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DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY - NAVAL HISTORY & HERITAGE COMMAND



Conference Transcripts of the Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff
(United States, United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union)
During World War II in the Collection of the Navy Department Library.

Introduction
Use and Reproduction Policy
List of Conferences
Glossary

Introduction:

The Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff Conferences during the Second World War were a series of conferences (each composed of multiple meetings) between senior United States and United Kingdom military officers. Soviet officers participated in some meetings. Many of these conferences also included plenary meetings at which President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill were present.

The Combined Chiefs of Staff Conferences were attended by a diverse range of senior officers but there was a core group of attendees, listed below:

United Kingdom Officers: Admirals Sir Dudley Pound and Sir Charles Little, Field Marshal Sir John Dill, General Sir Alan F. Brooke, Lieutenant General Sir Colville Wemyss, Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, Air Marshal A.T. Harris, Vice Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten and Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham.

US Officers: Admirals H.R. Stark, W.D. Leahy and E.J. King; Rear Admirals W.R. Sexton, F.J. Horne, J.H. Towers, and R.K. Turner; Vice Admiral R. Wilson; Generals George C. Marshall and B.B. Somervell; Lieutenant Generals H.H. Arnold; Brigadier Generals D.D. Eisenhower and L.T. Gerow.

USSR Officers: Army General Antonov, Marshal of Aviation Khudyakov, Admiral of the Fleet Kuznetsov.

The conferences were concerned primarily with “the creation of a unified command for combined operation with the goal of achieving the earliest possible conclusion to the war.”1 To this end the content of each conference regarded the war in general and specifically “theaters of war, proposed operations, various strategic plans, troops, movement of forces, munitions, equipment, defense, relief, officers, and situation reports.” 2 This finding aid contains a listing of the volumes containing the notes of each of the Combined Chiefs of Staff Conference and the library call numbers of each volume. There is a hyperlink to the tables of contents of each Combined Chiefs of Staff Conference including both papers and minutes of meetings. There is a brief introduction to each conference at the beginning of each section which includes location, date, attendees and notable decisions/discussions of each conference.

Use and Reproduction Policy: These documents are unavailable for loan and must be consulted in the library. Photocopying of more than ten pages from them is not permitted. Use of digital cameras by researchers to reproduce pages from documents is encouraged. The library does not provide a document duplication service. Researchers who are unable to visit the library, but wish to obtain reproductions of documents, should contact the Naval Historical Foundation for duplication services. The use of personal scanners by non-library staff personnel must be approved by the reference staff on a document-by-document basis (Reference: Naval Historical Center Instruction [NAVHISTCENTINST] 5070.1C.).

List of Conferences

1. [ARCADIA Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held in Washington, DC on Twelve Occasions between 24 December 1941 and 14 January 1942. In Two Parts: Part I Minutes of the Conferences, Part II Approved Documents. (Spec D 735.C6 1942)
2. [Post ARCADIA Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held 23 January 1942 – 19 May 1942. Papers and Minutes of Conferences. (Spec D 735.C6 1942a)
3. [Casablanca Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held 15-16 January 1943. Papers and Minutes of Conferences. (Spec D 735.C6 1943b)
4. [TRIDENT Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held May, 1943. Papers and Minutes of Conferences. (Spec D 735.C6 1943c)
5. [QUADRANT Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held August, 1943. Papers and Minutes of Conferences. (Spec D 735.C6 1943)
6. [SEXTANT Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held November-December, 1943. Papers and Minutes of Conferences. (Spec D 735.C6 1943a)
7. [OCTAGON Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held September, 1944. Papers and Minutes of Conferences. (Spec D 735.C6 1944)
8. [ARGONAUT Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held January-February, 1945. Papers and Minutes of Conferences. (Spec D 735.C6 1945)
9. [TERMINAL Conference] Proceedings of the American – British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences held July, 1945. Papers and Minutes of Conferences. (Spec D 735.C6 1945a)

ARCADIA

Introduction: The ARCADIA Conference took place directly in the wake of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. It was the first of the Combined Commanders Conferences and was attended by both US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Notable decisions included both the focus of winning the war in Europe before concentrating on the war in the Far East and the combination of allied forces in Europe under one commander. 3

List of Papers

JCCSs-1 24 December 1941, Subjects Discussed

1. Defense of the British Isles.
2. Heavy Bombers.
3. Relief of British Troops in Northern Ireland and Iceland.
4. Greenland.
5. Anti Submarine Measures and Escorts.
6. Portuguese and Spanish Islands in the Atlantic.
7. Occupation of Africa.
8. Brazil.
9. The Curacao-Aruba Area.
10. The Pacific Area.
11. Bombardment of Japan.
12. Russian Situation.
13. Spain and Portugal.
14. Airplane Carriers.
15. PBY’s for the British.
16. British Crews for American Ships.
17. Guns for Merchant Ships.
18. Naval Dispositions in the Atlantic.
19. Priorities in Expeditions.
20. West Africa.
21. British chiefs of Staff Memorandum (Annex 1).
22. British Estimate of Attack on West Coast of North America.

Annex 1: American-British Strategy.

  British WW-1 (US Revised)

Annex 2: Probable Maximum Scale of Enemy Attack on West Coast of North America.

  Appendix A to Annex 2: Distance Chart

25 December 1941, Subjects Discussed

1. Program of Planning (Joint Planning Committee).
2. Disposition of the MOUNT VERNON.
3. Diversion of Reinforcements (intended for the Philippines).
4. Unified Command.
5. Disposition of Forces Destined for the Far East.

Annex 1: Memorandum for the President: Utilization of the United States Forces in Australia.

26 December 1941, Subjects Discussed

1. Priorities for the United States and United Kingdom Overseas Expeditions in the Atlantic Ocean. (ABC-4/1)
2. Northwest Africa Project

Annex 1: Priorities for United States and United Kingdom Overseas Expeditions in the Atlantic Ocean. (Report by Joint Planning Committee)
US Serial ABC-4/1
British Serial WW (J.P.C.) 1

Annex 2: Project – GYMNAST (Report by Joint Planning Committee)
US Serial ABC-4/2
British Serial WW (J.P.C.) 2

27 December 1941, Subjects Discussed

1. ABC-4/1 – Priorities for United States - United Kingdom Expeditions in the Atlantic Ocean.
2. ABC-4/2 – Plan for Expedition to Northwest Africa.
3. American – British Strategy.
4. Program of Work of the Joint Planning Committee.
5. Unity of Command.
6. Utilization of the United States Transports now being used in the Indian Ocean.

ANNEX 1: Proposed Draft of Instructions to the Supreme Commander Southwestern Pacific Theater. ABC-4, C/S USA.

29 December 1941, Subjects Discussed

1. Priorities for United States and United Kingdom Overseas, Expeditions in the Atlantic Ocean.
2. American British Strategy (British WW-1). (Action Deferred)
3. Northwest Africa Project (US ABC-4/2), (British WW (J.P.C.) 2). (Action Deferred).
4. Supporting Measures for the Southwest Pacific (US ABC-4/3), (British WW (J.P.C.) 3). (Action Deferred).
5. Unity of Command in the Southwestern Pacific Theater.
6. Proposed Communication to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Sheik.

ANNEX 1: Priorities for United States and United Kingdom Overseas Expeditions in the Atlantic Ocean. (Report by Joint Planning Committee)
    ABC-4/1 APPROVED DOCUMENT
    British WW-5
    British WW (J.P.C.) 1

ANNEX 2: Proposed Method of Handling Matters Concerning the Southwest Pacific Theater

ANNEX 3: Memorandum for the President: Draft of Message to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Sheik.

30 December 1941, Subjects Discussed

1. Higher Direction of War in the ABDA Area. 2. Draft Directive to the Supreme Commander in the ABDA Area. 3. Next Meeting, to consider:     a. Northwest Africa Project (US ABC-4/2), (British WW (J.P.C.) 2)     b. Supporting Measures for the Southwestern Pacific (US ABC-4/3), (British WW (J.P.C.) 3)

ANNEX 1: Letter (Mr. Hopkins to Admiral Stark) enclosing Proposed Method of Handling Matters concerning the Southwest Pacific Theater.

ANNEX 2: In Two Parts:
    Part I – Memorandum for the President: Higher Direction of War in the ABDA Area
    Part II – Higher Direction of War in the ABDA Area

ANNEX 3: Draft Directive to the Supreme Commander in the ABDA Area – (US ABC-4/5), (British WW 3)
    Annex 1 to ANNEX 3: Boundaries of ABDA Area.
    Annex 2 to ANNEX 3: Higher Direction of War in the ABDA Area.

