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Great White Fleet: A Select Bibliography

US Government Reports
Memoirs
Books
Journal Articles



US Government Reports

United States Navy Department. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy, 1908. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1908. [The report begins by commenting on the world cruise.]

___. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy, 1909. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1909. [The report comments on what the fleet learned from the world cruise.]

___. Information Relative to the Voyage of the United States Atlantic Fleet Around the World, December 16, 1907 to February 22, 1909. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1910. [This booklet gives a thorough description of all of the ships that completed all or parts of the world cruise. It also gives a detailed description of the overall costs of the cruise.]

United States Navy Department. Bureau of Navigation. Men on Board Ships of the Atlantic Fleet, Bound for the Pacific, December 16, 1907. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1908. [Includes a complete list of the sailors that left Hampton Roads for the world cruise on 16 December 1907.]


Memoirs

Coontz, Robert E. From the Mississippi to the Sea. Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1930. [Admiral Coontz served as the executive officer of the battleship Nebraska and discusses his part in the world cruise in Chapters 20 and 21.]

Evans, Robley D. An Admiral’s Log: Being Continued Recollections of Naval Life. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1910. [Admiral Evans discusses the reasons for and preparations for the world cruise in Chapters 29-32.]

Evans, Robley D. List of Vessels and Roster of Officers of the Vessels of the U. S. Atlantic Fleet Making the Cruise to the Pacific Coast. N.p.: USS Connecticut Press, 1907.

Fiske, Bradley A. From Midshipman to Rear Admiral. New York: Century, 1919. [The Admiral was supposed to serve as the Captain of the battleship Illinois on the world cruise. He had to request reassignment because of his wife’s illness.]

Halsey, William F., and J. Bryan. Admiral Halsey's Story. New York: Whittlesey House, 1947. [Admiral Halsey served as an appointed ensign aboard USS Kansas. When the battle fleet arrived for its visit to Japan, he believed that the welcome the fleet received from the Japanese was less than sincere. Halsey also commented that recent victories over China and Russia were marked by treachery on the part of the Japanese.]

Johnson, Earl Freeman. Some Navy Years 1903-1919. N.p., 1963. [The author of this unpublished memoir served on Kentucky, Yankton and New Jersey during the world cruise. It includes a number of interesting and informative personal memories from the cruise.]

Jones, Robert Dorsey. With the American Fleet From the Atlantic to the Pacific. Seattle, WA: Harrison Publishing, 1908. [Published at the time of the cruise, it is a commemoration of the first half of the voyage from Hampton Roads to San Francisco.]

Nelson, L. H., comp. On the Pacific with Our Navy. Portland, ME: L. H. Nelson Company, 1908. [A collection of photographs published in a small book to commemorate the world cruise of the fleet.]

Roosevelt, Theodore. Autobiography. New York: Macmillan, 1916. [In the section of the autobiography that addresses the world cruise, former President Roosevelt states that he wanted the American public to see what the Navy could do. However, the former President also seems to devote much of his time stressing how the world cruise of the battle fleet would send a message to a number of foreign powers. In the case of the Japanese, Roosevelt believed that the world cruise of the fleet would send a message of strength to a potential adversary. The world cruise compares favorably to the problems the Russian fleet endured when it was sailing to its defeat at the hands of the Japanese during the battle of Tsushima in 1904. Involving the European powers, the former President also wanted to send a message of strength to an ally, Britain, along with a possible enemy, Germany. At that time, Germany was engaged in a battleship race with the British. This naval arms race also concerned influential people in the US.]

Schroeder, Seaton. A Half Century of Naval Service. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1922. [Admiral Schroeder began the world cruise as a Captain in command of the battleship Virginia. When Admirals Thomas and Evans left the fleet, he was promoted to acting Rear Admiral and detailed to command a battleship division.]

Souvenir of Uncle Sam's Great Fleet on the Pacific. San Francisco: Pacific Novelty, 1908.

Stirling, Yates. Sea Duty: The Memoirs of a Fighting Admiral. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1939. [At the time of the cruise of the Great White Fleet, Admiral Stirling served as the gunnery officer aboard Connecticut.]

Stumpf, Charles Aloysious. On a Cruise with the U. S. Pacific Fleet to the Orient. An Account of the American Bluejacket Afloat and Ashore. Boston: Roxburgh Publishing Co., c1915. [This memoir, written by an enlisted sailor, chronicles a later voyage of the Navy to a number of destinations in Asia. It does not cover the world cruise. But it is valuable because it provides a detailed description of the people and places visited earlier in Asia by the Great White Fleet.]

