia, that legitimate influence which an interchange of benefits would naturally produce.
3. With a view to invite the aid of the de facto rulers of Afghanistan to the measures necessary for giving full effect to those Treaties, Capt. Burnes was deputed, towards the close of the year 1836, on a mission to Dost Mahomed Khan, the Chief of Cabul. The original objects of that officer's mission were purely of a commercial nature.
4. Whilst Capt. Burnes, however, was on his journey to Cabul, information was received by the Govr. Genl. that the troops of Dost Mahomed Khan had made a sudden and unprovoked attack on those of our ancient Ally, Maha Rajah Runjeet Singh. It was naturally to be apprehended that His Highness the Maha Rajah would not be slow to avenge this aggression; and it was to be feared that the flames of war being once kindled in the very regions into which we were endeavouring to extend our commerce, the peaceful and beneficial purposes of the British Govt. would be altogether frustrated. In order to avert a result so calamitous, the Govr. Genl. resolved on authorizing Capt. Burnes to intimate to
Dost Mahomed Khan that, if he should evince a disposition to come to just and reasonable terms with the Maha Rajah, His Lordship would exert his good offices with His Highness for the restoration of an amicable understanding between the two powers. The Maha Rajah, with the characteristic confidence which he has uniformly placed in the faith and friendship of the British nation, at once assented to the proposition of the Govr. Genl. to the effect that, in the meantime, hostilities on his part should be suspended.
5. It subsequently came to the knowledge of the Govr. Genl., that a Persian Army was besieging Herat; that intrigues were actively prosecuted throughout Afghanistan, for the purpose of extending Persian influence and authority to the banks of, and even beyond, the Iudus; and that the Court of Persia had not only commenced a course of injury and insult to the officers of Her Majesty's mission in the Persian territory, but had afforded evidence of being engaged in designs wholly at variance with the principles and objects of its alliance with Great Britain.
6. After much time spent by Capt. Burnes in fruitless negotiation at Cabul, it appeared, that Dost Mahomed Khan, chiefly in consequence of his reliance upon Persian encouragement and assistance, persisted, as respected his misunderstanding with the Sikhs, in using the most unreasonable pretensions, such as the Govr. Genl could not, consistently with justice and his regard for the friendship of Maha Rajab Runjeet Singh, be the channel of submitting to the consideration of His Highness; that he avowed schemes of aggrandizement and ambition, injurious to the security and peace of the frontiers of India; and that he openly threatened, in furtherance of those schemes, to call in every foreign aid which he could command. Ultimately he gave his undisguised support to the Persian designs in Afghanistan, of the unfriendly and injurious character of which, as concerned the British power in India, he was well apprized, and by his utter disregard of the views and interests of the British Govt., compelled Capt. Burnes to leave Cabul without having effected any of the objects of his mission.
7. It was now evident that no further interference could be exercised by the British. Govt, to bring about a good understanding between the Sikh Ruler and Dost Mahomed Khan, and the hostile policy of the latter Chief showed too plainly that, so long as Cabal remained under his Govt., we could never hope that the tranquillity of our neighbourhood would be secured, or that the interests of our Indian Empire would be preserved inviolate.
8. The Govr. Genl. deems it in this place necessary to revert to the siege of Herat, and the conduct of the Persian nation. The siege of that city has now been carried on by the Persian Army for many months. The attack upon it was a most unjustifiable and cruel aggression, perpetrated and continued, notwithstanding the solemn and repeated remonstrances of the British Envoy at the Court of Persia, and after every just and becoming offer of accommodation had been made and rejected. The besieged have behaved with gallantry and fortitude worthy of the justice of their cause, and the Govr. Genl. would yet indulge the hope that their heroism may enable them to maintain a successful defence, until succours shall reach them from British India. In the meantime, the ulterior designs of Persia, affecting the interests of the British Govt., have been, by a succession of events, more and more openly manifested. The Govr. Genl. has recently ascertained by an official despatch from Mr. McNeill, Her Majesty's Envoy, that His Excellency has been compelled, by the refusal of his just demands, and by a systematic course of disrespect adopted towards him by the Persian Govt., to quit the Court of the Shah, and to make a public declaration of the cessation of all intercourse between the two Govts. The necessity under which Great Britain is placed, of regarding the present advance of the Persian Arms into Afghanistan as an act of hostility towards herself, has also been officially communicated to the Shah, under the express order of Her Majesty's Govt.
9. The Chiefs of Candahar (brothers of Dost Mahomed Khan of Cabul) have avowed their adherence to the Persian Policy, with the same full knowledge of its opposition to the rights and interests of the British Nation in India, and have been openly assisting in the operations against Herat.
10. In the crisis of affairs consequent upon the retirement of our Envoy from Cabul, the Govr. Genl. felt the importance of taking immediate measures, for arresting the rapid progress of foreign intrigue and aggression towards our own territories.
11. His attention was naturally drawn at this conjuncture to the position and claims of Shah Soojah-ool-Moolk, a monarch who, when in power, had cordially acceded to the measures of united resistance to external enmity, which were at that time judged necessary by the British Govt., and who, on his empire being usurped by its present Rulers, had found an honorable asylum in the British Dominions.
12. It had been clearly ascertained, from the information furnished by the various officers who have visited Afghanistan, that the Barukzye Chief, from their disunion and unpopularity, were ill fitted, under any circumstances, to be useful Allies to the British Govt., and to aid us in our just and necessary measures of national defence. Yet so long as they refrained from proceedings injurious to our interest and security, the British Govt. acknowledged and respected their authority. But a different policy appeared to be now more than justified by the conduct of those chiefs, and to be indispensible to our own safety. The welfare of our possessions in the East requires that we should have on our Western Frontier, an ally who is interested in resisting aggression, and establishing tranquillity, in the place of chiefs ranging themselves in subservience to a hostile power, and seeking to promote schemes of conquest and aggrandizement.
13. After a serious and mature deliberation, the Govr. Genl. was satisfied that a pressing necessity, as well as every consideration of policy and justice, warranted us in espousing the cause of Shah Soojah-ool-Moolk, whose popularity throughout Afghanistan had been proved to His Lordship by the strong and unanimous testimony of the best authorities. Having arrived at this determination, the Govr. Genl. was further of opinion, that it was just and proper, no less from the position of Maha Rajah Runjeet Singh, than from his undeviating friendship towards the British Government, that His Highness should have the offer of becoming a party to the contemplated operations. Mr. Macnaghten was accordingly deputed in June last to the Court of His Highness, and the result of his mission has been the conclusion of a Tripartite Treaty by the British Government, the Maha Rajah, and Shah Soojah-ool-Moolk, whereby His Highness is guaranteed in his present possessions, and has bound himself to co-operate for the restoration of the Shah to the throne of his ancestors. The friends and enemies of any one of the contracting parties, have been declared to be the friends and enemies of all. Various points have been adjusted, which had been the subjects of discussion between the British Govt. and His Highness the Maha Rajah, the identity of whose interests with those of the Hon'ble Company, has now been made apparent to all the surrounding states. A guaranteed independence will, upon favourable conditions, be tendered to the Ameers of Sinde; and the integrity of
Herat, in the possession of its present ruler, will be fully respected; while by the measures completed, or in progress, it may reasonably be hoped that the general freedom and security of commerce will be promoted; that the name and just influence of the British Govt. will gain their proper footing among the natives of Central Asia, that tranquillity will be established upon the most important frontier of India; and that a lasting barrier will be raised against intrigue and encroachment.
14. His Majesty Shah Soojah-ool-Moolk, will enter Afghanistan surrounded by his own troops, and will be supported against foreign interference, and factious opposition, by a British Army. The Govr. Genl. confidently hopes that the Shah will be speedily replaced on his throne by his own subjects and adherents, and when once he shall be secured in power, and the independence and integrity of Afghanistan established, the British Army will be withdrawn. The Govr. Genl. has been led to these measures, by the duty which is imposed upon him of providing for the security of the possessions of the British crown; but he rejoices that, in the discharge of this duty, he will be enabled to assist in restoring the union and prosperity of the Afghan people. Throughout the approaching operations, British influence will be sedulously employed to further every measure of general benefit; to reconcile differences; to secure oblivion of injuries; and to put an end to the distractions by which, for so many years, the welfare and happiness of the Afghans have been impaired. Even to the Chiefs, whose hostile proceedings have given just cause of offence to the British Govt., it will seek to secure liberal and honorable treatment, on their tendering early submission; and ceasing from opposition to that course of measures, which may be judged the most suitable for the general advantage of their country.
By Order of the Right Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. of India,
(Signed) W. H. Macnaghton,
Secy. to the Govt, of India,
with the Govr. Genl.
With reference to the preceding declaration, the following appointments are made.
Mr. W. H. Macnaghten, Secretary to Govt., will assume the functions of Envoy and Minister on the part of the Government of
India at the court of Shah Soojah-ool-Moolk. Mr. Macnaghten will be assisted by the following officers.
Capt. Alexander Burnes, of the Bombay establishment, who will be employed under Mr. Macnaghten's directions as Envoy to the chief of Kelat, or other states.
Lieut. E. D'Arcy Todd, of the Bengal Artillery, to be Political Assistant and Military Secretary to the Envoy and Minister.
Lieut. Eldred Pottinger, of the Bombay Artillery; Lieut. R. Leech, of the Bombay Engineers; Mr. P. B. Lord, of the Bombay Medical Establishment, to be Political Assistants to do. do.
Lieut. E. B. Conolly, of the 6th Regt. Bengal Cavalry, to command the Escort of the Envoy and Minister, and to be Military Assistant to do. do.
Mr. G. J. Berwick of the Bengal Medical Establishment, to be Surgeon to do. do.
