Bibliography of Irregular Warfare

Sources Available through the Navy Department Library

 

Table of Contents

General Topics on Irregular Warfare
     Historical Studies
     Military Philosophy
     Organization, Analysis, Doctrine and Training
     Air Power in the Irregular Warfare Environment
     Bibliographies
     Irregular Warfare Websites

Counterinsurgency
     Counterinsurgency Manuals, Evaluations, Metrics and Theory
     United States Current Counterinsurgency Operations
          Afghanistan
          Iraq
     United States Historical Counterinsurgency Operations
     Non-United States Counterinsurgency Operations

Unconventional Warfare
     Guerrilla Warfare
     4th Generation Warfare Concepts
     Special Operations Forces
     Riverine Warfare
     Attacks on National Infrastructure and Military Installations
          Attacks on National Infrastructure
          Attacks on Military Installations

Expeditionary Warfare
     Theory, Doctrine, Training and Manuals
     Historical Accounts
          Afghanistan
          The China Relief Expedition, 1900-1901

Counterterrorism
     Websites

Foreign Internal Defense
     Historical Precedents

Stabilization, Security, Transition and Reconstruction

Strategic Communication

Psychological Operations

Information Operations

Civil-Military Operations

Intelligence and Counterintelligence
     Historical Accounts

Law Enforcement Support and Civil Policing

Asymmetrical Maritime Warfare
     Commerce Warfare/Guerre de Corse
          European and Colonial Privateering in the Early Modern Era
          The American Revolution
          The Wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, 1793-1815
          War of 1812
          American Civil War
          World War I
          World War II
     Sea/Area Denial
          Mine Warfare
          Land-Based Anti-Ship Missiles
     Maritime Security
     Maritime Smuggling
          Blockade Running
          Weapons Proliferation
          Narcotics
          Financial
     Piracy
          Piracy in the Ancient World
          Pre-20th Century Piracy
          Modern Piracy: Books and Documents
          Modern Piracy: Periodical Articles
          Modern Piracy: Web Pages

General Topics on Irregular Warfare

Alexander, John B. Africa: Irregular Warfare on the Dark Continent. JSOU report, 09-5. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Armstrong, Benjamin. The Most Daring Act of the Age: Principles for Naval Irregular Warfare. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2010.

Bruscino, Thomas A. Out of Bounds: Transnational Sanctuary in Irregular Warfare. Global war on terrorism occasional paper, 17. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006.

Campbell, James D. "Making Riflemen from Mud": Restoring the Army's Culture of Irregular Warfare. Carlisle papers in security strategy. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Gray, Colin S. Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt? Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2006.

________. "Irregular Warfare: One Nature, Many Characters. " Strategic Studies Quarterly (Winter 2007): 35-57.

________. Hard Power and Soft Power: The Utility of Military Force As an Instrument of Policy in the 21st Century. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2011.

Great Britain. War Office. Intelligence Division. Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice. Prepared by Sir Charles Edward Callwell, K.C.B. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1899; reprint, n.p.: Book Jungle, 2009.

Henriksen, Thomas H. The Israeli Approach to Irregular Warfare and Implications for the United States. JSOU report, 07-3. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

Lamb, Christopher J., Matthew J. Schmidt, and Berit G. Fitzsimmons. MRAPs, Irregular Warfare, and Pentagon Reform. Occasional paper (National Defense University. Institute for National Strategic Studies), 6. Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University Press, 2009.

Lin, Ong Yu, Tan Cheng Kwee, and Freddie Tan. “The Utility of Military Force against Non-Traditional Threats.” Pointer: Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces 36 (no. 3-4): 13-19.

Lukens, Mark W. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare. USAWC strategy research project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Mahnken, Thomas G., and Joseph A. Maiolo, Editors. Strategic Studies: A Reader. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2008.

Mao, Zedong. On the Protracted War. Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1954.

McAllister, William S. COIN and Irregular Warfare in a Tribal Society. n.p., Applied Knowledge International, 2007.

Miller, Frank A. Irregular Warfare - Perhaps Not So "Irregular" . Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2006.

"Our Military Policy in Small Wars." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 606 (May 1879): 20-27.

Pfaff, Tony. Resolving Ethical Challenges in an Era of Persistent Conflict. Professional military ethics monograph series, 3. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2011.

Prokopovich, Paul. The Role of the Naval Services in Irregular Warfare. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air War College, 2009.

Schultz, Richard, Roy Godson, Querine Hanlon, and Samantha Ravich. "The Sources of Instability in the Twenty-First Century: Weak States, Armed Groups, and Irregular Conflict." Strategic Studies Quarterly 5, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 73-94.

Singh, Prakash. India's Northeast: The Frontier in Ferment. JSOU report, 08-4. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2008.

Historical Studies

Collins, John, Frederick Hamerman, and James P. Seevers. U.S. Low-Intensity Conflicts, 1899-1990: A Study. Prepared for the Congressional Research Service. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Davis, Scott A. American Military History and Its Insights into Fourth Generation Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.

Gonzalez, Emilio T. Intervention and Occupation in Haiti: A Case Study in Irregular Warfare. Newport, RI: Department of Operations, U.S. Naval War College, 1994.

Krause, Lincoln B. "The Guerrillas Next Door: A Short History of Mexico's Armed Revolutionaries from the 1960s to the EZLN Uprising of 1994". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 1 (Spring 1999) : 34-56.

Mackey, Robert Russell. The Uncivil War: Irregular Warfare in the Upper South, 1861-1865. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.

Mao, Zedong, and Shan-ming Chao. Chinese Communist Revolutionary Strategy, 1945-1949: Extracts from Volume 4 of Mao Tse-Tung's Selected Works. Princeton, NJ: Center of International Studies, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, 1961.

United States. Department of the Army. Center of Military History. The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare, 1775-2007: Selected Papers from the 2007 Conference of Army Historians. Edited by Richard G. Davis. CMH pub, 70-111-1. Washington, DC: Center of Military History/United States Army, 2008.

United States. Department of the Army. Combat Studies Institute Military History Symposium. Warfare in the Age of Non-State Actors: Implications for the U.S. Army. Prepared by Kendall D. Gott and Michael G. Brooks. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center, 2007.

Military Philosophy

Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Translated from the German and edited by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976.

Grivas, Geōrgios. General Grivas on Guerrilla Warfare. New York: Praeger, 1965.

Guevara, Ernesto. Che Guevara on Guerrilla Warfare. New York: Praeger, 1961.

Mao, Zedong. On Guerrilla Warfare. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1978.

McIvor, Anthony. Rethinking the Principles of War. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2005.

Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Translated from the Chinese and with an Introduction by Samuel B. Griffith, and a Foreword by B. H. Liddell Hart. UNESCO Collection of representative works. Chinese Series. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963.

Sunzi. Sun-Tzu: The New Translation. Research and reinterpretation by J. H. Huang. New York: W. Morrow, 1993.

Organization, Analysis, Doctrine and Training

Air University (U.S.). Military Strategy and Aerospace Power. Volume 2, Chapter 10, Low-Intensity Warfare. 20th edition. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University, Air War College, 1986.

Bahnsen, Peter. U.S. Aid to Democratic States Facing Totalitarian Revolutionary Warfare: Twelve Rules. CLIC Papers. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1987.

Bauer, John W. Justice: A Problem for Military Ethics During Irregular War. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.

Brothers, Kenneth G. Technology Guidelines and Potential Military Applications in Low Intensity Conflicts. CLIC papers. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1988. [This paper looks at technology and the tools it produces as an essential ingredient needed to win in LIC. Those who possess the technological high ground are not guaranteed success. What is needed is a superior civil-military organization with the right strategy and the right technology tools. With the proper application of these three ingredients, the US and our allies can win decisively in LIC. The paper lists nine proposed technology guidelines to use whenever developing and/or selecting a LIC technology application. The paper then provides a list of potential needs in the four operational categories associated with LIC; insurgency and counterinsurgency, peacetime contingency operations, combating terrorism, and peacekeeping operations.]

________. Reserve Component Support to United States National Low Intensity Conflict Strategy: Future Issues. CLIC papers. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1989.

Burgess, Kenneth J. Organizing for Irregular Warfare Implications for the Brigade Combat Team. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Clark, William J., Christopher S. Kelley, and Justin M. Bummara. Analysis of Maritime Support Vessels and Acquisition Methods Utilized to Support Maritime Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.

Commission on Integrated Long-Term Strategy (U.S.). Supporting U.S. Strategy for Third World Conflict: Report by the Regional Conflict Working Group submitted to the Commission on Integrated Long-Term Strategy. Arlington, VA: Regional Conflict Working Group, 1988.

Dempsey, Thomas A. Desert Guerrillas: Psychological, Social and Economic Characteristics of the Bedouin Which Lend Themselves to Irregular Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1988.

Dixon, Howard Lee. A Framework for Competitive Strategies Development in Low Intensity Conflict. CLIC papers. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1988.

Dixon, Howard Lee, and Charles M. Ayers. Operational Art in Low Intensity Conflict. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1987.

Fishel, Kimbra L. "Relating Doctrine to Strategy: A Prelude to Success for Twenty-First Century Warfare". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1999) : 22-38.

Furr, William F. Low-Intensity Conflict Imperatives for Success. CLIC papers. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1987. [The imperatives for low intensity conflict (LIC) discussed in this paper provide a framework for the successful application of the military instrument of national power in LIC. Low intensity conflict defies the simple application of traditional military thought. For example, in LIC superior combat power does not guarantee success, and violent action may be counterproductive in the total context of the conflict. Indeed, this conflict short of war is dominated by political, economic, or social con siderations which may place conflict ing demands on the application of military power and resources. These considerations require a reorientation of military thought based on the following imperatives for success: political dominance, unity of effort, adaptability, legitimacy, and patience.]

________. Logistical Considerations in Low Intensity Conflict. CLIC papers. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1987.

Green, Dan. Harnessing the Islamist Revolution: A Strategy to Win the War against Religious Extremism. Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2008.

Hays, M. G. ANGLICO's Potential Role Within Distributed Operations . Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2008.

Heckl, Karsten S. Operational Design and Irregular Warfare. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2009.

Howard, Russell D. Educating Special Forces Junior Leaders for a Complex Security Environment. JSOU report, 09-6. Hurlburt Field, Fla: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Howell, Jeffrey M. Modeling Insurgency Attrition and Population Influence in Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Irwin, Lewis G. Filling Irregular Warfare's Interagency Gaps . USAWC program research project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2009.

Kimbrough, James M., IV. Examining U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology, 2008.

Klingaman, Jerome W. Policy and Strategy Foundations for Low-Intensity Warfare. CADRE Papers; Report (Air University [U.S.]. Airpower Research Institute); no. AU-ARI-CP-86-2. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, Air University, 1986.

Knapp, Greg. Effects of Irregular Warfare on Joint Training . Norfolk, VA: U.S. Joint Forces Command, 2010.

Lind, William S. "Some Doctrinal Questions for the United States Army." Military Review 77, no. 1 (1997): 135.

Marling, Robin, Bob Sheldon, and Cortez Stephens. Analyzing Irregular Warfare (IW) Using a Narrative Approach. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Combat Development Command, 2007.

Mattis, J. N., and Eric T. Olson. Multi-Service Concept for Irregular Warfare. Version 2.0. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Combat Development Command, 2006.

O'Rourke, Ronald. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2010.

________. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress. 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2011.

Painter, David J., Mark, C. Weaver, and Scott, C. White. Reorganizing for Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

Paquette, Laure. Terrorist-Insurgent Thinking and Joint Special Operational Planning Doctrine and Procedures. JSOU paper, 10-1. MacDill Air Force Base, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2010.

Pedersen, Richard. Irregular Warfare: Operational Theme or Full-Spectrum Operation? n.p.: Small Wars Foundation, 2009.

Ploch, Lauren. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2007.

Scott, Richard L. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Siegel, Adam B. "Mission Creep: An Autopsy of a Hopefully Dying Term". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 1 (1999) : 119-138.

Siegel, Adam B. "Mission Creep: An Autopsy of a Hopefully Dying Term". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 1 (Spring 1999) : 119-138.

Sullivan, Michael P. How to Win and Know It: An Effects-Based Approach to Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Thomas, Hubert Jean-Pierre. Métamorphose des mission? Le soldatet les armées dans les nouveaux contextes d'interventions: Actes du colloque des 14, 15 et 16 juin 1994. Paris: Centre d'études en sciences sociales de la défense, 2000.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities. The Irregular Warfare Roadmap: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held, September 27, 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008.

________. The Threat Posed by Al Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula and Other Regions Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held January 20, 2010. H.A.S.C. No. 111–116. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Department of Defense. Irregular Warfare (IW) Joint Operating Concept (JOC), Version 1.0, 11 September 2007. Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2007.

________. Department of Defense Directive: Irregular Warfare. Number 3000.07 Washington, DC: Dept. of Defense, 2008.

United States. Department of Defense. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Doctrine for Joint Operations in Low Intensity Conflict. JCS Pub 3-07. Washington, DC: The Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1990.

United States. Department of Defense. Joint Warfighting Center. Irregular Warfare Special Study . Prepared by Charles F Shaver. Suffolk, VA: USJFCOM Joint Warfighting Center, 2006.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps. Marine Corps Operating Concepts for a Changing Security Environment. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Combat Development Command, 2006.

Air Power in the Irregular Warfare Environment

Bracco, Jeffrey A. Fire Support for Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

Dertien, Evan C., and Eric J. Felt. Persistent Surveillance: Maximizing Airpower Effectiveness in Irregular Warfare. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University, 2007.

Gray, Ron. Integrated Swarming Operations for Air Base Defense Applications in Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2006.

Huebert, Kevin D. The Role of Airpower in Irregular Warfare for the 21st Century. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

McKenzie, James K. Airpower Contributions to Irregular Warfare. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air War College, 2009.

Mesic, Richard, David E. Thaler, David Ochmanek, and Leon Goodson. Courses of Action for Enhancing U.S. Air Force "Irregular Warfare" Capabilities: A Functional Solutions Analysis. Rand Corporation monograph series, MG-913-AF. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2010.

Missler, Timothy B. The Theater JFACC Construct: Creating Disunity of Command in the CENTCOM AOR. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 2009.

Newton, Richard D. Special Operations Aviation in NATO: A Vector to the Future. JSOU report, 06-8. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Peterson, A. H., E. E. Conger, and George C. Reinhardt. Symposium on the Role of Airpower in Counterinsurgency and Unconventional Warfare: Unconventional Warfare in the Mediterranean Theater. Prepared for the United States Air Force Project RAND. RM-3656. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp, 1963.

Stater, Steven H. Modifying Intratheater Airlift for Irregular Warfare. USAWC strategy research project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2009.

United States. Department of the Air Force. Irregular Warfare . Air Force Doctrine Document 2-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Air Force, 2007.

Volpe, Kevin. Persistent and Continuous? U.S. Carrier Aviation in Irregular Warfare. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2008.

Bibliographies

Evans, Stephen S. U.S. Marines and Irregular Warfare, 1898-2007: Anthology and Selected Bibliography. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University, United States Marine Corps, 2008.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO Library. Insurgencies and Counterinsurgencies - Insurrections et Contreinsurrections. Thematic bibliographies, no. 7/2007. Brussels: NATO Library, Public Diplomacy Division, 2007.

________. Irregular Warfare - La Guerre Irrégulière. Thematic Bibliography no. 6/2009. Brussels: NATO Library, Public Diplomacy Division, 2009.

________. Asymmetric Warfare - Les guerres asymétriques. Thematic Bibliography no. 10/10. Brussels: NATO Library, Public Diplomacy Division, 2010.

United States. Department of the Air Force. Air University. Asymmetric Warfare. Compiled by the Bibliography Branch, under the Direction of Joan T. Phillips. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center, 2006.

________. Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center. Irregular Warfare. Compiled by the Bibliography Branch, under the Direction of Joan T. Phillips. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center, 2007.

United States. Department of the Army. Army Library. Low Intensity Conflict: Guerrilla Warfare, Insurgency, Special Oerations, Psychological Operations, Counterinsurgency. December 1989–Selective Bibliography. Washington, DC: Pentagon Library, 1989.

United States. Department of the Army. Army War College Library. Irregular Warfare: A Selected Bibliography. Prepared by Lenore K. Garder. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College Library, 2009.

Irregular Warfare Websites

IW Centre. Irregular Warfare Center of Excellence and Analytical Insights.

Small Wars Foundation. Small Wars Journal.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps. Irregular Warfare 101. U.S. Marine Corps Center for Irregular Warfare.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval War College. Center on Irregular Warfare and Armed Groups.

Counterinsurgency

Counterinsurgency Manuals, Evaluations, Metrics and Theory

Bates, James A. The War on Terrorism: Countering Global Insurgency in the 21st Century. JSOU report, 05-8. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2005.

Birtle, A. J. U.S. Army Counterinsurgency and Contingency Operations Doctrine, 1942-1976. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 2006.

Byman, Daniel. Understanding Proto-Insurgencies. RAND Counterinsurgency Study--Paper 3. Occasional paper. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2007.

Calese, Gary D. Law Enforcement Methods for Counterinsurgency Operations. School of Advanced Military Studies monographs. Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.

Campbell, Jason, Michael E. O'Hanlon, and Jeremy Shapiro. Assessing Counterinsurgency and Stabilization Missions. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2009.

Celeski, Joseph D. Operationalizing COIN. JSOU report, 05-2. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2005.

________. Policing and Law Enforcement in COIN: The Thick Blue Line. JSOU report, 09-2. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Chiarenza, David C. Moral Warfare in Counterinsurgency Operations. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.

Colan, Albert R. Military Civic Action in a Counterinsurgency Strategy: An Engineer Proposal. Washington, DC: National Defense University, National War College, 1985.

Corum, James S. Training Indigenous Forces in Counterinsurgency: A Tale of Two Insurgencies. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2006.

Crider, James R. A Pragmatic Approach to Counterinsurgency . Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2009.

Dempsey, Thomas A. Desert Guerrillas: Psychological, Social and Economic Characteristics of the Bedouin Which Lend Themselves to Irregular Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1988.

Drew, Colonel Dennis M., USAF. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency: American Military Dilemmas and Doctrinal Proposals. Cadre paper; Report (Air University [U.S.]. Airpower Research Institute), no. AU-ARI-CP-88-1. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1988.

Fair, C. Christine, and Sumit Ganguly. Treading on Hallowed Ground: Counterinsurgency Operations in Sacred Spaces . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Fitzsimmons, Michael. "Hard Hearts and Open Minds? Governance, Identity and the Intellectual Foundations of Counterinsurgency Strategy." Journal of Strategic Studies 31, no. 3 (2008): 337-365.

Fulk, Baucum. An Evaluation of Counterinsurgency As a Strategy for Fighting the Long War. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2011.

Galli, Thomas L. Narcotics Counterinsurgency Dilemma. Fort Leavenworth, KS : US Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.

Gavrilis, James A. A Model for Population-Centered Warfare: A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing and Understanding the Theory and Practice of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency. n.p.: Small Wars Foundation, 2009.

Giampietri, Sergio, and John Stone . A Counter Insurgency Study: An Analysis of Local Defenses. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2004.

Great Britain. War Office. Intelligence Division. Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice. Prepared by Sir Charles Edward Callwell, K.C.B. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1899; reprint, n.p.: Book Jungle, 2009.

Groves, Kimberly. IPB for Counterinsurgency. Fort Huachuca, AZ: Department of the Army, 2008.

Howell, Jeffrey M. Modeling Insurgency Attrition and Population Influence in Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Hughes, Geraint. The Military's Role in Counterterrorism Examples and Implications for Liberal Democracies. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2011.

Kugler, Cornelius W. Operational Assessment in a Counterinsurgency. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2007.

Malevich, John. Counterinsurgency Overview. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army and Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Center, 2009.

McAllister, William S. COIN and Irregular Warfare in a Tribal Society. n.p., Applied Knowledge International, 2007.

Mockaitis, Thomas R. Resolving Insurgencies. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Strategic Studies Institute, 2011.

Modarelli, Matthew R. Military Police Operations and Counterinsurgency. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2008.

Monarch, Robert M. Denying Sanctuary: Rejecting Safe Havens in Counterinsurgency Operations. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2009.

Mumford, Andrew. Puncturing the Counterinsurgency Myth: Britain and Irregular Warfare in the Past, Present, and Future. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2011.

Murray, Williamson. Strategic Challenges for Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terrorism. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2006.

Musa, Samuel, John Morgan, and Matt Keegan. Policing and COIN Operations: Lessons Learned, Strategies, and Future Directions. Washington, DC: Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office, 2011.

Norwitz, Jeffrey H. Armed Groups: Studies in National Security, Counterterrorism, and Counterinsurgency. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2008.

Olson, Eric T. Some of the Best Weapons for Counterinsurgents Do Not Shoot. The Letort papers. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010.

"Our Military Policy in Small Wars." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 606 (May 1879): 20-27.

Peltzer, Eric J. Using Foreign Internal Defense and Unconventional Warfare to Conduct Global Counterinsurgency. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.

Prater, Ian M. Rediscovering the Small Wars Manual: A Guide to 21st Century Warfare. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2005.

Pustay, John S. Counterinsurgency Warfare. New York: Free Press, 1965.

Richards, David, and Greg Mills. Victory Among People: Lessons from Countering Insurgency and Stabilising Fragile States. London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies, 2011.

Rietjens, Sebastiaan, Joseph Soeters, and Willem Klumper. "Measuring the Immeasurable? The Effects-Based Approach in Comprehensive Peace Operations". International Journal of Public Administration 34, no. 5 (2011) : 329-338.

Rosenau, William, and Austin G. Long. The Phoenix Program and Contemporary Counterinsurgency. Occasional paper (Rand Corporation), OP-258-OSD. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2009.

Schlosser, Nicholas J., and James M. Caiella, eds. Counterinsurgency Leadership in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Beyond . Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University Press, 2011.

Smith, Daniel J. Intelligence Gathering in a Counterinsurgency . Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2006.

Turbiville, Graham Hall, Jr. Hunting Leadership Targets in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorist Operations: Selected Perspectives and Experience. JSOU report, 07-6. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

________. Guerrilla Counterintelligence: Insurgent Approaches to Neutralizing Adversary Intelligence Operations. JSOU report, 09-1. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

United States. Army. Counterinsurgency. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 2006.

United States. Army. Infantry School. Tactics in Counterinsurgency. Fort Benning, GA: U.S. Army Infantry School, 2009.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Guide to the Analysis of Insurgency. Langley, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1986.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence. The Latin American Guerrilla Today. CIA Directorate of Intelligence Weekly Summary Special Report, 22 January 1971. No. 0354/71. Langley, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1971.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Addressing U.S. Strategy in Iraq and Afghanistan: Balancing Interests and Resources: Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held February 12, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

________. Counterterrorism Within the Afghanistan Counterinsurgency: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held October 22, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-102. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

________. Effective Counterinsurgency: The Administration's Perspective on the Future of the U.S.-Pakistan Military Partnership: Hearing Before the Full Committee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held April 29, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-47. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

________. Effective Counterinsurgency: The Future of the U.S.-Pakistan Military Partnership: Hearing Before the Full Committee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held April 23, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-43. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee. Defeating the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) and Other Asymmetric Threats Today's Efforts and Tomorrow's Requirements: Hearing Before the Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held September 16, 2008. H.A.S.C. No. 110-156. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities. Counterinsurgency and Irregular Warfare: Issues and Lessons Learned: Hearing Before the Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held May 7, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-55. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Department of the Army. Counterinsurgency. FM 3-24; MCWP 3-33.5. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 2006.

________. Tactics in Counterinsurgency. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 2009.

United States. Department of Defense. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Counterinsurgency Operations. Joint publication, 3-24. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2009.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps. Small Wars Manual. United States Marine Corps, 1940.

________. Counterinsurgency Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Marine Corps, 1967.

________. Counterinsurgency Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Marine Corps, 1980.

________. Small Wars Manual. Washington, DC: United States Marine Corps, 1997.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps. Command and Staff College. The Small Wars Manual and Counterinsurgency. Edited by Rory D. Kent. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2006.

United States. Department of State. Interagency Counterinsurgency Initiative. U.S. Government Counterinsurgency Guide. Prepared by David Kilcullen, Matt Porter, and Carlos Burgos. Washington, DC: United States Government Interagency Counterinsurgency Initiative, 2009.

Webster, Aaron A. Leveraging Cyberspace in Counterinsurgency Operations. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Wipfli, Ralph, and Steven Metz. Coin of the Realm: U.S. Counterinsurgency Strategy. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2008.

United States Current Counterinsurgency Operations

Schlosser, Nicholas J., and James M. Caiella, eds. Counterinsurgency Leadership in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Beyond . Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University Press, 2011.

Afghanistan

Bijlert, Martine van. The Battle for Afghanistan: Militancy and Conflict in Zabul and Uruzgan. Counterterrorism strategy initiative policy paper. Washington, DC: New America Foundation, 2010.

Bogart, Adrian T, III. One Valley at a Time. JSOU report ; 06-6. Hurlburt Field, FL.: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Bolduc, Don. Interview with LTC Don Bolduc. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [The commander of 1st Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group, Lieutenant Colonel Don Bolduc, in this interview, discusses two significant battles that elements of his unit were involved in while operating in southern Afghanistan in 2005: Siah Chow in July and Mari Ghar in August. By way of overview, he begins by defining his battalion's mission as one of conducting "selected unconventional warfare tasks in a counterinsurgency environment. In addition, he was charged with assisting "the local populace through the use of civil-military operations, psychological operations and information operations, and then training the Afghan National Army along a decentralized program of instruction." The ultimate goal, said Bolduc, was to "work ourselves out of a job." In both battles - small-unit clashes against well-armed and determined Taliban fighters waged in enemy sanctuary areas - his role was to "listen and anticipate," to have the systems in place to, as necessary, alert medical evacuation, activate the quick reaction force, push out liaison officers and make the case to the regional commander for additional assets such as close air support. "I called it piling on," he explained. "We develop the situation and add the requisite amount of combat power we need." Among other topics discussed are the "psychology of war," the integration of indigenous forces into US combat units, and his thoughts on waging a successful counterinsurgency. Bolduc closes by articulating what he feels is the importance of recording soldiers' oral histories.]

Collins, Joseph J. Understanding War in Afghanistan. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 2011.

Connolly, Colonel Peter. Counterinsurgency in Uruzgan 2009. Study paper no. 321. Canberra: Land Warfare Studies Centre, 2011.

Dimitriu, George, and Beatrice de Graaf. "The Dutch COIN Approach: Three Years in Uruzgan, 2006-2009". Small Wars & Insurgencies 21, no. 3 (2010) : 429-458.

Dobbins, James. Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. Santa Monica: RAND, 2009.

Dressler, Jeffrey A. Securing Helmand: Understanding and Responding to the Enemy. Afghanistan report, 2. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of War, 2009.

Dumbaugh, Kerry. U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan-Pakistan: Chinese Views and Interests. MISC D0023544.A1/Final. Alexandria, VA: CNA Analysis & Solutions, 2010.

Henriksen, Thomas H. Afghanistan, Counterinsurgency, and the Indirect Approach. JSOU report, 10-3. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2010.

Jones, Seth G. Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. Rand counterinsurgency study, vol. 4. Santa Monica: RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2008.

Malkasian, Carter, and Gerald Meyerle. How Is Afghanistan Different from Al Anbar? CRM D0020107.A1/Final. Alexandria, VA: CNA Analysis & Solutions, 2009. [Al Anbar was a tough fight. Yet after four hard years of war, US Marines and Soldiers, together with the Sunni tribes, defeated Al Qaeda in Iraq and established security. Now, battalions of Marines may be headed to Afghanistan for a fight that promises to look different from the one in Al Anbar. Factors that loom large in any counterinsurgency campaign--politics, society, economics, and outside support--bear only passing resemblance to Al Anbar. This paper highlights 9 major differences between Al Anbar and Afghanistan (particularly southern Afghanistan) and considers their implications for the Marine Corps.]

Meyerle, Jerry, Megan Katt and Jim Gavrilis. Counterinsurgency on the Ground in Afghanistan: How Different Units Adapted to Local Conditions. Alexandria, VA: CNA Analysis & Solutions, 2010.

Neville, Leigh, and Richard Chasemore. Special Operations Patrol Vehicles: Afghanistan and Iraq. New vanguard, 179. Oxford: Osprey, 2011.