31 December 1941, Subjects Discussed

1. Withdrawal of United States Marines from Iceland.
2. American-British Strategy.
3. Supporting Measures for the Southwest Pacific.
4. Northwest Africa Project.
5. Relief of the British Garrison in Northern Ireland.
6. Draft Directive to the Supreme Commander in the ABDA Area.
7. Proposed Tasks for the Joint Planning Committee.
8. Naval Dispositions.

ANNEX 1: American-British Grand Strategy.
    US ABC-4/CS 1 APPROVED DOCUMENT
    British WW-1 (Final)

ANNEX 2: Supporting Measures for the Southwest Pacific (the Far East Area and Adjacent Regions until Establishment of Unified Command. (Approved Report of the Joint Planning Committee)
    US ABC-4/ 3 APPROVED DOCUMENT
    British WW-4
    British Serial WW (J.P.C.) 3
    Annex I to ANNEX 2 - Chart: Far East Forces and Reinforcements Therefore, United States.
    Annex II to ANNEX 2 - Chart: Far East Forces and Reinforcements Therefore, British Commonwealth.
    Annex III to ANNEX 2 - Chart: Forces Now in the Far East - Dutch and Australian.

ANNEX 3: Draft Directive to the Supreme Commander in the ABDA Area.
    US ABC-4/5 (Final)
    British WW-3
    Annex 1 to ANNEX 3 Boundaries of the ABDA Area.
    Annex II to ANNEX 2 Higher Direction of War in the ABDA Area.

ANNEX 4: Proposed Tasks for the Joint Planning Committee.
    US ABC-4/4 (Final) APPROVED DOCUMENT
    British WW (J.P.C.) 4

10 January 1942, Subjects Discussed

1. SUPER-GYMNAST.
2. Directive for the Supreme Commander of the ABDA Area – Attitude for the Dutch.
3. Procedure for the Assumption of Command by General Wavell.
4. Immediate Assistance to China.
5. Post-ARCADIA Collaboration.

ANNEX 1: Directive to the Supreme Commander in the ABDA Area (Approved by the President and the Prime Minister).
    US ABC – 4/5 APPROVED DOCUMENT
    British WW-6
    (Supersedes ABC – 4/5, WW-3, Final, Annex 4 to JCCSs-7
    Annex 1 to ANNEX 1: Boundaries of the ABDA Area
    Annex 2 to ANNEX 2: Higher Direction of War in the ABDA Area

ANNEX 2: Procedure for Assumption of Command by General Wavell.
    US ABC-4/CS 3 APPROVED DOCUMENT
    British WW-9 (Revised)
    Annex A to ANNEX 2: Draft Telegram from His Majesty’s Government to United States, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, China, India.
    Annex B to ANNEX 2: Draft Telegram from His Majesty’s Government to General Wavell.
    Annex C to ANNEX 2: Draft Telegram from British Chiefs of Staff to Chiefs of Staff Committee in London.

ANNEX 3: Immediate Assistance to China. (Approved Joint Planning Committee Report)
    US ABC – 4/9
    British WW-10
    British Serial WW (J.P.C.) 9

ANNEX 4: Post ARCADIA Collaboration
    British WW-8

12 January 1942, Subjects Discussed

1. Shipping for United States Reinforcements for the Far East.
2. Defense of Island Bases between Hawaii and Australia.
    (ABC 4/8, WW (J.P.C) 8).

ANNEX 1: Memorandum of Proposed Shipping Adjustments.

ANNEX 2: Defense of Island Bases between Hawaii and Australia.     US Serial ABC-4/8 APPROVED DOCUMENT     British Serial WW-13     British Serial WW (J.P.C) 8

Annex to ANNEX 2: Table showing Defense of Island Bases between Hawaii and Australia.

13 January 1942, Subjects Discussed

1. Post ARCADIA Collaboration.
2. Movements and Projects in the Atlantic Theater – First Half of 1942.
3. Operation SUPER-GYMNAST.

ANNEX 1: Post-ARCADIA Collaboration     British WW-8     Minute to ANNEX 1: Body to Allocate Equipment

ANNEX 2: Movements and Projects in the Atlantic Theater – First Half of 1942.     US ABC-4/6 APPROVED DOCUMENT     British WW-14     British Serial WW (J.P.C.) 6.

14 January 1942, Subjects Discussed

1. Move of United States Reinforcements to the Far East.
2. SUPER-GYMNAST.
3. Post ARCADIA Collaboration.

ANNEX 1: Operation SUPER-GYMNAST.

    US ABC 4/2A APPROVED DOCUMENT
    British WW-17
    British WW (J.P.C.) 2A.

ANNEX 2: Post ARCADIA Collaboration.

    US ABC 4/CS 4 APPROVED DOCUMENT
    British WW-16

Post ARCADIA
Introduction: The Post-ARCADIA conference was the title given to the 20 meetings of the C.C.S held between 23 January and 19 May 1942 in Washington, DC. The focus of these meetings was on the Southwest Pacific area of operations known as the American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) area (including Burma), and strategic responsibility. 4

Table of Contents
Twenty Meetings of the Combined Chiefs of Staff
23 January 1942 to 19 May 1942.

Meeting Minutes   Page Number
1st   1
2nd   12
3rd   22
4th   33
5th   42
6th   52
7th   56
8th   60
9th   69
10th   76
11th   85
12th   91
13th   101
14th   111
15th   119
16th   127
17th   134
18th   142
19th   147
20th   152
Index   I-XIV

Casablanca

Introduction: The Casablanca Conference took place during 14-24 January 1943. US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill were in attendance in addition to Free French leaders. Notable decisions included the Allies decision to seek the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers, and the decision to follow the invasion of North Africa with an invasion of Sicily and then of Italy.5

Table of Contents: Minutes

Page
J.C.S. 50th Meeting (Casablanca) 1
President’s Visit
Agenda for Coming Conference
Further Conference
Admiral Glassford’s Report
J.C.S. 51st Meeting (Casablanca) 8
Operation British Eastern Fleet
Assignment of Heavy Bombers to China
Procedure to Adopt at Forthcoming Conference
Operations in the Mediterranean
Operations in and from the United Kingdom
Priority Bombing Programs
Proposed Operations and Commands
J.C.S. 52nd Meeting (Casablanca)
Priority Bombing Program
Command in England
Operations in the Mediterranean
Landing Craft
General Strategic Priorities
J.C.S. 53rd Meeting (Casablanca) 22
Pacific and Far East Theater
Attitude of Stalin towards US
Landing Craft
Continental Operations
Operations in Sicily
US Aid to Russia
J.C.S. 54th Meeting (Casablanca) 27
Synthetic Rubber Program
Report of Conversation between the Prime Minister and Admiral King
General Somerville on Tonnage, Visit to Russia, and Command of Eisenhower
Operation in Far East and Mediterranean
Objections to British Concern in our Strategic Theater Strategic Policy Considered in Mediterranean & Far East
J.C.S. 55th Meeting (Casablanca) 32
Conduct of War 1943
Synthetic Rubber Program
Command Set-up for Dakar-French North-West Africa
Required Presidential Action
Planning Staff for HUSKY
Army and Navy Command Set-up in Mediterranean
J.C.S. 56th Meeting (Casablanca) 37
Commitments to Turkey
Dodecanese Operation
US Aid to Russia
General Strategic Plan for 1943
Shipping for Operation in the Pacific
Proposed Mediterranean Army and Air Command Set-up
J.C.S. 57th Meeting (Casablanca) 41
Despatches from Eisenhower and Hurley
Antisubmarine Warfare
The Bomber Offensive from the United Kingdom
ANAKIM
Draft Telegram to M Stalin
Assault Date for Operation HUSKY
Routes through the Levant
Eviction of Axis from Tunisia
Training of French Pilots
J.C.S. 58th Meeting (Casablanca) 45
Draft Reply to M. Stalin
Operations in the Southwest Pacific
HUSKY
J.C.S. 59th Meeting (Casablanca) 47
Continental Operations in 1943
Shipping Capabilities for BOLERO Build-up
Operation HUSKY
Report to the President and Prime Minister
J.C.S. Meetings (Presided over by the President) 51
Minutes of Conference, 15 January 1943
Visit of General Nogues and the Sultan of Morocco With the President
The President’s Program
The British Strategic Concept
Antisubmarine Warfare
Operation RAVENOUS
Command Situation in Europe
Operations in Tunisia
*** Minutes of Conference, 16 January 1943 58
Strategic Concept for 1943
Operations in the Mediterranean and on the Continent
Position of Turkey
British Strategic Concept
Aircraft to China
President’s Suggestion of Proposed Plans
Aid to Russia
Information from Southern Europe
Equipment for the French
Operations in Tunisia
Supply Situation
French Shipping in Martinique
Operations in the Pacific
INDEX 67