(Signed) W. H. Macnaghten,
Secy. to the Govt. of India,
with the Govr. Genl.
Oct. 1st, 1838.
To T. H. Maddock, Esq. Offg. Secy. to the Govt. of India, with the Govr. Genl.1
In my letter to your address of the 12th instant, I ventured to record an opinion to the effect, that the lapse of a few days would suffice to show the high estimation in which H. M. Shah Soojah-ool-Moolk is held by his countrymen, as well as the wisdom of the policy pursued by the British Govt., throughout the whole of the proceedings in which we are now engaged.
2. Yesterday the Shah, with his disciplined troops, made a march of 22 miles to Deh Hadjee, where we had the satisfaction of learning that the Sirdars were about to decamp. We have since ascertained that they actually set out about 3 o'clock yesterday evening, attended by about 200 followers. Their conduct to the last was marked by meanness and rapacity. Whilst with one hand they were selling their stores of grain to the merchants of the city, they
were practising every species of extortion and violence towards the peaceable inhabitants, and they departed amidst the execrations of all classes.
3. This morning we marched upon Candahar, a distance of about 18 miles, and we are now encamped within 2 miles of the city. The spectacle which presented itself to us on the road, was the most interesting one it ever fell to my lot to witness. H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, with the army of the Indus, was one march in our rear, our advance having been made on an erroneous calculation of the distance, which, owing to the heat of the weather, was too great to be performed by the European troops. The Shah's disciplined troops were behind us, and H. M. advanced, attended only by the" officers of the Mission and his own immediate retainers. At every 100 yards of our progress, we were met by bands of well-mounted and well-armed men all tendering their allegiance to His Majesty, whilst the peaceable inhabitants of the country assembled in crowds, and manifested their joy at the Shah's restoration in the most unqualified terms.
4. Tranquillity is restored--the people flock to our Camp with the greatest confidence. There is no longer any apprehension of scarcity, and even the confidential servants of the Sirdars, several of whom have visited me, declare their satisfaction at the change of Govt. , and state that they would sooner have joined the Shah, but for the dread that some evil would have been inflicted on their families, whom they must have left in the city.
5. H. M. proposed to send out a party in the hope of overtaking the fugitive Sirdars, and they certainly appear deserving of little consideration after the wickedness and folly which they have displayed, in spite of repeated and solemn warnings. It doubtless would be dangerous to allow them to remain at large and excite disturbances in the country; but I was apprehensive that in the present excited state of men's minds, they might be seized by the Shah's party, and be subjected to unnecessary cruelty; I therefore prevailed upon H. M. to permit me to make the Sirdars one more offer, which, if accepted, will enable them to retire to our territories in safety. Any provision which His Lordship the Govr. Genl. may please to assign to them will, of course, fall far short of what they would have received had they at once come into our terms; and I am of opinion that 500 Rs.2 per mensem for each of them, would be an ample provision.
6. It is my intention, therefore, to write to the Sirdars, through Moollah Nussoo, their confidential adviser, and I am not without hope that they will come into my terms--deserted as they are by nearly all the followers who left the city with them, and surrounded as they must be by dangers and difficulties of every description.
7. I now proceed to detail the progress of events from the date of my last communication.
8. Since the despatch of my letter to your address, dated the 12th instant, giving the substance of my communication with the Sirdars, nothing of sufficient importance occurred to require a separate report.
9. In the Kojuk Past, we found a natural obstacle of a much more formidable nature than we anticipated: it was speedily surmounted by the energy of the British troops. Brigr. Arnold, who went to reconnoitre the Pass, suddenly came upon a small party detached by the Sirdars, and was fired upon; the party however made a precipitate retreat; and it was evident that the Sirdars had been surprised by the rapidity of our advance.
10. In the same Pass, letters were intercepted from the Sirdars, addressed to the authorities in Sevee and the eastern provinces, stating that they intended to advance and oppose us in Pesheen, and calling upon all true Mahomedans to join in a religious warfare against the invading infidels. We further learnt that the Sirdars were still unremitting in their endeavours to excite the same feelings of animosity, against us at Candahar.
11. It subsequently came to our knowledge, that Rahim Dil Khan and Mehr Dil Khan, with a number of other chiefs, and a body of between 2 and 3,000 Cavalry, had quitted Candahar with a view of annoying us in every possible way,--leaving Kohun Dil Khan to guard their interests in the city. The main body advanced as far as Killa Futioollah, whence they detached parties to the vicinity of Dunda-goolaee. These parties succeeded in killing several of our followers who had incautiously strayed; and in carrying off two of my elephants which had been, against orders, taken for the purpose of procuring fodder, to a great distance from the Camp. They also put us to considerable inconvenience, for a short time, by diverting the stream which supplied our Camp with water.
12. On the morning of the 20th instant, Hajee Khan, Kakur, who had accompanied the Sirdars from Candahar, and who is decidedly the most powerful chief in these parts, reported his arrival, with about 200 horsemen, to pay his respects to the Shah.
He was escorted into Camp, and received with all honor both by H. M. and myself. This defection, it was obvious, would at once prove fatal to the hopes of the Sirdars.
13. On the same day, two other persons of considerable influence came in, namely, Abdool Mujeed Khan, the son of Shah Pussund Khan, Govr. of Lash and Ghoiam Akhoondzada, a moollah, who, I have good grounds for believing, was one of those who were most violent in stirring up the population to oppose us.
14. The secession of these individuals, and the near approach of our troops, filled the Sirdars with consternation; and they fell back rapidly on Candahar.
15. The ancient nobles of the land have been nearly exterminated by the rapacious tyranny of the Barukzye usurpers; but it was gratifying to find that the advent of the Shah, was cordially welcomed in every stage of his progress, by every man of respectability who has been left in the country; and H. M. 's reception at Candahar as above detailed, has fully justified the opinions that have been pronounced, as to his popularity with all classes of his subjects.
16. I shall report further proceedings in the course of to-morrow.
I have, &c.
(Signed)W. H. Macnaghten,
Envoy and Minister.
Camp at Candahar, the 24th April, 1839.
By order of the Hon'ble the President in Council,
(Signed) H. T. Prinsep, Secy. to Govt.Political Dept. &rd June, 1839, (Calcutta.)
G. O. by H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir. J. Keane, K. C. B. and G. C. H. Commanding the Army of the Indus.
Hd. Qrs. Camp, Candahar, 4th May, 1839.
The combined forces of Bengal and Bombay being now assembled at Candahar, the Comr.-in-Chief congratulates all ranks on the triumphant, though arduous, march which they have accomplished, from distant and distinct parts of India, with a regularity and discipline
which is much appreciated by him, and reflects upon themselves the highest credit. The difficulties which have been surmounted have been of no ordinary nature, and the recollection of what has been overcome, must hereafter be a pleasing reflection to those concerned who have so zealously, and in so soldier-like a manner, contributed to effect them, so as to arrive at the desired end. The engineers had to make roads, and, occasionally, in some extraordinary steep mountain passes, over which no wheeled carriage had ever passed. This was a work requiring science and much severe labor; but so well has it been done, that the progress of the Army was in no manner impeded. The heavy and light ordnance were alike taken over in safety, by the exertions and good spirit of the Artillery, in which they were most cheerfully and ably assisted by the troops, both European and Native, and in a manner which gave the whole proceeding the appearance, that each man was working for a favorite object of his own.
2. H. E. shares in the satisfaction which those troops must feel (after the difficult task they have accomplished, and the trying circumstances under which they have been placed, the nature of which is well known to themselves, and therefore unnecessary for him to detail), at knowing the enthusiasm with which the population of Candahar have received and welcomed the return of their lawful sovereign, Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, to the throne of his ancestors in Affghanistan. Sir J. Keane will not fail to report to the Rt. Hon. Lord Auckland, Govr. Genl. of India, his admiration of the conduct and discipline of the troops, by which means it has been easy to effect, and to fulfil the plans of his Lordship, in the operations of the campaign hitherto.
3. The Comr.-in-Chief has already, in a G. O. dated the 6th ultimo, expressed his acknowledgment to Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton for the creditable and judicious manner in which he conducted the Bengal column to the valley of Shawl. H. E. has now a pleasing duty to perform in requesting Maj.-Genl. Willshire, Comg. the Bombay column, to accept his best thanks for his successful exertions in bringing the troops of that Presidency to this ground, in the most efficient and soldier-like state.
4. The Comr.-in-Chief entertains a confident expectation, that the same orderly conduct which has gained for the troops the good-will of the inhabitants, of the states and countries through which they have passed, will continue to be observed by them during their advance upon Cabool, when the proper time for the
adoption of that step shall have been decided upon, by H. E. in concert with H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, and the Envoy and Minister, W. H. Macnaghten, Esq. representing British interests at the Court of the King of Affghanistan.
G. O. 5th May, 1839.
On the occasion of H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk taking possession of his throne and receiving the homage of his people of Candahar, the following ceremonial will be observed:--
The whole of the troops now at Head Quarters will be formed in order of Review at day-light on the morning of the 8th inst, on ground which will be pointed out to Asst. Adjts. Genl. of Divisions to-morrow afternoon at 5 o'clock, by the D. Adjt. Genl. of the Bengal Army.
2. The troops will take up their ground in the following order from the right.
3. Bengal. Horse Artillery; Cavalry Brigade, Camel Battery; 1st Brigade of Infantry; 4th Brigade of Infantry.
Bombay. Horse Artillery; Cavalry Brigade; Infantry Brigade.
4. The 4th (Bengal) Local Horse will take up a position in front of the right flank, and the Poona Auxiliary Horse in front of the left flank, for the purpose of keeping the space in advance of the troops, clear of the populace.
5. A platform will be erected for H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, in front of the centre of the Line, on either flank of which detachments of H. M. 's Cavalry will take post, to prevent the intrusion of the populace.