Iraq

Bogart, Adrian T., III. Block by Block: Civic Action in the Battle of Baghdad, January-November 2006. JSOU report, 07-8. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

Graff, Jonathan K., Jr. United States Counterinsurgency Doctrine and Implementation in Iraq. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2004.

Malkasian, Carter, and Gerald Meyerle. How Is Afghanistan Different from Al Anbar? CRM D0020107.A1/Final. Alexandria, VA: CNA Analysis & Solutions, 2009. [Al Anbar was a tough fight. Yet after four hard years of war, US Marines and Soldiers, together with the Sunni tribes, defeated Al Qaeda in Iraq and established security. Now, battalions of Marines may be headed to Afghanistan for a fight that promises to look different from the one in Al Anbar. Factors that loom large in any counterinsurgency campaign--politics, society, economics, and outside support--bear only passing resemblance to Al Anbar. This paper highlights 9 major differences between Al Anbar and Afghanistan (particularly southern Afghanistan) and considers their implications for the Marine Corps.]

Metz, Steven. Learning from Iraq: Counterinsurgency in American Strategy. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Neville, Leigh, and Richard Chasemore. Special Operations Patrol Vehicles: Afghanistan and Iraq. New vanguard, 179. Oxford: Osprey, 2011.

Smith, Andrew. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq, 2003-09: A Case of Operational Surprise and Institutional Response. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2011.

Swanson, Scott. "Viral Targeting of the IED Social Network System." Small Wars Journal 3, no. 2 (May 2007): 62-77.

United States Historical Counterinsurgency Operations

Arnold, James R. Jungle of Snakes: A Century of Counterinsurgency Warfare from the Philippines to Iraq. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009.

Beech, Michael F. "Mission Creep": A Case Study in U.S. Involvement in Somalia. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.

Breemer, Jan S. Chasing U-Boats and Hunting Insurgents: Lessons from an Underhand Way of War. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2006.

Cassidy, R. M. "Back to the Street Without Joy: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Vietnam and Other Small Wars." Parameters: Journal of the US Army War College 34, no. 2 (2004): 73-83.

Daddis, Gregory A. No Sure Victory: Measuring U.S. Army Effectiveness and Progress in the Vietnam War. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Fisher, Noel C. War at Every Door: Partisan Politics and Guerrilla Violence in East Tennessee, 1860-1869. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Hickey, Lawrence J. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Operation Paul Revere/Sam Houston. Hickham Air Force Base, HI: U.S. Pacific air Forces, 1967. [This study covers a year of tough fighting in the highly strategic central highlands area of Vietnam, an area which the communists have always considered essential to their effort to take over South Vietnam. Prior to the arrival of U.S. forces in 1965, there was little activity in western Pleiku Province, but starting with the move of the 1st Air Cavalry Division to the defense of the besieged fort of Plei Me in October 1965, fighting has been continuous. The western Pleiku area, however, on the western end of strategic Highway 19, which cuts across the country to the coastal port of Qui Nhon, is the logical entry point for any planned enemy drive to cut South Vietnam in half. In this objective, the enemy has not succeeded. What emerges clearly from this account of fighting by the 1st Air Cavalry, 25th, and 4th Infantry Divisions in the central highlands is the absolute essentiality of air support to the survival of friendly forces. Perhaps never in history has a large ground force in war been so dependent upon air support, close air support, and tactical airlift, as well as other air support functions such as interdiction, landing zone preparation, reconnaissance, night flare drops, defoliation, psychological warfare, and search and rescue. This study shows in detail the means by which air was employed in highlands fighting and how it directly affected and influenced ground action. The U.S. units are generally flown to the battle areas and are cut off by land from their normal support bases. They cannot continue to function effectively without the air umbrella provided by the vast armada of U.S. aircraft located in Vietnam. Air support, as can be seen from this study, is infinitely more than a new dimension of artillery. It is the difference between success or failure and no one will attest to this more strongly than the U.S. Army ground commanders on the receiving end, many of whom are quoted in the study.]

Hooper, Edwin Bickford, Dean C. Allard, and Oscar P. Fitzgerald. The Setting of the Stage to 1959. Volume 1, The United States Navy and the Vietnam Conflict. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1976.

Linn, Brian McAllister. The Philippine War, 1899-1902. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.

Marolda, Edward J. The Approaching Storm: Conflict in Asia, 1945-1965. Washington, DC: Naval History and Heritage Command, 2009.

________. By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the U.S. Navy and the War in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1994.

Marolda, Edward J. and Oscar P. Fitzgerald. From Military Assistance to Combat, 1959-1965. Volume 2, The United States Navy and the Vietnam Conflict. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1986.

Miller, Daniel G. American Military Strategy During the Moro Insurrection in the Philippines, 1903-1913. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2009.

Mills, Richard W. The Philippine Insurrection: America's First Venture into Military Operations Other Than War. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1997.

Moyar, Mark. A Question of Command: Counterinsurgency from the Civil War to Iraq. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Niblack, Albert P. Operations of the Navy and Marine Corps in the Philippine Archipelago, 1898-1902. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1904.

Ramsey, Robert D., III. Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador. Long war occasional papers, 18. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006.

________. Advice for Advisors Suggestions and Observations from Lawrence to the Present. Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper, 19. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, Army Command and General Staff College, 2006. [While always a mission for some Army units, advising indigenous forces has become a major task for many Army units and for thousands of Soldiers, both Active and Reserve. The Combat Studies Institute is publishing this occasional paper as a supplement to Occasional Paper 18, "Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador." In that study, Mr. Robert Ramsey distilled the insights gained by the U.S. Army from its advisory experiences in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador. In this anthology, he presents 14 insightful, personal accounts from those who advised foreign armies in various times and places over the last 100 years. Unlike most of the monographs in the Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper series, this volume is an anthology. The articles are from past and present advisors, and they are presented without editing or commentary. Ranging from World War I to the present, this collection of articles, after action reports, and a RAND study was assembled from documents written for advisors by advisors and experts in the field. With one exception, the readings are in chronological order. The first reading, a list of suggestions T.E. Lawrence wrote for his fellow advisors during the Arab Revolt, is often referred to today. The next six readings from the Vietnam era include articles from military publications and a 1972 after-action report. An article and after-action report from El Salvador follow the Vietnam readings. The next four articles address recent advisory efforts in Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The last reading is a RAND study on advisor-counterpart relationships from 1965 that deals with military advisors in Vietnam.]

Ramsey, Robert D., James Franklin Bell, and Francis Lieber. A Masterpiece of Counterguerrilla Warfare BG J. Franklin Bell in the Philippines, 1901-1902. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2007.

Rosenau, William, and Austin G. Long. The Phoenix Program and Contemporary Counterinsurgency. Occasional paper (Rand Corporation), OP-258-OSD. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2009.

Schreadley, Richard L. From the Rivers to the Sea: The USN in Vietnam. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1992.

Shultz, Richard H., ed. Guerrilla Warfare and Conterinsurgency: U.S.-Soviet Policy in the Third World. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989.

Symmes, Weymouth D. This is Latch: The Story of Rear Admiral Roy F. Hoffmann. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, Inc., 2007.

Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2009.

United States. Department of the Army. 5th Special Forces Group. Lessons Learned, Headquarters, 5th SFG, 1st Special Forces. Washington, DC: Adjutant General's Office, U.S. Army, 1968. [At the beginning of the reporting period, large scale enemy attacks on major installations and cities were still in progress throughout the Republic of Vietnam. As a result of the Tet offensive, Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG) forces assumed new missions, construction projects in progress were delayed, new construction was necessitated, plans to relocate open, close, and convert camps were deferred or cancelled and thousands of refugees were assisted. The most significant single action during the quarter occurred at Special Forces camp Lang Vei. The large scale attack that had been expected occurred on 7 February when a combined armor and infantry attack overran the camp. The attack marked the first tactical utilization of tanks by the enemy in South Vietnam.]

United States. Department of the Army. Center of Military History. United States Forces, Somalia, After Action Report and Historical Overview: The United States Army in Somalia, 1992-1994. Washington, DC: United States Army, Center of Military History, 2003.

United States. Department of Defense. European Command. Operation Support Hope, 1994: After Action Review. Brussels: Headquarters, United States, European Command, 1995.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval Historical Center. A Bibliography of the United States Navy and the Conflict in Southeast Asia, 1950-1975. Compiled by Edward J. Marolda and James Lesher. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1991.

Zumwalt, Elmo R. Jr. On Watch: A Memoir. New York: Quadrangle Press/The New York Times Book Company, 1976.

Non-United States Counterinsurgency Operations

"Disarming of the Highlanders by General Wade." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 489 (August 1869): 475-80.

Foley, Michael W. Southern Mexico Counterinsurgency and Electoral Politics. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace, 1999.

Franko, Patrice. "Defense Decisionmaking and Accountability Structures in the Philippines". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 1 (Spring 1999) : 57-86.

Henriksen, Thomas H. What Really Happened in Northern Ireland's Counterinsurgency: Revision and Revelation. JSOU report, 08-5. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2008.

Komer, R. W. The Malayan Emergency in Retrospect (Extract). U.S. Naval War College, College of Continuing Education: Module 6, Volume 3A. NWC 2024. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, College of Continuing Education, n.d.

“The Late Battles Near Valparaiso.” United Service Magazine 4, New Series, (CXXVI, Old Series), no. 760. (March 1892): 506-17.

Ledwidge, Frank. Losing Small Wars: British Military Failure in Iraq and Afghanistan. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.

Mullick, Haider A. H. Pakistan's Security Paradox: Countering and Fomenting Insurgencies. JSOU report, 09-9. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Pinheiro, Alvaro de Souza. Irregular Warfare: Brazil's Fight against Criminal Urban Guerrillas. JSOU Report 09-8. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Ramsey, Robert D., III. Advice for Advisors Suggestions and Observations from Lawrence to the Present. Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper, 19. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, Army Command and General Staff College, 2006. [While always a mission for some Army units, advising indigenous forces has become a major task for many Army units and for thousands of Soldiers, both Active and Reserve. The Combat Studies Institute is publishing this occasional paper as a supplement to Occasional Paper 18, "Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador." In that study, Mr. Robert Ramsey distilled the insights gained by the U.S. Army from its advisory experiences in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador. In this anthology, he presents 14 insightful, personal accounts from those who advised foreign armies in various times and places over the last 100 years. Unlike most of the monographs in the Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper series, this volume is an anthology. The articles are from past and present advisors, and they are presented without editing or commentary. Ranging from World War I to the present, this collection of articles, after action reports, and a RAND study was assembled from documents written for advisors by advisors and experts in the field. With one exception, the readings are in chronological order. The first reading, a list of suggestions T.E. Lawrence wrote for his fellow advisors during the Arab Revolt, is often referred to today. The next six readings from the Vietnam era include articles from military publications and a 1972 after-action report. An article and after-action report from El Salvador follow the Vietnam readings. The next four articles address recent advisory efforts in Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The last reading is a RAND study on advisor-counterpart relationships from 1965 that deals with military advisors in Vietnam.]

Ratcliffe, Generalmajor Alexander, a. D. Partisan Warfare: A Treatise Based on Combat Experiences in the Balkans. Foreign military studies. n.p.: Historical Division, Headquarters U.S. Army, Europe, 1953.

Sheperd, Ben. War in the Wild East: The German Army and Soviet Partisans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Shultz, Richard H., ed. Guerrilla Warfare and Conterinsurgency: U.S.-Soviet Policy in the Third World. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989.

Statiev, Alexander. The Soviet Counterinsurgency in the Western Borderlands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Stephan, Robert B. Counterinsurgency in the Philippines: Problems and Prospects. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1989.

United States. Department of the Army. European Command. Historical Division. Rear Area Security in Russia: The Soviet Second Front Behind the German Lines: Historical Study. German report series. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1951.

United States. Department of the Army. Office of Military History. German Antiguerrilla Operations in the Balkans, 1941-1944: Historical Study. German report series. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1954.

Waghelstein, John D. El Salvador: Observations and Experiences in Counterinsurgency: An Individual Study Project. USAWC Military Studies Program paper. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1985.

Unconventional Warfare

Campbell, Kevin T. Asymmetrical Threats: A Vital Relevancy for Information Operations. Redstone Arsenal, AL: U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, 2007.

Coburn, Matthew D. Irregular Techniques for Controlling Under-Governed Space. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Kronstadt, K. A. Pakistan-U.S. Relations. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2009.

Maxwell, Jeffrey W. A Revised Strategy for the Global War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Peltzer, Eric J. Using Foreign Internal Defense and Unconventional Warfare to Conduct Global Counterinsurgency. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.

Peterson, A. H., E. E. Conger, and George C. Reinhardt. Symposium on the Role of Airpower in Counterinsurgency and Unconventional Warfare: Unconventional Warfare in the Mediterranean Theater. Prepared for the United States Air Force Project RAND. RM-3656. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp, 1963.

Shultz, Richard H., and Richard A. Hunt, eds. Lessons from an Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts. New York: Pergamon Press, 1982.

United States. Department of Defense. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Secretariat. Historical Division. A Brief History of US Unconventional Warfare. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1974.

Guerrilla Warfare

Briggs, Ralph Tallmadge, and Paul F. Stevens. The Day VADM Yamagata Joined His Honorable Ancestors. n.p.: n.p., 1987.

Cox, Samuel J. U.S. Naval Strategy and Foreign Policy in China, 1945-1950. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Academy, 1980.

Ewald, Johann von. Treatise on Partisan Warfare. Translation, Introduction, and Annotation by Robert A. Selig and David Curtis Skaggs. Contributions in Military Studies, Number 116. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Fisher, Noel C. War at Every Door: Partisan Politics and Guerrilla Violence in East Tennessee, 1860-1869. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Fitzgerald, Oscar P. "Naval Group China: A Study of Guerrilla Warfare During World War II." Thesis (Ph. D.)--Georgetown University, 1968, 1974.

Gladwin, Lee. "The Diplomacy of Security: Behind the Negotiations of Article 18 of the Sino-American Cooperative Agreement". Cryptologia 29, no. 1 (2005): 23-42.

Grivas, Geōrgios. General Grivas on Guerrilla Warfare. New York: Praeger, 1965.

Guevara, Ernesto. Che Guevara on Guerrilla Warfare. New York: Praeger, 1961.

Krause, Lincoln B. "The Guerrillas Next Door: A Short History of Mexico's Armed Revolutionaries from the 1960s to the EZLN Uprising of 1994". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 1 (Spring 1999) : 34-56.

"The Late Earl of Dundonald." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 489 (August 1869): 525-34. [Thomas, Lord Cochrane, Tenth Earl of Dundonald, was a British admiral who, in addition to capturing Washington, DC, during the War of 1812, played an important role in supporting the Greek insurrection against the Ottoman Empire in the 1820s. This article examines his role in support of the Greek insurgents.]

Mao, Zedong. On Guerrilla Warfare. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1978.

McLaughlin, William P. The Sino-American Cooperative Organization/Naval Group China, 1942-1945: A Case Study in Special Operations. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Command & Staff College, 1996.

Miles, Milton E., and Hawthorne Daniel. A Different Kind of War: The Little-Known Story of the Combined Guerrilla Forces Created in China by the U.S. Navy and the Chinese During World War II. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967.

Peterson, A. H., E. E. Conger, and George C. Reinhardt. Symposium on the Role of Airpower in Counterinsurgency and Unconventional Warfare: Unconventional Warfare in the Mediterranean Theater. Prepared for the United States Air Force Project RAND. RM-3656. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp, 1963.

Rooney, David. Guerrilla: Insurgents, Patriots, and Terrorists from Sun Tzu to Bin Laden. London: Brassey's, 2004.

Shultz, Richard H. The Secret War Against Hanoi: Kennedy’s and Johnson’s Use of Spies, Saboteurs, and Covert Warriors in North Vietnam. New York: Harper Collins, 1999.

Shultz, Richard H., ed. Guerrilla Warfare and Conterinsurgency: U.S.-Soviet Policy in the Third World. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989.

Shultz, Richard H., and Richard A. Hunt, eds. Lessons from an Unconventional War: Reassessing U.S. Strategies for Future Conflicts. New York: Pergamon Press, 1982.

Sino-American Cooperative Organization Veterans. SACO News. No. 16 (April 1998).

Stratton, Roy Olin. SACO, the Rice Paddy Navy. Pleasantville, NY: C.S. Palmer Publishing Company, 1950.

Sutherland, Daniel E. A Savage Conflict: The Decisive Role of Guerrillas in the American Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Thomas, Walter R. Guerrilla Warfare: Cause and Conflict (A 21st Century Success Story?). Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1981.

Turbiville, Graham Hall, Jr. Logistic Support and Insurgency: Guerrilla Sustainment and Applied Lessons of Soviet Insurgent Warfare: Why It Should Still Be Studied. JSOU Report, 05-4. Hurlburt Field, FL.: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2005.

________. Guerrilla Counterintelligence: Insurgent Approaches to Neutralizing Adversary Intelligence Operations. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence. The Latin American Guerrilla Today. CIA Directorate of Intelligence Weekly Summary Special Report, 22 January 1971. No. 0354/71. Langley, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1971.

4th Generation Warfare Concepts

Aguilera, Salvador. Embedded Strengths Team: Resurrecting, Redesigning, Redeploying Combined Action Platoons. USAWC strategy research project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Chase, Robert H, Jr. Battling the "Hydra": Changing Operational Factors in 4th Generation War. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2002.

DeGhetto, Todd H. Precipitating the Decline of Terrorist Groups: A Systems Analysis. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1994.

Hammes, Thomas X. "4th-Generation Warfare - Progress Requires Exploiting Political, Economic, Social and Technical Arenas." Armed Forces Journal International 142, no. 4 (2004): 40.

Harper, David. "Writing Contest Winners: The 2006 MacArthur Awards - 3d Place: Targeting of the American Will and Other Challenges for 4th-Generation Leadership - An Exploration of Some of the Profounder Implications of 4th-Generation Warfare for Leaders and Leader Training." Military Review 87, no. 2 (2007): 94.

Junio, Timothy. "Military History and Fourth Generation Warfare." Journal of Strategic Studies 32, no. 2 (2009): 243-69.

Karp, Aaron, Regina Cowen Karp, and Terry Terriff. Global Insurgency and the Future of Armed Conflict: Debating Fourth-Generation Warfare. London: Routledge, 2008.

Kuo, Li-sheng Arthur. Sun Tzu's War Theory in the Twenty First Century. USAWC strategy research project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Lind, William S. 2000. "Ideas and Issues - Commentary on the Corps - Missing the Boat: A Response to Generals Knutson, Hailston, and Bedard." The Marine Corps Gazette 84, no. 10 (2000): 34.

________. "Then and Now - The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation." The Marine Corps Gazette 85, no. 11 (2001): 65.

________. "Then and Now - Fourth Generation Warfare: Another Look." The Marine Corps Gazette 85, no. 11 (2001): 69.

________. "Then and Now - Fourth-Generation Warfare's First Blow: A Quick Look." The Marine Corps Gazette 85, no. 11 (2001): 72.

Love, James B. Hezbollah: Social Services as a Source of Power. JSOU report, 10-5. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2010.

Malay, Patrick. The Principles of War in the 21st Century. USAWC strategy research project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Manwaring, Max G. "The New Master of Wizard's Chess: The Real Hugo Chavez and Asymmetric Warfare - To Defend the Sovereignty and Greatness of His Country, Chavez Advocates a 'Bolivarian Revolution.' To Understand Bolivarianismo's Implications, We Must First Understand 4th-Generation Warfare." Military Review 85, no. 5 (2005): 40.

Schmeidel, John C. The Marine Barracks Bombing of 1983: Lessons from the American Participation in Multinational Force 2: A Case Study. Draft, DRR-560-A. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1993.

Scott, Wilbur, David McCone, and George Mastroianni. "The Deployment Experiences of Fort Carson's Soldiers in Iraq." Armed Forces & Society 35, no. 3 (2009): 460-76.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South and Central Asian Affairs. Assessing the Strength of Hezbollah: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South and Central Asian Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session, June 8, 2010. S. HRG. 111–700. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Department of the Army. Combat Studies Institute Military History Symposium. Warfare in the Age of Non-State Actors: Implications for the U.S. Army. Prepared by Kendall D. Gott and Michael G. Brooks. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center, 2007.

Special Operations Forces

Alexander, John B. The Changing Nature of Warfare, the Factors Mediating Future Conflict, and Implications for SOF. JSOU Report 06-1. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Averett, Christian M., Louis A. Cervantes, and Patrick M. O'Hara. An Analysis of Special Operations Command - South's Distributive Command and Control Concept. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Barnett, Frank R., B. Hugh Tovar, and Richard H. Shultz, Editors. Special Operations in US Strategy. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press in cooperation with National Strategy Information Center, 1984.

Bolduc, Don. Interview with LTC Don Bolduc. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [The commander of 1st Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group, Lieutenant Colonel Don Bolduc, in this interview, discusses two significant battles that elements of his unit were involved in while operating in southern Afghanistan in 2005: Siah Chow in July and Mari Ghar in August. By way of overview, he begins by defining his battalion's mission as one of conducting "selected unconventional warfare tasks in a counterinsurgency environment. In addition, he was charged with assisting "the local populace through the use of civil-military operations, psychological operations and information operations, and then training the Afghan National Army along a decentralized program of instruction." The ultimate goal, said Bolduc, was to "work ourselves out of a job." In both battles - small-unit clashes against well-armed and determined Taliban fighters waged in enemy sanctuary areas - his role was to "listen and anticipate," to have the systems in place to, as necessary, alert medical evacuation, activate the quick reaction force, push out liaison officers and make the case to the regional commander for additional assets such as close air support. "I called it piling on," he explained. "We develop the situation and add the requisite amount of combat power we need. " Among other topics discussed are the "psychology of war," the integration of indigenous forces into US combat units, and his thoughts on waging a successful counterinsurgency. Bolduc closes by articulating what he feels is the importance of recording soldiers' oral histories.]

Bowen, Gary R. Coast Guard SOF. JSOU report, 05-7. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Briggs, Ralph Tallmadge, and Paul F. Stevens. The Day VADM Yamagata Joined His Honorable Ancestors. n.p.: n.p., 1987.

Clark, William J., Christopher S. Kelley, and Justin M. Bummara. Analysis of Maritime Support Vessels and Acquisition Methods Utilized to Support Maritime Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.

Cox, Samuel J. U.S. Naval Strategy and Foreign Policy in China, 1945-1950. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Academy, 1980.

Feickert, Andrew. U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2010.

Fitzgerald, Oscar P. "Naval Group China: A Study of Guerrilla Warfare During World War II." Thesis (Ph. D.)--Georgetown University, 1968, 1974.

Geraghty, Tony. Black Ops: The Rise of Special Forces in the C.I.A, the S.A.S, and Mossad. New York: Pegasus Books, 2010.

Gladwin, Lee. "The Diplomacy of Security: Behind the Negotiations of Article 18 of the Sino-American Cooperative Agreement". Cryptologia 29, no. 1 (2005): 23-42.

Haas, Michael E. "U. S. Navy Special Operations in the Korean War." In In the Devil's Shadow: UN Special Operations During the Korean War (Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 2000): 130-171, 225-229.

Hedman, Daniel K. Reorganizing SOF for Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

Liller, Otto K. Special Operations Forces and Foreign Internal Defense: An Effective Counterterrorism Method. Newport, RI: US Naval War College, Joint Military Operations Department, 2005.

Logan, Kevin. Interview with LTC Kevin Logan. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [In this interview geared towards analyzing and better understanding the battlefield relationships between US conventional and special operations forces, Lieutenant Colonel Kevin Logan shares his deep insights, drawing upon not only his civil affairs-related Global War on Terrorism experiences in Afghanistan but on his Persian Gulf War service in Iraq with 3rd Special Forces Group as well. With respect to the GWOT, Logan was assigned to the 360th Civil Affairs Brigade and, in March 2002, flew along with one other soldier to Uzbekistan, then to Kabul, and linked up with the joint civil-military operations task force (JCMOTF). There, he began working with coalition humanitarian liaison cells. In detail, Logan recounts his dealings with 82nd Airborne Division personnel, with a variety of civil affairs and SF units, and also discusses his efforts to secure the cooperation and coordination necessary to ensure that humanitarian assistance work could proceed, unhindered either by logistical constraints or enemy activity. In this vein, he explains the emergence and growth of the provincial reconstruction teams. As for advice as to how conventional and special ops forces can more effectively work together in the future, he insists that breaking down mutual "stereotypes and misconceptions" is key - and towards this end, expanded professional education on the capabilities (and limitations) of both types of forces is crucial.]

Martinage, Robert. Strategy for the Long Haul. Special Operations Forces: Future Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic Budgetary Assessments, 2008.

McCain, Steven A. Information Dominance: Special Operations Forces in MOOTW. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1997.

McLaughlin, William P. The Sino-American Cooperative Organization/Naval Group China, 1942-1945: A Case Study in Special Operations. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Command & Staff College, 1996.

Miles, Milton E., and Hawthorne Daniel. A Different Kind of War: The Little-Known Story of the Combined Guerrilla Forces Created in China by the U.S. Navy and the Chinese During World War II. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967.

Moulton, John R, II. Role of Air Force Special Operations in Foreign Internal Defense. CADRE paper special series: the future of the Air Force.; Research report (Air University), no. AU-ARI-CPSS-91- 3. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1991.

Neville, Leigh, and Richard Chasemore. Special Operations Patrol Vehicles: Afghanistan and Iraq. New vanguard, 179. Oxford: Osprey, 2011.

Newton, Richard D. Special Operations Aviation in NATO: A Vector to the Future. JSOU report, 06-8. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Pratt, Christopher D. Permanent Presence for the Persistent Conflict: An Alternative Look at the Future of Special Forces. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

Roscoe, Theodore, and R. G. Voge. United States Submarine Operations in World War II. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1949. [Contains an Appendix listing US submarine participation in unconventional warfare operations during World War II.]

Shultz, Richard H. The Secret War Against Hanoi: Kennedy’s and Johnson’s Use of Spies, Saboteurs, and Covert Warriors in North Vietnam. New York: Harper Collins, 1999.

Sino-American Cooperative Organization Veterans. SACO News. No. 16 (April 1998).

Sontag, Sherry, Christopher Drew, and Annette Lawrence Drew. Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. New York: Public Affairs, 1998.

Spulak, Robert G. A Theory of Special Operations: The Origin, Qualities, and Use of SOF. JSOU report, 07-7. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

Stratton, Roy Olin. SACO, the Rice Paddy Navy. Pleasantville, NY: C.S. Palmer Publishing Company, 1950.

Talkington, Rory E. U. S. Marine Corps Special Operations in a Narco-Terrorism Environment. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps War College, 1997.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Operation Odyssey Dawn and U.S. Military Operations in Libya: Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, Hearing Held March 31, 2011. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011.

United States. Department of the Army. Special Forces Operations: U.S. Army Doctrine. FM 31-21. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 1969.

United States. Department of the Army. 5th Special Forces Group. Lessons Learned, Headquarters, 5th SFG, 1st Special Forces. Washington, DC: Adjutant General's Office, U.S. Army, 1968. [At the beginning of the reporting period, large scale enemy attacks on major installations and cities were still in progress throughout the Republic of Vietnam. As a result of the Tet offensive, Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG) forces assumed new missions, construction projects in progress were delayed, new construction was necessitated, plans to relocate open, close, and convert camps were deferred or cancelled and thousands of refugees were assisted. The most significant single action during the quarter occurred at Special Forces camp Lang Vei. The large scale attack that had been expected occurred on 7 February when a combined armor and infantry attack overran the camp. The attack marked the first tactical utilization of tanks by the enemy in South Vietnam.]

Riverine Warfare

Benbow, Robert. Renewal of Navy's Riverine Capability: A Preliminary Examination of Past, Current and Future Capabilities. CRM, D0013241.A5/2Rev. Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 2006.

Cutler, Thomas J. Brown Water, Black Berets: Coastal and Riverine Warfare in Vietnam. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988.

Dunnavent, R. Blake. Brown Water Warfare: The U.S. Navy in Riverine Warfare and the Emergence of a Tactical Doctrine, 1775-1970. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003.

________. "Battle for the Mekong: The River War in Vietnam." In Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land. London: Osprey, 2006.

Field, James A. Jr. History of United States Naval Operations: Korea. Washington, DC: Naval History Division, 1962.