Wiley, Henry A. An Admiral from Texas. New York: Doubleday, 1934. [During the world cruise, Admiral Wiley was the executive officer of the battleship USS Kentucky.]

Williamson, Thomas, Jr. The Cruise of the "Kangaroo" (The U.S.S. "Panther") around the World with the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, 1907-1909. Narragansett, RI: Narragansett Times, 1936-1937. [A series of sea stories written by the author who served on USS Panther in the world cruise. The stories constitute a “log” of the real cruise and appeared in the Rhode Island Narragansett Times from 1936 to 1937.]


Books

Alden, John Doughty. The American Steel Navy: A Photographic History of the U. S. Navy from the Introduction of the Steel Hull in 1883 to the Cruise of the Great White Fleet, 1907-1909. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute, 1972. [Provides a detailed and thorough description of the ships in the US steel navy. One section provides an account of the Great White Fleet.]

Around the World With the Fleet 1907-1909; A Pictorial Log of the Cruise. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute, 1929. [This book, published on the 20th anniversary of the world cruise by the Naval Institute, is a photographic record of that cruise.]

Babcock, Penelope. "The World Cruise of the US Navy, 1907-1909." In A Psychological Warfare Casebook, compiled by William E. Daugherty, 84-88. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1958. [The author asserts that President Roosevelt used the around-the-world-voyage of the fleet as a way to convey to the Japanese the futility of entering into a war with the United States.]

Bailey, Thomas A. Theodore Roosevelt and the Japanese-American Crises. Stanford University, CA: Stanford University Press, 1934. [Discusses President Roosevelt’s use of the voyage of the Great White Fleet in dealing with Japanese-American relations.]

Beale, Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984. Originally published: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1956.

Braisted, William R. The United States Navy in the Pacific, 1897-1909. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1958. [Emphasizes the role of the US Navy in conducting diplomacy in the Pacific.]

Braisted, William R. The United States Navy in the Pacific, 1909-1922. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1971. [In Chapter 1 the author places the voyage of the Great White Fleet in the overall context of the emerging thinking of American political and military leaders on Japan as a possible adversary.]

Brown, Thomas Harry. “Theodore Roosevelt and the Great White Fleet.” Master’s thesis, New York University, 1965. [The author focuses on gunnery, describing the target practice that the fleet conducted while it was in Magdalena Bay, Mexico during its around-the-world voyage. He also describes how the fleet devised technical improvements to gunnery while it was still engaged in the world cruise.]

Carter, Samuel. The Incredible Great White Fleet. New York: Crowell-Collier, 1971. [Gives the reader a general description of the voyage of the Great White Fleet without spending much time explaining the reasons for the voyage.]

Challener, Richard D. Admirals, Generals and American Foreign Policy, 1898-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973. [Several members of the Joint Army/ Navy General board opposed the decision of President Roosevelt to send the main fleet to the Pacific because they believed the Japanese would take this opportunity to initiate hostilities.]

Cummings, Damon E. Admiral Richard Wainwright and the United States Fleet. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1962. [Chapter 24 focuses on then Captain Wainwright’s preparation of one of the battleships for the around-the-world voyage. Chapters 25 and 26 discuss Wainwright’s voyage with the Great White Fleet.]

Dennett, Tyler. Roosevelt and the Russo-Japanese War; a Critical Study of American Policy in Eastern Asia in 1902-1905, Based Primarily on the Private Papers of Theodore Roosevelt. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, 1925. [Chapter 7 gives the author’s description of Theodore Roosevelt’s view of the potential threat the US faces from the Japanese.]

Eller, E. M. "The Fleet in the Strait of Magellan, 1907." In The Panama Canal: the Evolution of the Isthmian Crossing, edited by John Haskell Kemble. San Francisco: Book Club of California, 1965. [This is a small folder including a brief account of the Great White Fleet’s world cruise and a small color plate of the Henry Reuterdahl painting entitled “The American Fleet in the Strait of Magellan during its World Cruise, 1907.”

Esthus, Raymond A. Theodore Roosevelt and Japan. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967. [In Chapter 7, the author asserts that the voyage of the Great White Fleet was in part a response to a potential war with Japan.]

Falk, Edwin A. Fighting Bob Evans. New York: Jonathan Cape & Harrison Smith, 1931. [Chapters 24 and 25 cover the time that Admiral Evans spent as commander of the Great White Fleet during its around-the-world voyage.]