7. The troops of H. M. Shah Shoojah will be drawn up in a street in the most convenient situation, between the gate and the British Army, and will salute H. M. as he passes. The king's Artillery will be formed near the palace, and will fire a royal salute on the departure, and return of His Majesty.
8. On His Majesty approaching the platform, a royal salute is to be fired from one of the batteries in the line; and on his appearing in front of the troops, he will be received with a General Salute from the whole line,--the colors being lowered in the manner that is usual to crowned heads; and as soon as the infantry have shouldered, 101 guns are to be fired from the batteries in line, under directions from Brigr. Stevenson.
9. The Envoy and Minister, and officers attached to the mission, the Comr.-in-Chief and his personal staff, and the officers at the heads of departments, and Affghan Sirdars, are to be
stationed on the right of the throne; and Syuds and Moollahs on the left--the populace on both sides and in rear of the Shah, restrained by H. M. 's Cavalry, 4th Local Horse, and Poona Auxiliary Horse.
10. The Envoy, and the Comr.-in-Chief will present Nuzzurs,--as representatives of Govt.
11. The officers of the Shah's force will also present Nuzzurs, leaving their troops for that purpose, after the Shah has passed, and returning to receive His Majesty.
12. The Shah's subjects will then present Nuzzurs. At the close of the ceremony, the troops will march past, the cavalry in columns of squadrons,--the infantry in columns of companies, in slow time; the columns will move up to the wheeling point in quick time. The columns having passed, will continue their route towards the encampment, the 4th Brigade of Bengal Infantry moving on to the Cabool gateway, at which His Majesty will enter the city, where it will form a street, and salute His Majesty as he passes.
13. The troops are to appear in white trousers, the officers of the general staff in blue trousers and gold lace.
14. Corps will parade on the occasion as strong as possible, and the encampments will be protected by the convalescents, and by Quarter and Rear guards; such extra-guards as may be considered essentially necessary, to be placed over treasure, at the discretion of Brigadiers Comg. Brigades.
15. Officers Comg. divisions are to be supplied with field states, showing the actual number of troops there are under arms in their respective commands, to be delivered when called for.
16. His Majesty having expressed a wish that H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief should be near his person during the ceremony, Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton will command the troops in line.
G. O. 8th May, 1839.
Lieut.-Genl. Sir J. Keane has received the gracious commands of H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, to convey to Major-Genl. Willshire, Comg. in the field,3 to the Generals and other officers, and the N. C. O. and soldiers who were present and assisted at the splendid spectacle of the king taking possession of his throne this day, the deep sense His Majesty entertains of the obligations he owes to them, and to the British nation. The king added, that he would request W. H. Macnaghten, Esq. , Envoy and Minister at
H. M. 's Court, to convey these his sentiments, to the Rt. Hon. Lord Auckland, Govr. Genl. of India.
Fort William, 6th Sept. 1839, Political Dept.--The Hon'ble the President in Council has much satisfaction in publishing, for general information, the following official papers received, by express, from the Head Qrs. of the Rt. Hon. the Govr. Genl. , announcing the desertion of Dost Mahomed Khan by his Army on the 3rd August, and the possession obtained, in consequence, of all his guns; also the subsequent advance of the Army under H. E. Sir J. Keane to Cabool, which city was entered in triumph by H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk on the 7th ultimo.4
A Royal salute will be fired from the Ramparts of Fort William in honor of this important event; and a feu de joie will be fired in the afternoon, upon the occasion of the intelligence being communicated to the troops in garrison.
By order of the Hon'ble the President in Council,
(Signed) H. T. Prinsep,
Secy. to the Govt, of India.
Secret Dept. Simla. 26th August, 1839.--The Govr. Genl. of India publishes for general information, the subjoined copy and extracts of despatches from H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief of the Army of the Indus, and from the Envoy and Minister at the Court of H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, announcing the triumphant entry of the Shah into Cabool on the 7th instant.
In issuing this notification, the Govr. Genl. cannot omit the opportunity of offering to the officers and men composing the Army of the Indus, and to the distinguished leader by whom they have been commanded, the cordial congratulations of the Govt, upon the happy result of a campaign, which, on the sole occasion
when resistance was opposed to them, has been gloriously marked by victory, and in all the many difficulties of which, the character of a British Army for gallantry, good conduct and discipline, has been nobly maintained.
A salute of 21 guns will be fired on the receipt of this intelligence at all the principal stations of the Army in the 3 Presidencies. By order of the Rt. Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. of India,
(Signed) T. H. Maddock,
Offg. Secy. to the Govt, of India,
with the Govr. Genl.
(Signed) H. T. Prinsep, Secy. to Govt.
To the Rt. Hon'ble Lord Auckland. G. C. B.
We have the honor to acquaint your Lordship, that the Army marched from Ghuznee on route to Cabool, in two columns, on the 30th and 31st ultimo, H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, with his own troops, forming part of the second column.
2. On the arrival of the Comr.-in-Chief with the 1st column at Hyder Khail,5 on the 1st instant, information reached him, and the same reached the Envoy and Minister at Huftasaya,6 that Dost Mahomed with his Army and Artillery were advancing from Cabool, and would probably take up a position at Urghundee or Midan (the former 24, the latter 36 miles from Cabool). Upon this, it was arranged that His Majesty, with the second column, under Maj.-Genl. Willshire, should join the 1st column here and advance together, to attack Dost Mahomed, whose son, Mahomed, Akbar had been recalled from Jellalabad, with the troops guarding the Khyber Pass, and had formed a junction with his father; their joint forces, according to our information, amounting to about 13,000 men.
3. Every arrangement was made for the king and the army marching in a body from hence to-morrow, but in the course of the night messengers arrived, and since (this morning) a great many chiefs, and their followers, announcing the dissolution of Dost
Mahomed's army by the refusal of the greater part to advance against us with him, and that he had, in consequence, fled with a party of 300 horsemen,7 in the direction of Bameean; leaving his guns behind him; in position as they were placed at Urghundee.
4. H. M. Shah Shoojah has sent forward a confidential officer, with whom has been associated Major Cureton, of H. M. 's 16th Lancers, taking with him a party of 200 men and an officer of Artillery, to proceed direct to take possession of those guns, and afterwards such other guns, and public stores, as may be found in Cabool and the Bala Hissar, in the name of, and for H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk; and the king's orders will be carried by his own officer with this party, for preserving the tranquillity of the city of Cabool.
5. A strong party has been detached in pursuit of Dost Mahomed under some of our most active officers. We continue our march upon Cabool, to-morrow, and will reach it on the 3rd day.
We have, &c.
(Signed) John Keane,
W. H. Machaghten,
Envoy and Minister.
Extract from a Letter from H. E. Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, K. C. B. and G. C. H. dated Hd. Qrs. , Camp Cabool, 8th August, 1839.
It gives me infinite pleasure to be able to address my despatch to your Lordship from this capital, the vicinity of which, H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, and the Army under my command, reached the day before yesterday. The king entered his capital yesterday afternoon, accompanied by the British Envoy and Minister, and the gentlemen of the mission, and by myself, the generals and staff officers of this army, and escorted by a squadron of H. M. 's 4th L. D. and one of H. M. 's 16th Lancers, with Capt. Martin's troop of Horse Artillery. H. M. had expressed a wish that British troops should be present on the occasion, and a very small party only of his own Hindoostanee and Afghan troops. After the animating scene of traversing the streets, and reaching the Palace in the Bala Hissar, a Royal salute was fired, and an additional Salvo, in the Afghan style, from small guns resembling wall-pieces, named Jinjals,
and carried on camels. We heartily congratulated His Majesty on being in possession of the throne and kingdom of his ancestors; and after taking leave of His Majesty, we returned to our camp.
I trust we have thus accomplished all the objects which your Lordship had in contemplation, when you planned and formed the Army of the Indus, and the expedition into Afghanistan.
The conduct of the army, both European and Native, which your Lordship did me the honor to place under my orders, has been admirable throughout, and, notwithstanding the severe marching and privations they have gone through, their appearance and discipline have suffered nothing; and the opportunity offered them at Ghuznee of meeting and conquering their enemy, had added greatly to their good spirits.
The joint despatch addressed by Mr. Macnaghten and myself to your Lordship on the 3rd instant, from Shakkabad,8 will have informed you, that at the moment we had made every preparation to attack (on the following day) Dost Mahomed in his position at Urghundee, where, after his son Mahomed Akbar had joined him from Jellalabad, he had an army amounting to 13,000 men, well armed and appointed, and 30 pieces of Artillery,9 we suddenly learnt that he abandoned them all, and fled with a party of horsemen on the road to Bameean; leaving his guns in position as he had placed them to receive our attack.
It appears that a great part of his army, which was hourly becoming disorganized, refused to stand by him in the position, to receive our attack, and that it soon became in a state of dissolution. The great bulk immediately came over to Shah Shoojah, tendering their allegiance, and I believe H. M. will take most of them into his pay.
It seems, that the news of the quick and determined manner in which we took their stronghold, Ghuznee, had such an effect upon the population of Cabool, and perhaps also upon the enemy's army, that Dost Mahomed, from that moment, began to lose hope of retaining his rule for even a short time longer, and sent off his family and valuable property towards Bameean, but marched out of Cabool with his army and artillery, keeping a bold front towards us, until the evening of the second, when all his hopes were at an end, by a division in his own camp, and one part of his army abandoning him.
So precipitate was his flight, that he left in position his guns with their ammunition and wagons, and the greater part of the cattle by which they were drawn. Major Cureton, of H. M. 's 16th Lancers, with his party of 200 men, pushed forward on the third, and took possession of these guns, &c. There were 23 brass guns in position and loaded, two more at a little distance, which they attempted to take away, and since then, three more abandoned still further off on the Bameean road. Thus leaving in our possession 28 pieces of cannon, with all the material belonging to them, which are now handed over to Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk.