Friedman, Norman. U.S. Small Combatants: Including PT-Boats, Subchasers, and the Brown-Water Navy: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Fulton, William B. Riverine Operations, 1966-1969. Vietnam Studies series. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1973.

Gardner, K. N. "The Beginning of the Yangtze River Campaign of 1926-27." US Naval Institute Proceedings 58, no.1 (Jan. 1932): 40-44.

Haines, Gregory. Gunboats on the Great River. London: Macdonald and Jane's, 1976.

Hooper, Edwin Bickford, Dean C. Allard, and Oscar P. Fitzgerald. The Setting of the Stage to 1959. Volume 1, The United States Navy and the Vietnam Conflict. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1976.

Howell, Glenn F. "Operations of the United States Navy on the Yangtze River - September 1926, to June, 1927. " US Naval Institute Proceedings 54, no.4 (Apr. 1928): 273-86.

________. "Opium Obligato." US Naval Institute Proceedings 64, no.12 (Dec. 1938): 1729-35.

Marolda, Edward J. The Approaching Storm: Conflict in Asia, 1945-1965. Washington, DC: Naval History and Heritage Command, 2009.

________. By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the U.S. Navy and the War in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1994.

Marolda, Edward J. and Oscar P. Fitzgerald. From Military Assistance to Combat, 1959-1965. Volume 2, The United States Navy and the Vietnam Conflict. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1986.

Marolda, Edward J., ed. The U.S. Navy in the Korean War. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2007.

Pineau, Roger. "USS Noa and the Fall of Nanking." US Naval Institute Proceedings 81, no.11 (Nov. 1955): 1221-28.

Schreadley, Richard L. From the Rivers to the Sea: The USN in Vietnam. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1992.

Smith-Hutton, H. H. "Lessons Learned at Shanghai in 1932." US Naval Institute Proceedings 64, no.8 (Aug. 1938): 1167-80.

Tolley, Kemp. Yangtze Patrol: The U.S. Navy in China. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1971.

Trim, D. J. B. "Medieval and Early-Modern Inshore, Estuarine, Riverine and Lacustrine Warfare." In Amphibious Warfare 1000-1700: Commerce, State Formation and European Expansion. Edited by Mark Charles Fissel and D. J. B. Trim.Leiden: Brill, 2005.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval Postgraduate School. Dudley Knox Library. Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China, a Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography. Monterey, CA: Dudley Knox Library, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1998.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval Historical Center. A Bibliography of the United States Navy and the Conflict in Southeast Asia, 1950-1975. Compiled by Edward J. Marolda and James Lesher. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 1991.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval Historical Center. Navy Department Library. Riverine Warfare: the U.S. Navy's Operations on Inland Waters. Washington, DC: Navy Department Library, 2006.

________. Riverine Warfare in Vietnam (1946-1973): A Select Bibliography. Washington, DC: Navy Department Library, 2006.

________. Yangtze River Patrol and Other US Navy Asiatic Fleet Activities in China, 1920-1942, as Described in the Annual Reports of the Navy Department. Washington, DC: Navy Department Library, 2006.

Zumwalt, Elmo R. Jr. On Watch: A Memoir. New York: Quadrangle Press/The New York Times Book Company, 1976.

Attacks on National Infrastructure and Military Installations

Attacks on National Infrastructure

Alvarez, Rogelio E. Interdicting Electrical Power Grids. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2004.

McNeill, Jena Baker, and Richard Weitz. Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack: A Preventable Homeland Security Catastrophe. Backgrounder, no.2199. Washington, DC : Heritage Foundation, 2008.

Saadawi, Tarek Nazir, and Louis Jordan. Cyber Infrastructure Protection . Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2011.

United States. Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack. Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack: Critical National Infrastructures. Washington, DC: Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack, 2008.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. The Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States From Electromagnetic Pulse Attack: Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held July 22, 2004. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.

________. Threat Posed by Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack. H.A.S.C. No. 110-156. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities. What Should the Department of Defense's Role in Cyber Be?: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, Hearing Held February 11, 2011. H.A.S.C. No. 112–5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities. Cyberspace As a Warfighting Domain Policy, Management, and Technical Challenges to Mission Assurance: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held May 5, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111–51. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Department of Energy. Nuclear Effects Directorate. Vertical Electromagnetic Pulse (VEMP) Testing. White Sands Missile Range, NM: Nuclear Effects Directorate, 2009.

United States. Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Unclassified Summary of SIGIR's Review of Efforts to Increase Iraq's Capability to Protect Its Energy Infrastructure. Arlington, VA: Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, 2006.

Wilson, Clay. High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices Threat Assessments. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2004.

Attacks on Military Installations

Burdick, David S. Do Good Fences Still Make Good Neighbors? Integrating Force Protection with Homeland Security on Army Installations. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

United States. House. Committee on Armed Services. Findings of the Department of Defense Independent Review Related to Fort Hood Hearing Before the Full Committee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held January 20, 2010 . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. The Fort Hood Attack: A Preliminary Assessment: Hearing Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States Senate of the One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, November 19, 2009. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 2011.

United States. Department of the Army. Fort Hood Army Internal Review Team. Fort Hood Army Internal Review Team Final Report: Protecting Our Army Community at Home & Abroad. Washington, DC: Fort Hood Army Internal Review Team, 2010.

United States. Department of Defense. Independent Review Panel Related to Fort Hood. Protecting the Force: Lessons from Fort Hood. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, 2010.

United States. General Accounting Office. Combating Terrorism: Efforts to Protect U.S. Forces in Turkey and the Middle East: Statement of Mark E. Gebicke, Director, Military Operations and Capabilities Issues, National Security and International Affairs Division, Before the Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs and Criminal Justice, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 1997.

________. Combating Terrorism: Action Taken but Considerable Risks Remain for Forces Overseas: Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2000.

________. Combating Terrorism: Actions Needed to Guide Services' Antiterrorism Efforts at Installations. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2002.

Warner, Scott A. Effective Use of New Materials and Methodologies for Blast Mitigation in New and Renovated Facilities by the Armed Services. Master of Military Art and Science Theses. Fort Leavenworth, KS : US Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.

Expeditionary Warfare

Theory, Doctrine, Training and Manuals

Bowers, William J. Aqueducts and Megawatts: Integrating the United States Army Corps of Engineers with Operational Commanders. Quantico, VA: School of Advanced Warfighting, U.S. Marine Corps University, 2005.

Boynton, Frank R. Force Projection Operations: Lessons from Amphibious Warfare Doctrine. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.

Dorman, Andrew M. European Adaptation to Expeditionary Warfare Implications for the U.S. Army. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2002.

Elleman, Bruce A., and S. C. M. Paine. Naval Power and Expeditionary Warfare: Peripheral Campaigns and New Theatres of Naval Warfare. Cass series. Navy policy and history. London: Routledge, 2011.

Federoff, Jack A., and Christopher A. Melhuish. Expeditionary Warfare and Conflict Deterrence. Newport, RI: Advanced cResearch Program, U.S. Naval War College, 1994.

Great Britain. War Office. Intelligence Division. Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice. Prepared by Sir Charles Edward Callwell, K.C.B. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1899; reprint, n.p.: Book Jungle, 2009.

Grimmett, Richard F. Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2004. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2004.

Hendrickson, George B. Expeditionary Ship Battle Damage Repair. Occasional paper (Center for Naval Warfare Studies [U.S.]); Research report (Naval War College [U.S.]. Strategic Research Department), 3-97. Newport, RI: Naval War College, Center for Naval Warfare Studies, Strategic Research Dept, 1997.

Higgins, Eric John, Ronald Leroy Higgs, Gregory Rodger Parkins, Vincent S. Tionquiao, and Christopher Kevin Wells. Expeditionary Warfare: Force Protection. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2004.

Kraska, James. Maritime Power and the Law of the Sea: Expeditionary Operations in World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Oros, Carl L. The Reestablishment of the Amphibious Marine Expeditionary Brigade and Its Implication for the Aviation Combat Element. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2000.

"Our Military Policy in Small Wars." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 606 (May 1879): 20-27.

Prater, Ian M. Rediscovering the Small Wars Manual: A Guide to 21st Century Warfare. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2005.

Richardson, Doug. "Helicopters: Self-Protection - The Expeditionary-Warfare Challenge." Armada International 30, no. 3 (2006): 60.

Robertson, Christopher H. Support of U.S. Army Special Forces in Expeditionary Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.

"Royal Treatment - The United Kingdom's 3 Royal Marine Commando Brigade Can Be Deployed Anywhere in the World on Short Notice to Conduct Amphibious Operations, and Has a Wealth of Experience in Warfighting and Peace-Support Operations. The Brigade Includes Three Light Infantry Battalions - 40, 42, and 45 Commando. The Brigade Headquarters and 45 Commando Are Completing a Six-Month Tour in Kosovo That Began Last September." Armed Forces Journal International 138, no. 6 (2001): 42.

Sentinella, Derek J. U.S. Army Engineer Support to Expeditionary Warfare. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2004.

Tirrell, Richard P. Amphibious Expeditionary Warfare C4I Modernization. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, 2005.

United States. Department of the Army. Army Forces in Amphibious Operations: The Army Landing Force. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 1961.

United States. Department of the Navy. Decisive Power - Global Reach: Naval Expeditionary Warfare, Naval Amphibious Warfare Plan. 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy, 2002.

United States. Deprtment of the Navy. Bureau of Naval Personnel. Landing Party Manual: United States Navy 1950. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950.

United States. Navy Department. Bureau of Navigation. Landing-Force Manual: United States Navy 1918. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1918.

________. Landing-Force Manual: United States Navy 1920. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1920.

________. Landing-Force Manual: United States Navy 1927. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1927.

________. Landing-Force Manual: United States Navy 1938. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1938.

________. Landing-Force Manual: United States Navy 1938. Updated Edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1941.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps. Naval Gunfire Support. Fleet Marine Force manual, 7-2. Washington, DC: U.S. Marine Corps, 1962.

________. Shore Party and Helicopter Support Team Operations. Fleet Marine Force manual, 4-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Marine Corps, 1967.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps Development and Education Command. Doctrine for Landing Forces . Landing Force Manual, 02. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Development and Education Command, 1971.

United States. Department of the Navy. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Landing Party Manual. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960.

United States. Department of the Navy. Office of Naval Intelligence. Challenges to Naval Expeditionary Warfare. Washington, DC: Office of Naval Intelligence, 1997.

Historical Accounts

"The Abyssinian Expedition." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 470 (January 1868): 81-90.

"The Abyssinian Expedition." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 472 (March 1868): 409-13.

"The Abyssinian Expedition." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 473 (April 1868): 565-70.

Baker, Sir Samuel White. "The African Mania." United Service Magazine 1, New Series, (CXXIII, Old Series), no. 740 (July 1890): 377-84.

Brooks, Richard. The Long Arm of Empire: Naval Brigades from the Crimea to the Boxer Rebellion. London: Constable, 1999.

Burne, Charles Richard Newdigate. With the Naval Brigade in Natal, 1899-1900: Journal of Active Service Kept During the Relief of Ladysmith and Subsequent Operations in Northern Natal and the Transvaal, Under General Sir Redvers Buller. London: Arnold, 1902.

Cooper King, Colonel Charles. “British Outposts in Actual Battle-Fields.” United Service Magazine 3, New Series, (CXXV, Old Series), no. 749, (April 1891): 70-79.

________. "British Outposts in Actual Battle-Fields." United Service Magazine 3, New Series, (CXXV, Old Series), no. 750, (May 1891): 137-43.

Chapman, Major-General E. F., C.B. "Pacification of Upper Burma." Colburn's United Service Magazine No. 737 (April 1890): 13-27.

Dixon, Frederick. "Subjugation of Bunnoo by Sir Herbert Edwards." Colburn's United Service Magazine 2 (November 1888): 79-95.

Ex-Aide-de-Camp. "The Battle of Sabraon." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 458 (January 1867): 6-17. [An account of the First Sikh War.]

"French Expeditions into the Desert." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 486 (May 1869): 93-98.

"French Expeditions into the Desert." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 488 (July 1869): 358-63.

"The French in Tonkin." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 566 (January 1876): 38-43.

"From Suez to Cairo in 1801." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 458 (January 1867): 43-46.

Gooch, Captain T. Sherlock, R.N. "Capture of Rangoon and Martaban, 1852." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Journal of the Army, Navy and Auxiliary Forces 117, no. 700 (March 1887): 226-46.

Harding, Richard. Amphibious Warfare in the Eighteenth Century: The British Expedition to the West Indies, 1740-1742. Royal Historical Society studies in history, no. 62. Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1991.

Hooper, George. "The Sudan Campaign." United Service Magazine 1, New Series, (CXXIII, Old Series), no. 738 (May 1890): 162-75.

Hore, Peter. Seapower Ashore: 200 Years of Royal Navy Operations on Land. London: Chatham, 2000.

Hozier, Captain Henry Montague, 3rd Dragoon Guards. The British Expedition to Abyssinia. London: Macmillan, 1869.

Hutchinson, Colonel Henry Doveton, Director of Military Education in India. The Campaign in Tirah, 1897-1898. London: Macmillan and Company, 1898.

"In Zululand." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 608 (July 1879): 360-62.

Jeans, Surgeon Thomas Tendron, RN. Naval Brigades in the South African War, 1899-1900. Introduction by Commander Charles Napier Robinson, RN. London: S. Low, Marston, 1901.

"Kaffirs and Kaffir Wars in the Cape and Natal." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 604 (March 1879): 357-63.

Keyes, Roger John Brownlow Keyes. Adventures Ashore and Afloat. George C. Harrap, 1939.

Low, Charles Rathbone. "Major-General E. Newdigate." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 610 (September 1879): 42-54.

"The Marines at Canton, the Peiho, and Pekin." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 566 (January 1876): 92-103.

"The Marines at Canton, the Peiho, and Pekin." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 567 (February 1876): 197-202.

McNeely, R. W. The Tragic Days of Vera Cruz: The First Published Native Account of the Seizure of Vera Cruz by the U.S. Naval Force Under Rear Admiral Fletcher, U.S. Navy. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1914.

"Military Transport by Sea." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 476 (July 1868): 357-70.

Miller, Donald G. "U.S. Marine Corps Operations in North China, 1945-1949." A research paper submitted to the head of the Department of English, History, and Government, United States Naval Academy, 1962.

"Naval and Military Annals of South Africa." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 605 (April 1879): 496-512.

"The Niger Expedition, 1869." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 579 (February 1877): 158-66.

"Notes on the History and Services of the Eighty-sixth Regiment of Foot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 597 (August 1878): 494-502.

"Notes on the History and Services of the Eighty-sixth Regiment of Foot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 598 (September 1878): 59-65.

"Notes on the History and Services of the Eighty-sixth Regiment of Foot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 599 (October 1878): 205-15.

"Notes on the History and Services of the Eighty-sixth Regiment of Foot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 600 (November 1878): 375-81.

"Notes on the History and Services of the Eighty-sixth Regiment of Foot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 601 (December 1878): 462-70.

"Notes on the History and Services of the Eighty-sixth Regiment of Foot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 602 (January 1879): 27-34.

"Notes on the History and Services of the Eighty-sixth Regiment of Foot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 604 (March 1879): 298-307.

"Notes on the History and Services of the Eighty-sixth Regiment of Foot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 606 (May 1879): 88-100.

Officer of the Regiment. "With the Royal Welsh Fusiliers in the Third Burmese War, 1885-86-87." Colburn's United Service Magazine 1 (October 1888): 682-99.

________. "With the Royal Welsh Fusiliers in the Third Burmese War, 1885-86-87." Colburn's United Service Magazine 2 (November 1888): 7-24.

________. "With the Royal Welsh Fusiliers in the Third Burmese War, 1885-86-87." Colburn's United Service Magazine 2 (December 1888): 211-23.

Officer of the Royal Artillery. "Journal During the Chinese Expedition in 1841 and 1842." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 590 (January 1878): 105-9.

________. "Journal During the Chinese Expedition in 1841 and 1842." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 591 (February 1878): 224-36.

________. "Journal During the Chinese Expedition in 1841 and 1842." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 593 (April 1878): 506-11.

________. "Journal During the Chinese Expedition in 1841 and 1842." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 594 (May 1878): 99-105.

________. "Journal During the Chinese Expedition in 1841 and 1842." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 596 (July 1878): 352-58.

________. "Journal During the Chinese Expedition in 1841 and 1842." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 597 (August 1878): 502-8.

________. "Journal During the Chinese Expedition in 1841 and 1842." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 598 (September 1878): 102-12.

"The Old Seventy-Ninth Regiment and the Capture of Manilla." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military
Journal
No. 478 (September 1868): 16-21.

"Our Latest 'Little War;' or, Campaigning In Honduras." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 478 (September 1868): 52-59.

"Our Latest 'Little War;' or, Campaigning In Honduras." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 479 (October 1868): 212-18.

"Our Military Policy in Small Wars." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 606 (May 1879): 20-27.

"Record of Naval and Military Events, 1886." Colburn's United Service Magazine 117, no. 698 (January 1887); 81-88.

"Red-Jackets Afloat." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 472 (March 1868): 371-80.

Roth, Patrick H. Sailors as Infantry in the US Navy. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, 2005.

________. US Navy Sailors Operating Ashore as Artillerymen: Four Vignettes. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, 2006.

Rowbotham, William Bevill. The Naval Brigades in the Indian Mutiny, 1857-58. Publications of the Navy Records Society, vol. 87. London: Printed for the Navy Records Society, 1947.

Rynd, Captain F. F., D.S.O. "The 'Voortrekkers' and the Zulus." United Service Magazine Vol. XXXVI ,New Series (Vol. CLVII, Old Series), No. 951 (February 1908): 531-37.

"Stations of the British Army (Corrected to the 20th of December, 1886)." Colburn's United Service Magazine 117, no. 698 (January 1887); 89-93.

"Stations of the Royal Navy (Corrected to the 20th of December, 1886)." Colburn's United Service Magazine 117, no. 698 (January 1887); 93-96.

"The Storming of Jhansi: A Passage in the History of the Royal County Downs." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 592 (March 1878): 344-50.

Taylor, General Sir Henry George Andrew. "Memoir of General Sir H. G. A. Taylor, G.C.B." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 569 (April 1876): 472-82.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval Historical Center. Navy Department Library List of Expeditions 1901-1929: A Study Made in the Office of Naval Intelligence by Lieut-Col. R. B. Farquharson, U.S. Marine Corps, of Expeditions Formed and Landings Effected by U.S. Naval Forces, in Central America, Mexico and West Indies, from 1901 to 1 May, 1929 Washington, DC: Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, 2005.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval History and Heritage Command. Casualties, U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Killed and Wounded in Wars, Conflicts and Hostile Incidents. Washington, DC: Naval History and Heritage Command, 2010.

"The War Department, Abyssinia, and Army Supply." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 472 (March 1868): 317-28.

Williams, Charles. “The Nile Campaign, A Reply to Mr. Forbes.” United Service Magazine 4, New Series (CXXVI, Old Series), no. 759 (February 1892): 418-26.

Wingate, Major Francis Reginald. “The Siege and Fall of Khartum.” United Service Magazine 4, New Series (CXXVI, Old Series), no. 759 (February 1892): 406-17.

________. “The Siege and Fall of Khartum.” United Service Magazine 4, New Series (CXXVI, Old Series), no. 760 (March 1892): 537-50.

Afghanistan

Abbot, General Augustus, C.B., R.A. "Expedition to Pushoot." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 602 (January 1879): 21-27.

"At Kandahar." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 605 (April 1879): 519-20.

Bellew, Henry Walter, Medical Officer to the Mission. Journal of a Political Mission to Afghanistan, in 1857, under Major (now Colonel) Lumsden; with an Account of the Country and People. London: Smith, Elder and Company, 1862.

Cooper King, Colonel Charles. “British Outposts in Actual Battle-Fields.” United Service Magazine 3, New Series, (CXXV, Old Series), no. 749, (April 1891): 70-79.

________. “British Outposts in Actual Battle-Fields.” United Service Magazine 3, New Series, (CXXV, Old Series), no. 750, (May 1891): 137-43.

Edwardes, Major Herbert Benjamin, Companion of the Order of the Bath, Honourable East India Company Service. A Year on the Punjab Frontier, in 1848-49. London: Richard Bentley, 1851.

Ferrier, Joseph Pierre. History of the Afghans. Translated from the unpublished French manuscript by Captain William Jesse. London: J. Murray, 1858.

Forbes, Archibald. The Afghan Wars, 1839-42 and 1878-80. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1892.

"The Future of Afghanistan." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 612 (November 1879): 375-82.

"In Afghan." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 606 (May 1879): 99-100.

"In Afghanistan." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 611 (October 1879): 225-29.

Low, Lieutenant Charles Rathbone, (late) I.N. "Major-General Sir George Hall Macgregor, K.C.B., R.C.S.I., &c. A Memoir." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 486 (May 1869): 73-93. ["Sir George Macgregor, during his eventful career, has received the medals for Ghuznee 1839, Jellalabad 1842, Cabul 1842, and Indian Mutiny (with clasp for Lucknow) 1858. He is still comparatively young for a general officer, but there is probably small chance of his being employed in the service of his country, though in any politico-military appointment requiring delicacy and tact, with firmness and sound judgment, there are few officers in either the Home or Indian Services who could better discharge such duties."]

________. "Major-General Sir George Hall Macgregor, K.C.B., R.C.S.I., &c. A Memoir." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 487 (June 1869): 216-38. ["Sir George Macgregor, during his eventful career, has received the medals for Ghuznee 1839, Jellalabad 1842, Cabul 1842, and Indian Mutiny (with clasp for Lucknow) 1858. He is still comparatively young for a general officer, but there is probably small chance of his being employed in the service of his country, though in any politico-military appointment requiring delicacy and tact, with firmness and sound judgment, there are few officers in either the Home or Indian Services who could better discharge such duties."]

________. "Major-General Sir George Hall Macgregor, K.C.B., R.C.S.I., &c. A Memoir." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 488 (July 1869): 393-404. ["Sir George Macgregor, during his eventful career, has received the medals for Ghuznee 1839, Jellalabad 1842, Cabul 1842, and Indian Mutiny (with clasp for Lucknow) 1858. He is still comparatively young for a general officer, but there is probably small chance of his being employed in the service of his country, though in any politico-military appointment requiring delicacy and tact, with firmness and sound judgment, there are few officers in either the Home or Indian Services who could better discharge such duties."]

________. "Major-General Sir George Hall Macgregor, K.C.B., R.C.S.I., &c. A Memoir." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 489 (August 1869): 548-65. ["Sir George Macgregor, during his eventful career, has received the medals for Ghuznee 1839, Jellalabad 1842, Cabul 1842, and Indian Mutiny (with clasp for Lucknow) 1858. He is still comparatively young for a general officer, but there is probably small chance of his being employed in the service of his country, though in any politico-military appointment requiring delicacy and tact, with firmness and sound judgment, there are few officers in either the Home or Indian Services who could better discharge such duties."]

________. "Memoir of General Sir Thomas Willshire, Bart., G.C.B." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 610 (September 1879): 100-5.

________. "Memoir of General Sir Thomas Willshire, Bart., G.C.B." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 612 (November 1879): 334-60.

Oliver, Edward Emmerson, M.Inst.C.E., M.R.A. Across the Border: Or, Pathân and Biloch. Illustrated by John Lockwood Kipling, Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire. London: Chapman and Hall, 1890.

Paske, Colonel Edward Hanson. "Afghanistan and the Boundary Commission." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Journal of the Army, Navy and Auxiliary Forces 118, no. 707 (October 1887): 289-309.

________. "Afghanistan and the Boundary Commission." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Journal of the Army, Navy and Auxiliary Forces 118, no. 708 (November 1887): 404-30.

________. "Afghanistan and the Boundary Commission." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Journal of the Army, Navy and Auxiliary Forces 118, no. 709 (December 1887): 481-512.

"Past and Present Afghan Wars." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 607 (June 1879): 155-65.

Sale, Florentia Wynch, Lady. A Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan, 1841-2. London: John Murray, 1843.

Shadbolt, Sydney Henry, Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law. The Afghan Campaigns of 1878-1880: Comprising Historical and Biographical Divisions, and Containing a Rapid Sketch of the War, Maps Illustrating the Operations and the Movements of the Forces, One Hundred and Forty Permanent Photographs of Officers Who Lost Their Lives in the Campaigns and of Recipients of the Victoria Cross, with Memoirs Prepared from Materials Furnished by Their Relations and Surviving Comrades, Summaries of the Movements in the Field of the Various Regiments Which Were Engaged, and Separate Records of the Services of Every British Officer Who Was Employed in the War. Dedicated to Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts, Baronet, Commander-in-Chief, Madras Army. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1882.

Thorburn, Septimus Smet, India Civil Service, Settlement Officer of the Bannú District. Bannú, Or Our Afghan Frontier. London: Trübner & Company, 1876.

Ullah, Neamé. History of the Afghans. Two volumes in one. Translated from the Persian by Bernhard Dorn, Ph.D., Professor of Oriental Literature in the Imperial Russian University of Kharkov. London, 1829-36.

Walker, P. F. Afghanistan: A Short Account Of Afghanistan, Its History, and Our Dealings With It. London and New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1881.

The China Relief Expedition, 1900-1901

Davidson, W. C. Operations in North China. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1900.

Germany. Kriegsmarine. Oberkommando. Die Kaiserliche Marine während der Wirren in China 1900-1901. Herausgegeben vom Admiralstabe der Marine. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn, 1903.

Harlow, William C. Logistical Support of the China Relief Expedition. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1991.

Kempff, Louis. Bombardment of the Taku Forts in China: Letter from the Secretary of the Navy, Transmitting, in Response to the Inquiry of the House, Copies of Communications between the Navy Department and Rear-Admiral Kempff in Relation to the Bombardment of the Taku Forts in China. Washington, DC: n.p., 1902.

Leonhard, Robert R. The China Relief Expedition: Joint Coalition Warfare in China, Summer 1900. Laurel, MD: Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, 2000.

Löffler, Friedrich Otto, Hauptmann und Kompagniechef im 10. Königlich Sächsischen Infanterieregiment Nr. 184. Die China-Expedition 1900-1901. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Thätigkeit des Armee-Oberkommandos und des Deutschen Expeditionskorps. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn, 1902.

Myers, John T. Military Operations and Defenses of the Siege of Peking. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1902.

O'Quinlivan, Michael. An Annotated Bibliography of the United States Marines in the Boxer Rebellion. Marine Corps historical bibliographies, no. 4. Washington, DC: Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1961.

Winterhalder, Theodor Ritter von. Kämpfe in China. Eine Darstellung der Wirren und der Betheiligung von Österreich-Ungarns Seemacht an ihrer Niederwerfung in den Jahren 1900-1901. Wien: A. Hartleben, 1902.

Wurtsbaugh, Daniel W. The Seymour Relief Expedition. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1902.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval Historical Center. The Boxer Rebellion and the U.S. Navy, 1900-1901. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, 2000.

Counterterrorism

Anderson, Wesley J. L. Disrupting Threat Finances: Using Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organizations. JSOU report, 08-3. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2008.

Bates, James A. The War on Terrorism: Countering Global Insurgency in the 21st Century. JSOU report, 05-8. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2005.

Bijlert, Martine van. The Battle for Afghanistan: Militancy and Conflict in Zabul and Uruzgan. Counterterrorism strategy initiative policy paper. Washington, DC: New America Foundation, 2010.

Bowen, Gary R. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachments in the War on Terror. Command and General Staff College (CGSC) School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS) Monograph. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.

Choate, Mary Jo. Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Initiative: Balance of Power? Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Dalzell, Stephen R. Beyond Draining the Swamp: Urban Development and Counterterrorism in Morocco. JSOU report, 06-9. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

DeGhetto, Todd H. Precipitating the Decline of Terrorist Groups: A Systems Analysis. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1994.

Henriksen, Thomas H. Dividing Our Enemies. JSOU report, 05-4. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2005.

Iqbal, Malik Zafar. US-Pakistan Relations: An Appraisal of the Afghanistan-Pakistan Strategy to Counter Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Kherbi, H. E. An African Perspective on the Global Fight Against Terrorism. Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 2005.

Liller, Otto K. Special Operations Forces and Foreign Internal Defense: An Effective Counterterrorism Method. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2005.

Maxwell, Jeffrey W. A Revised Strategy for the Global War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2007.

Norwitz, Jeffrey H. Armed Groups: Studies in National Security, Counterterrorism, and Counterinsurgency. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2008.