Fredman, Lionel E. The United States Enters the Pacific. Sydney, Australia: Angus and Robertson, 1969.

Harbaugh, William Henry. Power and Responsibility; The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1961. [In pages 300-302, the author comes to the conclusion that the world cruise of the fleet may have failed to serve the long term economic and military interests of the United States in Asia.]

Hart, Robert A. The Great White Fleet: Its Voyage Around the World, 1907-1909. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1965. [Includes an extensive bibliography with published and unpublished documents from the United States, Britain and Germany.]

Hatch, Carl E. The Big Stick and the Congressional Gavel: A Study of Theodore Roosevelt's Relations with His Last Congress, 1907-1909. New York: Pageant, 1967.

Hoyt, Edwin Palmer. Pacific Destiny: the Story of America in the Western Sea from the Early 1800s to 1980s. New York: W. W. Norton, 1981.

Lord, Walter. The Good Years: From 1900 to the First World War. New York: Harper and Bros., 1960.

Mahan, A. T. Naval Administration and Warfare: Some General Principles, With Other Essays. Boston: Little, Brown, 1908. [In the articles dealing with the cruise of the fleet, Mahan describes how the cruise improved the efficiency of the fleet.]

Marks, Frederick W. Velvet on Iron: The Diplomacy of Theodore Roosevelt. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1979. [In Chapter 2, the author asserts that the main purpose of the around-the-world voyage of the Great White Fleet was to deter the Japanese from launching a war by showing them that the US Navy had the means to fight if necessary.]

Marolda, Edward J, ed. Theodore Roosevelt, the U. S. Navy, and the Spanish-American War. New York: Palgrave, 2001. [Chapter 1 asserts that one of the reasons President Roosevelt had for sending the Great White Fleet around the world was to deter the Japanese from initiating a war with the US.]

Matthews, Franklin. Back to Hampton Roads: Cruise of the U. S. Atlantic Fleet from San Francisco to Hampton Roads, July 7, 1908 - February 22, 1909. New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1909. [In the second volume chronicling the world cruise, the author covers the second leg of the fleet’s voyage as it sailed through the Pacific Ocean on its way back around the world to Hampton Roads. When the fleet visited some Pacific ports, Matthews comments on how the visit of the fleet might influence a possible war with Japan.]

Matthews, Franklin. With the Battle Fleet: Cruise of the Sixteen Battleships of the United States Atlantic Fleet from Hampton Roads to the Golden Gate, December, 1907 – May, 1908. New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1909. [This author was a journalist who sailed with the battle fleet on the world cruise. Volume 1 addresses the first leg of the cruise as it sailed to a number of destinations in South America.]

McGowan, Samuel. Operations of Pay Department of the Atlantic Fleet on Cruise around the World. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1910. [Senate Document No. 646, 61st Congress, 2nd Session.]

Miller, Roman J(ohn). Around the World with the Battleships. Chicago: A.C. McClurg, 1909.

Miller, Roman J(ohn). Pictorial Log of the Battle Fleet Cruise around the World. Chicago: A.C. McClurg, 1909.

Morison, Elting E. Admiral Sims and the Modern American Navy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1942.

Nelson, L.H., comp. On the Pacific with Our Navy. Portland, ME: L.H. Nelson, 1908. [A collection of photographs published in a small book to commemorate the world cruise of the fleet.]

Neu, Charles E. An Uncertain Friendship: Theodore Roosevelt and Japan, 1906-1909. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967. [Chapter 4 discusses President Roosevelt’s rationale for sending the fleet on its around-the-world voyage. Chapter 5 discusses preparations for the voyage.]

O’Gara, Gordon Carpenter. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of the Modern Navy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1943. [The author asserts that one of the reasons President Roosevelt supported a naval buildup was deteriorating relations with the Japanese.]

Reckner, James R. Teddy Roosevelt’s Great White Fleet. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988. [This excellent book has an extensive, useful bibliography addressing the voyage of the fleet from many different perspectives and related subjects. It includes numerous unpublished documents.]

Reilly, John C. American Battleships, 1886-1923: Predreadnought Design and Construction. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1980. [This book gives a thorough description of the armament, protection, and engines along with pictures of the ships that sailed in the world cruise.]

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1951-1954. [Volumes 5 and 6, The Big Stick, cover the years 1905-1909.]

Roosevelt, Theodore. The Naval War of 1812: The History of the United States Navy During the Last War with Great Britain, to Which is Appended an Account of the Battle of New Orleans. New York: Review of Reviews, 1904. [This is the first book that Theodore Roosevelt wrote. It shows his depth of interest in naval policy and history. He also states his strong support for the development of a strong navy.]