(Signed)T. H. Maddock,
Offg. Secy. to Govt, of India,
with the Govr. Genl.
(Signed) H. T. Prinsep,
Secy. to the Govt.
Extract from a Letter from W. H. Macnaghten, Esq. Envoy and Minister to the Court of Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, dated Cabool, 9th August, 1839.
By a letter signed jointly by H. E. Lieut.--Genl. Sir J. Keane and myself, dated the 3rd instant, the Right Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. was apprized of the flight of Dost Mahomed Khan.
The ex-chief was not accompanied by any person of consequence, and his followers are said to have been reduced to below the number of 100 on the day of his departure. In the progress of Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk towards Cabool, H. M. was joined by every person of rank and influence in the country; and he made his triumphant entry into the city on the evening of the 7th instant. H. M. has taken up his residence in the Bala Hissar, where he has required the British Mission to remain for the present.
(Signed)T. H. Maddock,
Offg. Secy. to Govt, of India,
with the Govr. Genl.
(Signed)H. T. Prinsep,
Secy. to Govt, of India.
By order of the Comr. of the Forces.
In obedience to the above notification, a salute of 21 guns, to be fired at all the principal stations of this Presidency, on receipt of this order.
(Signed)J. R. Lumley, Maj.-Genl.
Adjt.-Genl. of the Army.
General Orders by the Commander of the Forces: Head Quarters, Meerut, 22nd Nov. 1839. By the Right Hon'ble the Governor General, Camp Somalka, 19th Nov. 1839.
The following General Orders, issued by the Right Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. in the Secret Department, under date the 18th instant, are published for general information to the army:
General Orders by the Right Hon'ble the Governor General of India.
Secret Department; Camp Paniput, the 18th November, 1839.
1. Intelligence was this day received of the arrival, within the Peshawer territory, of His Excellency Lt.-Genl. Sir John Keane, K. C. B. and G. C. H. Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Indus, with a portion of that force on its return to the British provinces. The military operations under the direction of His Excellency having now been brought to a close, the Right Honorable the Governor General has, on the part of the Government of India, to acquit himself of the gratifying duty of offering publicly his warmest thanks to His Excellency, and to the officers and men who have served under his command, for the soldier-like spirit and conduct of all ranks throughout the late campaign, and he again cordially congratulates them on the attainment of the great objects of national security and honor, for which the expedition was undertaken.
2. The plans of aggression, by which the British empire in India was dangerously threatened, have, under Providence, been arrested. The Chiefs of Cabool and Candahar, who had joined in hostile designs against us, have been deprived of power, and the territories which they ruled have been restored to the government of a friendly monarch. The Ameers of Scinde have acknowledged the supremacy of the British Government, and ranged themselves
under its protection; their country will now be an outwork of defence, and the navigation of the Indus within their dominions, exempt from all duties, has been opened to commercial enterprise. With the allied government of the Seikhs, the closest harmony has been maintained; and on the side of Herat, the British alliance has been courted, and a good understanding, with a view to common safety, has been established with that power.
3. For these important results, the Governor General is proud to express the acknowledgments of the Government to the Army of the Indus, which alike by its valor, its discipline, and cheerfulness under hardships and privations, and its conciliatory conduct to the inhabitants of the countries through which it passed, has earned respect for the British name, and has confirmed in central Asia a just impression of British energy and resources.
4. The Native and European soldier have vied with each other in effort and endurance. A march of extraordinary length,10 through difficult and untried countries, has been within a few months successfully accomplished; and in the capture of the one stronghold where resistance was attempted, a trophy of victory has been won, which will add a fresh lustre to the reputation of the armies of India.
5. To Lieut.-Genl. Sir John Keane, the Comr.-in-Chief of the army, the Govr. Genl. would particularly declare his thanks for his direction of these honorable achievements. He would especially acknowledge the marked forbearance, and just appreciation of the views of the Govt. , which guided his Excellency in his intercourse with the Ameers of Scinde. He feels the Govt. to be under the deepest obligations to His Excellency, for the unshaken firmness of purpose with which throughout the whole course of the operations, obstacles and discouragements were disregarded, and the prescribed objects of policy were pursued; and above all, he would warmly applaud the decisive judgment with which the attack upon the Fortress of Ghuznee was planned, and its capture effected; nor would he omit to remark upon that spirit of perfect co-operation with which His Excellency gave all support to the political authorities with whom he was associated. Mr. Macnaghten, the Envoy and Minister at the Court of Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk, and Col. Pottinger, the Resident in Scinde, have been chiefly enabled by the cordial good understanding which has throughout subsisted between them and His Excellency, to
render the important services by which they have entitled themselves to the high approbation of the Government: and his Lordship has much pleasure in noticing the feelings of satisfaction with which His Excellency regarded the valuable services of Lieut.--Col. Sir A. Burnes, who was politically attached to him in the advance upon Ghuznee.
6. The Govr. Genl. would follow His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, in acknowledging the manner in which Maj.-Genl. Sir Willoughby Cotton, K. C. B. and K. C. H. , exercised his command of the Bengal division throughout the campaign, and supported the honor of his country on the 23rd July; and His Lordship would also offer the thanks of the Government to Maj.-Genl. Willshire, C. B. , commanding the 2nd Infantry division; to Maj .-Genl. Thackwell, C. B. and K. H. , commanding the Cavalry division; to Brigr. Roberts, commanding the 4th Infantry brigade; to Brigr. Stevenson, commanding the artillery of the army; to Brigr. Scott, commanding the Bombay Cavalry brigade; and to Brigr. Persse, upon whom, on the lamented death of the late Brigr. Arnold, devolved the command of the Bengal Cavalry brigade; as well as to the Commandants of corps and detachments, with the officers and men under their respective commands; and to the officers at the head of the several departments with all of whom His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief has expressed his high satisfaction.
7. To Brigr. Sale, C. B. already honorably distinguished in the annals of Indian warfare, who commanded the storming party at Ghuznee; to Lieut.-Col. Dennie, C. B. who led the advance on the same occasion; and to Capt. George Thomson, of the Bengal Engineers, whose services in the capture of that fortress have been noticed in marked terms of commendation by his Excellency the Commander-in-Chief; and to Capt. Peat, of the Bombay Engineers, and Lieuts. Durand and Macleod, of the Bengal Engineers, and the other officers and men of the Bengal and Bombay Engineers under their command, the Governor General would especially tender the expression of his admiration of the gallantry and science which they respectively displayed, in the execution of the important duties confided to them in that memorable operation.
8. In testimony of the services of the army of the Indus, the Governor General is pleased to resolve, that all the corps, European and Native, in the service of the East India Company, which proceeded beyond the "Bolan Pass," shall have on their regimental colors the word "Affghanistan" and such of them as were employ-
ed in the redaction of the fortress of that name, the word "Ghuznee' in addition.
In behalf of the Queen's regiments, the Governor General will recommend to Her Majesty, through the proper channel, that the same distinction may be granted to them.
9.--The Govr. Genl. would here notice with approbation, the praiseworthy conduct, during this expedition, of the officers and men attached to the disciplined force of His Majesty Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk. This force was newly raised, and opportunities had not been afforded for its perfect organization and instruction; but it shared honorably in the labors and difficulties of the campaign, and it had the good fortune, in repelling an attack made by the enemy in force, on the day prior to the storming of Ghuznee, to be enabled te give promise of the excellent service which may hereafter be expected from it.
10.--His Lordship has also much satisfaction in adding, that the best acknowledgments of the Govt. are due to Lieut.-Col. Wade who was employed upon the Peshawer frontier, and who, gallantly supported by the officers and men of all ranks under him, and seconded by the cordial aid of the Seikh Govt., an aid the more honorable because rendered at a painful crisis of its affairs, opened the "Khyber Pass," and overthrew the authority of the enemy in that quarter, at the moment when the advance of the forces of the Shah Zadah Tymoor could most conduce to the success of the general operations.
By command, &c
|(Sd.) T. H. Maddock,
Offg. Secy. to Govt, of India,
with the Govr. Genl.
|(Sd.) J. Stewart, Lieut.-Col.|
Secy. to the Govt of India Mily. Dept.
with the Rt. Hon. the Govr. Genl.
|By order of the Comr. of the Forces,||(Signed) J. R. Lumley, Major-Genl.|
Adjt.--Genl. of the Army.
G. O. by the Comr. of the Forces; Head Quarters, Meerut, 12th December, 1839.
The following General Orders, issued by the Rt. Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. , in the Secret Department, under date the 4th instant, are published for general information to the army:
G. O. by the Right Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. of India.
Secret Department; Camp Deothanee, the 4th December, 1839.
The many outrages and murders committed, in attacks on the followers of the army of the Indus, by the plundering tribes in the neighbourhood of the "Bolan Pass," at the instigation of their chiefs, Meer Mehrab Khan, of Kelat, at a time when he was professing friendship for the British Government, and negotiating a treaty with its representatives, having compelled the Govt, to direct a detachment of the army to proceed to Kelat, for the exaction of retribution from that chieftain, and for the execution of such arrangements as would establish future security in that quarter, a force under the orders of Maj.-Genl. Willshire, C. B. was employed on this service; and the Rt. Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. of India having this day received that Officer's report of the successful accomplishment of the objects entrusted to him, has been pleased to direct that the following copy of his dispatch, dated 14th ultimo, be published for general information.
The Rt. Hon'ble the Govr. Genl. is happy to avail himself of this opportunity to record his high admiration of the signal gallantry and spirit of the troops engaged on this occasion, and offers on the part of the Govt, his best thanks to Maj.-Genl. Willshire, and to the officers and men who served under him.