O'Rourke, Ronald. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: \ Congressional Research Service, 2010.

________. Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress. 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2011.

Pinheiro, Alvaro de Souza. Narcoterrorism in Latin America: A Brazilian Perspective. JSOU report, 06-4. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Rooney, David. Guerrilla: Insurgents, Patriots, and Terrorists from Sun Tzu to Bin Laden. London: Brassey's, 2004.

Spulak, Robert G., and Jessica Glicken Turnley. Theoretical Perspectives of Terrorist Enemies As Networks. JSOU Report, 05-3. Hurlburt Field, FL.: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2005.

Talkington, Rory E. U. S. Marine Corps Special Operations in a Narco-Terrorism Environment. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps War College, 1997.

Thornton, William H. Modern Terrorism: The Potential for Increased Lethality. CLIC Papers. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1987.

Turbiville, Graham Hall, Jr. Hunting Leadership Targets in Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorist Operations: Selected Perspectives and Experience. JSOU report, 07-6. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities. Lessons for Countering Al Qa'ida and the Way Ahead: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held September 18, 2008. H.A.S.C. No. 110-174. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

________. Strategies for Countering Violent Extremist Ideologies: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held February 12, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-7. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

________. Terrorism and the New Age of Irregular Warfare: Challenges and Opportunities: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held April 2, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-41. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Department of Defense. Joint Special Operations University. Special Operations Forces: Interagency Counterterrorism Reference Manual. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

________. Special Operations Forces: Interagency Counterterrorism Reference Manual. Second Edition. MacDill AFB, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2011.

Websites

CATO Institute. The Military's Role in Counterterrorism.

Interpol. "Interpol's Involvement in the Fight against International Terrorism."

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. International Military Staff. NATO’s Military Concept for Defence against Terrorism.

Small Wars Foundation. Small Wars Journal. Counterterrorism and Military Occupation.

United States. Department of the Air Force. Conflict 21 Terrorism Studies.

United States. Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism (2002).

United States. National Counterterrorism Center. National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC).

Foreign Internal Defense

Goodwyn, Reid M. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict - A Case Study for the United States Military in Foreign Internal Defense. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.

James, Jeffery N. Understanding Contemporary Foreign Internal Defense and Military Advisement: Not Just a Semantic Exercise. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.

Johnson, Wray R. Whither Aviation Foreign Internal Defense? Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, 1997.

Jones, D. Ending the Debate: Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, and Why Words Matter. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.

Liller, Otto K. Special Operations Forces and Foreign Internal Defense: An Effective Counterterrorism Method. Newport, RI: US Naval War College, Joint Military Operations Department, 2005.

Keller, Derek R. A Clash of Military Traditions Meritocracy, Modernization, and Neo-Traditional Challenges to United States Foreign Internal Defense (FID) Policy. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

Matelski, Thomas R. Developing Security Force Assistance: Lessons from Foreign Internal Defense. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.

Moulton, John R, II. Role of Air Force Special Operations in Foreign Internal Defense. CADRE paper special series: the future of the Air Force.; Research report (Air University), no. AU-ARI-CPSS-91- 3. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1991.

Newton, Richard D. Reinventing the Wheel: Structuring Air Forces for Foreign Internal Defense. CADRE paper special series : the future of the Air Force.; Research report (Air University), no. AU-ARI-CPSS-91- 1. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Force University Press, 1991.

Paquin, Keith R. Use of Conventional U.S. Naval Forces to Conduct FID in Colombia. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

Peltzer, Eric J. Using Foreign Internal Defense and Unconventional Warfare to Conduct Global Counterinsurgency. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.

Sagraves, Robert D. The Indirect Approach: The Role of Aviation Foreign Internal Defense in Combating Terrorism in Weak and Failing States. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 2005.

United States. Air Force. Foreign Internal Defense. Air Force doctrine document, 2-3.1. Washington, DC: U.S. Air Force, 2007.

United States. Department of Defense. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Foreign Internal Defense (FID). Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2004.

________. Foreign Internal Defense. Joint publication, 3-22. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2010.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. An Update on Efforts to Develop and Support the Iraqi Security Forces. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

________. Addressing U.S. Strategy in Iraq and Afghanistan: Balancing Interests and Resources: Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held February 12, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-6. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Unclassified Summary of SIGIR's Review of Efforts to Increase Iraq's Capability to Protect Its Energy Infrastructure. Arlington, Va: Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, 2006.

White, Nathan A. Aviation Foreign Internal Defense (AFID) in Vietnam. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 2009.

Historical Precedents

"Indian Army Organization." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 568 (March 1876): 285-91.

Snow, Lieutenant-General Thomas Rochfort. "Improvements in Our Indian Army." Colburn's United Service Magazine 118, No. 704 (July 1887): 15-22.

________. "The Defence of India." Colburn's United Service Magazine 118, No. 705 (August 1887): 120-24.

Stabilization, Security, Transition and Reconstruction

Amburn, Don. Interview with COL Don Amburn. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [A newly promoted lieutenant colonel when his Army Reserve unit - the 489th Civil Affairs (CA) Battalion, based in Knoxville, Tennessee - was tapped for service in Afghanistan, Colonel Don Amburn deployed in early 2002 and, once in country, proceeded to conduct a month-long transfer of authority process with the active duty 96th CA Battalion. During the 489th's nearly 10 months in support of Operation Enduring Freedom, six to 12-person battalion teams called coalition humanitarian liaison cells (CHLCs) undertook a wide variety of reconstruction projects throughout the country and, in so doing, worked closely with US and coalition governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as with conventional and other special operations forces. For his part, Amburn ran the civil-military operations center (CMOC), based in Kabul, and thus commanded and controlled the activities of the dispersed CHLCs. In this interview, Amburn discusses at length his working relationships with units from a number of conventional US divisions, including the 10th Mountain Division and the 101st and 82nd Airborne Divisions; and while his dealings with the first two he describes as "excellent," he discloses a considerable amount of friction between the 82nd and his CA teams. While primarily occupied with reconstruction and humanitarian assistance tasks, Amburn's CHLCs were hardly immune to hostilities, nor to the traumas of a combat environment. In the context of this Afghan deployment - but also looking back on elements of the 489th's subsequent 2004 deployment to Iraq (during which he was the battalion commander but did not actually deploy) - Amburn discusses issues such as sufficiency of rank and his thoughts on the future of CA, namely the implications of it no longer falling under Special Operations Command.]

Armstrong, Nicholas J., and Jacqueline Chura-Beaver. Harnessing Post-Conflict Transitions: A Conceptual Primer. PKSOI papers; Strategic Studies Institute monographs. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Campbell, Jason, Michael E. O'Hanlon, and Jeremy Shapiro. Assessing Counterinsurgency and Stabilization Missions. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2009.

Chiafullo, Marilyn S. Stability Operations: The “Whole of Government” Approach Using a Fraction of the Team Can No Longer Succeed. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2009.

Collins, Joseph J. Understanding War in Afghanistan. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 2011.

Diamond, Dalton. Interview with COL Dalton Diamond. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2008. [Colonel Dalton Diamond mobilized as a US Army Reserve soldier, deploying to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and also serving as the command surgeon of US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. On active duty continually since 2001, Diamond first went to USASOC to serve as the deputy command surgeon, then on to Afghanistan in 2003 for nine months as surgeon for the Coalition Joint Civil-Military Operations Task Force. Diamond deployed again to Afghanistan in 2006 for a year as the director of cooperative medical assistance for Joint Task Forces 76 and 82. The use of medical and veterinary outreach as a combat multiplier is an old tradition in the US Army's special operations forces, applied again in Afghanistan. In addition to providing succor to indigenous populations with poorly developed healthcare infrastructures, Diamond found that in the OEF counterinsurgency campaign, medical outreach also facilitated passive intelligence collection. Diamond commented that they had to seek a balance in their efforts to help the Afghans, assist military commanders, as well as to the extent possible help the Afghans develop a self-sustaining healthcare and veterinary infrastructure. This last task became more the role of non-governmental and international organizations (NGOs/IOs) as the security situations allowed. Diamond witnessed very different strategic contexts between his two tours in Afghanistan. Initially under US control, medical outreach and development efforts supported commander's intent, as tools in the commander's tool box. In his subsequent tour, provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs), US and coalition, had assumed such responsibilities. The PRTs operated alongside with as much involvement from US interagency partners and NGOs/IOs as local security situations could support. Such medical support in stability operations took place largely in a doctrinal vacuum.]

Dworken, Jonathan, Jonathan Moore, and Adam Siegel. Haiti Demobilization and Reintegration Program: An Evaluation Prepared for U.S. Agency for International Development. The CNA Corporation: Alexandria, VA, 1997.

Fielder, Dave. Defining Command, Leadership, and Management Success Factors within Stability Operations. PKSOI papers. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute, 2011.

Gaub, Florence. Rebuilding Armed Forces: Learning from Iraq and Lebanon. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute, 2011.

Glynn, Francis M. Security Assistance and Low Intensity Conflict: A Challenge to Excellence. CLIC Papers. Langley Air Force Base, VA: Army-Air Force Center for Low Intensity Conflict, 1987.

Great Britain. The Army Field Manual. Vol.5, Operations Other Than War: Part 2, Wider Peacekeeping. Prepared Under the Direction of the Inspector General Doctrine and Training on Behalf of the Chief of the General Staff. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1995.

James, Jeffery N. Understanding Contemporary Foreign Internal Defense and Military Advisement: Not Just a Semantic Exercise. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.

Keller, Dennis E. U.S. Military Forces and Police Assistance in Stability Operations: The Least-Worst Option to Fill the U.S. Capacity Gap. PKSOI papers. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Lawlor, Alison C., and Eric V. Thompson. Iraqi Navy: Capability Requirements and Force Structure Recommendations for 2015 and Beyond. Alexandria, VA : Center for Naval Analyses, 2008.

Logan, Kevin. Interview with LTC Kevin Logan. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [In this interview geared towards analyzing and better understanding the battlefield relationships between US conventional and special operations forces, Lieutenant Colonel Kevin Logan shares his deep insights, drawing upon not only his civil affairs-related Global War on Terrorism experiences in Afghanistan but on his Persian Gulf War service in Iraq with 3rd Special Forces Group as well. With respect to the GWOT, Logan was assigned to the 360th Civil Affairs Brigade and, in March 2002, flew along with one other soldier to Uzbekistan, then to Kabul, and linked up with the joint civil-military operations task force (JCMOTF). There, he began working with coalition humanitarian liaison cells. In detail, Logan recounts his dealings with 82nd Airborne Division personnel, with a variety of civil affairs and SF units, and also discusses his efforts to secure the cooperation and coordination necessary to ensure that humanitarian assistance work could proceed, unhindered either by logistical constraints or enemy activity. In this vein, he explains the emergence and growth of the provincial reconstruction teams. As for advice as to how conventional and special ops forces can more effectively work together in the future, he insists that breaking down mutual "stereotypes and misconceptions" is key - and towards this end, expanded professional education on the capabilities (and limitations) of both types of forces is crucial.]

Malkasian, Carter, and Gerald Meyerle. Provincial Reconstruction Teams: How Do We Know They Work? Letort papers. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2009.

Marion, Major Forrest L., USAFR. Captured Weapons and the Weapons Buy Back Program in Haiti, September 1994 – March 1995. Norfolk, Virginia, U.S. Atlantic Command, 1995.

Neild, Rachel. Policing Haiti: Preliminary Assessment of the New Civilian Security Force. Washington, DC: Washington Office on Latin America, 1995.

O'Selmo, Travis. Interview with MAJ Travis O'Selmo. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [Assigned to the 1st Marine Division as an individual augmentee from Okinawa, Japan, Major Travis O'Selmo deployed to Ramadi, Iraq, from March through September 2004 to conduct civil-military operations in Al Anbar Province as part of a staff section called the GX. There, he worked in several different capacities. As a convoy commander, O'Selmo provided transportation and security to and from different locations for the assistant chief of staff for civil-military operations. In the GX economic development section, he worked with Iraqi Veterans Affairs, the Iraq police, and several agriculture and economic agencies. And in project management, he managed and approved funding for various initiatives in support of reconstructing and rebuilding Al Anbar Province.]

Olson, Eric T. Some of the Best Weapons for Counterinsurgents Do Not Shoot. The Letort papers. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Park, Aaron W. U. S. Navy Seabees As a Stability Asset. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

Richards, David, and Greg Mills. Victory Among People: Lessons from Countering Insurgency and Stabilising Fragile States. London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies, 2011.

Sellers, Cameron S. Provincial Reconstruction Teams: Improving Effectiveness. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Sharpe, Alex. Interview with MAJ Alex Sharpe. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2007. [Major Alex Sharpe, commissioned through the Reserve Officers Training Corps, mobilized for Afghanistan from the California National Guard in 2004. A 30-day training cycle at Camp Atterbury, Indiana, preceded his deployment in May 2004 as an individual augmentee. Training centered on basic soldier skills like marksmanship and convoy operations with little time devoted to country- or mission-specific training, like two hours devoted to negotiating in the Dari language. Shortly before deploying, Sharpe found out he would be embedded with a small US element and an Afghan National Army contingent at the Kabul Military Training Center (KMTC). The mission at KMTC involved developing and safely running ranges. Sharpe and his contingent had to self-teach on range operations as well as such sensitive operations as unexploded ordnance disposal. There was a constant tension to ensure civilian safety, keeping unauthorized personnel from scavenging brass and the like from the range complex. Despite having translators assigned to range control, lack of a language capability complicated daily operations with the Afghan National Army contingent. Other training shortfalls included crew-served weapons like the squad automatic weapon and explosive ordnance procedures. The contingent Sharpe led dealt with some problems with private military contractors and Afghan National Army individuals and units not wanting to follow or not having safe standard operating procedures for range training. Generally US military units presented no such problems, though International Security Assistance Force elements could present issues. Sharpe's contingent developed and executed range SOPs to satisfy the requirement to minimize civilian casualties. Sharpe felt that insufficient personnel management often took place before Reserve Component soldiers got called up, not matching soldiers and their professional military education or experiences with missions. Too few Reserve Component soldiers had been exposed to full-spectrum concepts like civil-military operations or counterinsurgency before their mobilization and deployment.]

Siegel, Adam B. "Observations from a Haitian Vacation". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1999) : 102-136.

Tarnoff, Curt. Kosovo: Reconstruction and Development Assistance. CRS report for Congress, RL-30453. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2000.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Assessment of U.S. Strategy and Operations in Afghanistan and the Way Ahead. H.A.S.C. No. 110-108. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

________. Security and Stability in Afghanistan Status of U.S. Strategy and Operations and the Way Ahead. H.A.S.C. No. 110-103. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

________. An Update on Efforts to Develop and Support the Iraqi Security Forces. H.A.S.C. No. 110-154. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

________. Addressing U.S. Strategy in Iraq and Afghanistan: Balancing Interests and Resources: Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held February 12, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-6. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Department of the Navy. Naval Historical Center. Navy Department Library. US Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934. Washington, DC: Navy Department Library, 2005.

United States. Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Unclassified Summary of SIGIR's Review of Efforts to Increase Iraq's Capability to Protect Its Energy Infrastructure. Arlington, Va: Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, 2006.

Vuono, Timothy A. Challenges for Civil-Military Integration During Stability Operations. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2008.

Strategic Communication

Abbe, Allison, and Standley M. Halpin. The Cultural Imperative for Professional Military Education and Leader Development. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Borg, Lindsey J. Communicating with Intent: DOD and Strategic Communication. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University, 2007.

Davis, Jacquelyn K. Radical Islamist Ideologies and the Long War: Implications for U.S. Strategic Planning and U.S. Central Command's Operations. Washington, DC: Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, 2007.

Drinkwine, Brian M. The Serpent in Our Garden: Al-Qa'ida and the Long War. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2009.

Green, Dan. Harnessing the Islamist Revolution: A Strategy to Win the War against Religious Extremism. Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2008.

Lambert, Henri C. The Impact of Operation Iraqi Freedom on Building Future Coalitions. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2008.

Ludowese, Jeryl C. Strategic Communication: Who Should Lead the Long War of Ideas? Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2006.

Malackowski, Patrick C. Improving the United States National Security Strategy: An Informed Public. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2005.

Sanders, Michael J. Using Strategic Communication More Effectively in the Global War on Terror. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2006.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities. Strategies for Countering Violent Extremist Ideologies: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held February 12, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-7. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

________. Understanding Cyberspace As a Medium for Radicalization and Counter-Radicalization Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held December 16, 2009. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

________. Ten Years on: The Evolution of Strategic Communication and Information Operations Since 9/11: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, Hearing Held July 12, 2011. H.A.S.C. No. 112-49. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011.

United States. Department of the Army. Combat Studies Institute Military History Symposium. Warfare in the Age of Non-State Actors: Implications for the U.S. Army. Prepared by Kendall D. Gott and Michael G. Brooks. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center, 2007.

United States. Department of Defense. Irregular Warfare (IW) Joint Operating Concept (JOC), Version 1.0, 11 September 2007. Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense, 2007.

Psychological Operations

Boyd, Curtis D. Psychological Operations: Learning Is Not a Defense Science Project. JSOU report, 07-4. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

Coburn, Matthew D. Irregular Techniques for Controlling Under-Governed Space. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Dempsey, Thomas A. Desert Guerrillas: Psychological, Social and Economic Characteristics of the Bedouin Which Lend Themselves to Irregular Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1988.

Landy, Francis P., and Rene B. Porras. The Utility of Making Functional Area 39 a Branch. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1999. [The purpose of this thesis is to suggest that it is time for Functional Area 39 (Psychological Operations/Civil Affairs) to become a branch. We hope to stimulate critical thinking on this issue and illustrate the demands that are presently being placed on the FA 39 community by utilizing the Spectrum of Conflict as a frame of reference. As experienced officers with a vested interest in the future of FA 39, we believe it is important to the future of the Functional Area to take a critical look at where it is and where it appears to be going. Our present degree of reliance on the reserves, we argue, is a sub- optimal long-term solution. Utilizing the Spectrum of Conflict as a model, we illustrate that conflict trends over the past twenty years show a significantly higher incidence of sub-state conflict, with no change in the foreseeable future. This suggests an increased need for soldiers with Special Operations Forces (SOF) related skills. By examining possible alternatives, we provide arguments and illustrate the merits of change. The findings of our analysis lead us to recommend that FA 39 become a branch within the U.S. Army. While it may appear that the organization is healthy, the threat environment and increased OPTEMPO necessitate a need for change.]

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities. Strategies for Countering Violent Extremist Ideologies: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held February 12, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-7. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

Information Operations

Alberts, David S. Defensive Information Warfare. Washington, DC: National Defense University, 1996.

Alexander, Keith B. Warfighting in Cyberspace. Washington, DC : Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 2007.

Anderson, Wesley J. L. Disrupting Threat Finances: Using Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organizations. JSOU report, 08-3. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2008.

Arquilla, John, and David F. Ronfeldt. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.

Barlow, David A. Impeding Network Centric Warfare: Combatant Command Information Technology Support. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2009.

Campbell, Kevin T. Asymmetrical Threats: A Vital Relevancy for Information Operations. Redstone Arsenal, AL: U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command, 2007.

Coburn, Matthew D. Irregular Techniques for Controlling Under-Governed Space. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Dempsey, Thomas A. Desert Guerrillas: Psychological, Social and Economic Characteristics of the Bedouin Which Lend Themselves to Irregular Warfare. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1988.

Fitzsimmons, Michael. "Hard Hearts and Open Minds? Governance, Identity and the Intellectual Foundations of Counterinsurgency Strategy." Journal of Strategic Studies 31, no. 3 (2008): 337-365.

Kinniburgh, James, and Dorothy Elizabeth Robling Denning. Blogs and Military Information Strategy. JSOU report, 06-5. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Marlatt, Greta E. Information Warfare and Information Operations (IW/IO): A Bibliography. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

McCain, Steven A. Information Dominance: Special Operations Forces in MOOTW. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1997.

Molander, Roger C. Strategic Information Warfare Rising. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1998.

Neilson, Robert E. Sun Tzu and Information Warfare: A Collection of Winning Papers from the Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare Competition. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1997.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO Library. Cyber Threats - Les Cybermenaces. Thematic bibliographies, no. 7/2009. Brussels: NATO Library. Public Diplomacy Division, 2009.

Perry, William G. Information Warfare: Assuring Digital Intelligence Collection. JSOU paper, 09-1. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Seigel, David. Interview with LTC David Seigel. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [When Lieutenant Colonel David Seigel was first alerted for deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, he was serving as the executive officer (XO) of 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment, with the 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood, Texas. He got to Iraq in March 2004 and, by June, had taken over as the XO of 1st Brigade which was based in south Baghdad, specifically the Dora District. Then, in October, he changed jobs again and became the brigade's deputy commander, by this time operating in east Baghdad - Sadr City and the 9 Nissan District - until he redeployed in February 2005. In this interview, Seigel discusses the April 2004 Moqtada al-Sadr-inspired Shi'ite uprising and the fighting in Sadr City itself. He then talks about the subsequent conduct of civil-military operations and infrastructure improvement projects; his assessment of Iraqi civilians who worked on his forward operating base; his changing roles and visibilities in terms of his various jobs in theater; the crucial importance of having armored vehicles in their urban area of responsibility; the "resounding success" that were the January 2005 elections; as well as the myriad of information operations challenges the brigade faced.]

Turnley, Jessica Glicken. Implications for Network-Centric Warfare. JSOU report, 06-3. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities. Strategies for Countering Violent Extremist Ideologies: Hearing Before the Terrorism, Unconventional Threats, and Capabilities Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held February 12, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

________. Ten Years on: The Evolution of Strategic Communication and Information Operations Since 9/11: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, Hearing Held July 12, 2011. H.A.S.C. No. 112-49. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011.

Webster, Aaron A. Leveraging Cyberspace in Counterinsurgency Operations. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Civil-Military Operations

Alexander, John B. Convergence: Special Operations Forces and Civilian Law Enforcement. JSOU report, 10-6. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2010.

Amburn, Don. Interview with COL Don Amburn. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [A newly promoted lieutenant colonel when his Army Reserve unit - the 489th Civil Affairs (CA) Battalion, based in Knoxville, Tennessee - was tapped for service in Afghanistan, Colonel Don Amburn deployed in early 2002 and, once in country, proceeded to conduct a month-long transfer of authority process with the active duty 96th CA Battalion. During the 489th's nearly 10 months in support of Operation Enduring Freedom, six to 12-person battalion teams called coalition humanitarian liaison cells (CHLCs) undertook a wide variety of reconstruction projects throughout the country and, in so doing, worked closely with US and coalition governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as with conventional and other special operations forces. For his part, Amburn ran the civil-military operations center (CMOC), based in Kabul, and thus commanded and controlled the activities of the dispersed CHLCs. In this interview, Amburn discusses at length his working relationships with units from a number of conventional US divisions, including the 10th Mountain Division and the 101st and 82nd Airborne Divisions; and while his dealings with the first two he describes as "excellent," he discloses a considerable amount of friction between the 82nd and his CA teams. While primarily occupied with reconstruction and humanitarian assistance tasks, Amburn's CHLCs were hardly immune to hostilities, nor to the traumas of a combat environment. In the context of this Afghan deployment - but also looking back on elements of the 489th's subsequent 2004 deployment to Iraq (during which he was the battalion commander but did not actually deploy) - Amburn discusses issues such as sufficiency of rank and his thoughts on the future of CA, namely the implications of it no longer falling under Special Operations Command.]

Armstrong, Nicholas J., and Jacqueline Chura-Beaver. Harnessing Post-Conflict Transitions: A Conceptual Primer. PKSOI papers; Strategic Studies Institute monographs . Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Bell, Brigadier General Raymond E., AUS (Retired). "Joint Force of Choice for Peace Enforcement". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1999) : 57-67.

Bogart, Adrian T. Block by Block: Civic Action in the Battle of Baghdad, January-November 2006. JSOU report, 07-8. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

Bolduc, Don. Interview with LTC Don Bolduc. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [The commander of 1st Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group, Lieutenant Colonel Don Bolduc, in this interview, discusses two significant battles that elements of his unit were involved in while operating in southern Afghanistan in 2005: Siah Chow in July and Mari Ghar in August. By way of overview, he begins by defining his battalion's mission as one of conducting "selected unconventional warfare tasks in a counterinsurgency environment. In addition, he was charged with assisting "the local populace through the use of civil-military operations, psychological operations and information operations, and then training the Afghan National Army along a decentralized program of instruction." The ultimate goal, said Bolduc, was to "work ourselves out of a job." In both battles - small-unit clashes against well-armed and determined Taliban fighters waged in enemy sanctuary areas - his role was to "listen and anticipate," to have the systems in place to, as necessary, alert medical evacuation, activate the quick reaction force, push out liaison officers and make the case to the regional commander for additional assets such as close air support. "I called it piling on," he explained. "We develop the situation and add the requisite amount of combat power we need." Among other topics discussed are the "psychology of war," the integration of indigenous forces into US combat units, and his thoughts on waging a successful counterinsurgency. Bolduc closes by articulating what he feels is the importance of recording soldiers' oral histories.]

Bolton, Clinton S. Military Operations Other Than War: The Civil Military Operations Center in Operation Support Democracy. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1997.

Brown, Thomas José. Success in Civil Military Operations . Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2005.

Camacho, Carlos Eduardo Paladines. Civil Military Operations in Ecuador. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2003.

Chiafullo, Marilyn S. Stability Operations: The “Whole of Government” Approach Using a Fraction of the Team Can No Longer Succeed. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2009.

"Civil-Military Operations." Military Review 78, no. 4 (1998): 2.

Colan, Albert R. Military Civic Action in a Counterinsurgency Strategy: An Engineer Proposal. Washington, DC: National Defense University, National War College, 1985.

Cronin, Patrick M., and Patrick M. Cronin. Irregular Warfare: New Challenges for Civil-Military Relations. Strategic forum, no. 234. Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 2008.

Dalzell, Stephen R. Beyond Draining the Swamp: Urban Development and Counterterrorism in Morocco. JSOU report, 06-9. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Davis, Mark A. Tracing the Evolution of the Civil Military Operations Center (CMOC) in the 90s: What Is the Best Model? — A Monograph. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.

De Pauw, John Whylen, and George A. Luz. Winning the Peace: The Strategic Implications of Military Civic Action. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 1990.

Diamond, Dalton. Interview with COL Dalton Diamond. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2008. [Colonel Dalton Diamond mobilized as a US Army Reserve soldier, deploying to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and also serving as the command surgeon of US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. On active duty continually since 2001, Diamond first went to USASOC to serve as the deputy command surgeon, then on to Afghanistan in 2003 for nine months as surgeon for the Coalition Joint Civil-Military Operations Task Force. Diamond deployed again to Afghanistan in 2006 for a year as the director of cooperative medical assistance for Joint Task Forces 76 and 82. The use of medical and veterinary outreach as a combat multiplier is an old tradition in the US Army's special operations forces, applied again in Afghanistan. In addition to providing succor to indigenous populations with poorly developed healthcare infrastructures, Diamond found that in the OEF counterinsurgency campaign, medical outreach also facilitated passive intelligence collection. Diamond commented that they had to seek a balance in their efforts to help the Afghans, assist military commanders, as well as to the extent possible help the Afghans develop a self-sustaining healthcare and veterinary infrastructure. This last task became more the role of non-governmental and international organizations (NGOs/IOs) as the security situations allowed. Diamond witnessed very different strategic contexts between his two tours in Afghanistan. Initially under US control, medical outreach and development efforts supported commander's intent, as tools in the commander's tool box. In his subsequent tour, provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs), US and coalition, had assumed such responsibilities. The PRTs operated alongside with as much involvement from US interagency partners and NGOs/IOs as local security situations could support. Such medical support in stability operations took place largely in a doctrinal vacuum.]

Fitzsimmons, Michael. "Hard Hearts and Open Minds? Governance, Identity and the Intellectual Foundations of Counterinsurgency Strategy." Journal of Strategic Studies 31, no. 3 (2008): 337-365.

Flavin, William. Civil Military Operations, Afghanistan Observations on Civil Military Operations During the First Year of Operation Enduring Freedom. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Army, 2004.

Geshan, Susan. The Future of the Civil Military Operations Center (CMOC). Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1999.