TRIDENT Conference

Introduction: The TRIDENT conference, held in Washington, DC in May 1943, was the third of the Combined Commanders Conferences to be held between the United Kingdom and United States. Both President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill were in attendance. Notable decisions included setting a projected date for the invasion of the European continent (Spring 1944), an increase in cargo tonnage moved via air across the Eastern Himalaya’s (known as the “Hump”), and future strategy for the war against Japan.6 Also included here are the notes from the Algiers conference held at General Eisenhower’s villa in Algiers, and mostly focusing on Operation HUSKY (the invasion of Sicily) and the situation in the Mediterranean, as well as Operation SOAPSUDS (renamed TIDALWAVE – the bombing of the oil fields in Ploesti, Romania).7

Table of Contents: Papers and Minutes of Meetings

C.C.S. Page
215 Invasion of the European Continent from the United Kingdom in 1943-1944 1
216*
217 Plan for the Combined Bomber Offensive from the United Kingdom 5
218*
219 Conduct of the War in 1943-1944 25
220 Strategic Plan for the Defeat of Japan 31
221*
222*
223 Operations after HUSKY 37
224 Operations in the European Theater between HUSKY and ROUNDUP 45
225 Operations from India, 1943-1944 51
226 Use of Portuguese Atlantic Islands 57
226/2 Use of Portuguese Atlantic Islands
(Memorandum for the President and Prime Minister)
63
227 Relief and Supplies for Occupied and Liberated Territories 65
228*
229 Potentialities of Air Route from Assam to China 69
230*
231 Operations in Burma to Open and Secure an Overland Route to China 71
232/2 Agreed Essentials in the Conduct of the War 73
233/1 Agenda for the Remaining Conferences 77
234 Defeat of the Axis Powers in Europe
(Elimination of Italy First)
81
235 Defeat of Axis Powers in Europe (Concentration of Largest Possible Forces in U.K.) 103
236*
237/1 Resolutions by the Combined Chiefs of Staff (European Operations) 121
238 Operations in Burma 1943-44 125
239/1 Operations in the Pacific and Far East in 1943-44 127
240 Sonic Warfare 157
241/3 Anti-U-Boat Warfare (Suggested Basis for Discussion) 163
241/4 Anti-U-Boat Warfare 163
242/6 Final Report to the President and Prime Minister 167
243*
244/1 Implementation of Assumed Basic Undertakings and Specific
Operations for the Conduct of the War 1943-1944
183
245*
246 Movement of the “QUEENS” 229
247*
248/1 Provisions of New L.S.I. (L)’s 231
249 Code Names for Agreed Operations 235
250/1 Implementation of Decisions Reached at the TRIDENT Conference 237
251/1 Proposals for Improving Combined Planning 245

Table of Contents: Minutes

Page
1st Meeting The White House 251
Global Strategy
The Conduct of War
2nd Meeting The White House 263
India-Burma Theater
3rd Meeting The White House 277
The U-Boat war and the Use of Portuguese - Atlantic Islands
Post-Husky
4th Meeting The White House 283
Azores Islands
The Combined Bomber Offensive from the United Kingdom
Defeat of the Axis Powers in Europe
Burma-China Theater
Operations in the Pacific 1943-1944
Re-Arming of the French in North Africa
Bombing of Ploesti
5th Meeting The White House 295
Report to the President and Prime Minister
Rearmament of French Forces
Operations to Seize the Azores
Cross-Channel Operations
Operations in the Mediterranean to Eliminate Italy from the War
The Bombing of Ploesti
Operations in the Burma-China Theater
Equipment for Turkey
6th Meeting The White House 307
Employment of the Poles
Final Report to the President and Prime Minister
Communication of Certain Decisions to the Chinese
Official Statement for the Press
Visit of General Stilwell and General Chennault to the United Kingdom
Post-HUSKY Operations
Code Names for Future Operations
The PLOUGH Scheme
Consultations with the Russians
Adjournment of the Conference
C.C.S. 83rd Meeting 315
Conduct of the Conference
Global Strategy of the War
Conduct of the War in 1943-1944
Bombing of Ploesti
C.C.S. 84th Meeting 343
Global Strategy
Operations in Burma
C.C.S. 85th Meeting 363
Future Work of the Committee
Operations in Burma
Operations in Europe
Directive to Allied Authorities in the Far East
The Azores
C.C.S. 86th Meeting 375
Situation in China
Portuguese Islands
Agreed Essentials in the Conduct of the War
Agenda for the Remainder of the Conference
Operation HUSKY
Operation UPKEEP
C.C.S. 87th Meeting 387
Portuguese Islands
Future Work of the Committee
Policy for Coming Operations Regarding Propaganda and Subversive Activities
Defeat of the Axis Powers in Europe
Re-Arming of the French in North Africa
Plan for Combined Bomber Offensive from the United Kingdom
Bombing of Ploesti
Operation UPKEEP
C.C.S. 88th Meeting 403
Agreed Essentials in the Conduct of the War
C.C.S. 89th Meeting 411
Defeat of the Axis Powers in Europe
Operations from India
Provision of Transport Aircraft for HUSKY
C.C.S. 90th Meeting 415
Policy for Coming Operations Regarding Propaganda and Subversive Activities
Strategic Plan for the Defeat of Japan
Operations in Burma to Open and Secure an Overland Route to China
Potentialities of the Air Route from Assam to Burma
C.C.S. 91st Meeting 427
The Burma-China Theater
C.C.S. 92nd Meeting 429
Selection of Code Names
Military Supplies for Turkey
Operations in the Pacific and Far East in 1943-1944
C.C.S. 93rd Meeting 437
Anti U-Boat Warfare
Policy for Coming Operations Regarding Propaganda and Subversive Activities
Sonic Warfare
Movements of the “QUEENS”
C.C.S. 94th Meeting 445
Anti U-boat Warfare
Movements of the “QUEENS”
Policy for Coming Operations Regarding Propaganda and Subversive Activities
Implementation of Assumed Basic Undertakings and Specific Operations for the Conduct of the War in 1943-1944
Despatch of US Service and Engineer Troops to the United Kingdom
Operation BRISK
Third Soviet Protocol
C.C.S. 95th Meeting 455
Draft Report to President and Prime Minister
Directive on Organization and Operations of Military Government for “HUSKY”
Provision of New L.S.I.(L)’s
Requirements to Expand the Capacity of the Air Route to China
C.C.S. 96th Meeting 461
Final Report to President and Prime Minister
Implementation of Decisions Reached at the TRIDENT Conference
Suggested Statement to be Made to the Chinese
Proposals for Improving Combined Planning
Conclusion of the Conference

Algiers Conference: Minutes

Page
1st Algiers Meeting HOBGOBLIN 467
HUSKY
Post-HUSKY Operations
2nd Algiers Meeting Post-HUSKY Operations 477
Situation in the Mediterranean
3rd Algiers Meeting Operation SOAPSUDS 497
Marshalling Yards at Rome
Operation HUSKY
Post-HUSKY
(Conclusion of the Conference)
INDEX 507

QUADRANT

Introduction: The QUADRANT conference was held 14-23 August 1943 in Quebec City, Quebec at Chateau Frontenac and the Citadel of Quebec. This conference was attended both by Prime Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt. Chief areas of concern at this conference were Operation OVERLORD and the war against Japan.8 While Churchill advocated attacking Germany by moving forward with the invasion of Italy, senior United States military staff were concerned such action would detract from preparations for operation OVERLORD.9 A compromise was reached in which the war on the Italian front would be maintained so long as preparations for OVERLORD would continue as scheduled. Also of note is the discussion of HABBUKUK’s, a plan to create an aircraft carrier constructed out of wood and ice, a material known as Pykrete. At one point during the conference Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten shot a sample of this material with his service revolver to prove the material’s strength.10 With preparations for OVERLORD as the center of attention, the Pacific theater of operations was of lesser importance to conference attendees. Nevertheless, a lively, if inconclusive debate surrounded both the allocation of naval assets to the Pacific theater and the war in Southeast Asia.11 In addition, the Combined Chiefs of Staff settled on a milestone for defeating Japan within 12 months of Germany’s surrender.12