By command, &c.
(Signed) T. H. Maddock,
Offg. Secy. to Govt, of India,
with the Govr. Genl.
Camp near Kelat, 14th Nov. 1839.
To the Rt. Hon'ble Lord Auckland. G. C. B. Govr. Genl. of India, &c.
1. In obedience to the joint instructions furnished me by H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief of the Army of the Indus, and Envoy and Minister to H. M. Shah Shoojah, under date Cabool, the 17th Sept. 1839, deputing to me the duty of deposing Mehrab Khan of Kelat, in consequence of the avowed hostility of that chief to the British nation during the present campaign, I have the honor to report, that on my arrival at Quetta, on the 31st ultimo, I communicated with Captain Bean, the Political Agent in Shawl, and arranged with him the best means of giving effect to the orders I had received.
2 Guns Bombay Horse Artillery.
4 ditto Shahs ditto.
2 Ressallahs 4th Ben. local horse.
2nd Queen's Royal
H. M. 17th Regt.
31st Bengal Native Infantry.
2. In consequence of the want of public carriage and the limited quantity of Commisst. supplies at Quetta, as well as the reported want of forage on the route to Kelat, I was obliged to dispatch to Cutch Gundava, the whole of the cavalry and the greater portion of the Artillery, taking with me only the troops noted in the margin, leaving Quetta on the 3rd instant.
3. During the march the communications received from Mehrab Khan were so far from acceding to the terms offered, that he threatened resistance if the troops approached his capital. I therefore proceeded, and arrived at the village of Giranee within eight miles of Kelat, on the 12th instant.
4. Marching from hence the following morning a body of horse were perceived on the right of the road, which commenced firing on the advanced guard commanded by Maj. Pennycuick, H. M. 17 th Regt. as the column advanced; and skirmishing between them continued until we came in sight of Kelat, rather less than a mile distant.
I now discovered that three heights on the N. W. face of the fort, and parallel to the north, were covered with infantry, with five guns in position, protected by small parapet walls. Capt. Peat, Chief Engineer, immediately reconnoitred, and having reported that nothing could be done until those heights were in our possession, I decided upon at once storming them simultaneously, and if practicable, entering the fort with the fugitives, as the gate in the northern face was occasionally opened to keep up the communication between the fort and the heights.
5. To effect this object, I detached a company from each of the European regiments, from the advanced guard with Maj. Pennycuick H. M. 's 17th Regt. , for the purpose of occupying the gardens and enclosures to the N. E. of the town, and two more companies in the plain midway between them and the column; at the same time I ordered three columns of attack to be formed, composed of four Cos. from each corps under their respective commanding officers, Maj. Carruthers, of the Queen's; Lt.-Col. Croker, H. M. 's 17th Regt. , and Major Weston, 31st Bengal N. I. , the whole under the command of Brigr. Baumgardt, the remainder of the regiments
forming three columns of reserve under my own direction, to move in support.
6. A hill being allotted to each column, Brigr. Stevenson, commanding the artillery, moved quickly forward in front towards the base of the heights, and when within the required range opened fire upon the infantry and guns, under cover of which the columns moved steadily on and commenced the ascent, for the purpose of carrying the heights, exposed to the fire of the enemy's guns, which had commenced while the columns of attack were forming.
7. Before the columns reached their respective summits of the hills, the enemy, overpowered by the superior and well directed fire of our artillery, had abandoned them, attempting to carry off their guns, but which they were unable to do; at this moment it appearing to me the opportunity offered for the troops to get in with the fugitives, and if possible gain possession of the gate of the fortress, I dispatched orders to the Queen's Royal, and H. M. 's 17th Regt. to make a rush from the heights for that purpose, following myself to the summit of the nearest to observe the result; at this moment the four companies on my left, which had been detached to the garden and plain, seeing the chance that offered of entering the fort, moved rapidly forward from their respective points towards the gate-way, under a heavy and well-directed fire from the walls of the fort and citadel, which were thronged by the enemy.
8. The gate having been closed before the troops moving towards it could effect the desired object, and the garrison strengthened by the enemy driven from the heights, they were compelled to cover themselves, as far as practicable, behind some walls and ruined buildings, to the right and left of it, while Brigr. Stevenson having ascended the heights with the artillery, opened 2 guns under the command of Lt. Forster, Bombay H. A. upon the defences above the gate and its vicinity, while the fire of two others commanded by Lt. Cowper, Shah's artillery, was directed against the gate itself, the remaining 2, with Lt. Creed, being sent round to the road on the left leading direct up to the gate, and when within 200 yards commenced fire for the purpose of completing the blowing it open, and after a few rounds they succeeded in knocking in one half of it; on observing this, I rode down the hill towards the gate pointing to it, thereby announcing to the troops it was open, they instantly rose from their cover and rushed in, those under the command of Maj. Pennycuick, being the nearest, were the first to gain
the gate, headed by that officer, the whole of the storming columns from the three Regts. rapidly following and gaining an entrance as quickly as it was possible to do so, under a heavy fire from the works and from the interior, the enemy making a most gallant and determined resistance, disputing every inch of ground up to the walls of the inner citadel.
9. At this time I directed the reserve columns to be brought near the gate, and detached one company of the 17th Regt. under Capt. Darby, to the western side of the fort, followed by a portion of the 31st Bengal N. I. commanded by Maj. Weston, conducted by Capt. Outram, acting as my extra Aide-de-camp, for the purpose of securing the heights, under which the southern angle is situated, and intercepting any of the garrison escaping from that side; having driven off the enemy from the heights above, the united detachments then descended to the gate of the fort below, and forced it open before the garrison (who closed it as they saw the troops approach) had time to secure it.
10. When the party was detached by the western face, I also sent 2 companies from the reserve of the 17th under Maj. Deshon, and 2 guns of the Shah's artillery, under the command of Lt. Creed, Bombay artillery, by the eastern to the southern face, for the purpose of blowing open the gate above alluded to, had it been necessary, as well as the gate of the inner citadel; the infantry joining the other detachments, making their way through the town in the direction of the citadel.
11. After some delay, the troops that held possession of the town at length succeeded in forcing an entrance into the citadel, where a desperate resistance was made by Mehrab Khan at the head of his people, he himself with many of his principal chiefs being killed sword in hand; several others however kept up a fire upon our troops from detached buildings difficult of access, and it was not until late in the afternoon, those that survived were induced to give themselves up on a promise of their lives being spared.
12. From every account I have every reason to believe the garrison consisted of upwards of 2,000 fighting men, and that the son of Mehrab Khan had been expected to join him from Nowskey with a further reinforcement. The enclosed return will show the strength of the force under my command present at the capture.
13. The defences of the Fort, as in the case of Ghuznee, far exceeded in strength what I had been led to suppose from previous
report, and the towering height of the inner citadel was most formidable both in appearance and reality.
14. I lament to say, that the loss of killed and wounded on our side has been severe, as will be seen by the accompanying return; that on the part of the enemy must have been great, but the exact number I have not been able to ascertain; several hundreds of prisoners were taken, from whom the Political Agent has selected those he considers it necessary for the present to retain in confinement: the remainder have been liberated.
15. It is quite impossible for me sufficiently to express my admiration of the gallant and steady conduct of the officers and men upon this occasion; but the fact of less than an hour having elapsed from the formation of the columns for the attack, to the period of the troops being within the fort, and this performed in the open day, and in the face of an enemy so very superior in numbers, and so perfectly prepared for resistance will, I trust, convince your Lordship how deserving the officers and troops are of my warmest thanks, and of the highest praise that can be bestowed.
16. To Brigr. Baumgardt, commanding the storming columns, my best thanks are due, and he reports that Capt. Wyllie, acting A. A. G. and Capt. Gilland, his A. D. C, ably assisted him and zealously performed their duties; also to Brigr. Stevenson, commanding the artillery, and Lts. Forster and Cowper, respectively in charge of the Bombay and Shah's artillery, I feel greatly indebted for the steady and scientific manner in which the service of dislodging the enemy from the heights, and afterward effecting an entrance into the fort, was performed; the Brigr. has brought to my notice the assistance he received from Capt Coghlan, his Brigade Major, Lt. Woosnam, his A. D. C, and Lt. Creed, when in battery yesterday.
17. To Lt.-Col. Croker, commanding H. M. 's 17th Regt. , Major Carruthers, commanding Queen's Royal, Maj. Weston, commanding the Bengal 31st N. I. , I feel highly indebted for the manner in which they conducted their respective columns to the attack of the heights, and afterwards to the assault of the town, as well as to Maj. Pennycuick, of the 17 th, who led the advanced guard companies to the same point.
18. To Capt. Peat, Chief Engineer, and to the officers and men of the engineer corps, my acknowledgments are due; to Maj. Neil Campbell, acting Qr. Mr. Genl. of the Bombay army; to Captain Hagart, acting D. A. G; and to Lt. Ramsay, acting A. Q.
Mr. Genl. , my best thanks are due, for the able assistance afforded me by their services.
19. It is with much pleasure I take this opportunity of acknowledging my obligations to Maj. Campbell, for relieving me from the necessity of returning by the route by which the army advanced to Cabool, which being entirely exhausted, must have subjected the troops to great privations, and the horses to absolute starvation. The Q. M. G. took upon himself the responsibility of leading my column through the heart of the Ghiljie and Koroker countries, never hitherto traversed by Europeans, by which our route was considerably shortened, a sufficiency obtained, and great additions made to our geographical knowledge of the country, besides great political advantages obtained in peaceably settling those districts.
20. To my Aide-de-camps, Capt. Robinson and Lt. Halket, as well as to Capt. Outram, who volunteered his services on my personal staff, I received the utmost assistance, and to the latter officer I feel greatly indebted for the zeal and ability with which he has performed various duties that I have required of him upon other occasions as well as the present.