Haack, Joseph. Interview with LTC Joseph Haack. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [A long-time veteran of the civil affairs (CA) community - including overseas deployments with the Army's only active duty CA unit, the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne) - Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Haack shares a wealth of insights in this interview geared towards analyzing and better understanding the battlefield, training and amorphous (but no less real) psychological relationships between US conventional and special operations forces, particularly as these relate to prosecuting the current Global War on Terrorism. He begins by discussing the fact that more than 90 percent of the US military's CA forces reside in the Army Reserve and the myriad implications thereof, from individual-level problems of reservists earning credibility with active duty personnel to larger-scale issues with respect to the conduct of civil-military operations as a whole. What's more, Haack expresses his strong concern about the recent decision to remove CA from the control of Special Operations Command and place it under the Office of the Chief of Army Reserve, which he calls "completely untenable." Referencing current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, Haack talks about how not having either the "right mindset" or the "right equipment" has produced high casualty rates for CA teams. He also recommends "more integration of SOF and conventional forces in training" and more "habitual relationships," predicting that these will "probably result in better actions on the battlefield." Going forward, says Haack, we should stop simply "taking anyone who can breathe from any branch ... and running them through a 'shake and bake' CA course" to meet the Army's overwhelming need for additional (and deployable) CA personnel and, instead, make a serious commitment to enlarging our capabilities.]

Hall, Bradley R. "Civil-Military Operations - Worth Another Look." Marine Corps Gazette 93, no. 10 (2009): 60.

Huser, Herbert C. "Going Beyond Joint: The US Military's Roles and Missions in Domestic, Inter-Agency 'Operations Other Than War'". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1999) : 39-56.

John F. Kennedy School of Government and the Marshall Legacy Institute. Conference on Civil-Military Relations in Complex Humanitarian Crises: "Forging Peace": Proceedings, March 13-15, 1998. Cambridge, MA: National Security Program, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1998.

Landy, Francis P., and Rene B. Porras. The Utility of Making Functional Area 39 a Branch. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1999. [The purpose of this thesis is to suggest that it is time for Functional Area 39 (Psychological Operations/Civil Affairs) to become a branch. We hope to stimulate critical thinking on this issue and illustrate the demands that are presently being placed on the FA 39 community by utilizing the Spectrum of Conflict as a frame of reference. As experienced officers with a vested interest in the future of FA 39, we believe it is important to the future of the Functional Area to take a critical look at where it is and where it appears to be going. Our present degree of reliance on the reserves, we argue, is a sub- optimal long-term solution. Utilizing the Spectrum of Conflict as a model, we illustrate that conflict trends over the past twenty years show a significantly higher incidence of sub-state conflict, with no change in the foreseeable future. This suggests an increased need for soldiers with Special Operations Forces (SOF) related skills. By examining possible alternatives, we provide arguments and illustrate the merits of change. The findings of our analysis lead us to recommend that FA 39 become a branch within the U.S. Army. While it may appear that the organization is healthy, the threat environment and increased OPTEMPO necessitate a need for change.]

Logan, Kevin. Interview with LTC Kevin Logan. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [In this interview geared towards analyzing and better understanding the battlefield relationships between US conventional and special operations forces, Lieutenant Colonel Kevin Logan shares his deep insights, drawing upon not only his civil affairs-related Global War on Terrorism experiences in Afghanistan but on his Persian Gulf War service in Iraq with 3rd Special Forces Group as well. With respect to the GWOT, Logan was assigned to the 360th Civil Affairs Brigade and, in March 2002, flew along with one other soldier to Uzbekistan, then to Kabul, and linked up with the joint civil-military operations task force (JCMOTF). There, he began working with coalition humanitarian liaison cells. In detail, Logan recounts his dealings with 82nd Airborne Division personnel, with a variety of civil affairs and SF units, and also discusses his efforts to secure the cooperation and coordination necessary to ensure that humanitarian assistance work could proceed, unhindered either by logistical constraints or enemy activity. In this vein, he explains the emergence and growth of the provincial reconstruction teams. As for advice as to how conventional and special ops forces can more effectively work together in the future, he insists that breaking down mutual "stereotypes and misconceptions" is key - and towards this end, expanded professional education on the capabilities (and limitations) of both types of forces is crucial.]

Malkasian, Carter, and Gerald Meyerle. Provincial Reconstruction Teams: How Do We Know They Work? Letort papers. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2009.

McCarthy, Paul A. Operation Sea Angel: A Case Study. Prepared for the United States Army. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, Arroyo Center, 1994. [Cyclone Marian struck 110 miles off the southeast coast of Bangladesh on the evening of 29 April 1991, resulting in widespread death and destruction. The United States provided immediate practical assistance in emergency and short-term recovery operations by establishing a Contingency Joint Task Force (CJTF) and launching Operation Sea Angel (OSA). The bulk of CJTF forces were from Amphibious Group 3 and the 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade (5th MEB), enroute home from the Persian Gulf, supplemented by Army and Air Force elements. This case study examines a variety of lessons learned from the operation and specifically analyzes their relationship to demographic trends in the less- developed world.]

McInnis, Larry. "Intelligence Support to Civil-Military Operations: The Application of Joint Doctrine." Thesis (M.S. in Joint Campaign Planning and Strategy)-U.S. Joint Forces Staff College, Joint Advanced Warfighting School, 2008.

Meynier, Joseph C. "Ideas and Issues - Lessons Learned - Civil-Military Operations: OIF II." Marine Corps Gazette 90, no. 6 (2006): 42.

Neild, Rachel. Policing Haiti: Preliminary Assessment of the New Civilian Security Force. Washington, DC: Washington Office on Latin America, 1995.

O'Selmo, Travis. Interview with MAJ Travis O'Selmo. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [Assigned to the 1st Marine Division as an individual augmentee from Okinawa, Japan, Major Travis O'Selmo deployed to Ramadi, Iraq, from March through September 2004 to conduct civil-military operations in Al Anbar Province as part of a staff section called the GX. There, he worked in several different capacities. As a convoy commander, O'Selmo provided transportation and security to and from different locations for the assistant chief of staff for civil-military operations. In the GX economic development section, he worked with Iraqi Veterans Affairs, the Iraq police, and several agriculture and economic agencies. And in project management, he managed and approved funding for various initiatives in support of reconstructing and rebuilding Al Anbar Province.]

Olson, Eric T. Some of the Best Weapons for Counterinsurgents Do Not Shoot. The Letort papers. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Pelletiere, Stephen C. Humanitarian Operations and the Middle East: The Hostility Factor. SSI special reports. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 1993. [As America's military leaders are becoming more deeply involved in the study of operations other than war and are drafting doctrine to cover, the author examines aspects of these operations (humanitarian support operations, domestic support, and peacekeeping operations). The author explores current positions expressed by the Arab and Iranian press with regard to operations like PROVIDE COMFORT and RESTORE HOPE, and urges U.S. military and political leaders to become aware of these hostile perceptions. He suggests ways on which the United States may successfully address the growing hostility and concludes with a warning--even the best-intentioned humanitarian operations are potential Quagmires into which U.S. forces can easily be drawn.]

Pinheiro, Alvaro de Souza. Narcoterrorism in Latin America: A Brazilian Perspective. JSOU report, 06-4. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

________. Irregular Warfare: Brazil's Fight against Criminal Urban Guerrillas. JSOU Report 09-8. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Powers, James F. Civil-Military Operations and Professional Military Education. JSOU report, 06-2. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

________. Filling Special Operations Gaps with Civilian Expertise. JSOU report, 07-1. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Sams, B. J., and S. D. Griffin. Marine Artillery and Civil Military Operations: The Division's Pinch-Hitter. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2006.

Seigel, David. Interview with LTC David Seigel. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2006. [When Lieutenant Colonel David Seigel was first alerted for deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, he was serving as the executive officer (XO) of 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment with the 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood, Texas. He got to Iraq in March 2004 and, by June, had taken over as the XO of 1st Brigade which was based in south Baghdad, specifically the Dora District. Then, in October, he changed jobs again and became the brigade's deputy commander, by this time operating in east Baghdad - Sadr City and the 9 Nissan District - until he redeployed in February 2005. In this interview, Seigel discusses the April 2004 Moqtada al-Sadr-inspired Shi'ite uprising and the fighting in Sadr City itself. He then talks about the subsequent conduct of civil-military operations and infrastructure improvement projects; his assessment of Iraqi civilians who worked on his forward operating base; his changing roles and visibilities in terms of his various jobs in theater; the crucial importance of having armored vehicles in their urban area of responsibility; the "resounding success" that were the January 2005 elections; as well as the myriad of information operations challenges the brigade faced.]

Sele, Richard K. "Civil-Military Operations in the Post-War Sarajevo Region". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 1 (Spring 1999) : 87-118.

Sellers, Cameron S. Provincial Reconstruction Teams: Improving Effectiveness. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Sharpe, Alex. Interview with MAJ Alex Sharpe. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2007. [Major Alex Sharpe, commissioned through the Reserve Officers Training Corps, mobilized for Afghanistan from the California National Guard in 2004. A 30-day training cycle at Camp Atterbury, Indiana, preceded his deployment in May 2004 as an individual augmentee. Training centered on basic soldier skills like marksmanship and convoy operations with little time devoted to country- or mission-specific training, like two hours devoted to negotiating in the Dari language. Shortly before deploying, Sharpe found out he would be embedded with a small US element and an Afghan National Army contingent at the Kabul Military Training Center (KMTC). The mission at KMTC involved developing and safely running ranges. Sharpe and his contingent had to self-teach on range operations as well as such sensitive operations as unexploded ordnance disposal. There was a constant tension to ensure civilian safety, keeping unauthorized personnel from scavenging brass and the like from the range complex. Despite having translators assigned to range control, lack of a language capability complicated daily operations with the Afghan National Army contingent. Other training shortfalls included crew-served weapons like the squad automatic weapon and explosive ordnance procedures. The contingent Sharpe led dealt with some problems with private military contractors and Afghan National Army individuals and units not wanting to follow or not having safe standard operating procedures for range training. Generally US military units presented no such problems, though International Security Assistance Force elements could present issues. Sharpe's contingent developed and executed range SOPs to satisfy the requirement to minimize civilian casualties. Sharpe felt that insufficient personnel management often took place before Reserve Component soldiers got called up, not matching soldiers and their professional military education or experiences with missions. Too few Reserve Component soldiers had been exposed to full-spectrum concepts like civil-military operations or counterinsurgency before their mobilization and deployment.]

Siegel, Adam B. "Observations from a Haitian Vacation". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1999) : 102-136.

________. "Intelligence Challenges of Civil-Military Operations." Military Review 81, no. 5 (2001): 45.

Turbiville, Graham Hall, Jr. Private Security Infrastructure Abroad: Criminal-Terrorist Agendas and the Operational Environment. JSOU report, 07-9. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

Unda, Richard. Rethinking the Use of Specialized Civil Affairs. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2009.

United States. Department of the Army. Civil Affairs Operations. FM 41-10. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 1993.

United States. Department of Defense. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Doctrine for Civil-Military Operations. Joint publication, 3-57. Washington, DC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2001.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps. III Marine Expeditionary Force. Civil-Military Operations Center Standard Operating Procedures (CMOC SOP). Draft, 7 December 1994. n.p.: III Marine Expeditionary Force, 1994.

________. Civil-Military Operations Center Standard Operating Procedures (CMOC SOP). Draft, 1 April 1995. n.p.: III Marine Expeditionary Force, 1995.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps. MAGTF Civil Affairs. FMFM 7-34. Washington, DC: U.S. Marine Corps, 1991.

United States. Department of the Navy. Marine Corps. and United States. Department of State. Emerald Express '95, Phase III: Reading Materials; Military Support to Civilian Authorities (MSCA). Hosted by I Marine Expeditionary Force, FMF. Camp Pendleton, CA: I Marine Expeditionary Force, FMF, 1995

Vuono, Timothy A. Challenges for Civil-Military Integration During Stability Operations. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2008.

Wilkins, Aaron L. The Civil Military Operations Center (CMOC) in Operation Uphold Democracy (Haiti). Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: U.S. Air Command and Staff College, 1997.

Zinno, Michael. Interview with MAJ Michael Zinno. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2007. [From January through October 2004 in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Major Michael Zinno, Active Guard Reserve, served as a civil-military operations plans officer in the 350th Civil Affairs Command. Based in Baghdad during his tour, Zinno's primary focus was the development of interagency provincial civil-military organizations and cooperative planning efforts in furtherance of the governance and economic lines of operation. In this interview, he also discusses why he believes civil affairs was an "underutilized resource" and also the consequences thereof.]

Intelligence and Counterintelligence

Anderson, Wesley J. L. Disrupting Threat Finances: Using Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organizations. JSOU report, 08-3. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2008.

Crawford, George A. Manhunting: Counter-Network Organization for Irregular Warfare. JSOU Report 09-7. Hurlburt Field, FL: U.S. Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Howard, Russell D. Intelligence in Denied Areas: New Concepts for a Changing Security Environment. JSOU report, 07-10. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

Larson, Eric V., Derek Eaton, Brian Nichiporuk, and Thomas S. Szayna. Assessing Irregular Warfare: A Framework for Intelligence Analysis. Prepared for the United States Army. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Arroyo Center, 2008.

McInnis, Larry. "Intelligence Support to Civil-Military Operations: The Application of Joint Doctrine." Thesis (M.S. in Joint Campaign Planning and Strategy)-U.S. Joint Forces Staff College, Joint Advanced Warfighting School, 2008.

Perry, William G. Information Warfare: Assuring Digital Intelligence Collection. JSOU paper, 09-1. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Reiley, Matthew A. Transforming USMC Intelligence to Address Irregular Warfare. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2008.

Roscoe, Theodore, and R. G. Voge. United States Submarine Operations in World War II. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute, 1949. [Contains an Appendix listing US submarine participation in unconventional warfare operations during World War II.]

Sontag, Sherry, Christopher Drew, and Annette Lawrence Drew. Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. New York: Public Affairs, 1998.

Smith, Daniel J. Intelligence Gathering in a Counterinsurgency. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2006.

Svendsen, Adam D. M. Intelligence Cooperation and the War on Terror: Anglo-American Security Relations after 9/11. Studies in intelligence series. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Turbiville, Graham Hall, Jr. Guerrilla Counterintelligence: Insurgent Approaches to Neutralizing Adversary Intelligence Operations. JSOU report, 09-1. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

United States. Department of Defense. Defense Intelligence Agency. World Wide Threat Assessment: Statement before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, 10 March 2011: Ronald L. Burgess, Lieutenant General, U.S. Army, Director, Defense Intelligence Agency. Washington, DC: Defense Intelligence Agency, 2011.

Historical Accounts

"Affairs in Central Asia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 488 (July 1869): 405-17.

"British Survey Expeditions from Rangoon." Colburn's United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal No. 486 (May 1869): 40-45.

Elers Napier, Lieutenant-General Edward Delaval Hungerford. "Notes on Abyssinia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 465 (August 1867): 545-60.

Goldsmid, Major-General Sir Frederic, K.C.S.I., C.B. "Plain Words About Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine 4 (December 1889): 129-41.

Low, Lieutenant Charles Rathbone, (Late) I.N. "The Island of Ormuz and Bunder Abbas." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 478 (September 1868): 25-37.

Mason, Commander G. Nelson Pomeroy, Late I.N. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 599 (October 1878): 137-60.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 600 (November 1878): 273-300.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 601 (December 1878): 409-38.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 602 (January 1879): 42-59.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 603 (February 1879): 168-83.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 604 (March 1879): 325-48.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 606 (May 1879): 27-46.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 607 (June 1879): 174-92.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 608 (July 1879): 331-49.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 609 (August 1879): 464-87.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 610 (September 1879): 60-67.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 611 (October 1879): 172-86.

________. "Travels in Persia." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 612 (November 1879): 298-317.

Law Enforcement Support and Civil Policing

Alexander, John B. Convergence: Special Operations Forces and Civilian Law Enforcement. JSOU report, 10-6. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2010.

Bell, Brigadier General Raymond E., AUS (Retired). "Joint Force of Choice for Peace Enforcement". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1999) : 57-67.

Bowen, Gary R. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachments in the War on Terror. Command and General Staff College (CGSC) School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS) Monograph. Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.

Brewington, Brooks R. Combined Action Platoons: A Strategy for Peace Enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Marine Corps, 1996.

Calese, Gary D. Law Enforcement Methods for Counterinsurgency Operations. School of Advanced Military Studies monographs. Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College, 2005.

Celeski, Joseph D. Policing and Law Enforcement in COIN: The Thick Blue Line. JSOU report, 09-2. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2009.

Griffith, Ivelaw L. "Organized Crime in the Western Hemisphere: Content, Context, Consequences, and Countermeasures". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 1 (Spring 1999) : 1-33.

Huser, Herbert C. "Going Beyond Joint: The US Military's Roles and Missions in Domestic, Inter-Agency 'Operations Other Than War'". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1999) : 39-56.

Keller, Dennis E. U.S. Military Forces and Police Assistance in Stability Operations: The Least-Worst Option to Fill the U.S. Capacity Gap. PKSOI papers. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2010.

Lewis, William, and Edward Marks. Police Power in Peace Operations: Civilian Police and Multinational Peacekeeping: A Workshop Series. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1999.

Modarelli, Matthew R. Military Police Operations and Counterinsurgency. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2008.

Musa, Samuel, John Morgan, and Matt Keegan. Policing and COIN Operations: Lessons Learned, Strategies, and Future Directions. Washington, DC: Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office, 2011.

Neild, Rachel. Policing Haiti: Preliminary Assessment of the New Civilian Security Force. Washington, DC: Washington Office on Latin America, 1995.

Pinheiro, Alvaro de Souza. Narcoterrorism in Latin America: A Brazilian Perspective. JSOU report, 06-4. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Siegel, Adam B. "Observations from a Haitian Vacation". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1999) : 102-136.

Turbiville, Graham Hall, Jr. Private Security Infrastructure Abroad: Criminal-Terrorist Agendas and the Operational Environment. JSOU report, 07-9. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2007.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Assessment of U.S. Strategy and Operations in Afghanistan and the Way Ahead. H.A.S.C. No. 110-108. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

Asymmetrical Maritime Warfare

Clark, William J., Christopher S. Kelley, and Justin M. Bummara. Analysis of Maritime Support Vessels and Acquisition Methods Utilized to Support Maritime Irregular Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.

Prokopovich, Paul. The Role of the Naval Services in Irregular Warfare. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air War College, 2009.

Robbins, C. M. Surface Combatant Requirements for Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW). Enclosure to NAT-96-031. Laurel, MD: Naval Warfare Analysis Department, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, 1996.

Volpe, Kevin. Persistent and Continuous? U.S. Carrier Aviation in Irregular Warfare. Quantico, VA: U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2008.

Commerce Warfare/Guerre de Corse

Breemer, Jan S. Chasing U-Boats and Hunting Insurgents: Lessons from an Underhand Way of War. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2006.

Great Britain. National Maritime Museum. Piracy & Privateering. Prepared by Michel Sanderson. Its Catalogue of the library, vol. 4 London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1972.

Motte, Martin. Une éducation géostratégique: la pensée navale francaise de la Jeune École à 1914. Préface de Georges-Henri Soutou. Paris: Economica, 2004.

Overlack, Peter. "The Function of Commerce Warfare in an Anglo-German Conflict before 1914". The Journal of Strategic Studies. 20, no. 4 (1997): 94.

Røksund, Arne. The Jeune École: The Strategy of the Weak. History of warfare, vol. 43. Leiden: Brill, 2007.

Sondhaus, Lawrence. "Strategy, Tactics, and the Politics of Penury: The Austro-Hungarian Navy and the Jeune Ecole." Journal of Military History 56 (1992): 587-602.

________. Naval Warfare, 1815-1914. London: Routledge, 2001.

Stark, Francis R. The Abolition of Privateering and the Declaration of Paris. New York: Columbia University, 1897.

Statham, Edward Phillips. Privateers and Privateering. New York: J. Pott, 1910.

Walters, Wayne A. “The Use of Iowa Class Battleships in an Economy of Force Role As Commerce Raiders.” Master of Military Art and Science Theses. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1987.

European and Colonial Privateering in the Early Modern Era

Andrews, Kenneth Raymond. English Privateering Voyages to the West Indies, 1588-1595: Documents Relating to English Voyages to the West Indies from the Defeat of the Armada to the Last Voyage of Sir Francis Drake. Cambridge, England: published for the Hakluyt Society at the University Press, 1959.

________. Elizabethan Privateering: English Privateering During the Spanish War, 1585-1603. Cambridge: University Press, 1964.

Chapin, Howard M. Privateer Ships and Sailors: The First Century of American Colonial Privateering, 1625-1725. Toulon: Imprimerie G. Mouton, 1926.

________. Privateering in King George's War, 1739-1748. Providence: E. A. Johnson Company, 1928.

Harman, Joyce Elizabeth. Trade and Privateering in Spanish Florida, 1732-1763. St. Augustine, FL: St. Augustine Historical Society, 1969.

Jameson, John Franklin. Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period: Illustrative Documents. New York: Macmillan Company, 1923.

________. Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period. New York: Macmillan Company, 1923; reprint, New York: A.M. Kelley, 1970.

Johnson, W. Branch. Wolves of the Channel (1681-1856). London: Wishart, 1931.

Powell, John Williams Damer. Bristol Privateers and Ships of War. Bristol: J. W. Arrowsmith Ltd., 1930.

Rogers, Woodes. Life Aboard a British Privateer in the Time of Queen Anne: Being the Journal of Captain Woodes Rogers, Master Mariner. Edited by Robert Charles Leslie. London: Chapman and Hall, 1889.

Swanson, Carl E. Predators and Prizes: American Privateering and Imperial Warfare, 1739-1748. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.

The American Revolution

Allen, Gardner Weld. State Navies and Privateers in the American Revolution. Boston: n.p., 1912.

Casey, Michael S. Rebel Privateers--The Winners of American Independence. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1990.

Clark, William Bell. Ben Franklin's Privateers: A Naval Epic of the American Revolution. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1956.

Crawford, Michael J. "The Privateering Debate in Revolutionary America," The Northern Mariner/le marin du nord 21, no. 3 (July 2011): 219-34.

Howe, Octavius Thorndike. Beverly Privateers in the American Revolution. Cambridge: J. Wilson and Son, 1922.

Maclay, Edgar Stanton. A History of American Privateers. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1899.

Roads, Samuel. Privateering in the Revolution. New York: W. Abbatt, 1908.

Sherburne, Andrew. Memoirs of Andrew Sherburne: A Pensioner of the Navy of the Revolution, Written by Himself. Providence, RI: H. H. Brown, 1831.

Winslow, Richard Elliott. Wealth and Honour: Portsmouth During the Golden Age of Privateering, 1775-1815. Portsmouth, NH: Published for the Portsmouth Marine Society by P.E. Randall, 1988.

The Wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, 1793-1815

Crowhurst, Patrick. The French War on Trade: Privateering, 1793-1815. Aldershot, Hants, England: Scolar, 1989.

War of 1812

Coggeshall, George. History of the American Privateers, and Letters-of-Marque, During Our War with England in the Years 1812, '13 and '14: Interspersed with Several Naval Battles between American and British Ships-of-War. New York: The Author, 1856.

Cranwell, John Philips, and William Bowers Crane. Men of Marque: A History of Private Armed Vessels Out of Baltimore During the War of 1812. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 1940.

Dennett, Frank L. Portsmouth Privateers During the War of 1812. n.p.: n.p., 1960.

Garitee, Jerome R. The Republic's Private Navy: The American Privateering Business As Practiced by Baltimore During the War of 1812. Middletown, CT: Published for Mystic Seaport by Wesleyan University Press, 1977.

Gillmer, Thomas Charles. Pride of Baltimore: The Story of the Baltimore Clippers, 1800-1990. Camden, Me: International Marine, 1992. [Contains material on the Baltimore privateers.]

Kert, Faye. Prize and Prejudice: Privateering and Naval Prize in Atlantic Canada in the War of 1812. Research in maritime history, no. 11. St. John's, Newfoundland: International Maritime Economic History Association, 1997.

Maclay, Edgar Stanton. A History of American Privateers. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1899.

McManemin, John A. Privateers of the War of 1812. Spring Lake, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing Company, 1992.

________. Captains of the Privateers of the War of 1812. Spring Lake, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing Company, 1994.

Munro, Wilfred Harold. The Most Successful American Privateer. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 1913.

Winslow, Richard Elliott. Wealth and Honour: Portsmouth During the Golden Age of Privateering, 1775-1815. Portsmouth, NH: Published for the Portsmouth Marine Society by P.E. Randall, 1988.

American Civil War

Allen, Charles Maxwell, and Glen Norman Wiche. Dispatches from Bermuda: The Civil War Letters of Charles Maxwell Allen, United States Consul at Bermuda, 1861-1888. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2008.

Baldwin, John, and Ron Powers. Last Flag Down: The Epic Journey of the Last Confederate Warship. New York: Crown Publishers, 2007.

Bowcock, Andrew. CSS Alabama: Anatomy of a Confederate Raider. London: Chatham, 2002.

Bulloch, James Dunwody. The Secret Service of the Confederate States in Europe: Or, How the Confederate Cruisers Were Equipped. New York: T. Yoseloff, 1959.

Callahan, James Morton. The Diplomatic History of the Southern Confederacy. Springfield, MA: Walden Press, 1957.

Chaffin, Tom. Sea of Gray: The Around-the-World Odyssey of the Confederate Raider Shenandoah. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006.

Cross, Coy F. Lincoln's Man in Liverpool: Consul Dudley and the Legal Battle to Stop Confederate Warships. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2007.

Curry, Angus. The Officers of the CSS Shenandoah. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006.

Daly, Charles P. Are the Southern Privateersmen Pirates? Letter to the Hon. Ira Harris, United States Senator. New York: J. B. Kirker, 1862.

Davis, Jefferson. The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton and Co, 1881.

Hearn, Chester G. Gray Raiders of the Sea: How Eight Confederate Warships Destroyed the Union's High Seas Commerce. Camden, ME: International Marine Publishing, 1992.

Horn, Stanley Fitzgerald. Gallant Rebel: The Fabulous Cruise of the C.S.S. Shenandoah. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1947.

Jones, Robert A. Confederate Corsair: The Life of Lt. Charles W. "Savez" Read. Mechanicsburg, PA.: Stackpole Books, 2000.

Kirkland, Charles P. Liability of the Government of Great Britain for the Depredations of Rebel Privateers on the Commerce of the United States, Considered. New York: Anson D. F. Randolph, 1863.

Luraghi, Raimondo, and Paolo Enrico Coletta. A History of the Confederate Navy. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996.

McManemin, John A. Sea Raiders of the Confederate States of America. Spring Lake, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Publishing Company, 1996.

Morgan, Murray Cromwell. Dixie Raider: The Saga of the C.S.S. Shenandoah. New York, E. P. Dutton, 1948.

________. Confederate Raider in the North Pacific: The Saga of the C.S.S. Shenandoah, 1864-65. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1995.

Murphy, D. F. The Jeff Davis Piracy Cases. Full Report of the Trial of William Smith for Piracy, As One of the Crew of the Confederate Privateer, the Jeff Davis. Before Judges Grier and Cadwalader, in the Circuit Court of the United States, for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Held at Philadelphia, in October, 1861. Philadelphia: King & Baird, Printers, 1861.

Owsley, Frank Lawrence. The C.S.S. Florida: Her Building and Operations. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1987.

Robinson, William M. The Confederate Privateers. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1928.

Scharf, J. Thomas. History of the Confederate States Navy Form Its Organization to the Surrender of Its Last Vessel. Its Stupendous Struggle with the Great Navy of the United States; the Engagements Fought in the Rivers and Harbors of the South, and Upon the High Seas. New York: Rogers & Sherwood, 1887.

________. History of the Confederate States Navy from Its Organization to the Surrender of Its Last Vessel. Its Stupendous Struggle with the Great Navy of the United States; the Engagements Fought in the Rivers and Harbors of the South, and Upon the High Seas; Blockade-Running, First Use of Iron-Clads and Torpedoes, and Privateer History. Albany: Joseph McDonough, 1894.

________. History of the Confederate States Navy from Its Organization to the Surrender of Its Last Vessel. Its Stupendous Struggle with the Great Navy of the United States; the Engagements Fought in the Rivers and Harbors of the South, and Upon the High Seas; Blockade-Running, First Use of Iron-Clads and Torpedoes, and Privateer History. Albany: Joseph McDonough, 1894; reprint, New York: Fairfax Press, 1977.