Roosevelt, Theodore. "The Voyage of the Battleship Fleet." In The Free Citizen, edited by Hermann Hagedorn, 177-181. New York: Theodore Roosevelt Association, 1958.

Russell, Francis. The American Heritage History of the Confident Years. New York: American Heritage Publishing, 1969.

Sullivan, Mark. Our Times: The United States, 1900-1925. New York: Charles Scribner’s Son’s, 1926-35.

Sweetman, Jack. American Naval History: An Illustrated Chronology, the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, 1775-Present. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

Turk, Richard W. The Ambiguous Relationship: Theodore Roosevelt and Alfred Thayer Mahan. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987. [Chapter 10 describes the different ways that President Roosevelt and Admiral Mahan viewed the voyage of the Great White Fleet.]

Webster’s American Military Biographies. Springfield, MA: G&C Merriam, 1978.

Willoughby, Malcolm F. "Yankton," Yacht and Man of War. Cambridge, MA: Crimson Printing, 1935. [Chapters 6-8 address Yankton and its duties during the world cruise.]

Wimmel, Kenneth. Theodore Roosevelt and the Great White Fleet: American Sea Power Comes of Age. Washington, DC: Brassey’s, 1998. [Chapters 9 and 10 discuss the reasons for the cruise. They also give a description of the cruise. The book is mostly concerned with describing how the US Navy changed between 1865 and 1909.]


Journal Articles

"America in the Pacific." Living Age 256 (11 January 1908): 119-121.

Andrews, Philip. "Whiling Away the Endless Miles and Hours." Harper's Weekly 52 (21 March 1908): 20-21. [Lieutenant Commander Andrews, another military correspondent for Harper’s Weekly, is the executive officer of USS Kansas. He gives his impressions of the welcome the battle fleet received when it reached Rio de Janeiro.]

____. “From Whites to Blue.” Harper’s Weekly 52 (25 April 1908): 10-11. [Lieutenant Commander Andrews describes the visit of the Navy to Callao, Peru.]

Arnold, J. H. "The Reception of the American Battleship Squadron at Amoy." Overland 57 (May 1911): 508-517. [The article describes the reception the Chinese government gave when the fleet visited Amoy.]

Bailey, Thomas A. "The World Cruise of the American Battleship Fleet, 1907-1909." Pacific Historical Review 1 (December 1932): 389-423.

Barry, R. H. "The Lads Who Are Taking the Fleet Around." Cosmopolitan 44 (March 1908): 371-379.

____. “One Night With the Big Fleet.” Cosmopolitan 46 (March 1909): 460-465. [An account of a humorous incident that occurred while the Great White Fleet was cruising to Rio de Janeiro.]

"A Beautiful Sea Spectacle: The Argentine Squadron and the [Great White] Fleet." Outlook 88 (28 March 1908): 667-668. [This editorial from Outlook, a journal published during the time of the world cruise, expresses a favorable opinion of the world cruise and its potential benefits as the US Navy battle fleet sailed on the first leg of its journey around the continent of South America.]

“Behind the Guns in Magdalena Bay.” Harper’s Weekly 52 (25 April 1908): 14. [This issue includes a section of some photographs of the fleet during its gunnery practice in Magdalena Bay, Mexico.]

Benjamin, Park. “What is an ‘Adequate’ Navy?” Independent 65 (28 July 1908): 186-189. [Critical of the construction of the battleships that sailed on the world cruise. One of the criticisms is that many of the battleships will become obsolete shortly after completion.]

____. "The Parade [of the Battle Fleet] to the Pacific." Independent 63 (26 December 1907): 1545-1548.

____. “Warships as Playthings.” Independent 64 (2 April 1908): 737-740. [Another article critical of the world cruise. For example, the author claims the coal supply for the fleet is vulnerable to attack and the fleet doesn’t carry enough ammunition.]

Brewer, Charles B. “The Truth About the Navy.” Harper’s Weekly 52 (15 February 1908): 10-13, 32. [The author of this article replies to some of the charges made by Henry Reuterdahl about the weaknesses of US Navy battleships.]

Brooks, S. "Voyage of the American Fleet." Fortune 89 (February 1908): 201-215.

____. "Voyage of the American Fleet." Living Age 256 (7 March 1908): 579-590.

Callaghan, P. M. “Great White Fleet Veteran: An Invaluable Experience.” All Hands 759 (April 1980): 38-43.