21. It is with much satisfaction I am able to state that the utmost cordiality has existed between the political authorities and myself, and the great assistance I have derived from Capt. Bean in obtaining supplies.
22. After allowing time to make the necessary arrangements for continuing my march, I shall descend into "Cutch Gundava" by the "Moona Pass," having received a favorable report of the practicability of taking guns that way.
23. I have deputed Capt. Outram to take a duplicate of the despatch to the Hon'ble the Govr, of Bombay, by the direct route from hence to "Soomeanee Bunder;" the practicability or otherwise of which, for the passage of troops, I consider it an object of importance to ascertain.
I have, &c.
(Signed.) T. Willshire, Maj.-Genl.
Comg. Bombay column, Army of the Indus.
Return of Casualties in the army under the command of Maj.-Genl. Willshire, C. B. , employed at the Storming of Kelat on the 13th November, 1839.
|Rank and file.||Total||Capts.||Lieuts.||En-
|Rank and file.||Regtl. Bhes-
|Dett. 3rd troop of Horse Artillery||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|1st troop of Cabool Artillery,||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||0||2||2||0||6|
|Gun Lascars attached to ditto.||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||0||1||1||0||0|
|H. M. 's 2nd or Queen's Royal Regt.||1||0||21||22||2||2||0||1||0||2||0||*40||0||47||69||0||1|
|H. M. 's 17th Regt. ,||0||0||6||6||1||0||0||0||0||3||0||29||0||33||39||0||0|
|31st Bengal Native Infantry,||0||1||2||3||1||0||1||0||2||2||1||14||1||22||25||0||0|
|Sappers, Miners and Pioneers,||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||0||0||0||1||1||1||0|
|Two Ressallahs of the 4th Bengal L. H.||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||0||1||1||0||0|
* One Corporal since dead. Missing--none.
Names of Officers killed and wounded.
|Corps.||Rank and Name.||Corps.||Rank and Names.||Remarks.|
|H. M. 's 2nd or Queen's, Royal Regiment,||Lieut. T. Gravatt,||H. M. 's 2nd or Qn. 's Roy. Regt.||Capt. W. M. Lyster,||Severely.|
|" ditto,||" T. Sealy,||Ditto.|
|" ditto,||Lieut. T. W. E. Holdsworth.||Ditto.|
|" ditto,||" D. I. Dickenson||Slightly.|
|" ditto,||Adjt. J. E. Simmons.||Severely.|
|H. M. 's 17th Regt. ,||Captain L. C. Bourchier.||Ditto.|
|31st Bengal N. Infantry,||" Saurin,||Slightly.|
|" ditto,||Ensign Hopper,||Severely.|
(Signed) C. Hagart, Capt., Actg. Dy. Adjt. Genl., Bombay Column, Army of the Indus.
State of the corps engaged at the storming of Kelat, on the 13th November, 1839, under the command of Major-General Willshire, C. B.
Camp at Kelat, 14th November, 1839.
|Actg Dy Adjt Genl||Actg Qr Mr Genl||Dy A Qr Mr Genl||Brig-
|Sub Asst Com Genl||Lieut Cols||Maj-
|Rank and file|
|Dett. 3rd Troop Horse Artillery,||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||0||0||36|
|1st Troop of
|H. M. 's 2nd or Queen's Royal
|H. M. 's 17th Regi-
ment Bengal Native Infantry,
Note.--Two Ressallahs of the Bengal Local Horse remained in charge of the Baggage during the attack.
(Signed) C. Hagart, Captain,
Act. Dy. Adjt. Genl., Bombay Column, Army of the Indus.
List of Belochee Sirdars killed in the assault of Kelat, on the 13th November, 1839.
|Meer Mehrab Khan,||Chief of Kelat.|
|Meer Wullee Mahomed,||The Muengul Sirdar of Wudd.|
|Abdool Kureem,||Rushanee Sirdar.|
|Dad Kureem,||Shuhwanee Sirdar.|
|Mahomed Ruzza,||Nephew of the Wuzzeer Mahomed Hoosen.|
|Khysur Khan,||Ahsehire Sirdar.|
|Dewan Buchah Mull,||Financial Minister.|
|Noor Mahomed, and Tajoo Mahomed,||Shagpee Sirdars.|
|Moola Ruheem Dad,||Ex-Naib of Shawl.|
|With several others of inferior rank.|
(Signed) J. D. D. Bran, Political Agent.
(Signed) J. Stewart, Lieut.-Col.
Secy, to the Govt, of India, Mily. Dept.
with the Rt. Hon. the Govr. Genl.
By order of the Comr. of the Forces,
(Signed) J. R. Lumley, Major-Genl.
Adjt.--Genl., of the Army.
Downing street, 12th August, 1839.
The Queen has been graciously pleased to nominate and appoint Lt.-Genl. Sir John Keane, K. C. B. of the most Hon'ble Order of the Bath; to be a G. C. B.
Whitehall, 11th Dec. 1839.
The Queen has been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the great seal, granting the dignitaries of Baron and Earl of the united kingdom of Gt. Britain and Ireland, unto the Rt. Hon. George Auckland, G. C. B. and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten; by the names, styles, and titles of Baron Eden, of Norwood, in the county of Surrey, and Earl of Auckland,"
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent, &c. granting the dignity of a baron of the U. K. of Great Britain and Ireland, unto Lt.-Genl. Sir J. Keane, G. C. B., and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron Keane, of Ghuznee, in Afghanistan, and of Cappoquin, in the county of Waterford.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent, &c. granting the dignity of a Baronet of the U. K. of Great Britain and Ireland, unto the following gentlemen, and the heirs male of their bodies lawfully begotten, viz. Wm. Hay Macnaghten, Esq. of the Civil Service of the E. I. C, on the Bengal establisement, Envoy and Minister from the Govt, of India to H. M. Shah Shoojah-ool-Moolk; and Col. Henry Pottinger, in the service of the E. I. C, on the Bombay establishment, Political Resident in Cutch.
The Queen has also been pleased to direct Letters Patent, &c. conferring the honor of knighthood upon Lt.-Col. Claud Martine Wade, of the Mily. Service of the E. I. C, on the Bengal establishment, Pol. Resident at Loodiana.
War office, 13th Dec. 1839.
Brevet. The undermentioned commissions are to be dated 23rd July, 1839, Col. Rob. Hen. Sale, 13th foot, to have the local rank of Maj.-Genl. in Affghanistan.
To be Lieut.-Col. in the Army:
|Majors||C. R. Cureton, 16th Lt. Drs.||F. D. Daly, 4th L. D.|
|Jno. Pennycuick, 17th Foot.||R. Carruthers, 2nd Foot.|
|E. T. Tronson, 13th Do.||G. J. McDowel, 16th L. D.|
|To be Majors in the Army:|
|Capt.||T. S. Powel, 6th Foot.||Capt. Jas. Kershaw, 13th Foot.|
|To be Lieut.-Cols. in the East Indies only:|
|Majors||Jas. Keith, Bombay N. I. (D. A. G.)||Geo. Warren, Bengal Eurn. Regt.|
|Jas. MacLaren, Bengal N. I.||C. M. Wade, Bengal N. I.|
|P. L. Pew, (Do.) Arty.||H. F. Salter, Bengal Cavy.|
|J. D. Parsons, (Do.) D. C. G.||David Cunninghame, Bombay Cavy.|
|To be Majors in the East Indies only:|
|Capts.||N. Campbell, Bombay N. I. (D. Q. M. G.)||Jno. Lloyd, Bombay Arty.|
|Geo. Thomson, Bengal Engrs.||Pat. Craigie, Bengal N. I. (D. A. G.)|
|A. C. Peat, Bombay Engr.|
|Capts.||W. Garden, Bengal N. I. (D. Q. M. G.)||W. Alexander, Bengal Cavy.|
|Jno. Hay, Bengal N. I.|
|To have the local rank of Major in Affghanistan:|
|Lieut.||Eldred Pottinger, Bombay Arty.|
Downing street, 20th Dec. 1839.
The Queen has been graciously pleased to nominate and appoint--Col. T. Willshire, Comg. the Bombay troops, and serving with the rank of Maj.-Genl. in India;
Col. J. Thackwell, Comg. the Cavy. and serving with the rank of Maj-Genl. in India; and Col. R. H. Sale11 Comg. 13th Lt. Infy.
and serving with the rank of Maj.-Genl. in Affghanistan to be Knts. Comrs. of the most Hon. Mily. Order of the Bath.
H. M. has also been pleased to nominate and appoint the following officers, in H. M. 's Service, to be companions of the said most Hon. Mily. Order of the Bath.
|Lt.-Cols. J. Scott, 4th L. D.||W. Croker, 17th Foot.|
|W. Persse, 16th Lancers,||R. Macdonald, 4th Foot, D. A. G. (Q. T.) Bombay.|
|H. M. &c. following officers, in the service of the E. I. C. to be companions of the said most Hon. Mily. Order of the Bath:|
|Lt.-Cols. A. Roberts, Bengal N. I. B.||B. Sandwich, Bombay Cavy.|
|T. Stevenson, Bombay Arty.||F. Stalker, Do. N. I.|
|T. Monteath, Bengal N. I.||C. M. Wade, Bengal Do.|
|H. M. Wheeler, Do. Do.||Geo. Thomson, Do. Engineers.|
|C. C. Smyth, do Cavy.||E. Pottinger, Bombay Do.|
Downing street, 21st Jan. 1840.
The Queen has been pleased, &c. Maj.-Genl. Sir W. Cotton, K. C. B. to be a G. C. B.
The Brevet for Khelat.