Schooler, Lynn. The Last Shot: The Incredible Story of the C.S.S. Shenandoah and the True Conclusion of the American Civil War. New York: Ecco, 2005.

Semmes, Raphael. Service Afloat: Or, The Remarkable Career of the Confederate Cruisers Sumter and Alabama, During the War Between the States. Baltimore: Baltimore Publishing Company, 1887.

Shaw, David W. Sea Wolf of the Confederacy: The Daring Civil War Raids of Naval Lt. Charles W. Read. New York: Free Press, 2004.

Simson, Jay W. Naval Strategies of the Civil War: Confederate Innovations and Federal Opportunism. Nashville, TN: Cumberland House, 2001.

Sinclair, Arthur. Two Years on the Alabama. Edited by William N. Still. Classics of naval literature. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1989.

Soley, James Russell. The Blockade and the Cruisers. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1883. [See Chapter 7 for a discussion of Confederate privateers.]

Spencer, Warren F. The Confederate Navy in Europe. University, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1983.

Stewart, Charles West. The Blockade and Cruisers of the Confederacy. Washington, DC: Office of Naval Records and Library, 1917.

Taylor, John M. Semmes: Rebel Raider. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 2002.

Todd, Herbert Henry. "The Building of the Confederate States Navy in Europe." Summary of Thesis (Ph. D.)--Vanderbilt University, 1940. Nashville, 1941.

United States. Naval War Records Office. Office of Naval Records and Library. Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion. Series I, vols. 1-27; Series II, vols. 1-3. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1894-1922.

Waddell, James I. C.S.S. Shenandoah: The Memoirs of Lieutenant Commanding James I. Waddell. Edited by James David Horan. New York: Crown Publishers, 1960.

World War I

Alexander, Roy. The Cruise of the Raider “Wolf.” New York: Yale University Press, 1939.

Aust, Hubert. The War Cruises of H.M.S. Karlsruhe: Extracts from My War-Diary (Concluded). Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1918.

Burdick, Charles Burton. The Frustrated Raider: The Story of the German Cruiser Cormoran in World War I. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979.

Gayer, Korvettenkapitän Albert. Die deutschen U-boote in ihrer Kriegführung, 1914-1918. 1. Heft: Von Kriegsanfang bis Februar 1915. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1920.

________. Die deutschen U-boote in ihrer Kriegführung, 1914-1918. 2. Heft: Die U-Bootsblockade, Februar bis Oktober 1915. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1920.

________. Die deutschen U-boote in ihrer Kriegführung, 1914-1918. 3. Heft: Der Winter 1915/16 und die Zeit bis zur Anordnung des reinen U-Kreuzerkrieges, Oktober 1915 bis Ende April 1916. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1921.

________. Die deutschen U-boote in ihrer Kriegführung, 1914-1918. 4. Heft: Die Zeit des U-Kreuzerkriegs und die Periode der Verwendung der Nordsee-U-Boote gegen feindliche Kriegsschiffe, Mai 1916 bis Februar 1917. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1930.

Gibson, R. H., and Maurice Prendergast. The German Submarine War, 1914-1918. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003.

Guilliatt, Richard, and Peter Hohnen. The Wolf: How One German Raider Terrorized the Allies in the Most Epic Voyage of WWI. New York: Free Press, 2010.

Lochner, R. K. The Last Gentleman-of-War: The Raider Exploits of the Cruiser Emden. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1988.

Mantey, Vizeadmiral a. D. Eberhard von. Der Kreuzerkrieg in den ausländischen Gewässern. Dritter Band, Die deutschen Hilfskreuzer. Herausgegeben von der Kriegswissenschaftlichen Abteilung (zugleich Forschungsanstalt) der Marine, unter der Leitung von Konteradmiral Kurt Aßmann Der Krieg zur See 1914—1918. Berlin: Verlag von Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1937.

Mücke, Hellmuth von. The Emden-Ayesha Adventure: German Raiders in the South Seas and Beyond, 1914. Classics of naval literature. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2000.

Niezychowski, Alfred Graf von. The Cruise of the Kronprinz Wilhelm. Foreword by Rear-Admiral Walter McLean, U.S.N. Introduction by Count Luckner. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1929.

Pardoe, Blaine Lee. The Cruise of the Sea Eagle: The Amazing True Story of Imperial Germany's Gentleman Pirate. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2005.

Raeder, Kapitän zur See Erich. Der Kreuzerkrieg in den ausländischen Gewässern. Erster Band, Das Kreuzergeschwader. Herausgegeben vom Marine-Archiv, unter der Leitung von Vizeadmiral a. D. Eberhard von Mantey. Der Krieg zur See 1914—1918. Berlin: Verlag von Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1922.

________. Der Kreuzerkrieg in den ausländischen Gewässern. Zweiter Band, Die Tätigkeit der kleinen Kreuzer „Emden“, „Königsberg“ und „Karlsruhe“, mit einem Anhang: Die Kriegsfahrt des kleinen Kreuzers „Geier“. Herausgegeben vom Marine-Archiv, unter der Leitung von Vizeadmiral a. D. Eberhard von Mantey. Der Krieg zur See 1914—1918. Berlin: Verlag von Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1923.

________. The Cruiser Warfare in Foreign Waters. The War at Sea, 1914-1918. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 1938.

Spindler, Konteradmiral a. D. Arno. Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. Erster Band, Vorgeschichte. Herausgegeben vom Marine-Archiv unter der Leitung von Vizeadmiral a. D. Eberhard von Mantey. Der Krieg zur See. Berlin: Verlag von Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1932.

________. Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. Zweiter Band, Februar bis September 1915. Herausgegeben vom Marine-Archiv unter der Leitung von Vizeadmiral a. D. Eberhard von Mantey. Der Krieg zur See. Berlin: Verlag von Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1933.

________. Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. Dritter Band, Oktober 1915 bis Januar 1917. Herausgegeben vom Marine-Archiv unter der Leitung von Konteradmiral a. D. Kurt Aßmann. Der Krieg zur See. Berlin: Verlag von Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1934.

________. Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. Vierter Band, Februar bis Dezember 1917. Herausgegeben vom Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine. Der Krieg zur See. Berlin: Verlag von Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1941.

________. Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. Fünfter Band, Januar bis November 1918. Herausgegeben in Verbindung mit dem Bundesarchiv/Militärarchiv vom Arbeitskreis für Wehrforschung durch Dr. Walther Hubatsch, Universitätsprofessor in Bonn. Der Krieg zur See. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag von Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, 1966.

Thomas, Lowell. Count Luckner, the Sea Devil. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Co, 1927.

________. The Sea Devil's Fo'c'sle. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1929.

Van der Vat, Dan. Gentlemen of War: The Amazing Story of Captain Karl von Müller and the S.M.S. Emden. New York: Morrow, 1984.

Yates, Keith. Graf Spee's Raiders: Challenge to the Royal Navy, 1914-1915. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995.

World War II

Duffy, James P. Hitler's Secret Pirate Fleet: The Deadliest Ships of World War II. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

Germany. Kriegsmarine. Atlantis (Ship). The Log of "Ship 16" (Atlantis) from 19 December 1939 Until 22 November 1941. Translated by the Office of Naval Intelligence. Washington, DC: Office of Naval Intelligence, 1950.

Germany. Kriegsmarine. Führer der Unterseeboote Norwegen. War Diary, Captain, U-Boats, Norway. 8 volumes. Translated by the Naval Intelligence Division, Royal Navy. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, 1948-1953.

Germany. Kriegsmarine. Seekriegsleitung. Kriegstagebuch der Seekriegsleitung, 1939-1945. Im Auftrag des Militärgeschichtlichen Forschungsamtes, in Verbindung mit dem Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv und der Marine-Offizier-Vereinigung, herausgegeben von Werner Rahn und Gerhard Schreiber unter Mitwirkung von Hansjoseph Maierhöfer. 68 Bände und 1 Beiheft. Herford: Ernst Siegfried Mittler, 1988-1997.

Germany. Kriegsmarine. Seekriegsleitung. Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote. B.d.U. War Logs: Translation. Washington, DC: Office of Naval Intelligence, 1948.

Muggenthaler, August Karl. German Raiders of World War II. London: Pan, 1980.

Rogge, Bernhard, and Wolfgang Frank. Under Ten Flags: The Story of the German Commerce Raider Atlantis. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1957.

Rohwer, Jürgen. Geleitzugschlachten im März 1943: Führungsprobleme im Höhepunkt der Schlacht im Atlantik. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag, 1975.

Ruge, Friedrich. Der Seekrieg: The German Navy's Story, 1939-1945. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1957.

Salewski, Michael. Die deutsche Seekriegsleitung 1935-1945. 3 volumes. Frankfurt am Main: Bernard & Graefe, 1970-1975.

Schmalenbach, Paul. German Raiders: A History of Auxiliary Cruisers of the German Navy, 1895-1945. Cambridge: Patrick Stephens, 1979.

Sellwood, Arthur V., and Ulrich Mohr. Ship 16: The Story of the Secret German Raider Atlantis. New York: John Day Company, 1956.

Slavick, Joseph P. The Cruise of the German Raider Atlantis. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003.

Sea/Area Denial

Barber, Arthur H., III, and Delwyn L. Gilmore. Maritime Access: Do Defenders Hold All the Cards? Defense horizons, no. 4. Fort McNair, Washington, DC: Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, 2001.

Clark, Maximilian. The Joint Force Maritime Component Commander and Operational Protection for Maritime Forces in the Littorals. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2006.

Haslam, Anthony M. Operational Maneuver from the Sea: A Counter to Area Denial in the 21st Century. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1999.

Huber, Mark M. Chokepoint Control: Operational Challenges for Blue-Water Navies. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2003.

Hulitt, Christopher. The Taipei Airlift: Operation Vittles As a Framework for Countering a People's Republic of China (PRC) Blockade of Taiwan. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2008.

Kraska, James. Maritime Power and the Law of the Sea: Expeditionary Operations in World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Lowell, James P. Operational Art of Maritime Straits. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2008.

Mills, Rodney A. Iran and the Strait of Hormuz: Saber Rattling or Global Energy Nightmare? Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2008.

Pinter, William E. Concentrating on Dispersed Operations: Answering the Emerging Antiaccess Challenge in the Pacific Rim. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: School of Advanced Air and Space Studies, Air University, 2007.

Ritchey, Matthew R. Unmanned Undersea Vehicles: An Asymmetric Tool for Sea Denial. Newport, RI: Naval War College, 2008, 2008.

Schaller, Erich U. Naval Surface Force Protection in the Long War: A Consideration of the Anti-Access Threat. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2006.

Scharf, J. Thomas. History of the Confederate States Navy Form Its Organization to the Surrender of Its Last Vessel. Its Stupendous Struggle with the Great Navy of the United States; the Engagements Fought in the Rivers and Harbors of the South, and Upon the High Seas. New York: Rogers & Sherwood, 1887.

________. History of the Confederate States Navy from Its Organization to the Surrender of Its Last Vessel. Its Stupendous Struggle with the Great Navy of the United States; the Engagements Fought in the Rivers and Harbors of the South, and Upon the High Seas; Blockade-Running, First Use of Iron-Clads and Torpedoes, and Privateer History. Albany: Joseph McDonough, 1894.

________. History of the Confederate States Navy from Its Organization to the Surrender of Its Last Vessel. Its Stupendous Struggle with the Great Navy of the United States; the Engagements Fought in the Rivers and Harbors of the South, and Upon the High Seas; Blockade-Running, First Use of Iron-Clads and Torpedoes, and Privateer History. Albany: Joseph McDonough, 1894; reprint, New York: Fairfax Press, 1977.

Siegel, Adam B. Strait Crises: The Taiwan Strait and Change and Continuity in U.S. Naval Contingency Operations. Annotated briefing (Center for Naval Analyses), 99-156. Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 1999.

Spahr, Otto W, III. Sea Denial: Disaster Is Waiting. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 1993.

Sparks, Michael E. A Critical Vulnerability, A Valid Threat. U.S. Ports and Terrorist Mining. Joint Advanced Warfighting School, Joint Forces Staff College, 2005.

United States. Department of Defense. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Operational Access Concept (JOAC). Version 1.0, 17 January 2012. Washington, DC: Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2012.

United States. Department of the Navy. Office of Naval Intelligence. Iran's Naval Forces: From Guerilla Warfare to a Modern Naval Strategy. Washington, DC: Office of Naval Intelligence, 2009.

United States. General Accounting Office. Navy Acquisitions: Improved Littoral War-Fighting Capabilities Needed. Washington, DC: general Accounting Office, 2001.

Mine Warfare

Bahr, James D. Damn! The Torpedoes: Coping with Mine Warfare in the Joint Maritime Environment. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2007.

Beauchamp, Robert E. Blue Water Navy - Littoral Threat. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2006.

Cashman, T. M. Striking First ... Mine Warfare Goes on the Offensive. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2002.

Causee, Christopher, et al. Systems Approach to Defeating Maritime Improvised Explosive Devices in U.S. Ports. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

Clem, Travis. Oceanographic Effects on Maritime Threats: Mines and Oil Spills in the Strait of Hormuz. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Cochran, Bryan M. Mine Warfare - The Joint Force Commander's Achilles Heel. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2004.

Denning, Gary M. Mine Countermeasures: Tomorrow's Operations - Today's Implications. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1997.

Erickson, Andrew S., Lyle J. Goldstein, and William S. Murray. Chinese Mine Warfare: A PLA Navy Assassin's Mace Capability. Newport. RI : China Maritime Studies Institute, U.S. Naval War College, 2009.

Evangelista, Rickson E. Mine Warfare: Lessons Learned and Forgotten. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2008.

Hartmann, Gregory K. Mine Warfare History and Technology. Silver Spring, MD: Naval Surface Weapons Center, 1975.

Lindgren, Edwin D. The Impact of Mine Warfare upon U.S. Naval Operations During the Civil War. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1994.

Marlatt, Greta E. Sea Mines and Countermeasures: A Bibliography. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2011.

McCarton, Matthew. One Hundred Years of Sweeping: A Historical Review of the Efficacy of Organic to the Battleforce Mine Countermeasures. Arlington, VA: Warfare Systems Directorate, Naval Sea Systems Command, 2000.

Melia, Tamara Moser. "Damn the Torpedoes:" A Short History of U.S. Naval Mine Countermeasures, 1777-1991. Washington: Naval Historical Center, 1991.

Molenda, Patrick A. Organic Mine Countermeasures: An Operational Commander's Key to Unlocking the Littorals? Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2001.

Morien, Steven B. The Operational Effects of Mine Warfare. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1999.

National Research Council. Naval Studies Board. Naval Mine Warfare: Operational and Technical Challenges for Naval Forces. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

O'Rourke, Ronald. China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2009.

Rios, John J. Naval Mines in the 21st Century: Can NATO Navies Meet the Challenge? Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2005.

Stacy, Ernest B. How Vulnerable Are U.S. Critical Seaports to a Waterborne Mine Threat? Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2005.

Trinque, Derek A. Sea Basing: Persistent Power Projection in the Face of the Naval Mine Threat. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2004.

Truver, Scott C. Mines and Underwater IEDs in U.S. Ports and Waterways: Context, Threats, Challenges, and Solutions. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2008.

Vaughan, W. C., Frederick A. Bowles, and Lisa Phelps. Compilation of Data Sources Used to Construct Mine Warfare Data Bases for the Northern Arabian Sea, Celebes Sea, and Makassar Strait. Stennis Space Center MS: Marine Geosciences Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 2004.

Zielinski, David M. Vulnerabilities. Newport, RI: Joint Military Operations Department, U.S. Naval War College, 2009.

Land-Based Anti-Ship Missiles

Barber, Arthur H., III, and Delwyn L. Gilmore. Maritime Access: Do Defenders Hold All the Cards? Defense horizons, no. 4. Fort McNair, Washington, DC: Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, 2001.

Bolkcom, Christopher, and Sharon Squassoni. Cruise Missile Proliferation. CRS report for Congress, RS21252. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2002.

Erickson, Andrew S., and David D. Yang. Using the Land to Control the Sea? Chinese Analysts Consider the Antiship Ballistic Missile. Newport, RI: Naval War College Foundation, 2009.

Hannon, Neil A. Russian Conventional Arms Transfers Since 1991: Implications for U.S. Naval Forces. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2001.

Mahon, Casey M. A Littoral Combat Model for Land-Sea Missile Engagements. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

O'Rourke, Ronald. China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities - Background and Issues for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2009.

Schulte, John C. An Analysis of the Historical Effectiveness of Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles in Littoral Warfare. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1994.

Maritime Security

Barrett, Roby Carol. The Arabian Gulf and Security Policy: The Past As Present, the Present As Future. JSOU report, 09-4. Hurlburt Field, Fla: Joint Special Ooperations University Press, 2009.

Bowen, Gary R. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachments in the War on Terror. Command and General Staff College (CGSC) School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS) Monograph. Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.

________. Coast Guard SOF. JSOU report, 05-7. Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University Press, 2006.

Caldwell, Stephen L. Maritime Security Information-Sharing Efforts Are Improving: Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2006.

________. Maritime Security: Observations on Selected Aspects of the SAFE Port Act: Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Border, Maritime, and Global Counterterrorism, Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2007.

________. Maritime Security: The SAFE Port Act: Status and Implementation One Year Later: Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Border, Maritime, and Global Counterterrorism, Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2007.

________. Maritime Security: The SAFE Port Act and Efforts to Secure Our Nation's Seaports: Testimony Before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2007.

Campion, Francis J. Strategic Maritime Domain Awareness: Supporting the National Strategy for Maritime Security. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2008.

Canada. Coast Guard. Maritime Security Framework. Ottawa: Canadian Coast Guard, 2010.

Clem, Doyne Damian. Logistically-Constrained Asset Scheduling in Maritime Security Operations. Monterey, Calif: Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

Davis, Joel D. “Maritime Security and the Strait of Malacca: A Strategic Analysis.” Thesis (M.M.A.S)-Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.

Erickson, Andrew S., Lyle Goldstein, and NanLi. China, the United States, and 21st-Century Sea Power: Defining a Maritime Security Partnership. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2010.

Franko, Patrice. "Defense Decisionmaking and Accountability Structures in the Philippines". Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 8, no. 1 (Spring 1999) : 57-86.

Homeland Security & Defense Business Council. Port & Maritime Security. The 9/10/11 Project: Are We Ready for the Day before Tomorrow? Washington, D.C: The Council, 2011.

Hutchins, Susan G., Shelley P. Gallup, Doug MacKinnon, Gordon Schacher, Scot Miller, Jared Freeman, Dan Dunaway, and Brad Poeltler. Enhancing Maritime Domain Awareness. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

Jeszeck, Charles A. Maritime Security: Federal Agencies Have Taken Actions to Address Risks Posed by Seafarers, but Efforts Can Be Strengthened: Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Homeland Security, House of Representatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2011.

Kraska, James. Maritime Power and the Law of the Sea: Expeditionary Operations in World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

McQuaid, Julia V. Maritime Security: Strengthening International and Interagency Cooperation. Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 2009.

Mansfield, Charles T. “Modern Piracy: The Impact on Maritime Security.” Thesis (Master of Military Studies)-USMC Command and Staff College, 2008.

Massey, Anthony S. Maritime Security Cooperation in the Strait of Malacca. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

Morris, Michael A. Caribbean Maritime Security. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Paterson, Patrick J. Maritime Security in the Gulf of Guinea. Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, 2007.

Poland. Akademia Marynarki Wojennej. Instytut Nawigacji i Hydrografii Morskiej. Maritime Security: The New Mission of Naval Forces. Prepared by Dąbrowski, Tadeusz. Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France: NATO Research and Technology Organization, 2006.

Poulin, Steven D. Realigning Coast Guard Enhanced Maritime Capabilities: A Lesson Learned from the U.S. Special Operations Command. USAWC strategy research project. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2005.

Sato, Yoichiro. Southeast Asian Receptiveness to Japanese Maritime Security Cooperation. Honolulu: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2007.

Truver, Scott C. Mines and Underwater IEDs in U.S. Ports and Waterways: Context, Threats, Challenges, and Solutions. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 2008.

United States. Army. Army War College. Homeland Defense Maritime Security Panel. Presented by Rick Nelson, Center for Strategic and International Studies; Rear Admiral Tom Atkins, USCG; and Gary Rasicot, Director of the Global Maritime Operational Threat Response Coordination Center. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2010.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower. H.A.S.C. No. 110-105. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability. Securing Our Ports: Information Sharing Is Key to Effective Maritime Security: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Finance, and Accountability of the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session, July 10, 2006. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations. International Maritime Security II: Law Enforcement, Passenger Security, and Incident Investigation on Cruise Ships : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations of the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 7, 2006. Serial No. 109–154. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations.; United States. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform. Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources. International Maritime Security: Joint Hearing Before the Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations and the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session, December 13, 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Technology (2007). Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation. Next Generation Border and Maritime Security Technologies: H.R. 3916: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, First Session, November 15, 2007. Serial No. 110–73. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation. The National Strategy for Maritime Security: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session, January 24, 2006 (Camden, New Jersey). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on the Department of Homeland Security. United States Coast Guard's Role in Border and Maritime Security: Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session, Special Hearing, April 6, 2006, Washington, DC. S. Hrg. 109–718. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

United States. Department of Homeland Security. The National Strategy for Maritime Security. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2005.

United States. Government Accountability Office. Maritime Security: National Strategy and Supporting Plans Were Generally Well-Developed and Are Being Implemented: Report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2008.

United States. Maritime Administration. Maritime Security Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, 1995.

University of Virginia. Center for Oceans Law and Policy. Legal Challenges in Maritime Security. Edited by Myron H. Nordquist , Rüdiger Wolfrum, John Norton Moore and Ronán Long. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008.

Vogel, Augustus. Navies Versus Coast Guards: Defining the Roles of African Maritime Security Forces. Washington, DC: Africa Center for Strategic Studies, 2009.

________. Investing in Science and Technology to Meet Africa's Maritime Security Challenges. [Washington, DC: Africa Center for Strategic Studies, 2011.

Wind, Andrew. Relocating Vessels of Interest in Maritime Security Operations. Ottawa: Centre for Operational Research and Analysis, 2009.

Wu, Shicun, and Keyuan Zou. Maritime Security in the South China Sea:Regional Implications and International Cooperation. Farnham, England: Ashgate, 2009.

Maritime Smuggling

Blockade Running

Brice, Martin Hubert. Axis Blockade Runners of World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1981.

Cochran, Hamilton. Blockade Runners of the Confederacy. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.

Hendren, Paul. The Confederate Blockade Runners. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute, 1933.

Medlicott, W. N. The Economic Blockade. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1952-1959.

United States. Navy Department. Naval Security Group Command. Special Research on Cryptologic History. Vol. SRH-019, Blockade-Running between Europe and the Far East by Submarines, 1942-1944. Washington, DC: Naval Security Group Command, 1946.

________. Special Research on Cryptologic History. Vol. SRH-260, OP-20-G File of Memoranda, Reports and Messages on German Blockade Runners, 1943-1944. Washington, DC: Naval Security Group Command, 1946.

Weapons Proliferation

Blank, Stephen. Russia's Proliferation Pathways. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2009.

Curtis, Glenn E., and Tara Karacan. The Nexus Among Terrorists, Narcotics Traffickers, Weapons Proliferators, and Organized Crime Networks in Western Europe. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, 2002.

Curwen, Philip A. The Social Networks of Small Arms Proliferation: Mapping an Aviation Enabled Supply Chain. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2007.

Dietz, Rebekah K. Illicit Networks: Targeting the Nexus Between Terrorists, Proliferators, and Narcotraffickers. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.

Donahoe, Adrian A. Combing the Underworld: Identification of South East Asian Non-State Actor Proliferation Networks, Nodes, and Chokepoints. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2006.

Hutchins, Susan G., Shelley P. Gallup, Doug MacKinnon, Gordon Schacher, Scot Miller, Jared Freeman, Dan Dunaway, and Brad Poeltler. Enhancing Maritime Domain Awareness. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

Kiugu, Aphaxard M. The Proliferation and Illicit Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes and Horn of Africa. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 2007.

Morgan, Terrence C. Third World Arms Proliferation and Forced Entry Operations: Circumstances Demanding the Creation of a Standing Joint Task Force Headquarters. Carlisle Barracks, PA : U.S. Army War College, 1990.

Smith, Hazel. North Korean Shipping: A Potential for WMD Proliferation? Analysis from the East-West Center, No. 87. Honolulu, HI: East-West Center, 2009.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Preventing Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism: Hearing Before the Full Committee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held January 22, 2009. H.A.S.C. 111-2. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. General Accounting Office. Nuclear Nonproliferation: U.S. Efforts to Combat Nuclear Smuggling. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2002.

United States. General Accounting Office. Nuclear Nonproliferation: U.S. Efforts to Help Other Countries Combat Nuclear Smuggling Need Strengthened Coordination and Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 2002.

Narcotics

Curtis, Glenn E., and Tara Karacan. The Nexus Among Terrorists, Narcotics Traffickers, Weapons Proliferators, and Organized Crime Networks in Western Europe. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, 2002.

Dietz, Rebekah K. Illicit Networks: Targeting the Nexus Between Terrorists, Proliferators, and Narcotraffickers. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2010.

Galli, Thomas L. Narcotics Counterinsurgency Dilemma. Fort Leavenworth, KS : US Army Command and General Staff College, 2008.

Howell, Glenn F. "Opium Obligato." US Naval Institute Proceedings 64, no.12 (Dec. 1938): 1729-35.

Hutchins, Susan G., Shelley P. Gallup, Doug MacKinnon, Gordon Schacher, Scot Miller, Jared Freeman, Dan Dunaway, and Brad Poeltler. Enhancing Maritime Domain Awareness. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 2008.

McCain, Steven A. Information Dominance: Special Operations Forces in MOOTW. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 1997.

Perl, Raphael F. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2007.

Financial

Ellen, Eric. Shipping at Risk: The Rising Tide of Organised Crime. Barking, United Kingdom: International Chamber of Commerce, 1997.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Money Laundering and Terror Financing Issues in the Middle East: Hearing Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session ... July 13, 2005. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. An Assessment of the Tools Needed to Fight the Financing of Terrorism: Hearing Before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session, November 20, 2002. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

Piracy

Piracy in the Ancient World

Appian of Alexandria (Appianus Alexandrinus). Appian’s Roman History. 4 vols. Translated by Horace White. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1912-1913. [See index on page 664 of vol.4 for “pirates.” Appian of Alexandria was probably born between 89-96 A.D., and much of his writings dealing with Rome’s conquests has survived.]

Avidov, A. "Were the Cilicians a Nation of Pirates?" Mediterranean Historical Review 10 (1997): 5-55.

Boardman, John, and N. G. L. Hammond, eds. The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C. vol.3, pt.3 of The Cambridge Ancient History. London: Cambridge University Press, 1982. [See page 525 of index for “piracy.” This work discusses the link between piracy and trade, and refers to piracy being accepted as a way of life in Homer’s Odyssey (page14). It is also pointed out that Aristotle believed that piracy was one of the five primary ways of earning a living (page158). Significantly it is pointed out that the Aegean Sea was only free of pirates when strong naval powers like Athens, Rhodes and Rome (after Pompey)(page 254) controlled the area.]

Braund, D. C. "Piracy Under the Principate and the Ideology of Imperial Eradication," in Rich, J. and G. Shipley, eds., War and Society in the Roman World. London: Routledge, 1993: 195-212.

Burgess, D. R. The World for Ransom: Piracy Is Terrorism, Terrorism Is Piracy. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2010.

Bury, J. B., S. A. Cook, and F. E. Adcock. Athens 478-401 B.C. vol. 5 of The Cambridge Ancient History. London: Cambridge University Press, 1958. [See page 541 of index for “piracy.” Includes several references to piracy in Greek waters. In the ancient world pirates were a particular threat to grain shipments, and sometimes participated in military/political alliances.]

Cook, A. D., F. E. Adcock, and M. P. Charlesworth eds. The Augustan Empire 44 B.C.-A.D. 70. vol. 10 of   The Cambridge Ancient History. London: Cambridge University Press, 1971. [See page 1024 of index for “piracy.” Describes piracy on the Black Sea, Adriatic, and Mediterranean. ]

________. The Hellenistic Monarchies and the Rise of Rome. Vol.7, The Cambridge Ancient History. London: Cambridge University Press, 1954. [See page 962 of index for “piracy.” In particular see “Illyrian Piracy,”chapter 26, part 2, pages 824-827.]