Chamberlin, E. K. "Japanese Scare at Magdelena Bay." Pacific Historical Review 24 (November 1955): 345-359.

Charlton, W.R. “The Australian Welcome to the Fleet.” Independent 65 (8 October 1908): 812-818. [The editor of the Sydney Mail views the arrival of the US Navy as possibly foreshadowing a “tacit” alliance between the United States and Australia.]

Clark, Myron A. “Blue Jackets at Rio de Janeiro.” Independent 64 (5 March 1908): 509-510. [Describes the festivities that awaited the arrival of the US Navy in Rio de Janeiro.]

"The Composition of the Fleet which Sailed Around the World." Scientific American 100 (20 February 1909): 156. [This short article describes the battleships that completed the world cruise.]

"Conditions of the Battleships After the Long Cruise [Around the World]." Scientific American 100 (22 May 1909): 386. [This Scientific American editorial strongly criticizes the critics of the world cruise. It also rebuts reports that asserted the fleet was signifcantly damaged by the world cruise.]

"Cruise of the American Fleet to the Pacific." Living Age 255 (16 November 1907): 440-442.

"Cruise of the Battle Fleet." Outlook 87 (21 December 1907): 839-841.

"The Cruise of the Battle Fleet, 1907 1909." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 52-55 (1927-1929): unpaged plates.

Davis, Henry C. "The First Page of the Battle Fleet's Log." Harper's Weekly 52 (18 January 1908): 10-12. [This particular writer, a Marine Captain serving aboard USS Ohio, describes his experiences as the battle fleet completed the first leg of its journey to the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago.]

____. "Leaves from the Log [of the Great White Fleet]." Harper's Weekly 52 (29 February 1908): 16-17. [Marine Captain Davis, a Harper’s Weekly military correspondent, writes about the daily routine of the sailors and marines as they sailed to Rio de Janeiro.]

____. "Dawn Comes Up Like Thunder: Magdelena Bay." Harper's Weekly 52 (25 April 1908): 11-12. [Captain Davis gives his personal recollections of the fleet conducting gunnery practice while it was anchored at Magdalena Bay, Mexico.]

____. "With the [Great White] Fleet on Its Triumphal Return." Harper's Weekly 52 (16 May 1908): 16. [Captain Davis describes some of the plans the people of San Francisco have to welcome the arrival of the US Navy battle fleet.]

Dugal, Donald. "Journal of a Bluejacket Written at Magdalena Bay." Overland 52 (August 1908): 137-143.

Dunn, Robert. "Work and Play of the [Great White] Fleet." Harper's Weekly 52 (25 January 1908): 10-12. [The Harper’s Weekly correspondent for the world cruise describes the work and leisure routine of the sailors and marines who served on the ships making the cruise.]

____. "Crossing the Line with the Fleet." Harper's Weekly 52 (22 February 1908): 10-12. [The special correspondent for Harper’s Weekly describes the “Crossing the line” ceremony as the US Navy Atlantic fleet crosses the equator. This ceremony is an initiation for sailors who have never sailed south of the equator.]

____. "Through the Straits of Magellan." Harper's Weekly 52 (18 April 1908): 10-12. [The author describes the passage of the fleet through the Straights of Magellan at the tip of South America.]

____. "With the Shore Patrol During the Homeward Run of the Battleship Fleet." Harper's Weekly 52 (9 May 1908): 13-16. [Harper’s Weekly correspondent recounts the story of the liberty enjoyed by some of the sailors from the fleet while the fleet was anchored at Magdalena Bay, Mexico, for its target practice.]

____. "End of the Voyage [of the Great White Fleet]." Harper’s Weekly 52 (13 June 1908): 13. [Robert Dunn writes about the rapturous welcome the fleet received when it arrived at San Francisco for the completion of the first half of the world cruise.]

Dutton, A. "When the Great [White] Fleet Arrives." Overland 51 (March 1908): 265-269.

Dyer, John F. "The Great Naval Cruise Its Good Effects on Our Foreign Relations The Results to the Navy Itself The Programme for the Journey Around the World." World's Work 52 (June 1908): 10351-10363.

Earle, Edward M. "The Navy’s Influence on our Foreign Relations." Current History 13 (February 1926): 648-655. [The author of this analysis chronicles the late 19th and early 20th century buildup of the US Navy. He also recounts Theodore Roosevelt’s central role in that buildup from the Spanish-American War to the Around the World Cruise.]