2nd June, 1840. To be Lient.--Col. in the Army: Major Chas. John Deshon, 17th Foot.
To be Majors in the Army: Capts. Geo. D. I. Raitt, and J. G. S. Gilland, of the 2nd Foot. Capt. J. Darley, 17th Foot, and Capt. O. Robinson, 2nd Foot.
To be Lieut.-Col. in the East Indies only: Major J. S. H. Weston, 31st Regt. Bengal N. I.
To be Majors in the East Indies only: Capts. Sir A. Burnes,12 21st Bombay N. I., C. Hagart, Jas. Outram, and W. Wyllie, Bombay N. I. and Capt. W. Coghlan, Bombay Artillery.
The only officer who has not been noticed, is Lieut.-Col. W. H. Dennie, C. B., H. M. 's 13th Lt. Infy. who led the "Advance," at the storm of Ghuznee, who was wounded in the Burmese War, and for his services there was made a companion of the Bath. He has been in the Army since the 28th Oct. 1801.
Lord Auckland, Govr. Genl. of India to the Secret Committee of the East India Company.
Camp at Bhurtpoor, 12th Dec. 1839.
I do myself the honor to forward copies of the despatches noted in the margin,13 relative to the assault and capture of the Fort of Kelat.
2. The decision, the great military skill, and excellent dispositions of Maj.-Genl. Willshire, in conducting the operations against Kelat, appear to me deserving of the highest commendation. The gallantry, steadiness, and soldier-like bearing of the troops under his command, rendered his plans of action completely successful, thereby again crowning our arms across the Indus with signal victory.
3. I need not expatiate on the importance of this achievement, from which the best effects must be derived, not only in the vindication of our national honor, but also in confirming the security of intercourse between Scinde and Affghanistan, and in promoting the safety and tranquillity of the restored monarchy; but I would not omit to point out that the conduct on this occasion of Major-Genl. Willshire; and of the officers and men under his command (including the 31st Regt. of Bengal N. I., which had not been employed in the previous active operations of the campaign), have entitled them to more prominent notice than I was able to give them in my General Order of Nov. 18th, 1839; and in recommending these valuable services to the applause of the Committee, I trust that I shall not be considered as going beyond my proper province, in stating an earnest hope that the conduct of Maj.-Genl. Willshire in the direction of the operations, will not fail to elicit the approbation of Her Majesty's Govt.
I have, &c.
From the Rt. Hon'ble Lord Hill, Genl. Comr.-in-Chief, H. M. 's Forces, Horse Guards, 4th Dec. 1839, to H. E. Lieut.--Genl. Sir John Keane, G. C. B. &c.
Hd. Qrs. Bombay, 28th Feb. 1840.14
(Ext.) I have perused with the deepest interest the particulars, as detailed by you, of the capture by storm, of the important Fortress of Ghuznee, together with its citadel, by the army under your command, and I have the greatest satisfaction in conveying to you the sense I entertain of your conduct upon that occasion, marked and distinguished as it was, by a display of skill, judgment and valour; and most gallantly supported throughout every part of the difficult and dangerous operation, by the admirable courage and discipline of all the troops.
In submitting these important despatches to the Queen, I did not fail to solicit Her Majesty's attention, not only to the undaunted spirit and gallantry of the troops under your command; but likewise, to the exemplary behaviour immediately subsequent to this daring as successful achievement, behaviour which could only have resulted, as you have justly observed, from the maintenance of a high state of discipline, combined with British courage, and British character; and you will be so good as to avail yourself of an early opportunity to make known to the army under your command, that the Queen has been pleased to express her most gracious approbation of their brilliant and important services.
By Order of H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief.
(Signed) R. Macdonald, Lt.-Col.
Dy. Adjt. Genl. H. M. 's Forces in India.
Head Quarters, Calcutta, 22nd April, 1840.
No. 36. G. O.--H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief in India has been honored by receiving the commands of Her Majesty, contained in a
letter from Genl. Lord Hill, commanding the army in Chief, dated 4th March, 1840, to express Her Majesty's high satisfaction at the judgment, skill, gallantry and discipline, displayed by Major-Genl. Sir Thomas Willshire, K. C. B. and by the Officers and Men of H. M. 's 2nd and 17th Regts, of Foot, in the glorious and successful assault upon the Fortress of Kelat.
His Excellency is aware that these most gracious expressions of the Queen's approbation, are equally intended to be conveyed to the Detachment of the Bombay Horse Artillery, to the 31st. Regt. Bengal Native Infantry, and to the other Detchments engaged; and he is quite certain that Her Majesty's Officers and Men will freely and liberally share with them, the applause thus bestowed, upon their united, and gallant exertions, and upon their splendid, noonday achievement.
To Major P. Craigie.
Dy. A. G. of the Army, with the Army of the Indus.
It has been brought to the notice of the Rt. Hon. the Govr. Genl., that the wives and families of officers attached to the Bengal Column of the Army of the Indus, have been, in some instances, subjected to much inconvenience, by the delay, or interruption, of the remittances on which they are dependent for support, occasioned by the irregularity, or interruption by robbers, of the Dak Communication between the Army and the Company's Provinces.
2. (Ext.) The Govr. Genl. has been pleased to determine, that such portion of their pay and allowances as officers of the Bengal Column of that army may authorize the deduction of, by the field Pay Master, shall be paid to their wives, or families, in the provinces; under such arrangements as shall be made for that purpose, in the Pay Dept. to which the necessary reference will be made.
3. In the mean time, to obviate delay, I am directed to request H. E. the Comr.-in-Chief of the Army of the Indus, will cause Rolls to be prepared, of the officers wishing to avail themselves of this indulgence; specifying the amount to be deducted from each,
and the month from the pay of which the first deduction has been made.
4. These Rolls may be sent in the first instance, by the Fd. Pay Master, to the Depy. Pay Mr. of the district in which the Payees, the officers' wives or families, are residing; and full instructions will be furnished, hereafter, for Capt. Bygrave's guidance, by the Accountant in the Mily. Dept.
(Signed) Jas. Stuart, Lt.-Col.
Offg. Sec. to Govt. of India Mily. Dept.
with the Rt. Hon. the Govr. Genl.
Simla, 4th June, 1839.
Secret Dept. 3rd August, 1840.
The Rt. Hon. the Govr. Genl. in Council is pleased to publish the following list of officers who have been invested with the Order of the Dooranee Empire, by permission of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen.
Members of the 1st Class of the Order of the Dooranee Empire.
Sir W. H. Macnaghten, Bart., Envoy and Minister at the Court of Cabool.
Lt.-Col. Sir C. M. Wade, Kt. C. B. Resident at Indore. Lt.-Col. Sir Alex. Burnes, Kt. Envoy to Kelat and other states.
Members of the 2nd Class.
Maj.-Genl. Simpson, late Comg. Shah Shoojah's Force.
Brigr. A. Roberts, C. B. Hon. Company's Eurn. Regt. Comg. Shah Shoojah's Force.
Brigr. Stephenson, C. B. Lt.-Col. Bombay Arty.
Lt.-Col. Parsons. Depy. Corny. Genl., Bengal Army.
Major Garden, Dy. Qr. Mr. Genl. Bengal Army.
Major Thomson, C. B. Bengal Engineers.
Major Peat, Bombay Engineers.
Major E. D'A. Todd, Bengal Arty., Envoy to Herat.
Major Craigie, Dy. Adjt. Genl., Bengal Army.
Capt. (now Major) J. Outram, Pol. Agent Lower Sinde.
Members of the 3rd Class.
Lt.-Col. Orchard, C. B. Bengal European Regt.
Lt.-Col. Wheeler, C. B. 48th Bengal N. I.
Lt.-Col. Monteath, C. B. 35th Bengal N. I.
Lt.-Col. Smyth, C. B. 3rd Bengal Lt. Cavy.
Lt.-Col. Sandwith, C. B. 1st Bombay Lt. Cavy.
Lt.-Col. Stalker, C. B. 19th Bombay N. I.
Lt.-Col. Salter, 2nd Bengal Lt. Cavy.
Lt.-Col. Warren, Bengal European Regt.
Lt.-Col. Cunningham, 2nd Bombay Lt. Cavy. Comg. Poonah Auxy. Horse.
Lt.-Col. Pew, Bengal Arty.
Lt.-Col. McLaren, 16th Bengal N. I.
Major (now Lt.-Col.) Weston, 31st Bengal N. I.
Major Thomson, Bengal Eurn. Regt.
Major Thomas, 48th Bengal N. I.
Major Hancock, 19th Bombay N. I.
Major C. J. Cunningham, 1st Bombay Lt. Cavy.
Major Alexander, Comg. 4th Local Horse.
Major McSherry, late Major of Brigade, Shah Shoojah's Force.
Major Hagart, Bombay Eurn. Regt.
Major Leech, Pol. Agent, Candahar.
Major E. Pottinger, C. B. Bombay Arty.
Capt. Davidson, 17th Bombay N. I.
Capt. Sanders, Bengal Engineers.
Capt. Johnson, Pay Mr. and Commsst. officer, S. S. Force.
Capt. Anderson, Bengal H. A. Comg. Horse Arty. S. S. Force.
Capt. Macgregor, Pol. Agent at Jellalabad.
Capt. E. B. Conolly, Mily. Asst. and Comg. Escort, Envoy and Minister.
Lt. F. Mackeson, Pol. Agent, Peshawer.
Mr. P. B. Lord, Pol. Agent, Bameean.
N. B. The following Members of the Order have died since its institution.
Brigr. Arnold, Lt.-Col. H. M. 's 16th Lancers, 2nd class.
Lt.-Col. Keith,Dy. Adjt. Genl. Bombay Army, 2nd Class.