Table of Contents: Papers

C.C.S. Page
222/4 Future Convoy Arrangements in the Atlantic 1
246/1 Movement of the “QUEENS” 5
252/2 TIDALWAVE Air Force 7
270/5 Land Airport Facilities in the Azores
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
11
272/1 Logistic Organization to Improve Mobility of Anti-Submarine Squadrons 17
286/2 Formation by US Assault Forces for Operation OVERLORD
(Memorandum by the US Chiefs of Staff)
29
286/3 Formation of US Assault Forces for Operations OVERLORD
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
25
288/3 QUADRANT Conference Agenda 31
300 Estimate of the Enemy Situation, Pacific-Far East Area 1943-1944 35
301/1 Estimate of the Enemy Situation, European-Mediterranean Area 1943-1944 45
301/3 Specific Operations in the Pacific and Far East 1943-1944 63
303 Strategic Concept for the Defeat of the Axis in Europe
(Memorandum by the US Chiefs of Staff)
71
303/1 Strategic Concept for the Defeat of the Axis in Europe 85
303/3 Strategic Concept for the Defeat of the Axis in Europe 87
304 Operation OVERLORD - Outline Plan 91
305 Effect of Indian Floods on Burma Campaign
(Message from General Auchinlech)
107
305/1 Effect of Indian Floods on Burma Campaign
(Report of ad hoc committee)
113
306 Rome an Open City 115
307 Artificial Harbors for Combined Operations 117
308/3 Southeast Asia Command 123
309 POINTBLANK 129
310 Propaganda Committee 137
311 Italian Peace Feelers 141
312 Pipeline from India to China
(Note by the US Chiefs of Staff)
145
312/1 Pipeline from India to China
(Memorandum from ad hoc committee)
151
313 Appreciation and Plan for the Defeat of Japan 153
313/1 Appreciation and Plan for the Defeat of Japan
(Memorandum from the US Chiefs of Staff)
171
314 Allocation of Landing Craft (Operation OVERLORD – Vehicle Lift)
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
173
314/1 Allocation of Landing Ships and Craft - American Production
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
181
314/2 Allocation of Landing Ships and Craft - American Production
(Memorandum by the US Chiefs of Staff)
181
314/3 Allocation of Landing Craft (Operation OVERLORD – Vehicle Lift)
(Memorandum by the US Chiefs of Staff)
183
315 HABBAKUKS
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
185
315/2 HABBAKUKS
(Resolutions of the Combined Chiefs of Staff)
199
316 The PLOUGH Force 201
317 Equipping Allies, Liberated Forces and Friendly Neutrals
(Study by the US Staff Planners)
205
317/1 Equipping Allies, Liberated Forces and Friendly Neutrals
(Memorandum by the US Chiefs of Staff)
217
317/2 Equipping Allies, Liberated Forces and Friendly Neutrals
(Note by the Secretaries)
219
318/1 Sardinia, Fifth Column Activities 223
319 Progress Report to the President and Prime Minister
(Pertaining Principally to the European Theater)
225
319/2 Progress Report to the President and Prime Minister
(Defeat of Japan)
233
320 RANKIN 265
321 Policy Towards Spain 277
322 Policy Towards Turkey 283
323 Air Plan for the Defeat of Japan 287
324/1 Rehabilitation of Occupied and Liberated Territories 301
325 Supply Routes in Northeast India 305
326 Amphibians for OVERLORD 313
327 Operations from India 317
328/1 Directive to General Eisenhower 321
329/2 Implementation of Assumed Basic Undertakings and Specific Operations for the Conduct of the War, 1943-1944. 325
M-128 Messages to Marshal Stalin and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek at the Conclusion of QUADRANT 387

Table of Contents: Minutes

Page
Meeting at the Citadel 395
     Review of Progress Report (European Theater)
     Occupation of the Azores
     The War Against Japan
2nd Meeting at the Citadel 405
     Facilities in the Azore Islands
     Emergency Operations to Enter the Continent
     Operation OVERLORD
     Operations in Italy and Southern France
     The War Against Japan
     Operations in the India-Burma-China Theater
     Southeast Asia Command
     Spain
     Turkey
     Meeting of Dr Soong with the Combined Chiefs of Staff
C.C.S. 106th Meeting 415
     Conduct of the Conference
     Confirmation of Sections I, II, and III, C.C.S. 242/6
     Agenda
     The European Theater
C.C.S. 107th Meeting 423
     The War Against Japan
C.C.S. 108th Meeting 431
     Rome – an Open City
     Strategic Concept for the Defeat of the Axis in Europe
     Operation OVERLORD – Outline Plan
     “Synthetic” Harbors
     Air and Naval Command – Operation OVERLORD
C.C.S. 109th Meeting 439
     Strategic Concept for the Defeat of the Axis in Europe
     POINTBLANK
C.C.S. 110th Meeting 445
     Strategic Concept for the Defeat of the Axis in Europe
     Italian Peace Feelers
     Specific Operations in the Pacific and Far East 1943-1944
     Operations Against Japan from of 1943-1944
C.C.S. 111th Meeting 451
     Italian Peace Feelers
     Italian Peace Feelers
     Operations Against Japan from India, 1943-1944
     Production of Landing Craft
     Southeast Asia Command
     Deception Plan for the War Against Japan
     The U-Boat War
     Operation ALACRITY
C.C.S. 112th Meeting 459
     Progress Report to the President and Prime Minister
     HABBAKUKS
     Landing Craft
     Use of PLOUGH Force
     Equipping Allies, Liberated Forces and Friendly Neutrals
     Special Operations in Sardinia
C.C.S. 113th Meeting 465
     Naval and Air Commanders for Operation OVERLORD
     Equipping Allies, Liberated Forces and Friendly Neutrals
     Sardinia – Fifth Column Activities
     Appreciation and Plan for the Defeat of Japan
     Immediate Operations in the Mediterranean
     Military Considerations in Relation to Spain
     Military Considerations in Relation to Turkey
     Military Considerations in Relation to Russia
     “Synthetic” Harbors
C.C.S. 114th Meeting 475
     Progress Report to the President and Prime Minister
     Southeast Asia Command
     Specific Operations in the Pacific and Far East, 1943-1944
     Supply Routes in Northeast India
     Air Plan for the Defeat of Japan
C.C.S. 115th Meeting 479
     Draft Final Report to the President and Prime Minister
     Japanese Treatment of Prisoners
     Pipeline from India to China
     Operations from India
     Movement of the “QUEENS”
     Amphibians for OVERLORD
     Equipping Allies, Liberated Forces and Friendly Neutrals
     Operation RANKIN
     Rehabilitation of Occupied and Liberated Territories
     Future Convoy Arrangements in the Atlantic
     Meeting with Major General Rooks and Major General Whiteley
     Future Meetings
C.C.S 116th Meeting 485
     Final Report to the President and Prime Minister
     Mediterranean Operations
     Future Convoy Arrangements in the Atlantic
     Meeting with Dr. T.V. Soong
     Relation of Resources to Plans
     Southeast Asia Command
     Propaganda Committee
     Message to Stalin
     Concluding Remarks
INDEX 497

SEXTANT Conference

Introduction: The SEXTANT Conference was held 23 November – 6 December 1943 in Cairo, Egypt at Villa Kirk and was attended by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek. The EUREKA Conference was also held from 28-30 November 1943 in Tehran, Iran, and was attended by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Marshal Stalin. Notes from both of these conferences are contained in the volumes referenced below.

Discussions at SEXTANT in part surrounded the Pacific theater of operations resulting in the Cairo Declaration stating that Japan’s territories acquired post WWI should be stripped, Chinese territories should be returned, and Korea liberated. 13 Discussions surrounding Operation OVERLORD and a follow-on invasion of Southern France known as Operation ANVIL (later renamed DRAGOON) were also continued at this conference.