"End of the Battleship Cruise." Current Literature 46 (March 1909): 238-243. [Current Literature prints a number of opinions from newspapers that are published in countries involved in the naval arms race.]

"Evolutions [of the Battle Fleet] in Sydney Harbor." Current Literature 45 (October 1908): 369-373. [When the fleet arrived for its visit to Sydney, Australia, Current Literature wrote an analysis of the Australian reaction to the arrival of the US fleet. It also attempted to determine if there were any reasons to explain the passionate welcome the fleet received from Australian citizens.]

“The Fleet Visits Other Ports in Australia.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 54, no. 9 (September 1928): li-lvi. [Photographs taken by a participant of the world cruise of the battle fleet when it visited ports subsequent to Sydney in Australia.]

“For a Fight or a Frolic.” Harper’s Weekly 52 (4 January 1908): 10-12. [This unnamed journalist chronicles the departure of the Atlantic fleet from Hampton Roads.]

Forrest, Newton. “American Navy Second in the World.” Harper’s Weekly 52 (18 January 1908): 22. [Favorable comparison of the US Navy to other European and Pacific powers.]

The Great White Fleet." Navy, The Magazine of Sea Power (August 1958): 8-10. [This short article commemorates the 50th anniversary of the arrival of the battle fleet for its visit to San Francisco. It contains a description of one of the participants, a retired Rear Admiral, Richard McCullough.]

“Great White Fleet Visits Hawaii.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 54, no. 7 (July 1928): xxxiii-xlvi. [Photographs of the fleet visiting Hawaii.]

“Great White Fleet Visits New Zealand.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 54, no. 8 (August 1928): xxxiii–xlviii. [Photographs of the fleet and its sailors during their visit to New Zealand.]

“Great White Fleet visits Sydney, Australia.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 54, no. 8 (August 1928): xlix–lvi. [Photographs of the fleet visiting Sydney, Australia.]

Hammond Jr., James W. “A Fleet for All Seasons.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 108, no. 12 (December 1982): 66-72. [Colonel Hammond states, that in his opinion, the main reason for the world cruise is advertising the strength of the US navy to “potential adversaries”. The author also places the world cruise of the fleet in the overall context of naval reform.]

Hewitt, H. Kent. "The Around the World Cruise, December 1907 February 1909, by a Participant. First Part: Hampton Roads to San Francisco." Shipmate 21 (July 1958): 12-13. [Admiral Hewitt recounts the first half of the world cruise. He has a number of insightful comments describing the various weaknesses of the battle fleet.]

____. "The Around the World Cruise, December 1907 February 1909, by a Participant. Second Part: The West Coast, Westward, and Home." Shipmate 21 (August 1958): 2-3. [In the second of two articles, Admiral Hewitt comments unfavorably on the lack of spontaneity exhibited by the Japanese during the visit of the battle fleet.]

Holbrook, Francis M. “The Cruise of the Great White Fleet.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 85, no. 3 (March 1959): 99. [Mr. Holbrook comments on a photograph of the tug Imperial which is shown in a photograph astern of the battleship Connecticut. He helped to build the tug Imperial.]

Hoomes, B. C. "With the Bluejackets of the Alabama and the Maine." Outing 52 (March 1909): 674-689. [Sailors from the battleships Maine and Alabama give this journalist an account of their role in the world cruise of the battle fleet.]

"How Chile Received Our Fleet." Review of Reviews 37 (May 1908): 609-610.
[Another Review of Reviews editorial comments favorably of the reception the fleet received when it arrived for its visit to Chile.]

Howland, H. J. "The Return of the Battle Fleet." Outlook 91 (6 March 1909): 541-547. [Mr. Howland describes the voyage of the battle fleet and recounts how the voyage helped to improve the marksman skills of the sailors who completed the journey.]

“In the Turret.” Harper’s Weekly 52 (25 April 1908): 15-16. [This short article and illustration explains how the main turret of a US Navy battleship operates.]

"Is Our Pacific Cruise Pacific?" Current Literature 44 (January 1908): 12-17. [In another editorial critical of the world cruise, Current Literature writes that that the world cruise may be a lever to obtain more funding for the construction of battleships.]

"Itinerary of the Cruise [of the Great White Fleet]." Scientific American 100 (20 February 1909): 157.
[Scientific American magazine prints an itinerary of the just completed world cruise of the battle fleet.]