Lt.-Col. Herring, C. B. Bengal Infy. 3rd Class,
Capt. Hay, 35th Bengal N. I. 3rd Class.
(Signed) H. Torrens,
Offg. Secy. to the Govt. of India.
List of Officers of the "Army of the Indus" dying from 1st November, 1838, to 1840.
|Nos.||Rank and Names.||Corps.||Dates.||Where and how died, &c.|
|1||Lt. Halliday,||S. S. O. M.||Nov. 1, 1838.||Loodianah.|
|2||Lt. Kewney,||D. A. Q. M. General,||Nov. 5,||Kurnal, Suicide.|
|3||Lt. F. C. Fyers,||H. M. 4 L. D.||Dec. 14,||In Sindh, Suicide.|
|4||Lt. E. W. Sparkes,||2d Q. 's Foot,||Jan. 30, 1839,||Ditto, accidentally burnt to death.|
|5||Lt. T. A. Nixon,||Ditto,||Ditto,|
|6||Asst. Surg. W. E. Hibbert,||Ditto,||Ditto,|
|7||Lt. E. C. Campbell,||Bombay 1st Lt. Cavy.||Feb. 19,||In Sindh.|
|8||Capt. H. J. Keith,||2d Q. 's Foot,||March 3.|
|9||Capt. Hand,||2d Bombay Grenrs.||April,||Kurachee, murdered by the Beloochees.|
|10||Lt.-Col. J. Thomson,||31st Bombay N. I.||April 19,||1st march from Shikarpoor--Apoplexy.|
|11||Lt. Inverarity,||H. M. 's 16th Lancers,||May 28,||Candahar--murdered by Affghans.|
|12||Lt. J. H. Corry,||17th Foot,||June 4,||Proceeding to join. Heat of weather.|
|13||Asst. Surgeon J. Halloran,||Bombay Foot Artillery,||. . .||Ditto, ditto.|
|14||Lt. Chalmers,||43d Bengal N. I.||June,||Bagh, ditto.|
|15||Ensn. Beaufort,||42d ditto,||Ditto,||Ditto, ditto.|
|16||Dr. Hamilton,||17th Foot,||June 21,||Candahar.|
|17||Lt. Baynes,||Bombay Arty.||Aug.||Quetta.|
|18||Capt. Meik,||31st Bengal N. I.||Ditto,||Ditto.|
|19||Brigr. Arnold,||H. M. 's 16th Lancers,||Aug. 20,||Cabool.|
|20||Lt.-Col. J. Herring, C. B.||37th Bengal N. I.||Sept. 3,||At Hyder Khel, near Cabool, murdered by Ghiljies.|
|21||Capt. Fothergill,||13th Foot,||Sept. 5,||Cabool.|
|22||Capt. Gould,||42d Bengal N. I.||Sept. 6,||Quetta.|
|23||Capt. Timings,||Bengal H. A.||Sept. 12,||Cabool, worn out.|
|24||Bt. Major Hart,||43d Bengal N. I.||Oct. 11,||Candahar.|
|25||Capt. J. Hay,||35th ditto,||Oct. 13,||Cabool.|
|Nos||Rank and Names.||Corps.||Dates.||Where and how died, &c|
|26||Major Keith,||D. A. G. Bombay Army,||Oct. 19,||Between Cabool and Quetta, sore throat.|
|27||Capt. Hackitt,||17th Foot,||Ditto,||Jugduluk, between Cabool and Jellalabad.|
|28||Lt. T. Gravatt,||2d ditto,||Nov. 13,||Killed at the storm of Khelat.|
|29||Capt. Hilton,||H. M. 's 16th Lancers,||Dec. 12,||Drowned fording the Jheelum, in the Punjab.|
|30||Capt. Ogle,||H. M. 's 4th L. D.||Dec.||At Shikarpoor.|
|31||Dr. Forbes,||V. Bombay Lt Cavy.||Ditto,||Ditto.|
|32||Dr. Walker,||42d Bengal N. I.||Dec. 22,||Candahar.|
|33||Lt. Collinson,||37th ditto,||Jan. 18, 1840,||Died of wound received in action at Pooshoot near Jellalabad.|
|34||Capt. Sutherland,||13th Foot,||April,||Cabool.|
Return of all Death Casualties (killed, &c.) in the Bengal Column of the Army of the Indus, from 10th Dec. 1838 to the 31st Dec. 1839.
Hd. Qrs. Camp at Ferozpoor, 1st Jan. 1840.
|Eurn. Comssd. Officers.||European N. C. O., Rank and File.||Native Comssd. N. C. O., Rank and File.||Cattle.|
|Average Strength in year 1839.||Arm.||Corps and Detachments.||Colonels.||Lt.-Cols.||Capts.||Lieuts.||Ensigns, &c.||Assist. Surgeons.||Ser-
|Rank and File.||Soob-
|Havrs. &c.||Naicks, &c.||Trumpet-
|Rank and File.||Horses.||Gun Camels.|
|102||Arty.,||2nd T. 2nd B. H. A||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||0||10||0||0||0||0||0||1||30||0|
|161||2nd Co. 6th B. A.||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||0||1||18||0||44|
|463||Cavalry,||H. M. 16th||1||0||1||1||0||0||2||0||0||1||62||0||0||0||0||0||0||219||0|
|440||2nd Lt. Cavy.,||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||3||0||0||20||206||0|
|160||Dett. 1st local Horse||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||4||75||0|
|879||4th Local Hrs.||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||37||540||0|
|254||Sappers and Miners,||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||15||0||0|
|502||1st Brigade Infy.||H. M. 13th Lt. Infantry,||0||0||1||0||0||0||2||4||0||2||85||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|728||16th Regt. N.||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||2||7||0||53||0||0|
|741||48th do. do.||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||6||6||0||42||0||0|
|676||2nd do.||31st do. do.||0||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||0||6||4||0||43||0||0|
|617||42nd do. do.||0||0||0||1||1||1||1||0||0||0||0||2||1||8||5||2||59||0||0|
|744||43rd do. do.||0||0||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||24||0||0|
|566||4th do.||1st European Regt.||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||0||0||27||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|730||35th Regt. N. I.||0||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||2||0||25||0||0|
|703||37th do. do.||0||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||5||1||0||27||0||0|
|(1)||Total of each,||14||203||450|
N. B. The H. A. marched with 169, 16th Lancers 463, 2nd Cavalry 440. 3rd Ditto 450. Dett. 1st Local Horse with 160, and 4th Local Horse, with 797. Total 2,479 Horses. The loss of 1,146 being 46 P. C. (including cast, &c. &c.) The Bombay Column, out of about 1700 horses, lost 418, equal to more than 27¾ P. C. Total Bengal and Bombay horses lost 1564, or nearly 38 P. C. The Bombay loss is calculated up to its return. The transport train lost 195 out of 500 bullocks. Hackery bullocks 326. Total loss of 521 bullocks.
(1) Add park of artillery 684. Also 4th T. 3rd B. H. A. (lent to the Shah's force) 140, making the total 9,831 men.
Observations on Table No. 2, Admissions into Hospital, and Deaths in the "Army of the Indus," for the year 1839.
The sickness in the 31st and 42nd Regts. N. I. is to be ascribed more to the fatigue and privations the men underwent before their arrival in Shawl (May 1839), than to any peculiar unhealthiness in the situation of Quetta. These Regts, marched from Shikarpoor by Detts, in charge of Convoys, during the months of April, May, June and part of July; and suffered greatly from incessant fatigue, daily, indeed hourly, exposure to intense heat, (the thermometer one day stood at 135° in a tent,) and severe privations arising from want of water; which, when procurable, was for the most part very bad.
On these parties reaching Shawl, they were in a comparatively cold climate, and incapable of protecting themselves against its chilling effects, in consequence of many of them, (the whole of the 31st N. I. certainly,) having been compelled to throw away all their bedding and warm clothing, such as meerzaees (quilted jackets) and rusaees (quilts) from want of carriage, arising from casualties among their camels.
The men not being able to procure vegetables, milk, and other articles of diet considered necessary by them, must have had an injurious effect; more particularly as for some time they had no dhall, (split peas.)
The 43rd N. I. arrived at Quetta in March, 1839, consequently continued healthy.
The 43rd N. I. arrived at Quetta in March, the 31st and 42nd N. I. not till May, 1839. The 37th N. I. reached Candahar in May, 1839. The rest of the Bengal troops reached Candahar in April, 1839.
The climate of Shawl is variable, the changes of temperature sudden, and the range of the thermometer great, viz. about 45° within the 24 hours in tents, and about 90° in the open air. Nevertheless, if the sepoys arrived there in good health, had sufficient clothing (extra to what is customary in Hindostan during the cold season); abundance of warm-bedding; good huts; and wholesome food, it is the opinion of medical men, that they would remain as healthy as Native troops generally are in India.
Around the town of Quetta, the water lies near the surface, and forces itself upwards by many springs which stagnate, and cause numerous small morasses. These and the constant irrigation of the fields, may account for the intermittent fevers which always prevailed at Quetta in autumn.
This part of the valley, however, is capable of being drained, which operation would, it is said, decidedly add much to the salubrity of the place, and probably would free it altogether from fevers.
The Bolan Pass is open for travellers during the whole year. The difficulty and danger lies between Dadur and Shikarpoor in the hot weather.
The cold this winter at Quetta has stood at 10°, and 50° in a tent with a fire.
No. 2.--Monthly Numerical Return, shewing the number of Admissions and Deaths, in the European and Native Troops of the "Army of the Indus," from 1st Jan. to 31st Dec. 1839, inclusive.
Camp Jellalabad, 1st Jan. 1840.
|H. M. 's 16th Lancers, average strength 463½.||2nd Troop 2nd Bgde. H. Arty., average strength 102½|