Discussions at EUREKA involved an overall review of the war and Soviet strategic concepts.14 Military conclusions of the conference included: 1. Support for Yugoslav partisans, 2. A desire for Turkey to enter the war on the side of the allies, 3. Soviet declaration of war against Bulgaria should Turkey be at war with Bulgaria as a result of her entrance into the war on the side of the allies, 4. Reaffirmation of May 1944 date for OVERLORD and coinciding Soviet offensive on Eastern front, 5. Continued US, United Kingdom, and Soviet communications regarding OVERLORD and a plan to mislead German forces as to the allied plans to invade the European continent.15

Table of Contents: Papers

C.C.S. Page
270/13 Use of Facilities in the Azores by US Aircraft
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
1
270/14 Development of Facilities in the Azores
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
3
300/2 Estimate of Enemy Situation 1944 –Pacific-Far East
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
5
300/3 Estimate of Enemy Situation 1944 – Europe
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
21
308/7 Boundaries of the Southeast Asia Command
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
41
320/4 Operation RANKIN
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
45
379/7 Retention of LST’s in the Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the Commander in Chief, Allied Force Headquarters)
47
380/2 Basic Policies for the Next United States – British Staff Conference
(Note by the Secretaries)
49
387 Mediterranean Command Arrangements
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
53
387/3 Directives for Unification of Command in the Mediterranean
(Directive by the Combined Chiefs of Staff)
57
390/1 Future Operations in the Southeast Asia Command
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
63
397 Specific Operations for the Defeat of Japan, 1944
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
65
398 Specific Operations for the Defeat of Germany and Her Satellites, 1943-1944
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
73
399 Report on Recent and Prospective Developments in Anti-Submarine Operations Since QUADRANT
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
79
399/1 Progress Report on the U-Boat War – September-October 1943
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
85
400 Integrated Command of US Strategic Air Forces in the European Mediterranean Area
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
93
400/1 Control of Strategic Air Forces in Northwest Europe and the Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
100
400/2 Control of Strategic Air Forces in Northwest Europe and in the Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
105
401 V.L.R. (Very Long Range) Airfields (B-29) in the China-Burma-India Area
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
109
401/1 V.L.R. Airfields (B-29) in the China-Burma-India Area
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
112
401/2 V.L.R. Airfields (B-29) in the China-Burma-India Area
(Note by the Secretaries)
113
403 Progress Report, Combined Bomber Offensive
(Report by the Chief of the Air Staff and the Commanding General, US Eighth Air Force)
115
403/1 Progress Report, Combined Bomber Offensive
(Note by the Chief of the Air Staff)
157
404 Agenda for SEXTANT
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
205
404/1 SEXTANT Agenda
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
208
405 Role of China in the Defeat of Japan
(Memorandum by Lt. General Stilwell, USA)
211
406 Combined Chiefs of Staff – United Chiefs of Staff
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
215
406/1 Combined Chiefs of Staff – United Chiefs of Staff
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
217
407 Collaboration with the USSR
(Memorandum by the Combined Chiefs of Staff)
219
407/1 Collaboration with the USSR
(Note by the Secretaries)
223
408 Command of British and US Forces Operating against Germany
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
225
408/1 Command of British and US Forces Operating against Germany
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
230
409 OVERLORD and the Mediterranean
(Note by the British Chiefs of Staff)
233
410 The Effect of Weather on Operation OVERLORD
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
237
411/2 Operations in the Southeast Asia Command
(Note by the Secretaries)
241
411/5 Operations in the Southeast Asia Command
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
244
413 French Participation in Cairo Conference
(Memorandum by the Commander in Chief, Allied Force Headquarters)
247
413/2 French Participation in Cairo Conference
(Note by the Secretaries)
249
415/3 The Provision of Merchant Shipping for the British Fleet for the War against Japan
(Memorandum by the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and the First Sea Lord)
251
417 Over-All Plan for the Defeat of Japan
(Report by the Combined Staff Planners)
253
418/1 Entry of Turkey into the War
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
269
420 General Progress Report on Recent Operations and Future Plans in the Pacific
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
273
423/2 Draft Agreement of the Combined Chiefs of Staff
(Report by the Combined Chiefs of Staff)
281
424 Amphibious Operation Against the South of France
(Report by the Combined Staff Planners in Collaboration With the Combined Administrative Command
285
425 Directive for Intensification of Support of Partisan Forces in Yugoslavia
(Report by Combined Staff Planners)
293
426/1 Report to the President and Prime Minister
(Note by the Combined Chiefs of Staff)
297
427 Amphibious Operations in Southeast Asia Alternative to BUCCANEE
(Report by Combined Staff Planners)
307
427/1 Amphibious Operations in Southeast Asia Alternative to BUCCANEER
(Message from Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia Command)
311
428 Relation of Available Resource to Agreed Operations
(Report by the Combined Administrative Committee and Shipping and Logistics Experts)
315
M-165 Military Conclusions of the EUREKA Conference
(Note by the Secretaries)
375

Table of Contents: Minutes

Meeting Page
1st Plenary Meeting 377
      Future Operations in Southeast Asia
2nd Plenary Meeting 383
     Operations in Europe and the Mediterranean
     Aid to the Balkan Patriots
     Southeast Asia Theater
     OVERLORD
3rd Plenary Meeting 389
     OVERLORD and ANVIL
     Operation BUCCANEER
     Entry of Turkey into the War
4th Plenary Meeting 397
     Operations in Southeast Asia Command
     Operations OVERLORD and ANVIL
5th Plenary Meeting 405
     Report to the President in Prime Minister
     Messages to Marshal Stalin and Generalissimo Chiang Kai Shek
C.C.S. 127th Meeting 409
     Conduct of Conference
     Proposed SEXTANT Agenda
     EUREKA
     Relations Between Combined Chiefs of Staff and the Representatives of the USSR and China
     Reaffirmation of Over-All Strategic Concept and Basic Undertakings
C.C.S. 128th Meeting 413
     The Role of China in the Defeat of Japan
     Estimate of Enemy Situation, 1944 – Pacific – Far East
     Future Operations in the Southeast Asia Command
     Combined Chiefs of Staff – United Chiefs of Staff
     The Present Situation in the Southeast Asia Command
C.C.S. 129th Meeting 423
     Thanksgiving day
     Combined Chiefs of Staff – United Chiefs of Staff
     Agenda for EUREKA
     Operations in Southeast Asia Command
     Boundaries of the Southeast Asia Command
     Discussions with Representatives of Chinese Government on Operations in Southeast Asia Command
C.C.S. 130th Meeting 437
     Operations in Southeast Asia Command
     Over-All Plan for the Defeat of Japan
     OVERLORD and the Mediterranean
C.C.S. 131st Meeting 441
     Operations in the Southeast Asia Command Reports from Commanders in Chief
       (1) Report by Commander in Chief, AFHQ
       (2) Report by Commanders in Chief Middle East
     OVERLORD and the Mediterranean
     Collaboration with the USSR
C.C.S. 132nd Meeting (Tehran) 451
     OVERLORD and the Mediterranean
C.C.S. 133rd Meeting 463
     Implications of Military conclusions of the EUREKA Conference
       (1) Partisans
       (2) Turkey
       (3) Russian Declaration of War on Bulgaria
       (4) OVERLORD and Operations Against the South of France
       (5) Coordination with the Russian Staff
     Draft Agena for the Remainder of SEXTANT Conference
     Entry of Turkey into the War
     Progress Reports
     The Combined Bomber Offensive
C.C.S. 134th Meeting 471
     Integrated Command of US Strategic Air Forces in the European
     Mediterranean Area
     Mediterranean Command Arrangements
     Over-All Plan for the Defeat of Japan
     Operation RANKIN
     Review of Conditions in Europe
     Occupation of Europe
     Results of the Plenary Session Held at 1100, 3 December 1943
C.C.S. 135th Meeting 481
     Draft Agreement by the Combined Chiefs of Staff
     Integrated Command of US Strategic Air Forces in the European Mediterranean Area
     Directive for Unification of the Command in the Mediterranean
     Amphibious Operation Against the South of France
     Directive for Intensification of Support of Partisan Forces in Yugoslavia
C.C.S. 136th Meeting 489
     Operations in the Southeast Asia Command
     Operation ANVIL
     Directions to Combined Staff Planners and the US and British Shipping Authorities
     Future Work
     Message for Admiral Mountbatten from the Combined Chiefs of Staff
C.C.S. 137th Meeting 497
     Amphibious Operations in Southeast Asia Command Alternative to BUCCANEER
     Control of Strategic Air Forces in N.W. Europe and in the Mediterranean
     Over-All Plan for the Defeat of Japan
     Specific Operations for the Defeat of Japan, 1944
     Operations in the Southeast Asia Command
     Draft Report to the President and Prime Minister
     Relation of Resources to Plans
     Messages to Marshal Stalin and the Generalissimo
     Future Business
C.C.S. 138th Meeting 503
     Integrated Command of US Strategic Air Forces in the European-Mediterranean Area
     Amphibious Operations in Southeast Asia Alternative to BUCCANEER
     Provision of Merchant Shipping Types for the War Against Japan
     Relation of Available Resources to the Operations Decided upon
     Development of Facilities in the Azores
     New Command Arrangements
     Operations in Southeast Asia Command
     Employment of French Forces
     Final Remarks
1st EUREKA Plenary Session 513
     General Survey of the War
     Soviet Strategic Concept of the War in Europe
     Entry of Turkey into the War
EUREKA Military Conference 527
     Conduct of War in Europe and the Mediterranean
     Air War in Europe
     Operation OVERLORD
2nd EUREKA Plenary Session 543
     Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force
     Operations OVERLORD and ANVIL
     Aid to the Balkan Partisans
     Entry of Turkey into the War
     Use of French Troops in Invasion of France
     3rd EUREKA Plenary Session 557
     Coordination of Allied Operations
     Deception Plans for Operation OVERLORD
INDEX 563

OCTAGON Conference

Introduction: The OCTAGON conference was held 12-16 September 1944 in at the Citadel in Quebec City, Quebec. Discussions at this conference surrounded the possibility of German surrender, the deindustrialization of Germany (known as the Morgenthau Plan) and post war German zones of occupation.16 The situation in the Pacific theater of operations and plans for bringing the war to a successful conclusion there. One item of note is the discussion of MULBERRY harbors, artificial pier sections towed across the channel to create ports for allied shipping after D-Day. Also included here are the notes of the Combined Chiefs of Staff meetings in London 10-15 June 1944.