Johnson, Arthur M. “Theodore Roosevelt and the Navy.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 84, no. 10 (October 1958): 76-82. [The author explains reasons for the world cruise: promotion of the Navy, obtaining support for the completion of the Panama Canal and detering war with Japan.]

Kaplan, Milton. “At the Turn of the Century (Do You Remember?): Prints Made From a Selection of Photographic Negatives by William Henry Jackson in the Photographic Division of the Library of Congress.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 80, no. 4 (April 1954): 436-439. [Interesting photographs show the life of sailors on turn of the century US Navy ships. Photograph of marines drilling on the battleship Kentucky of the Great White Fleet is included in this article.]

Lesher, Frank B. "Around the World with the Fleet." Kittochtinny Historical Society 11 (1939): 479-493.

"Lessons and Results of the Battleship Cruise." Scientific American 100 (20 February 1909): 146. [This editorial criticizes the critics of the world cruise after the fleet returned from that cruise to Hampton Roads.]

Livermore, Seward W. "The American Navy as a Factor in World Politics." American Historical Review 63 (April 1908): 863-879.

____. "American Strategic Diplomacy in the South Pacific, 1890-1914." Pacific Historical Review 12 (1943): 35-51.

"Log of the Great Fleet." World's Work 16 (May 1908): 10175-10177.

Lusk, Hugh H. “A Visit of the Fleet to Australia.” Harper’s Weekly 52 (2 May 1908): 30. [An Australian writer describes the reaction of Australians to the arrival of the fleet. The author also attempts to analyze the impact of the visit on Australia’s relations with other Asian countries.]

Mahan, Alfred T. "Off to Japan." Harper's Weekly 51 (23 November 1907): 1732. [In the first of two articles, Captain Mahan tells the story of the Pacific Ocean cruise of the Iroquois.]

____. "When United States Warships Held Japan's Harbors." Harper's Weekly 51 (7 December 1907): 1793. [In the second article, Captain Mahan tells the story of the arrival of the Iroquois in Japan. He also describes a number of events that occurred while the Iroquois was in Japanese waters.]

____. "The True Significance of the Pacific Cruise." Scientific American 97 (7 December 1907): 407. [Captain Mahan, an acclaimed naval historian and analyst, wrote this short article to rebut critics of the world cruise.]

"The True Significance of the Pacific Cruise." Review of Reviews 37 (January 1908): 88-89. [This Review of Reviews editorial supports the training benefits of the world cruise for the officers and sailors of the US Navy.]

Marvin, William L. “The Greatest Naval Cruise of Modern Times.” Review of Reviews 37 (April 1908): 456-463. [This writer cites a number of points to support the world cruise, including that the cost of the voyage will be cheaper than some claim, and that the cruise will promote efficiency in the fleet.]

McKinley, Mike. "The Cruise of the Great White Fleet." All Hands 841 (April 1987): 4-15. [This article tells in general terms the story of the world cruise of the battle fleet. It has a useful description of the process of coaling a ship.]

Meriwether, Walter S. "The Practice Cruise to the Pacific." Harper's Weekly 51 (30 November 1907): 1754-1756. [This journalist has written an article that is critical of the assertion that the navy will be able to train effectively during the world cruise. He believes that the sailors will be concerned mainly with maintaining the ships while enduring the considerable stress of the world cruise.]

Moore, John Hammond. “The Eagle and the ‘Roo’: American Fleets in Australian Waters.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 97, no. 11 (November 1971): 43-53. [Describes how visits of the US Navy to Australia, which began with the Great White Fleet’s visit, helped to develop ties between the United States and Australia.]

Neu, Charles E. "Theodore Roosevelt and American Involvement in the Far East, 1901-1909." Pacific Historical Review 35 (1966): 433-450.

"Our Armada: Its Precursors and Significance." Harper's Weekly 52 (4 January 1908): 7. [This editorial comments on the implications of the world cruise of the battle fleet on international affairs. It attempts to analyze how a number of European and Pacific powers will react to the world cruise.]

"Our Battleship Show." Independent 62 (20 June 1907): 1481-1482. [An editorial from the Independent comments on some of the favorable training benefits for the officers and sailors of the fleet during the world cruise.]

“Photographs Commemorating the 20th Anniversary of the Departure of the US Navy Ships for the World Cruise.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 53, no. 12 (December 1927): vi-xvi, xvii-xxxii, xxxiii-xliii. [The first group of photographs includes one of Admiral Evans, Admiral Thomas and Admiral Sperry along with President Roosevelt. The second group of photographs includes the rest of the Admirals who participated in all or part of the world cruise. This section also has photographs of most of the ships that completed the cruise. Additionally, it has photographs of the ships at the beginning and at the ending of the world cruise. The last section includes photographs of the fleet departing Hampton Roads and arriving at its first destination, Trinidad.]