________.Rome and the Mediterranean 218-133 B.C. vol. 8 of The Cambridge Ancient History. London: Cambridge University Press, 1951. [See page 817 of index for “piracy.” Includes descriptions of piracy on the Black Sea, Aegean, and the Mediterranean.]

________. The Roman Republic. vol. 9 of The Cambridge Ancient History. London: Cambridge University Press, 1951. [See page 997 of index for piracy. In particular see chapter 8, part 6, pages 372-375, “The Climax of Piracy: The Achievement of Pompey,” and chapter 8, part 1, pages 350-53, “The Pirates of Cilicia.” Describes depredations of pirates and anti-piracy operations in the Black Sea and Mediterranean.]

Dell, Harry J. “The Origin and Nature of Illyrian Piracy.” Historia 16 (Wiesbaden, Germany, 1967): 344-58.

Dio (Cassius Dio Cocceianus). Dio’s Roman History. With an English translation by Earnest Cary, Ph.D., on the basis of the version of Herbert Baldwin Foster, Ph.D. 9 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914-1927. [See index on page 551 of volume 9 for numerous references to pirates. Describes depradations of pirates and Pompey’s campaign against them. The author, Dio Cassius of Nicaea (Iznik) in Bythynia, lived from approximately 155 to 235 A.D. The portions of his history of Rome covering the period 68 to 10 B.C., and fragments from other periods survive.]

Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus of Sicily. 12 vols. Translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Loeb classical library, no. 279.; Loeb classical library, no. 303.; Loeb classical library, no. 340.; Loeb classical library, no. 375.; Loeb classical library, no. 384.; Loeb classical library, no. 389-390.; Loeb classical library, no. 399.; Loeb classical library, no. 409.; Loeb classical library, no. 423. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961-1983. [See index on page 575 of volume 12 for references to pirates. Diodorus Siculus of Agurium, Sicily, wrote his world history from approximately 60 to 30 B.C.]

Florus (Lucius Annaeus Florus). Epitome of Roman History. Translated by Edward Seymour Forster. Loeb classical library, 231. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984. [See “The War Against the Pirates,” pages 191-195, for Pompey’s campaign against the pirates. And “The Balearic War,” pages 197-99, for the suppression of Balearic islands piracy. The author, who was born in Africa, probably lived in the Second Century A.D.]

Gabbert, J. J. "Piracy in the Early Hellenistic Period: A Career Open to Talents." Greece & Rome 33 (1986):156-63.

Garlan, Y. "War, Piracy and Slavery in the Greek World." In Finley, M. I., ed. Classical Slavery. London: F. Cass, 1987: 7-21.

Goldsworth, Adrian. Caesar: Life of a Colossus. New Haven, CT: Yale Type University Press, 2006. [See index for “Pirates.” In particular see pages 75-77 for the story of the capture of Caesar by pirates. When Caesar subsequently had the pirates crucified he demonstrated his regard for them by having their throats cut first so that they would not suffer a lingering painful death while being crucified.]

Hadjidaki, Elpida. The Classical and Hellenistic Harbor at Phalasarna: A Pirates' Port? Ph.D. disseration, University of California, Santa Barbara. [Available from Proquest University Microfilms, order no. 8910210.]

Herodotus. Herodotus. 4 vols. Translated by Alfred Denis Godley. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1920-1925. [Stories of piracy appear in Herodotus's book 5:26-28 and book 6:17. In the above edition the story of the piratical activities of Dionysius of Phocaea appear in volume 3, pages 163-165; and the piratical activities of Histiaeus of Miletus appear in volume 3, pages 151-153, and 173-175. Herodotus of Halicarnassus, commonly known as the “father of history,” and to some as the “father of lies,” lived from approximately 490/480 B.C. to 429/425 B.C., and wrote his history of, and background to, the wars between Persia and a coalition of Greek city states in the Fifth century B.C.]

Hornblower, Simon, and Anthony Spawforth, eds. The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. New York: Oxford Type University Press, 1998. [See “Piracy,” pp. 536-37.]

Hussey, Joan Mervyn. The Byzantine Empire Part 1: Byzantium and Its Neighbours. vol.4 of The Cambridge Medieval History. London: The Cambridge University Press, 1966. [See page 1136 of index for references to piracy in the Adriatic and Aegean, as well as Turkish pirates.]

Jackson, A. H. "Privateers in the Ancient Greek World," in Foot, M. R. D.,ed. War and Society: Historical Studies in Honour and Memory of J.R. Western 1928-1971. London: P. Elek, 1973: 241-53.

Livy (Titus Livius). History of Rome. 14 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1922-. [See index on page 485 of volume 14 for numerous references to piracy. The author, Titus Livius of Patavlum (Padua) lived from approximately 64/59 A.D. to 12/17 A.D. The surviving portions of his history of Rome cover the years 753-243 B.C. and 219-167 B.C.]

Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. trans. David McLintock. New York: Basic Books, 1982. [See pages 108-109 for the story of the capture of Julius Caesar by pirates. After regaining his freedom, Caesar chartered ships at Miletus and hunted the pirates down. When a local magistrate hesitated to take legal action against them, Caesar had them taken from prison to face extra-judicial justice. To reduce their suffering he had the pirates strangled before they were crucified. See index on page 509 for other pages dealing with piracy, including Pompey's anti-piracy campaign.]

Mommson, Theodore. The History of Rome. 4 vols. trans. William P. Dickson. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1891. [See index on page 761 of volume 4 for numerous references to piracy.]

Ormerod, Henry A. "The Campaigns of Servilius Isauricus Against the Pirates." Journal of Roman Studies 12 (1922): 35-56.

________. Piracy in the Ancient World: An Essay in Mediterranean History. London: Hodder and Stoughton Ltd, 1924.

Plutarch (Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus). Plutarch's Lives. Vol. 5, Agesilaüs and Pompey; Pelopidas and Marcellus. Translated by Bernadotte Perrin. Loeb classical library, 87. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1917. [See pages 173-91 for a description of Pompey’s successful campaign to clear the Mediterranean Sea of pirates. The biographer Plutarch of Chaeronea, Boetia, lived between approximately A.D. 45/50 and 120/127.]

________. Plutarch's Lives. Vol. 7, Demosthenes and Cicero; Alexander and Caesar. Translated by Bernadotte Perrin. Loeb classical library, 99. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1919. [Plutarch describes Caesar’s capture by pirates near the island of Pharmacusa. After laughing at the pirates for not knowing who he was, he insisted they raise his ransom from twenty to fifty talents (a large amount of silver currency). After 38 days in captivity he was ransomed and released. Caesar immediately returned with a force of ships and captured most of the pirates. He subsequently crucified the pirates as he had promised to do when they held him captive.]

________. Plutarch's Lives. Vol. 9, Demetrius and Anthony; Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius. Translated by Bernadotte Perrin. Loeb classical library, 101. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1920. [See pages 207-209 for information on Menas the corsair, who commanded numerous pirate ships, and served in Sicilian waters under the command of Sextus Pompeius. During a shipboard feast Menas suggested to Pompey, the host, that the ship’s cables be cut to isolate and capture Mark Anthony and Julius Caesar, and thus Pompey could become master of the Roman Empire. Pompey rejected the suggestion.]

Sandars, Nancy K. The Sea Peoples: Warriors of the Ancient Mediterranean, 1250 - 1150 BC. London: Thames and Hudson, 1985.

Seager, Robin. Pompey the Great: A Political Biography. 2d ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. [See ch.4, "The Commands Against the Pirates and Mithradates," pages 40-52. The Mediterranean coast was divided into 13 regions by Pompey, and then the pirates were progressively driven eastward. Seeking to secure grain shipments to Rome, Pompey first drove the pirates from Sardinia, Sicily, and Africa in 40 days. With the assistance of local authorities in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey), Pompey defeated the pirates in battle and captured their last bastion at Coracesium within three months. The captured pirates were treated leniently, and settled inland at agricultural settlements.]

de Souza, Philip. "Greek Piracy," in Powell, A., ed. The Greek World. London: Routledge, 1993: 179-98.

________. Piracy in the Graeco-Roman World. Cambridge, England:  Cambridge Type University Press, 2002.

________. "Romans and Pirates in a Late Hellenistic Oracle from Pamphylia." Classical Quarterly 47 (1997): 477-81.

Starr, Chester G. The Economic and Social Growth of Early Greece 800-500 B.C. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. [See index on page 266 for “Piracy.”]

________. A History of the Ancient World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. [See index on page 739 for “Piracy.”]

________. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. [See index on page 104 for “Piracy.”]

________. The Roman Imperial Navy, 31 B.C. – A.D. 324. 2d ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Type University Press, 1960. [See index on page 226 for “Piracy.” In particular see pages 192-194 and 196 for the third century A.D. revival of piracy in the Mediterranean, particularly in the Aegean.]

Strabo. The Geography of Strabo. 8 vols. Translated by Horace Leonard Jones. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1917-1932. [See index on page 429 of volume 8 for “piracy” and “pirates,” and page 444 for “Pompey the Great.” In particular see volume 5, pages 497-499 for the exploits of Cleon the Pirate who had a stronghold in the vicinity of Mount Olympus in Greece. He initially supported Mark Anthony during the Roman Civil War but switched allegiance to Julius Caesar who subsequently appointed him to a position as a priest. The geographer/historian Strabo was an Asiatic Greek from Amasia in Pontus (northeastern Asia Minor). He lived from approximately 63-64 BC to 24 AD, and wrote his geography from circa 7 BC to 18 AD.]

Suetonius (Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus). Suetonius. Vol.1. Translated by John Carew Rolfe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1951. [In Suetonius’s life of the Julius Caesar he tells how Caesar was captured by pirates while sailing from Rome to Rhodes (page 7). After being ransomed Caesar returned with a fleet to pursue the pirates and took vengeance on them as he had jokingly threatened to do while still a captive. The biographer Gaius Suetonius Tranquillos was born in approximately 70 A.D., probably in Hippo Regius (modern day Algeria), and died after 130. His biography of Caesar was written prior to 122, over a century-and-a-half after Caesar’s death.]

Thucydides. Thucydides. 4 vols. Translated by Charles Foster Smith. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1919-1923. [See index on page 446 of vol.4 for references to piracy. Thucydides the Athenian lived from approximately 460/455 B.C. to 399/398 B.C. Although the war was fought from 431 to 404 B.C., Thucydides’ narrative ends in 411.]

Ward, A. M. "Caesar and the Pirates." American Journal of Ancient History 2 (1977): 27-36.

Pre-20th Century Piracy

Albion, Robert G. "Review of Barbary Legend: War, Trade and Piracy in North Africa, 1415-1830 by Godfrey Fisher.” The Journal of Modern History, 31, no. 2. (Jun 1959):131-32.

Allen, Gardner Weld. Our Navy and the Barbary Corsairs. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1905.

________. Our Navy and the West Indian Pirates. Salem, MA: Essex Institute, 1929.

Andrews, Kenneth. The Spanish Caribbean: Trade and Plunder 1530-1630. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1978.

Andrews, K. R. Elizabethan Privateering. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1964.

Arnold-Forster, Forster Delafield. The Madagascar Pirates. New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard, 1957.

Baker, Brent. “An Act of Piracy.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 101, no.11 (November 1975): 81-82.

Baker, Thomas. Piracy and Diplomacy in Seventeenth-Century North Africa. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1989.

Baker, William A. Sloops and Shallops. Barre, MA: Barre Publishing Co., 1966.

Barlow, Edward. Barlow's Journal of His Life at Sea in King's Ships, East and West Indiaman and Other Merchantmen from 1659-1703. London: Hurst & Backett, 1934.

Bauer, K. Jack. "Naval Shipbuilding Programs 1794-1860." Military Affairs, 29, no.1 (Spring 1965): 29-40.

Berckman, Evelyn. Victims of Piracy: The Admiralty Court, 1575-1678. London: Hamilton, 1979.

Bethell, Leslie ed. Colonial Latin America vol. 1 of The Cambridge History of Latin America. London: Cambridge Type University Press, 1984. [See page 639 of index for “piracy.” This book is useful for placing piracy within a wider context in the region.]

Black, Clinton Vane de Brosse. Pirates of the West Indies. New York: Cambridge Type University Press, 1989.

Bradlee, Francis Boardman Crowninshield. Piracy In The West Indies and Its Suppression. Salem, MA: Essex Institute, 1923.

Braudel, Fernand. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. 2 vols. Translated by Sian Reynolds. New York: Harper & Row, 1972-73. [See index on page 1369 of volume 2 for numerous references to piracy.]

Bromley, J.S. Corsairs and Navies. London: Hambledon Press, 1987.

Brooks, Graham. The Trial of Captain Kidd. Edinburgh and London: W. Hodge, 1930.

Brown, Wilburt S. The Amphibious Campaign for West Florida and Louisiana, 1814-1815. University, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1969.

Burgess, D. R. The World for Ransom: Piracy Is Terrorism, Terrorism Is Piracy. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2010.

Carse, Robert. The Age of Piracy. New York: Rinehart, 1957.

Castor, Henry. The Tripolitan War, 1801-8105: American Meets the Menace of the Barbary Pirates. New York: F. Watts, 1971.

Chambers, Anne. Granuaile: The Life and Times of Grace O'Malley c1530-1603. Dublin, Ireland: Wolfhound Press, 1979.

Chidsey, Donald Barr. The Wars in Barbary: Arab Piracy and the Birth of the United States Navy. New York: Crown Publishers, 1971.

Clifford, Barry. The Lost Fleet: The Discovery of a Sunken Armada from the Golden Age of Piracy. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. [A French fleet sank off Venezuela on 2 January 1678 and thus caused a decline in French naval power in the region which resulted in a dramatic rise in piracy.]

Clifford, Barry, and Paul Perry. Expedition Whydah: The Story of the World's First Excavation of a Pirate Treasure Ship and the Man Who Found Her. New York: HarperCollins, 2000.

________. Return to Treasure Island and the Search for Captain Kidd. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. [The search for Captain Kidd's pirate ship Adventure: Galley at the island of Sainte Marie near Madagascar.]

Clifford, Barry and Peter Turchi. The Pirate Prince: Discovering the Priceless Treasures of the Sunken Ship Whydah. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

Cochran, Hamilton. Freebooters of the Red Sea: Pirates, Politicians and Pieces of Eight. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.

Coggeshall, George. History of the American Privateers and Letters-of-Marque, During Our War with England in the Years 1812, '13, and '14. Interspersed with Several Naval Battles. 3d edition. New York: the author, 1861.

Course, A. G. Pirates of the Eastern Seas. London: Muller, 1966.

Cordingly, David. Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. New York: Random House, 1996.

Currey, E. Hamilton. Sea Wolves of the Mediterranean: The Grand Period of the Moslem Corsairs. New York: Dutton, 1910.

Dampier, William. Dampier's Voyages. London: E.G. Richards, 1906.

Davis, Kenneth Gardner. The Royal Africa Company. New York: Atheneum, 1970.

Davis, William C. The Pirates Laffite: The Treacherous World of the Corsairs of the Gulf. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2005. [The story of the brothers Jean and Pierre Laffite from their arrival in New Orleans in 1803 to the Battle of New Orleans and their finale voyage in the Caribbean which ended in 1823.]

Dearden, Seton. A Nest of Corsairs: The Fighting Karamanlis of the Barbary Coast. London: John Murray, 1976.

Defoe, Daniel. A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, and Also Their Policies, Discipline and Government, From Their First Rise and Settlement in the Island of Providence, 1717, to the Present Yar 1724. With the Remarkable Actions and Adventures to the Two Female Pyrates, Mary Read and Anne Bonny. To Which is Prefix’d an Account of the Famous Captain Avery and His Companions ... To Which is Added, a Short Abstract of the Statute and Civil Law, in Relation to Pyracy. By Captain Charles Johnson. London: For C. Rivington, J. Lacy, etc., 1724. [Reprinted numerous times including by Dover Publications in 1999.]

Dow, George Francis. The Pirates of the New England Coast, 1630-1730. New York: Argosy-Antiquarian, 1968.

Drury, Robert. Madagascar; or Robert Drury's Journal During Fifteen Years Captivity on That Island. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1897.

Earle, Peter. Corsairs of Malta and Barbary. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970.

________. The Pirate Wars. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2003. [Focuses on the years from 1600 to 1835].

________. The Sack of Panama; Sir Henry Morgan's Adventures on the Spanish Main. New York: Viking Press, 1982.

Ellms, Charles. The Pirates Own Book, or Authentic Narratives of the Lives, Exploits, and Executions of the Most Celebrated Sea Robbers. Portland, ME, 1837. [Reprinted by Dover Publishing, 1933.]

Exquemelin, Alexandre Olivier. Bucaniers of America: Or, A True Account of the Most Remarkable Assaults Committed of Late Years Upon the Coasts of the West Indies, By Bucaniers of Jamica and Tortuga, Both English and French. Wherein are Contained More Especially, the Unparrallel’d Exploits of Sir Henry Morgan, Our English Jamaican Hero, Who Sack’d Puerto Velo, Burnt Panama. &c. Written Originally in Dutch, by John Esquemeling, One of the Bucaniers Who Was Present at Those Tragedies; and Thence Translated into Spanish, by Alonso de Bonne-Maison... Now Faithfully Rendered into English. London: Printed for W. Cooke, 1684. [Reprinted and translated many times, including by Dover Publications in 2000.]

Faye, Stanley. Privateers of the Gulf. Hemphill, TX: Dogwood Press, 2001.

"A Fight with Pirates in the China Seas." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 596 (July 1878): 318-322.

Fisher, Sir Godfrey. Barbary Legend; War Trade and Piracy in North Africa, 1415-1830. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1957.

Forester, Cecil Scott. The Barbary Pirates. New York: Random House, 1953.

Fox, Grace Estelle. British Admirals and Chinese Pirates, 1832-1869. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1940.

Gerhard, Peter. Pirates on the West Coast of New Spain, 1575-1742. Glendale, CA: A. H. Clark Company, 1960.

Gilkerson, William. Boarders Away II: The Small Arms and Combustibles of the Classical Age of Fighting Sail, 1626-1826. Lincoln, RI: Mowbray, 1993.

Goodrich, Caspar. Our Navy and the West Indian Pirates: A Documentary History. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute, 1916.

de Gregori, Thomas R. Review of Piracy and the Decline of Venice, 1580-1615 by Alberto Tenenti, Janet Pullan, and Brian Pullan in The Journal of Economic History 28, no. 2. (Jun 1968): 303.

Griffiths, Arthur. The Chronicles of Newgate. London: Chapman and Hall, 1884.

Harland, John. Seamanship in the Age of Sail: An Account of the Shiphandling of the Sailing Man-of-War 1600-1860. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

Heers, Jacques (trans. Jonathan North). The Barbary Corsairs: Warfare in the Mediterranean, 1480-1580. London: Greenhill Books, 2003.

Hill, Samuel Charles. Notes on Piracy in Eastern Waters. Bombay: India Antiquary, 1923.

Howse, Derek and Norman Thrower. A Buccaneer's Atlas, Basil Wringrose's South Sea Waggoner. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992.

Hurd, Archibald Spicer. The Reign of the Pirates. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1925.

Jameson, John Franklin. Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1970.

Johnson, Charles. A General History of the Robberies & Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates. London: Conway Maritime Press, 1998.

________. Privateers and Pirates 1730-1830. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Military 2001.

Karg, Barb and Arjean Spaite. The Everything Pirates Book: A Swashbuckling History of Adventure on the High Seas. Avon, MA: Adams Media, 2007.

Konstam, Angus. Scourge of the Seas: Buccaneers, Pirates and Privateers. New York: Osprey Publishing, 2007.

Konstam, Angus, with Roger Michael Kean. Pirates: Predators of the Seas. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2007.

Latona, Jane E. Suppressing Piracy in the West Indies: A Bibliographical Essay. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center Early History Branch, 1987. [Available online].

Lavery, Brian. Ship of the Line, Volume I. The Development of the Battle Fleet, 1650-1850. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

LeGolif, Louis Adhemar Timothee. Memoirs of a Buccaneer: Being a Wondrous and Unrepentant Account of the Prodigious Adventures and Amours of King Louis XIV’s Loyal Servant, Louis Adhemar Timothee Le Golif, Known for His Singular Wound as Borgnefesse, Captain of the Buccaneers, Told by Himself and Edited by Gustave Alaux and A. t’Serstevens: Translated by Malcolm Barnes. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1954.

Lee, Robert E. Blackbeard the Pirate: A Reappraisal of His Life and Times. Winston-Salem, NC: J.F. Blair, 1974.

Lewis, Edward. "Responsibility for Piracy in the Middle Ages." Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, 3rd Ser., 19, no. 1 (1937): 77-89.

Linebaugh, Peter, and Marcus Buford Rediker. The Many-Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2000.

Lloyd, Christopher. English Corsairs on the Barbary Coast. London: Collins, 1981.

London, Joshua E. Victory in Tripoli: How American's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a Nation. New York: Wiley, 2005.

Lorimer, Sara. Booty: Girl Pirates on the High Seas. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 2002.

Low, Lieutenant Charles Rathbone, Late I.N. "How We Beat Off John Chinaman." Colburn's United Service Magazine, and Naval and Military Journal No. 464 (July 1867): 368-74.

Lucie-Smith, Edward. Outcasts of the Sea: Pirates and Piracy. New York: Paddington Press, 1978.

Lyon, David. The Sailing Navy List. All the Ships of the Royal Navy - Built, Purchased and Captured - 1688-1860. London: Conway Maritime Press, 1993.

McNeill, J. R. and Kris E. Lane. “Pillaging the Empire: Piracy in the Americas, 1500-1750.” The Americas 56, no. 1 (July 1999): 134-35.

Mallett, M. Mercenaries amd Their Masters: Warfare in Renaissance Italy. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1974.

Marley, David F. Pirates and Privateers of the Americas. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1994.

Meier, Dirk. Seafarers, Merchants and Pirates in the Middle Ages. Trans. Angus McGeoch. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2006. [See Chapter 10, “Friends of God and Foes of All the World: The Vitalienbrüder,” pp. 146-159; and Index, page 181 for “Piracy.” The Vitalienbrüder were privateers.]

Middleton, Arthur. Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.

Mitchell, David. Pirates. London: Thames & Hudson, 1976.

Mitchell, Memory F. and Hugh F. Rankin. “The Golden Age of Piracy.” The Journal of Southern History 36, no. 2 (May 1970): 269-.

Moore, Grace ed. Pirates and Mutineers of the Nineteenth Century: Swashbucklers and Swindlers. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2011.

Moran, Charles. “Barbary: Of Pirates and Rovers.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 63, no.4 (April 1937): 511-24.

________. “Buccaneers.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 67, no.11 (November 1941): 1540-43.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. "Old Bruin" Commondore Matthew C. Perry, 1794-1858; the American Naval Officer Who Helped Found Liberia, Hunted Pirates in the West Indies, Practised Diplomacy with Sultan of Turkey and the King of the Two Sicilies; Commanded the Gulf Squadron in the Mexican War, Promoted the Steam Navy and the Shell Gun, and Conducted the Naval Expedition Which Opened Japan. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Moyse-Bartlett, Hubert. The Pirates of Trucial Oman. London: Macdonald & Co., 1966.

Murray, Dian H. Pirates of the South China Coast, 1790-1810. Stanford, CA: Stanford Type University Press, 1987.

Nash, Howard P. The Forgotten Wars: The Role of the U.S. Navy in the Quasi War With France and the Barbary Wars, 1798-1805. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1968.

Niblack, A.P. “Barbary Pirates, Algeria and Tunisia Colonial vs Protectorate Form of Government.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 49, no.4 (April 1923): 571-80.

Nutting, P. Bradley. "The Madagascar Connection: Parliament and Piracy, 1690-1701." The American Journal of Legal History 22, no. 3 (July 1978): 202-15.

Panzac, Daniel. The Barbary Corsairs: The End of a Legend, 1800-1820. Boston: Brill, 2004.

Pawson, Michael and David Buissert. Port Royal, Jamaica. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press, 1975.

Pennell, C.R. ed. Bandits of the Sea: A Pirates Reader. New York: New York Type University Press, 2001.

________. Piracy and Diplomacy in Seventeenth-Century North Africa: The Journal of Thomas Baker, English Consul in Tripoli, 1677-1685. London: Associated University Presses, 1989.

Poolman, Kenneth. The Speedwell Voyage: A Tale of Piracy and Mutiny in the Eighteenth Century. Annapolis, \ MD: Naval Institute Press, 1999.

Pope, Dudley. The Buccaneer King: The Biography of Sir Henry Morgan, 1635-1688. New York: Dodd Mead, 1978.

Preston, Diana and Michael Preston. A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Buccaneer; the Life of William Dampier. New York: Walker & Company, 2004.

Pritchard, Earl H. Review of British Admirals and Chinese Pirates, 1832-1869 by Grace Fox in  American Historical Review 47, no. 3 (April 1942): 596-98.

Pringle, Patrick. The Jolly Roger: The Story of the Great Age of Piracy. New York: Norton, 1953.

Ramsay, Jack C. Jean Laffite, Prince of Pirates. Austin, TX: Eakin Press, 1996.

Rankin, Hugh F. The Golden Age of Piracy. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969.

Rawski, Evelyn S. Review of Pirates of the South China Coast, 1790-1810 by Dian H. Murray in The Journal of Asian Studies 47, no. 3 (August 1988): 611-12.

Rediker, Marcus Buford. Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates, and the Anglo American Maritime World, 1700-1750. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

_________. " Pirates and the Imperial State: A Review of Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates." By Robert C. Ritchie in Reviews in American History 16, no. 3. (September 1988): 351-357.

_________. "Under the Banner of King Death: The Social World of Anglo-American Pirates, 1716 to 1726. "The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series, 38, no. 2 (April 1981): 203-227.

_________. Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2004.

Ritchie, Robert C. Captain Kidd and the War Against the Pirates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Rose, Susan. Medieval Naval Warfare, 1000-1500. New York: Routledge, 2002. [See index on page 154 for “Piracy.”]

Ross, I. “Blackbeard” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 100, no.10 (October 1974): 71-74.

Saxon, Lyle. Lafitte: the Pirate. New York: D. Appleton – Century Co., 1930.

Searles, P.J. “Battle of Perico.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 67, no.10 (October 1941): 1411-14.

Semple, Ellen Churchill "Pirate Coasts of the Mediterranean Sea."
Geographical Review, 2, no. 2 (Aug 916):134-151.

Senior, C. M. A Nation of Pirates: English Piracy in its Heyday. New York: Crane, Russak, 1976.

Shomette, Don. Pirates on the Chesapeake: Being a True History of Pirates, Picaroons and Sea Raiders on Chesapeake Bay, 1610-1807. Coatesville, MD: Tidewater Press, 1985.

Skowronek, Russell K. and Charles R. Ewen eds. X Marks the Spot: The Archaeology of Piracy. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2006. [The book is organized in three parts: Pirate Lairs, Pirate Ships and their Prey, and Pirates in Fact and Fiction. The individual essays are wide ranging and include locations as diverse as Louisiana, Port Royal, Honduras, Mauritius, Madagascar, and the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Jean Lafitte is discussed, as are the pirate ships Queen Anne’s Revenge, Whydah, Speaker, and Fiery Dragon.]

Smith, Alan Cornwall. “Most Slandered Man in History.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 64, no.6 (June 1938): 855-858. [Henry Morgan.]

So, Kwan-wai. Japanese Piracy in Ming China During the 16th Century. Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1975.

Starkey, David John ed. Pirates and Privateers: New Perspectives on the War on Trade in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Exeter, United Kingdom: University of Exeter Press, 1997.

Steinbeck, John. Cup of Gold: A Life of Sir Henry Morgan, Buccaneer, with Occasional Reference to History. New York : Covici Friede, 1936.

Stockton, Frank Richard. Buccaneers and Pirates of Our Coasts. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1943.

Strong, Ezra, and Silas Andrus. The History of the Lives and Bloody Exploits of the Most Noted Pirates: Their Trials and Executions; Including a Correct Account of the Late Piracies Committed in the West Indies, and the Expedition of Commodore Porter; Also, Those Committed on the Brig Mexican, Who Were Tried and Executed at Boston, in 1835; Embellished with Engravings from Original Designs. Hartford: Silas Andrus & Son, 1849. [Reprinted by Lyons Press in 2004.]