Table of Contents: Messages

Page
SCAF 78 Progress of Operations Report, Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force 3
FACS 78 Combined Chiefs of Staff reply SCAF 78 9
MEDCOS 181 Progress of Operations Report, Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean 11
NAF 774 Progress of Operations Report, Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean 17
OCTAGON IN-9 Progress of Operations Report, Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia 21
SCAF 79 Publicity on MULBERRY 27
FACS 79 Publicity on MULBERRY 29

Table of Contents: Papers

C.C.S. Page
320/27 Allocation of Zones of Occupation in Germany
(Memorandum by the Combined Chiefs of Staff)
31
417/8 Operations for the Defeat of Japan 1944-45
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
33
417/9 Over-all Objective in the War against Japan
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
37
452/26 British Participation in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
39
452/27 British Participation in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
41
452/29 Allocation of Two Remaining Combat Cargo Groups and the Two Remaining Air Commando Groups
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
43
452/31 Directive to Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia Command
(Note by the Secretaries)
45
520/6 Control of Strategic Bomber Forces in Europe Following the Establishment of Allied Forces on the Continent
(Note by the Secretaries)
49
618/3 Machinery for Coordination of United States-Soviet-British Military Effort
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
53
618/4 Machinery for Coordination of United States-Soviet-British Military Effort
(Note by the Secretaries)
56
643/1 Estimate of the Enemy Situation, Pacific-Far East (as of 8 September 1944)
(Report by the Combined Intelligence Committee)
59
654/7 Program for the OCTAGON Conference
(Note by the Secretaries)
77
654/8 Basic Policies for the OCTAGON Conference
(Note by the Secretaries)
79
660/1 Prospects of a German Collapse or Surrender (as of 8 September 1944)
(Report by the Combined Intelligence Committee)
81
674 Assumption of Command of DRAGOON Forces by Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force
(Note by the Secretaries)
91
674/1 Assumption of Command of DRAGOON Forces by Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
95
675 Priorities for Personnel Shipping Subsequent to Termination of Hostilities in Europe
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
97
675/1 A Combined Memorandum on Troop Movements, Covering the Period October 1944 to March 1945
(Report by US and British Military Services)
99
675/2 Combined Personnel Movement Problem Arising During the First Year After the Defeat of Germany
(Memorandum by US Transportation, British Movement and Combined Shipping Authorities)
103
676 General Progress Report on Recent Operations in the Pacific
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
109
677 Future Operations in the Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
117
677/1 Future Operations in the Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
119
678 Planning Date for the End of the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
123
678/1 Planning Date for the End of the War Against Japan
(Note by the Secretaries)
125
679 Redeployment of Forces after the End of the War in Europe
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
127
680/2 Report to the President and Prime Minister
(Note by the Secretaries)
129
681/2 Communication of the Results of OCTAGON Conference to Marshal Stalin and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek
(Note by the Secretaries)
141
682 Operation HIGHBALL
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
147
684 RANKIN Planning in the Mediterranean Theater
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
149
687 Release of Amphibious Craft from OVERLORD to Other Theaters
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
153

London Conference 1944
Table of Contents: Minutes of Meetings

Page
C.C.S. 162d Meeting (London) 155
     Progress of Operation NEPTUNE
     Campaign in Italy
C.C.S. 163d Meeting (Middlesex) 159
     Operations in Europe
     Operations in the Pacific and Far East
     Record of Discussion
C.C.S. 164th Meeting (London) 165
     Operations to Assist OVERLORD
     Operations
C.C.S. 165th Meeting (London) 177
     Operations
     War in the Pacific
C.C.S. 166th Meeting (London) 181
     Progress of OVERLORD
     French Resistance Groups
     War in the Pacific
     Operations in Southeast Asia Command
     Control of the United States Twentieth Air Force

OCTAGON Conference
Table of Contents: Minutes of Meetings

Page
C.C.S. 172d Meeting 189
     Chairmanship of the Combined Chiefs of Staff
     Personnel Shipping
     Agenda and Hour of Meeting
     Situation Report from SCAEF
     Situation Report from the Mediterranean
     Combined Intelligence Report on the Situation in Europe
     Command of the DRAGOON Forces
     Machinery for Coordination of United States-Soviet-British Military Effort
     Zones of Occupation in Germany
     Control of Strategic Bomber Forces in Europe
C.C.S. 173d Meeting 201
     Approval of the Minutes of the 172d Meeting of the Combined Chiefs of Staff
     Control of the Strategic Bomber Forces in Europe
     Machinery for Coordination of United States-Soviet-British Military Effort
     Report on Enemy Situation in the Pacific
     General Progress Report on Recent Operations in the Pacific
     Strategy for the Defeat of Japan
     Basic Policies for the OCTAGON Conference
     Future Operations in the Mediterranean
     Next Meeting, Combined Chiefs of Staff
C.C.S. 174th Meeting 207
     Approval of the Minutes of the 173d Meeting of the Combined Chiefs of Staff
     Control of the Strategic Bomber Forces in Europe
     British Participation in the Pacific
     Future Operations in Southeast Asia
     Planning Date for the End of the War Against Japan
     Operations of the Twentieth Air Force
     Communications to Marshal Stalin and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek
     Next Meeting, Combined Chiefs of Staff
C.C.S. 175th Meeting 223
     Approval of the Minutes of the 174th Meeting of the Combined Chiefs of Staff
     Final Report to the President and Prime Minister
     Communication of the Results of OCTAGON
     Redeployment of Forces after the End of the War in Europe
     Combined Personnel Movement Problem Arising the First Year after the Defeat of Germany
     Operation HIGHBALL
     Release to the Press of Information on MULBERRY
     Possible Statement to be made to the Press by the President and Prime Minister
     Progress of the Campaign in the Pacific
     Hour of Next Meeting
C.C.S. 176th Meeting 231
     Approval of the Minutes of the 175th Meeting of the Combined Chiefs of Staff
     RANKIN Planning in the Mediterranean Theater
     RANKIN Planning in the Mediterranean Theater
     Release of Amphibious Craft from OVERLORD to other Theaters
     Allocation of Zones of Occupation in Germany
     Situation in China
     Communiqué for Release to the Press
     Concluding Remarks

Table of Contents: Minutes of OCTAGON Plenary Meetings

Page
First Plenary Meeting 235
     Review of the Strategic Situation of the United Nations
       a. DRAGOON
       b. Campaign in Italy
       c. Campaign in Burma
     British Participation in the War Against Japan
     Treatment of Germany
Second Plenary Meeting 243
     Report to the President and Prime Minister
       a. Operations in Italy
       b. Over-all Objective for the War against Japan
       c. Redeployment of Forces after the End of the War in Europe
       d. Allocation of Zones of Occupation in Germany
       e. Directive to Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia
     Location of the Central Tripartite Control Commission in Germany
     Communication of the Results of OCTAGON Conference to Marshal Stalin and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek
     Release of Information on MULBERRY
     OCTAGON Communiqué
INDEX

ARGONAUT Conference

Introduction: The ARGONAUT Conference was held between 30 January and 9 February in Malta and Yalta and included the 182-188th meetings of the C.C.S. as well as Plenary meetings held in Yalta, Ukraine between President Roosevelt (US), Prime Minister Churchill (UK) and Marshal Stalin (USSR). Items of discussion at these plenary meetings included a discussion of zones of occupation in post-war Germany (which would include France), Soviet entry into the war against Japan, and the post war governing of Eastern European nations. It was agreed that Eastern European Nations bordering the USSR would be friendly to the Soviet government but that the USSR would allow free elections in all liberated nations. 17