Prosser, William. “The Great White Fleet.” All Hands 496 (May 1958): 58-63.

Putnam, G. P. "San Francisco's Welcome to the [Great White] Fleet." Outlook 89 (23 May 1908): 149-152. [This writer describes the passionate welcome the Atlantic battle fleet received when it arrived at San Francisco Bay after it completed the first half of its journey around the world.]

Reid, G. H. "After glance at the Visit of the American Fleet to Australia." North American Review 189 (March 1909): 404-409.

“The Return of the Fleet.” Outlook 91 (27 February 1909): 424-426. [This Outlook editorial attempts to analyze the future of international relations after the fleet returned from the world cruise. It appears that this editorial tries to steer a middle course. Outlook believes that Congress should not interfere when the President decides to use the military in one way or another. On the other hand, this editorial worries that the naval buildup that President Roosevelt has initiated may be getting out of control.]

Reuterdahl, Henry. "The Needs of Our Navy." McClure's Magazine (January 1908): 251-263. [The author of this article, a preeminent US naval expert of the early 20th century, analyzes the US Navy and discovers a number of problems.]

Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Shall We Trust Japan?" Asia (July 1923): 475-478.

Roosevelt, Theodore. “Battle Fleet Voyage to the Pacific, 1907.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 53, no. 12 (December 1927): 1255. [Theodore Roosevelt’s message to Congress announcing the world cruise.]

____. "Battle Fleet Voyage to the Pacific, 1907." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 51, no. 1 (January 1928): 8182.

Schroeder, Seaton. "America's Welcome Aboard." Independent 66 (4 March 1909): 478-480. [Rear Admiral Schroeder, a commander of a division of battleships that completed the world cruise, writes about the favorable welcome his battleships received as the fleet sailed its way around the world.]

Sidman, C. A. "Feeding the Battleship Squadron on Its Cruise." Harper's Weekly 51 (9 November 1907): 1666. [Mr. Sidman describes the significant effort that will be required to feed the sailors of the fleet during the world cruise.]

Taylor, G. P. "New Zealand, the Anglo Japanese Alliance, and the 1908 Visit of the American Fleet." Australian Journal of Politics and History (April 1969): 55-76. [This scholarly article is an in-depth analysis of the motivations behind the decision of the New Zealand government to issue an invitation for the US battle fleet to visit New Zealand. It discusses some of the reasons the New Zealand Prime Minister, Sir Joseph Ward, had in issuing the invitation to the US government.]

Uhlig, Frank, Jr. "The Great White Fleet." American Heritage 15, no. 2 (February 1964): 30-43, 103-106.

Weale, B. L. "What the American Fleet Could Do for China." North American Review 184 (October 1908): 481-494. [The author of this analysis has written in this article his hope that the voyage of the battle fleet will promote US government involvement in Chinese reconstruction.]

"Why Our Fleet Goes to the Pacific." Current Literature 43 (November 1907): 480-483. [Current Literature speculates on some of the reasons for the world cruise, believing that some of the reasons for the world cruise have yet to be stated openly to the general public.]

Winchell, John R. “Our Navy’s Great Task.” Metropolitan Magazine (August 1908): 472-483. [Gives a general overview of the reasons for the world cruise related to the promotion of naval efficiency along with deterring the Japanese from initiating a war. The author of this article also appears to align himself with Roosevelt in criticizing anti-Japanese agitation in the Pacific.]

“World Cruise of the Great White Fleet.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 84, no. 10 (October 1958): 87-99. [A photographic record of the world cruise.]

Zogbaum, Rufus F. "The Fleet in Being." Outlook 89 (2 May 1908): 19-24. [The special correspondent for Outlook, traveling with the Atlantic fleet on the world cruise, chronicles the journey of the fleet from Hampton Roads to San Francisco.]

____. "A Navy for Peace." Outlook 89 (15 August 1908): 839-842. [This journalist, who made the world cruise with the battle fleet, writes about the sailors and the cruise that they had just completed.]

____. "With Girls Behind and Girls Ahead." Ladies Home Journal 25 (May 1908): 11-12.


Acknowledgement: Ernest Poley, a recent recipient of a Masters degree from George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, prepared this bibliography during a summer/fall 2003 internship with the Navy Department Library.


17 October 2005