Swanson, Carl E. "American Privateering and Imperial Warfare, 1739-1748." The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., 42, no.3 (July 1985): 357-82.

Syme, Ronald. Sir Henry Morgan, Buccaneer. New York: W. Morrow, 1965.

Talty, Stephan. Empire of Blue Water: Captain Morgan’s Great Pirate Army, the Epic Battle for the Americas, and the Catastrophe That Ended the Outlaw’s Bloody Reign. New York: Random House, 2007.

Tarling, Nicholas. Review of Piracy, Paramountcy and Protectorates by Alfred P. Rubin in Pacific Affairs, 48, no. 4. (Winter, 1975-1976):648-49.

Tsao, Ting Man. "Ho! For China: Piratical Incursions, Free Trade Imperialism and Modern Chinese History, c. 1832-1834". In Pirates and Mutineers of the Nineteenth Century: Swashbucklers and Swindlers. Edited by Grace Moore. (Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2011), 59-77.

Tucker, Glenn. Dawn Like Thunder: The Barbary Wars and the Birth of the U.S. Navy. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs Merrill, 1963.

Uring, Nathaniel. The Voyages and Travels of Captain Nathaniel Uring. Edited by A. Dewar. London: Cassell & Company, 1928.

United States. Navy. Office of Naval Records and Library. Naval Documents Related to the United States Wars With the Barbary Powers: Naval Operations Including Diplomatic Background From 1785 Through 1807. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1939-44. 6 vols. [Volume 1 covers the period from 1785 to 1801; Vol. 2, Jan 1802-Aug. 1803; Vol. 3, Sept. 1803-Mar. 1804; Vol. 4, Apr. 1804-Sept. 6, 1804; Vol. 5, Sept. 7, 1804-Apr. 1805; Vol. 6, 1805-1807: Personnel and Ships' Data, 1801-1807.]

Vanderbilt, Arthur T. Treasure Wreck: the Fortunes and Fate of the Pirate Ship Whydah. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1986.

Wagner, Tamara S. "Piracy and the Ends of Romantic Commercialism: Victorian Businessmen Meet Malay Pirates". In Pirates and Mutineers of the Nineteenth Century: Swashbucklers and Swindlers. Edited by Grace Moore. (Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2011), 255-71.

Wheeler, Richard. In Pirate Waters. New York: Crowell, 1969.

Williams, Lloyd Haynes. Pirates of Colonial Virginia. Richmond, VA: Dietz Press, 1937.

Williams, Michael W. A Brief History of the Royal Navy: Its People, Places and Pets. London: The London Press, 2006. [See chapter 4, “Pirates and Press Gangs,” pages 71-89. Includes a drawing of Captain William Kidd depicting him hanged and left in chains at Tilbury in 1701.]

Williams, Neville. The Sea Dogs: Privateers, Plunder and Piracy in the Elizabethan Age. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co., 1975.

Wilson, Derek. The World Encompassed: Drake's Great Voyage, 1577-1580. New York: Harper& Row, 1977.

Wilson, Peter Lamborn (a.k.a. Hakim Bey) Pirate Utopias: Moorish Corsairs & European Renagadoes. New York: Autonomedia, 1995.

Woodbury, George. Woodes Rogers, and the Great Days of Piracy in the West Indies. New York: Norton, 1951.

Woodward, Colin. The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the Caribbean Pirates and the Man Who Brought Them Down. New York: Harcourt Inc., 2007.

Wycherly, George. Buccaneers of the Pacific. New York, NY: Bobbs-Merill, 1928.

Wyeth, Newll Convers. Marauders of the Sea, Being a Compilation of Stories Both Historical and Fictional of Various Exploits of the Most Notorious Corsairs, Buccaneers, Pirates, Mutineers, &c. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Son, 1935.

Yapp, M.E. Review of The Blood-Red Arab Flag: An Investigation into Qasimi Piracy, 1797-1820 by Charles E. Davies in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 61, no. 3 (1998): 543-44.

Zacks, Richard. The Pirate Coast: Thomas Jefferson, the First Marines, and the Secret Mission of 1805. New York: Hyperion, 2005. [Describes operations against the Barbary Pirates after the frigate SS Philadelphia ran aground in Tripoli harbor. Upon being captured, the ship was renamed The Gift of Allah and the 300 sailors and marines were held captive to be potentially auctioned off as slaves.]

Modern Piracy: Books and Documents

Bernaerts, Arnd. Bernaerts' Guide to the 1982 United Convention on the Law of the Sea:  Including the Text of the UN Convention and Final Act. Surrey, United Kingdom: Fairplay Publications, 1988.

Broughton, Hubert L., II. Combatting Terrorism: A Guide for U. S. Naval Forces Afloat. Master’s thesis. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1985.

Bruyneel, Mark. Comparison of 2002 Figures of the International Maritime Bureau. International Maritime Bureau. Piracy Reporting Centre, 19 April 2003.

Burgess, D. R. The World for Ransom: Piracy Is Terrorism, Terrorism Is Piracy. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2010.

Burnett, John S. Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas. New York: Dutton, 2002.

Chalk, Peter. Grey-area Phenomena in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking and Political Terrrorism. Canberra, Australia: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, 1997.

Chalk, Peter. Low Intensity Conflict in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking, and Political Terrorism. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, Research Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1998.

Cobb, Christopher B. R. Combating Maritime Piracy. Master’s Thesis. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1994. [Full-text pdf file available at stinet.dtic.mil. Search for document number ADA295083.]

Davis, Gregory S. Piracy in Southeast Asia: a Growing Threat to the United States' Vital Strategic and Commercial Interests. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 2002. [Full-text pdf file available at stinet.dtic.mil. Search for document number ADA403682.]

Dillon, Dana R. Piracy in Asia: a Growing Barrier to Maritime Trade. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation. Policy Research & Analysis, 22 June 2000.

Donald, Elliott J. Jolly Roger Out Strait Maritime Piracy in Contemporary Southeast Asia. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1999. [Full-text pdf file available at stinet.dtic.mil. Search for document number ADA369772.]

Dubner, Barry H. The Law of International Sea Piracy. Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1980.

Ellen, Eric. Shipping at Risk: The Rising Tide of Organised Crime. Barking, United Kingdom: International Chamber of Commerce, 1997.

________. Piracy at Sea. Paris, France: ICC International Maritime Burea, 1989.

Farley, Mark C. International and Regional Trends in Maritime Piracy, 1989-1993. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1993.

"Final Act of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, Held at the European Office of the United Nations, at Geneva From 24 February to 27 April 1959." In Treaty Series: Treaties and International Agreements Registered or Filed and Recorded With the Secretariat of the United Nations, 11-167. New York: United Nations, 1964.

Goldie, L. F. E. "Terrorism, Piracy and the Nyon Agreements." In International Law at a Time of Perplexity: Essays in Honour of Shabtai Rosenne,. edited by Yoram Dinstein, 225-48. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989.

Gottschalk, Jack A. Jolly Roger with an Uzi: the Rise and Threat of Modern Piracy. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2000.

Gray, Jim, Mark Monday and Gary Stubblefield. Maritime Terror: Protecting Your Vessel and Your Crew Against Piracy. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press, 1999.

Green, L. C. "Terrorism and the Law of the Sea." In International Law at a Time of Perplexity:  Essays in Honour of Shabtai Rosenne, edited by Yoram Dinstein, 249-71. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1989.

International Maritime Bureau. A Report into the Incidence of Piracy and Armed Robbery from Merchant Ships. Barking, United Kingdom: ICC International Maritime Bureau, 1983.

International Maritime Bureau. A Second Report into the Incidence of Piracy and Armed Robbery from Merchant Ships. Barking, United Kingdom: ICC International Maritime Bureau, 1984.

International Maritime Bureau. Piracy at Sea. Paris: International Maritime Bureau, 1989.

Jenkins, B. M. and others. A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions against Maritime Targets. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1983. [Full-text pdf file available at stinet.dtic.mil. Search for document number ADA145248.]

Ji Guoxing. SLOC Security in the Asia Pacific. Honolulu, HI: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. Center Occasional Paper, 2000.

Kaufman, Alison A. China's Participation in Anti-Piracy Operations Off the Horn of Africa: Drivers and Implications: Conference Report. MISC D0020834.A1/Final. Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 2009.

Kraska, James. Contemporary Maritime Piracy: International Law, Strategy, and Diplomacy at Sea. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2011.

Lee, Seo-Hang. Security of SLOCs in East Asia. University of California. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, February 1998.

Lumpkin, Michael D. Microviolence at Sea, 1975-1995: a Data Analysis. Master’s thesis. Monterey, CA: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, 1995. [Full-text pdf file available at stinet.dtic.mil. Search for document number ADA305891.]

Mankabady, Samir. The International Maritime Organization. Wolfeboro, NH: Croom Helm, 1986-1987.

Mansfield, Charles T. “Modern Piracy: The Impact on Maritime Security.” Thesis (Master of Military Studies) - USMC Command and Staff College, 2008.

Menefee, Sameul Pyeatt. Trends in Maritime Violence: A Special Report From Jane’s Intelligence Review and Jane’s Sentinel. London, England: Jane’s Information Group, 1996.

Mueller, G. O. W. and Freda Adler. Outlaws of the Ocean: the Complete Book of Contemporary Crime on the High Seas. New York: Hearst Marine Books, 1985.

Nordquist, Myron H. and John N. Moore. Current Maritime Issues and the International Maritime Organization. Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1999.

O'Connell, D. P. and I. A. Shearer. The International Law of the Sea. New York: Clarendon Press, 1982-1984.

Parritt, B. A. H. Violence at Sea: a Review of Terrorism, Acts of War and Piracy, and Countermeasures to Present Terrorism. Paris: ICC Publishing S.A., 1986.

Payne, John C. Piracy Today: Fighting Villainy on the High Seas. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Sheridan House, 2010.

Ploch, Lauren. Piracy Off the Horn of Africa. CRS report for Congress, R40528. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2009.

Raymond, Catherine Zara. Maritime terrorism in Southeast Asia: a Risk Assessment. Singapore: Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies, 2005.

Rodeman, Christopher A. In Search of an Operational Doctrine for Maritime Counterterrorism. Newport, RI: Naval War College. Joint Military Operations Dept., 2003. [Full-text pdf file available at stinet.dtic.mil. Search for document number ADA415650.]

Ronzitti, Natalino. Maritime Terrorism and International Law. Boston, MA: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1990.

Rubin, Alfred P. The Law of Piracy. Vol. 63, International Law Studies. Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 1988.

Stankiewicz, Michael. Maritime Shipping in Northeast Asia: Law of the Sea, Sea Lanes, and Security. University of California: Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, February 1998.

Steinberg, Richard H. and Bruce Stokes. Partners or Competitors?: the Prospects for U.S.-European Cooperation on Asian Trade. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.

Sultan ibn Muhammad al-Qasimi, Ruler of Shariqah. The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf. Dover, NH: Croom Helm, 1986.

Tangredi, Sam J. Globalization and Maritime Power. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 2002.

Thomson, Janice E. Mercenaries, Pirates, and Sovereigns: State-Building and Extraterritorial Violence in Early Modern Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Combating Piracy on the High Seas Hearing Before the Full Committee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, Hearing Held March 5, 2009. H.A.S.C. No. 111-15. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs. Piracy in the Gulf of Thailand: A Crisis for the International Community: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-seventh Congress, Second Session, April 29, 1982. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982.

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Ongoing Efforts to Combat Piracy on the High Seas Hearing Before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, First Session, May 5, 2009. S. HRG. 111-165. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009.

United States. Department of Defense. National Security and the Convention on the Law of the Sea. Washington, DC: 1996.

United States. Department of Energy. Office of Intelligence. Office of Threat Assessment. Piracy: the Threat to Tanker Traffic. Washington, DC: 1993.

United States. Navy. Office of Naval Intelligence. Violence at Sea: Piracy 1993-1994. Washington, DC: 1995.

Villar, Roger. Piracy Today: Robbery and Violence at Sea Since 1980. London: Conway Maritime Press, 1985.

Warren, James Francis. Iranum and Balangingi: Globalilzation, Maritime Raiding and the Birth of Ethnicity. Singapore: Singapore University Press, National University of Singapre, 2002.

Weeks, Stanley B. Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) Security and Access. University of California: Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, February 1998.

Whiteneck, Daniel J. Piracy Enterprises in Africa. With Contributions from John Ivancovich and Kim Hall. CRM D0023394.A2/Final. Alexandria, VA CNA Analysis & Solutions, 2011.

Modern Piracy: Periodical Articles

Alexander, Dean C. "Maritime Terrorism and Legal Responses." Transportation Law Journal 19, no. 2 (1991): 453-93.

"An Analysis of the United States' Response to the Achille Lauro Hijacking." Boston College Third World Law Journal 8 (Winter 1988): 137-49.

Anderson, Chandler P. "As if for an Act of Piracy." The American Journal of International Law 16, no. 2 (April 1922): 260-261.

"Asia:  Dangerous Waters; Piracy in Asia." The Economist 360, no. 8231 (21 July 2001): 32.

Beckman, Robert. "Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Southeast Asia:  the Way Forward." Ocean Development and International Law 33, no. 3/4 (July-December 2002): 317-41.

Birnie, P. W. "Piracy: Past, Present and Future." Marine Policy 11, no. 3 (July 1987): 163-83.

Bradsher, Keith. "Attacks on Chemical Ships in Southeast Asia Seem to Be Piracy, Not Terror." The New York Times (27 March 2003): A11.

Britten, B. H. “Piracy – A Modern Conspectus.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 91, no.5 (May 1965): 71-81.

Brown, Raymond J. "Get the Terrorist Threat Right." US Naval Institute Proceedings 129, no. 1 (January 2003): 112.

"Business: Peril on the Sea; Terrorism and Business." The Economist 369, no. 8344 (4 October 2003): 68.

Buxbaum, Peter A. "Maritime Interdiction Program Could Hurt Trade, Specialists Say." Aviation Week's Homeland Security & Defense 2, no. 44 (29 October 2003): 3.

Caldwell, Hamlin A., Jr. " Stop Rogue Merchant Ships." US Naval Institute Proceedings 128, no. 2 (February 2002): 77.

Chalk, Peter. "Africa Suffers Wave of Maritime Violence." Jane's Intelligence Review 13, no. 4 (April 2001): 44-46.

_________. "Contemporary Maritime Piracy in Southeast Asia." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 21, no. 1 (January 1998): 87-112.

_________. "Low Intensity Conflict in Southeast Asia: Piracy, Drug Trafficking and Political Terrorism." Conflict Studies, no. 305/306 (January/February 1998): 1-36.

_________. "Maritime Piracy:  A Global Overview." Jane's Intelligence Review 12, no. 8 (August 2000): 47-50.

_________. "Non-Military Security in the Wider Middle East." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 26, no. 3 (May/June 2003): 197-214.

_________. "Piracy Re-Emerges As a Modern-Day Threat." Jane's Navy International 107, no. 4 (May 2002): 12-14, 16-17.

"China's New Law of the Sea: the Focus of Maritime Piracy in Asia Has Moved from the Malacca Strait to the South China Sea." Far Eastern Economic Review 157, no. 24 (16 June 1994): 22.

Dearsley, D. A. "Protection against Piracy." Asian Defence Journal, no. 12 (December 1992): 14-16, 18-19.

Dickinson, Edwin D. " Is the Crime of Piracy Obsolete?" Harvard Law Review, 38, no. 3. (Jan., 1925):334-60.

Dickinson, Edwin D. “The Questionnaire on Piracy.” The American Journal of International Law, 20, no. 4. (October 1926): 750-52.

Dillon, Dana R. "Piracy Alert.” The International Economy 14, no. 5 (September/October 2000): 52-53.

_________. “Maritime Piracy: Defining the Problem.” SAIS Review 25, no. 1 (Winter 2005): 155-65.

Dubner, Barry H. "Human Rights and Environmental Disaster: Two Problems That Defy the "Norms" of the International Law of Sea Piracy." Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 23 (Spring 1997): 1-65.

_________. "The Law of International Sea Piracy." New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 11 (Winter 1979): 471-517.

Ellis, Eric. "Singapore's New Straits; Piracy on the High Seas Is on the Rise in Southeast Asia." Fortune International (29 September 2003): 24.

Fabey, Michael. "Bad Times Spur Pirates." Traffic World 257, no. 8 (22 February 1999): 42-43.

Farnham, Alan. "Pirates!" Fortune 124, no. 2 (15 July 1991): 112-16.

Fishbein, Rand H. "Echoes from the Barbary Coast." The National Interest (Winter 2001/2002): 47-51.

Forster, Anthony. "An Emerging Threat Shapes Up As Terrorists Take to the High Seas." Jane's Intelligence Review 10, no. 7 (July 1998): 42-45.

Friedman, Norman. "Countering Piracy on the High Seas." Armada International 25, no. 2 (April-May 2001): 30+.

Gannon, Tina. "International Law of the Sea:  Reconciling the Law of Piracy and Terrorism in the Wake of September 11th." Tulane Maritime Law Journal 27, no. 1 (Winter 2002): 257-75.

Genet, Raoul. “The Charge of Piracy in the Spanish Civil War.” The American Journal of International Law 32, no. 2 (April 1938): 253-63.

Gill, Martin. "Security at Sea:  Fraud, Piracy and the Failure of Police Cooperation Internationally." International Relations 13, no. 3 (December 1996): 43-58.

Gohlish, Heinz. “Piracy vs. Terrorism: Same Problem, Same Solution?” Canadian Naval Review 2, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 6-10.

Goldie. L. F. E. "Low Intensity Conflict at Sea." Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 14, no. 4 (Special Issue 1988): 597-637.

Goodman, Timothy H. "'Leaving the Corsair's Name to Other Times: How to Enforce the Law of Sea Piracy in the 21st Century Through Regional International Agreements." Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 31, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 139-68.

Greenway, H. D. S. "The Unwatched Ships at Sea: the Coast Guard and Homeland Security." World Policy Journal 20, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 73-78.

Grissim, John. "Piracy Returns." Coast Guard (September 1997): 18-20.

Gutoff, Jonathan M. "The Law of Piracy in Popular Culture." Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 31, no. 4 (October 2000): 643-48.

Halberstam, Malvina. "Terrorism on the High Seas: the Achille Lauro, Piracy and the IMO Convention on Maritime Safety." American Journal of International Law 82, no. 2 (April 1988): 269-310.

Hale, Ellen. “Oil Industry Fears New Attacks.” USA Today (2 December 2002): 6A.

Herrmann, Wilfried A. “Maritime Piracy and Anti-Piracy Measures. Part I: Piracy – Increasing Challenge With New Dimensions.” Naval Forces 25, no. 2 (2004): 18-20, 23-25.

_________. “Maritime Piracy and Anti-Piracy Mesaures. Pat II: Anti-Piracy and Anti-Terrorism Sensors and Weapons.” Naval Forces 25, no.2 (2004): 26-28.

Hitt, Jack. “Bandits in the Global Shipping Lanes.” New York Times Magazine (20 August 2000): 36+.

Hollingsbee, Trevor. "Piracy - Southeast Asia Remains a Risk." Jane's Intelligence Review 11, no. 4 (1 April 1999): 1.

Hunter, Thomas B. "The Growing Threat of Modern Piracy." US Naval Institute Proceedings 125, no. 7 (July 1999): 72-74.

Hutchings, Claire. "Save Our Seas." Geographical 70, no. 12 (December 1998): 10-15.

"In Perspective: International - Problematic Piracy." Oxford Analytica (5 April 2000).

“Insurance. Marine Insurance. Meaning of ‘Piracy’ in Policy.” Harvard Law Review 22, no. 6. (April 1909): 454.

“International Law: Nature and Extent of Sovereignty, Attempt to Rob as Piracy Jure Gentium.” Harvard Law Review 48, no. 5. (March 1935): 853-854.

"International Maritime Organization: Convention and Protocol from the International Conference on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation [Done at Rome, March 10, 1988]." International Legal Materials 27, no. 3 (May 1988): 668-90.

Johnson, D. H. N. “Piracy in Modern International Law.” Transactions of the Grotius Society 43, (1957): 63-85.

Kahn, Lawrence J. "Pirates, Rovers, and Thieves: New Problems with an Old Enemy." Tulane Maritime Law Journal 20 (Summer 1996): 293-329.

Koknar, Ali M. “Terror on the High Seas.” Security Management 48, no. 6 (July 2004): 75-81.

Kubiak, Krzysztof. "Terrorism Is the New Enemy at Sea." US Naval Institute Proceedings 129, no. 12 (December 2003): 68-71.

Langewiesche, William. “Anarchy at Sea.” Atlantic Monthly (September 2003): 50+.

Lenoir, James J. “Piracy Cases in the Supreme Court.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 25, no. 4 (November – December 1934): 532-53.

Lintner, Bertil. "The Perils of Rising Piracy (Posing a Challenge to Asian Navies)." Jane's Defence Weekly 34, no. 20 (15 November 2000): 18-19.

McDougal,Myres S., William T. Burke and Ivan A. Vlasic."The Maintenance of Public Order at Sea and the Nationality of Ships." The American Journal of International Law,. 54, no. 1 (Jan., 1960): 25-116.

McMichael, William H. "Navy on Lookout for Pirates in Indonesia." Navy Times 51, no. 17 (28 January 2002): 10.

_____. "U.S. Vessels Patrol for Pacific Pirates." Navy Times 51, no. 37 (17 June 2002): 28.

Mapes, Timothy. "Rise in Sea Piracy Threatens Asian Trade - As Turmoil in Indonesia Grows, So Does Crime in Strait of Malacca." The Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition) (9 July 2001): A22.

Mellor, Justin S. C. "Missing the Boat:  the Legal and Practical Problems of the Prevention of Maritime Terrorism." American University International Law Review 18, no. 2 (2002): 341-97.

Mo, John. "Options to Combat Piracy in Southeast Asia." Ocean Development and International Law 33, no. 3/4 (July/December 2002): 343-58.

Morrison, Stanley. " Part V: A Collection of Piracy Laws of Various Countries." The American Journal of International Law, 26, Supplement: Research in International Law.(1932):887-1013.

Mullin, Paul and Jon Bartee. "Put a Swat Team on Every Ship." US Naval Institute Proceedings 128, no. 12 (December 2002): 30-33.

"New Piracy Attacks Put Spotlight on Indonesia." International Oil Daily (18 August 2003).

"Oil Piracy Poses Growing Menace to Tanker Traffic in South China Sea." Oil & Gas Journal 97, no. 42 (18 October 1999): 23-25.

Pelkofski, James. “Before the Storm; Al Qaeda’s Coming Maritime Campaign.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 131, no 12 (December 2005): 20-24. [Discusses possible links between piracy and terrorism, and sophisticated assault capabilities of pirates today.]

'Pirates,' Meaning of in Policy: Seizure of Goods by Political Malcontents." The Virginia Law Register 15, no. 5. (September 1909): 399-400.

Redmond, Robert S. "The Modern Pirate." Contemporary Review 266, no. 1553 (June 1995): 292-97.

Renwick, Neil and Jason Abbott. "Piratical Violence and Maritime Security in Southeast Asia." Security Dialogue 30, no. 2 (June 1999): 183-96.

"Responding to Crises." Malaysian Business (1 March 2002): 60+.

Risso, Patricia. "Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Piracy:  Maritime Violence in the Western Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf Region During a Long Eighteenth Century." Journal of World History 12, no. 2 (Fall 2001): 293-319.

Rosenberg, David. “The Political Economy of Piracy in the South China Sea.” In Piracy and Maritime Crime: Historical and Modern Case Studies. Edited by Bruce A. Elleman, Andrew Forbes, and David Rosenberg. Newport papers, no. 35 (Newport, RI: Naval War College Press, 2010), 79-93.

Rosenthal, Justine A. "Southeast Asia:  Archipelago of Afghanistans?" Orbis 47, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 479-93.

Ryan, Nick. "Crime Waves." Geographical 72, no. 5 (May 2000): 26-31.

"Safety Focus Changes to Security - Even As IMO Grapples with Implementing STCW Certification, One of Its Working Groups Has Proposed Sweeping Measures to Secure Ships against Terrorism." Marine Log 107, no. 3 (March 2002): 19-22.

Sakhuja, Vijay. "Maritime Order and Piracy." Strategic Analysis: a Monthly Journal of the IDSA 24, no. 5 (August 2000): 933.

Scudder, Brian. "Pirate King Turns Law Enforcer." African Business, no. 256 (July/August 2000): 28-29.

_________. "Somalia Pirates' Last Stand." African Business, no. 252 (March 2000): 17-19.

"Section 6: Visit, Search and Capture." The American Journal of International Law, 33, Supplement: Research in International Law. (1939):530-653.

Sengupta, Prasun K. "Japan Conducts First Bilateral Anti-Piracy Exercises in East Asia." Asian Defence Journal, no. 12 (December 2000): 10-11.

Shephard, Allan. "Maritime Tensions in the South China Sea and the Neighborhood: Some Solutions." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 17, no. 2 (April 1994): 181-211.

Sinai, Joshua. "Middle Eastern Maritime Terrorism: Now a Major Threat." Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International 8, no. 3 (Spring 2002): 6-10.

Singh, K. R. "Regional Cooperation in the Bay of Bengal: Non-Conventional Threats-Maritime Dimension." Strategic Analysis: a Monthly Journal of the IDSA 24, no. 12 (March 2001).

"Southeast Asia's Maritime Challenges and Prospects." Naval Forces 22, no. 2 (2001): 38, 40, 42-43.

Steel, D. G. "Piracy - Can the Order of the Oceans Be Safeguarded?" RUSI Journal 140, no. 5 (October 1995): 17-25.

Stephens, Hugh W. "Not Merely the Achille Lauro: The Threat of Maritime Terrorism and Piracy." Terrorism 9, no. 3 (1987): 285-96.

"Symposium: State Sponsored International Terrorism." Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 20 (March 1987): 195-363.

"Toward a New Definition of Piracy: The Achille Lauro Incident." Virginia Journal of International Law 26, no. 3 (Spring 1986): 723-53.

Turbiville, Graham Hall, Jr. "Piracy Prompts Renewed Countermeasures." Special Warfare 14, no. 2 (Spring 2001): 44-45.

"United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea [Done at Montego Bay, December 10, 1982]." International Legal Materials 21, no. 6 (November 1982): 1261-1354.

"United Nations: International Convention against the Taking of Hostages." International Legal Materials 18, no. 6 (November 1979): 1456-63.

United States Naval War College Library. “Modern Maritime Piracy.” Library Notes 32, no.5 (February 2004).

Vatikiotis, Michael, Michael Westlake, and Lincoln Kaye. "Gunboat Diplomacy:  Where Do China's Anti-Smuggling Efforts End..." Far Eastern Economic Review 157, no. 24 (16 June 1994): 22-23, 26.

Whisenhunt, M. "Piracy and the Threat to USTRANSCOM." Defense Transportation Journal 46, no. 4 (August 1990): 16-18.

White, G. Edward. “The Marshall Court and International Law: The Piracy Cases.” The American Journal of International Law 83, no. 4 (Oct., 1989): 727-735.

Wiseman, Paul. “Globalization Starts to Trouble Waters.” USA Today (1 February 2001): n.p.

Wood, I. D. H. "Piracy Is Deadlier Than Ever." US Naval Institute Proceedings 126, no. 1 (January 2000): 60-63.

Woodruff, James J., II. "Merchants, Trades, and Pirates: The Birth of the Admiralty Clause." Tulane Maritime Law Journal 26, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 563-79.

Young, Adam J. and Mark J. Valencia. "Conflation of Piracy and Terrorism in Southeast Asia:  Rectitude and Utility." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25, no. 2 (August 2003): 269-83.

Zou, Keyuan. "Enforcing the Law of Piracy in the South China Sea." Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 31, no. 1 (January 2000): 107-17. 

Modern Piracy: Web Pages

Combined Task Force 151 — Gulf of Aden.

European Union Naval Force, Somalia — Operation ATALANTA.

[http://www.hellenicshippingnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=8&Itemid=72] Hellenic Shipping News Worldwide — Shipping Law News.

International Maritime Organization (IMO).

"IMO: Monthly Reports on Acts of Piracy."

"IMO Circulars: Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships.”

NATO — Counter-Piracy Operations.

Tradewinds — Casualties (free online subscription required).

World Maritime News.