Table of Contents: Papers

C.C.S. Page
320/35 Allocation of Zones of Occupation in Germany
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
1
320/37 Allocation of Zones of Occupation in Germany
(Note by the Secretaries)
9
417/11 Operations for the Defeat of Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
11
452/37 Operations in Southeast Asia Command
(Note by the Secretaries)
15
452/38 Operations in Southeast Asia Command
(Note by the Secretaries)
18
625/14 Levels of Supply of All Petroleum Products in All Theaters
(Report by a Combined ad hoc Committee)
21
660/3 Estimate of the Enemy Situation – Europe (as of 23 January 1945)
(Report by the Combined Intelligence Committee)
27
746/8 Shipping Agreement
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
45
746/10 Over-All Review of Cargo Shipping
(Report by the Combined Military Transportation Committee and the Combined Shipping Adjustment Board)
54
746/11 Over-All Review of Cargo and Troop Shipping Position for the Reminder of 1945
(Report by the Combined Military Transportation Committee and the Combined Shipping Adjustment Board)
57
747/7 ARGONAUT Allocation of Resources between India-Burma and China Theaters
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
101
755/3 Provision of LVT’s for the Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
103
755/4 Provision of LVT’s for the Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
105
761/3 SCAEF Report on Strategy in Northwest Europe
(Note by the Secretaries)
107
761/6 Strategy in Northwest Europe
(Note by the Secretaries)
122
765/1 Subjects for Consideration at the Next US-British-USSR Staff Conference
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
125
765/4 Subjects for Consideration at the Next US-British-USSR Staff Conference
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
128
765/8 Agenda for Next US-British Staff Conference
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
129
768/1 ARGONAUT Equipment for Allied and Liberated Forces
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
131
768/2 Equipment for Allied and Liberated Forces
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
134
772 Planning date for the End of the War with Germany
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
135
773/2 Transfer of Tactical Air Forces from SACMED (Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean) to SCAEF
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
139
773/3 Operations in the Mediterranean
(Note by the Secretaries)
141
774/1 U-Boat Threat During 1945
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
145
774/3 U-Boat Threat During 1945
(Note by the Secretaries)
152
775 Basic Undertakings in Support of Over-All Strategic Concept
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
155
776/3 Report to the President and Prime Minister
(Note by the Secretaries)
157
777/2 Reciprocal Agreement on Prisoners of War
(Note by the Secretaries)
175
778/1 Liaison with the Soviet High Command over Anglo American Strategic Bombing in Eastern Germany
(Note by the Secretaries)
181

Table of Contents: Messages

Page
COSSEA 200 Directive to Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia 19
FAN 477 Bombline in Eastern Europe and the Balkan Area between the Allied and Soviet Armies 185
FAN 501 Directive to the Supreme Allied Commander Mediterranean 142
NAF 841 Equipping Additional Greek Forces 188
SCAF 179 Development of Operations in Northwest Europe 109
SCAF 180 Appreciation and Plan of Operations in Northwest Europe 116
SCAF 194 Revised Paragraphs (A) and (B) to Plan of Operations in Northwest Europe 123
S-77211 General Eisenhower’s Confirmation and Amplification of SCAF 194 124

ARGONAUT Conference
Table of Contents: Minutes of Meetings

Page
C.C.S. 182d Meeting (Malta) 191
     Procedure for the Conference
     Agenda for the Conference
     German Flying Bomb and Rocket Attacks
     Strategy in Northwest Europe
     Coordination of Operations with the Russians
     The Combined Bomber Offensive
     Planning Date for the End of the War with Germany
     Planning Date for the End of the War with Japan
     The U-Boat Threat
C.C.S. 183d Meeting (Malta) 205
     Operations in the Mediterranean
     Strategy in Northwest Europe
     Planning Date for the End of the War with Germany
     Operations in Southeast Asia Command
     Allocation of Resources between the India-Burma and China Theaters
     Estimate of the Enemy Situation – Europe
     Bombing of U-Boat Assembly Yards and Operating Bases

Table of Contents: Minutes of ARGONAUT Tripartite Military Meetings

Page
First Tripartite Military Meeting (Yalta) 251
     Coordination of Offensive Operations
       European Theater
       Mediterranean Theater
     Movement of German Forces from Norway
     Use of Artillery and Air in Future Operations
     Liaison Arrangements
     Naval Operations in Support of the Land Offensive
     Date of the End of the War with Germany
     Future Business
Second Tripartite Military Meeting (Yalta) 267
     Bombline and Liaison Arrangements
     Coordination of Offensive Operations
     Exchange of Information with Regard to River Crossing Technique and Equipment
     Bases for US Strategic Bomber Forces in the Vienna-Budapest Area
     Provision of Soviet Airfields for Damaged British Night Bombers
     Enemy Intelligence
     Pacific Operations
     V.L.R. Bomber Operations against Japan
     Operations in Burma and China
     Future Business

Table of Contents: Minutes of ARGONAUT Plenary Meetings

Page
First Plenary Meeting USA.-Great Britain (Malta) 287
     Report to the President and Prime Minister
       Basic Undertakings
       The U-Boat War
       Operations in Northwest Europe
       Strategy in the Mediterranean
       The War Against Japan
Second Plenary Meeting USA.-Great Britain (Yalta) 295
     Report to the President and Prime Minister
     Entry of Russia in the War Against Japan
     Continuation of the Combined Chiefs of Staff Organization After the War
Tripartite Plenary Meeting (Yalta) 299
     Situation on the Eastern Front
       Probable Enemy Action
       Shifting of Enemy Troops
       Russian Intentions
     Operations on the Western Front
     Bomber Offensive
     Situation in Italy
     Submarine Warfare
     Coordination of Winter Offensives
INDEX 311

TERMINAL Conference

Introduction: The TERMINAL Conference was held from 16-26 July 1945, in the Babelsburg district of Potsdam, Germany. There was one Plenary meeting attended by President Truman and Prime Minister Churchill. A tripartite meeting was held between American, United Kingdom, and Soviet military leaders on 24 July 1945.18 The focus of this conference was on the war with Japan and post-war zones of occupation in Germany. 19

Table of Contents: July 1945, Papers

C.C.S. Page
462/25 Staff Conversations with Portugal
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
1
462/26 Staff Conversations with Portugal
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
5
643/3 Estimate of the Enemy Situation (as of 6 July 1945)
(Report by the Combined Intelligence Committee)
7
679/6 Disposition of Captured German Passenger Ships
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
45
679/7 British Troopship Employment in US Trans-Atlantic Programs, First Half of 1946
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
49
679/8 Employment of Captured Enemy Ocean-Going Passenger Shipping and British Troopship Employment in US Trans-Atlantic Programs in the First Half of 1946
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
51
679/9 Employment of Captured Enemy Ocean-Going Passenger Shipping and British Troopship Employment in US Trans-Atlantic Programs in the First Half of 1946
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
53
706/11 Disposal of Enemy War Material in Germany and Austria
(Report by the Combined Administrative Committee)
55
706/14 TERMINAL Disposal of Enemy War Material in Germany and Austria
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
63
842 French and Dutch Participation in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
67
842/1 French and Dutch Participation in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
71
842/2 French and Dutch Participation in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
73
866 Future of Allied Force Headquarters, Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
75
866/1 Future of Allied Force Headquarters, Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
77
866/2 Future of Allied Force Headquarters, Mediterranean
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
79
877 Basic Objectives, Strategies, and Policies
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
81
877/1 Basic Objectives, Strategies, and Policies
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
85
877/2 Basic Objectives, Strategies, and Policies
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
87
877/4 Basic Objectives, Strategies, and Policies
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
89
877/5 Basic Objectives, Strategies, and Policies
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
95
880 Agenda for the Next United States-British Staff Conference
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
101
880/1 Agenda for the Next United States-British Staff Conference
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
105
880/2 Agenda for Military Staff Conferences
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
107
880/3 Size of Military Staffs for TERMINAL
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
113
880/4 Development of Operations in the Pacific
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
117
880/5 Agenda for Military Staff Conferences
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
109
880/6 Size of Military Staffs for TERMINAL
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
115
880/7 Agenda for the Forthcoming Conferences
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
111
880/8 Planning Date for the End of Organized Resistance by Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
121
880/9 Program and Procedure for the Conference
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
123
880/10 Program and Procedure for the Conference
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
127
884 Information for the Russians Concerning the Japanese War
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
129
884/1 Information for the Russians Concerning the Japanese War
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
131
884/2 Information for the Russians Concerning the Japanese War
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
133
889 British Contribution to the Final Phase of the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
135
889/1 British Participation in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
139
889/2 British Participation in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
141
889/3 British Participation in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
145
890 Control and Command in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the Representatives of the British Chiefs of Staff)
147
890/1 Control and Command in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
153
890/2 Control and Command in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
157
890/3 Command in Indo-China
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
159
891 Combined Chiefs of Staff Machinery After the War with Japan
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
161
891/1 Combined Chiefs of Staff Machinery After the War with Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
165
892 Progress Report on Operations in the Southeast Asia Command
(Report by the Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia)
167
892/2 Directive to the Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia
(Note by the Secretaries)
175
893 General Progress Report on Recent Operations in the Pacific
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
181
893/1 Progress Report on Operations in China, April 1944 through June 1945
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
191
894 Report on Army Air Operations in the War Against Japan
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
205
895 Participation of Two French Colonial Infantry Divisions in Far Eastern Operations
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
217
895/1 Participation of Two French Colonial Infantry Divisions in Far Eastern Operations
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
223
895/2 Participation of Two French Colonial Infantry Divisions in Far Eastern Operations
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
225
896 Internationalization of the Danube River
(Memorandum by the United States Chiefs of Staff)
227
896/1 Internationalization of the Danube River
(Memorandum by the British Chiefs of Staff)
233
897 Provision of Personnel Shipping for the Requirements of Allied Governments
(Report by the Combined Military Transportation Committee in consultation with the Combined Shipping Adjustment Board)
235
897/1 Provision of Personnel Shipping for the Requirements of Allied Governments
(Note by the Secretaries)
243
900/3 Report to the President and Prime Minister
(Note by the Secretaries)
247

TERMINAL Conference
Table of Contents: Minutes of Meetings

Page
C.C.S. 193d Meeting 269
     Program and Procedure for the Conference
     Estimate of the Enemy Situation
     Progress Reports on Operations in the Pacific and Southeast Asia Command
     Development of Operations in the Pacific
     Report on Army Air Operations in the War Against Japan
C.C.S. 194th Meeting 273
     British Participation in the War Against Japan
C.C.S. 195th Meeting 279
     French and Dutch Participation in the War Against Japan
     Staff Conversations with Portugal
     Southeast Asia and Southwest Pacific Area
     Control and Command in the War Against Japan
C.C.S. 196th Meeting 285
     Participation of Two French Colonial Infantry Divisions in Far Eastern Operations
     Combined Chiefs of Staff Machinery After the War with Japan
     Information for the Russians Concerning the Japanese War
     Planning Date for the End of Organized Resistance by Japan
     Appointment of Colonel Douglas to Allied Commission in Italy
C.C.S. 197th Meeting 291
     Directive to the Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia
     Disposal of Enemy War Materiel in Germany and Austria
C.C.S. 198th Meeting 295
     Basic Objectives, Strategies, and Policies
     British Troopship Employment in US Trans-Atlantic Programs, First Half of 1946
     Disposition of Captured German Passenger Ships
C.C.S. 199th Meeting
     Employment of Captured Enemy Ocean-Going Passenger Shipping and British Troopship Employment in US Trans-Atlantic Programs in the First Half of 1946
     Provision of Personnel Ships for the Requirements of Allied Governments
     Command in French Indo-China
     Report to the President and Prime Minister
     Control of Allied Naval Units other than US at Present Under Command of Seventh US Fleet.
C.C.S. 200th Meeting 303
     200th Meeting of the Combined Chiefs of Staff Operations in Southeast Asia Command

Table of Contents: Minutes of TERMINAL Plenary Meeting

Page
Plenary Meeting between the United States and Great Britain 307
     Basic Objectives Strategy and Policies
     Provision of Supplies and Equipment to Great Britain
     Equipment and Supplies for Forces of Occupation other than American
     United Kingdom Import Program
     British Participation in the War Against Japan

Table of Contents: Minutes of TERMINAL Tripartite Military Meeting

Page
Tripartite Military Meeting 313
     Intentions and Plans of the USS.R. with Reference to the Japanese
     Japanese Lines of Communication with Manchuria
     Strength and Distribution of the Japanese Forces
     Employment of US Troops Redeployed from the European Theater
     Operations of the US Naval Forces in the War Against Japan
     Operations of the US Army Air Forces in the War Against Japan
     Operations to Increase Movement of Supplies into China
     Operations to Maintain a Line of Communication via the North Pacific
     Operations in Southeast Asia

Table of Contents: Minutes of Meeting
US–USSR Chiefs of Staff

Page
Meeting of the Chiefs of Staff of the United States and of the Soviet Union 325
     Establishment of Radio Stations for Transmitting Weather Data
     US-USS.R. Zones of Naval and Air Operations in the Sea of Japan
     US-USS.R. Zones of Air Operations in Korea and Manchuria
     Establishment of Liaison Groups between the American and Soviet
     Commanders in the Far East
     Emergency Port and Airfield Facilities
     Line of Communication from Kyushu to Vladivostok
     Weekly Report of Operations
INDEX 339

Glossary

ALACRITY - Codename to build an airfield in the Azores.

ANVIL – 1st codename given to allied invasion of Southern France.

ANAKIM – Codename for operation to recapture Burma.

BOLERO - Codename for US troop increases in the United Kingdom.

BRISK - Codename to seize the Azores islands.

BUCCANEER - Codename for capture of Andaman Islands.

DRAGOON – Codename for invasion of Southern France by allies.

GYMNAST.- First codename given to the plans for the invasion of North Africa.

HABBUKUK – Codename for aircraft carrier built out of ice. Aircraft carrier never built.

HIGHBALL - Codename for a bouncing bomb developed by the United Kingdom.

HOBGOBLIN - Codename for the island of Pantelleria between Sicily and Tunisia.

HUSKY - Final codename given to the invasion of North Africa.

LSI (L) - Landing Ship Infantry, Large.

LVT - Landing Vehicle Tracked.

MOUNT VERNON - A liner used for troop shipment.

MULBERRY harbors - Artificial pier sections towed across the channel to create ports for allied shipping after D-Day.

NEPTUNE - Operations within OVERLORD.

OVERLORD – Codename for allied invasion of occupied Europe.

PLOUGH - Codename for plan to parachute troops into Norway for Guerilla Operations.

POINTBLANK - Codename for U.K./US bombing offensive against Germany.

QUEENS - Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. Two cruise ships which were converted to troopships.

RANKIN - Codename for planned emergency return to Europe if Germany collapsed.

RAVENOUS - Codename for the invasion of Burma.

ROUNDUP - Codename for an invasion of Northern Europe in 1943-later incorporated into OVERLORD.

SCAEF - Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force: Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower.

SUPER-GYMNAST - Codename that replaced GYMNAST for the invasion of North Africa.

TIDALWAVE Air Force - Codename replacing SOADSUDS for bombing raid on oilfields in Ploesti Romania.

UPKEEP - Codename given to a bouncing bomb developed by the British to blow up German dams.

VLR – Very Long Range. Refers to B-29 bombing raids against Japan.

Endnotes

1. Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum. "Combined Chiefs of Staff: Conference Proceedings." http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/listofholdingshtml/listofholdingsC/Combined_Chiefs_of_Staff_Conference_Proceedings.pdf (accessed October 26, 2008).

2. Ibid

3. NationMaster.com. "ARCADIA Conference." http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/ARCADIA-Conference. (accessed October 26, 2008).

4. See Note 1 above.

5. United States Department of State. "The Casablanca Conference, 1943." http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/wwii/88778.htm. (accessed October 27, 2008).

6. Matloff, Maurice. "Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare 1943-1944." US Government Printing Office, http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/sp1943-44/chapter6.htm. (accessed October 27, 2008).

7. See Note 1 above. (accessed October 28, 2008).

8. See Note 1 above. (accessed October 28, 2008).

9. Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, Joseph V. Stalin, and Winston S. Churchill. "The Tehran Conference, November 28-December 1, 1943." The Avalon Project at Yale University, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/tehran. (accessed October 29, 2008).

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Cleary, Helen, Phil Edwards, Bruce Robinson, and Victoria Cook. "Fact File : Cairo Conference." British Broadcasting Company, http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1140364.shtml?sectionId=5&articleId=1140364. (accessed October 29, 2008).

14. See Note 1 above (accessed October 29, 2008).

15. Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, Joseph V. Stalin, and Winston S. Churchill. "The Tehran Conference, November 28-December 1, 1943." The Avalon Project at Yale University, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/tehran. (accessed October 29, 2008).

16. Cleary, Helen, Phil Edwards, Bruce Robinson, and Victoria Cook.. "Fact File : Second Quebec Conference." British Broadcasting Company, http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1144838.shtml?sectionId=6&articleId=1144838. (accessed October 29, 2008).

17. United States Department of State. "The Yalta Conference, 1945." http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/wwii/93273.htm.

18. See Note 1 above. (accessed October 29, 2008).

19. See Note 1 above. (accessed October 29, 2008).