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Casualties: U. S. Navy and Marine Corps
Personnel Killed and Wounded in Wars, Conflicts, Terrorist Acts, and Other Hostile Incidents

                                     NAVY        MARINE CORPS     
ACTION                           KIA     WIA      KIA     WIA   

Revolutionary War,
19 Apr.1775 - 11 Apr. 1783       342     114       49      70

Naval War with France,
July 1798 - 3 Feb. 1801           14      31        6      11 

Barbary Wars, Mediterranean
Sea, 10 Jun. 1801 -
4 Jun. 1805                       31      54        4      10

USS Chesapeake attacked by
HMS Leopard, off Cape Henry,
Virginia, 22 Jun. 1807             3      18        0       0
  
War of 1812, 
18 Jun. 1812 - 17 Feb. 1815      265     439       45      66 

Marines escorting a convoy of 
supply wagons ambushed by an 
irregular force of Native 
Americans and African Americans
in Twelve Mile Swamp near 
St.John's, East Florida,
11 Sep. 1812                       0       0        2       7

USS Nonsuch captured pirate
ship Caledonia off Savannah,
Georgia, 9 Apr. 1813               0       3        0       0

USS Essex crewmembers battle
with Taipis Tribe, Nuka Hiva,
Marquesas Islands, 29 Nov. 1813    1       2        0       0

USS Essex crewmembers battle
with Taii Tribe, Nuka Hiva,
Marquesas Islands, 27 May 1814     4       1        0       0

Ambush of Navy personnel on 
Apalachicola River, Spanish
Florida, during reconnaissance of
fort and settlement occupied by
free African Americans and 
escaped slaves, 17 Jul. 1816       4       0        0       0 

USS Macedonian shore party
fired on by mob during Peruvian
War of Independence, Callao,
Peru, 6 Nov. 1820                  2       6        0       0

Suppression of Piracy in 
West Indies, 1822-1825             4       5        0       0

USS Fox fired on from Spanish
castle El Moro, St. Johns,
Puerto Rico, 5 Mar. 1823           1       0        0       0
 
USS Porpoise skirmish with 
Greek pirates, near Andros
Island, Aegean Sea,
23 Oct. 1827                       1       0        0       0
 
USS Potomac punitive Landing at 
Qualah Battoo, Sumatra,
6 Feb. 1832                        2       7        0       4 

Seminole War, Florida,
1835 - 1842                        8      12        3       5

USS Natchez Sailor's dispute
with fisherman led to bayonet 
attack by Mexican guard,
Vera Cruz, 25 Oct. 1836            0       2        0       0
  
Wilkes Expedition, skirmish
with natives at Malolo, Fiji,
24 Jul. 1840                       2       2        0       0
 
Mexican War,
24 Apr. 1846 - 30 May 1848        13       3       11      47

USS Plymouth landing party
skirmish with Chinese Imperial
troops during Taiping Rebellion,
5 Jun. 1855                        1       1        0       2

USS Water Witch engagement with
a Paraguayan fort at Itapiru, 
1 Feb. 1855                        1       0        0       0
 
USS Powhatan engagement 
with Chinese pirates
near Hong Kong, China,
4 Aug 1855                         3       6        2       0        

USS John Adams punitive
expedition to Viti Levu, Fiji,
28-31 Oct. 1855                    1       0        0       2
     
Operations against Native 
Americans, Puget Sound, 
Washington Territory, 1855         3       1        0       0

USS Portsmouth, USS San Jacinto
and USS Levant reduction of the 
Barrier Forts, Canton, China,
16-22 Nov. 1856                    7      15        0       6

USS Massachusetts Coxswain Gustave
Englebrecht killed in skirmish with
Native American at Port Gamble, 
Washington, 22 Nov. 1856           1       0        0       0
 
Confrontation with mob during
election violence outside 
City Hall, Washington DC,
1 June 1857                        0       0        0       2
  
USS Vandalia, punitive 
expedition to Waya, Fiji,
9 Oct. 1858                        0       3        0       2

Chartered river steamer 
Toey-Wan supported English
and French attack on Chinese
forts at mouth of Peiho River,
China, 25 Jun. 1859                1       1        0       0

Marine assault on building 
occupied by abolitionist John 
Brown and followers, Harper's 
Ferry, Virginia, 18 Oct. 1859      0       0        1       1
 
USS Saratoga and chartered
steamers Indianola and Wave, 
gun battle and boarding of 
Mexican armed steamer General 
Miramon, near Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, 6 Mar. 1860                1       3        0       0 
  
Civil War (Union forces only), 
15 Apr. 1861 - 26 May 1865     2,112   1,710      148     131

USS Wyoming battle with naval
forces of Japanese feudal
warlord off Shimonoseki,
13 Jul. 1863                       3       6        1       0

USS Hartford and USS Wyoming,
landing party skirmish with 
natives near Taka, Formosa,
13 Jun. 1867                       1       0        0       0
 
USS Oneida Sailor wounded
during attack on foreign 
residents by Japanese troops 
during Meiji Restoration,
Hiogo, Japan, 4 Feb. 1868          0       1        0       0
  
USS Mohican battle with
Mexican pirate steamer
Forward in Teacapan River,
Mexico, 17 Jun. 1870               2       7        0       1
 
USS Monocacy, USS Palos
and steam launches from USS 
Colorado and USS Alaska,
attack on Korean fort along
Salee River, June 1871             2      12        1       1

Marines from Brooklyn Navy
Yard guarding revenue officers
engaged in destroying
illegal distilleries in 
Brooklyn, New York, 
14 July and 17 Oct. 1871           0       0        1       3
 
USS Baltimore Sailors 
fight with Chilean Sailors;
mobs subsequently attacked 
US Sailors, Valparaiso,
16 Oct. 1891                       2      18        0       0  
 
USS Maine sunk in Havana Harbor,
Cuba, 15 Feb. 1898. (Sometimes 
attributed to hostile action.)   266      54        0       0

Spanish American War,
15 Feb. 1898 - 10 Dec. 1898       10      47        6      21

Philippine Islands Insurrection,
4 Feb. 1899 - 25 Apr. 1901         9       0        7      19

USS Philadelphia punitive
expedition to Apia, Samoa,
1 Apr. 1899                        4       4        0       1 

Boxer Rebellion, China,
20 Jun. 1900 - 12 May 1901         4      26        9      17

Seaman Johnson shot by insurgents
while in a small boat from USS
Yankee at Santo Domingo,Dominican 
Republic, 1 Feb. 1904              1       0        0       0

Apprentice 2d class Charles Doctor
from USS Columbia landing party
wounded by insurgents at Santo
Domingo, Dominican Republic,
11 Feb. 1904                       0       1        0       0    

While taking supplies to
US Army Camp Tabla, USS 
Pambanga shore party 
attacked by Moro rebels,
Basilian Island, Philippines,
24 Sep. 1911                       1       3        0       0

Pacification of Nicaragua,
4 Aug. 1912 - 31 Jan. 1913         2       0        5      16

Occupation of Vera Cruz,
Mexico, 21-23 Nov. 1914           17      57        5      13

Pacification of Haiti,
25 Jul. 1915 - 6 Apr. 1917         2       0        7      29  
 
Small boat from USS Annapolis
fired on by Mexican soldiers
at Mazatlan, 18 Jun. 1916          1       0        0       0

Pacification of Dominican 
Republic, 1916 - 1924              0       0       17      50

SS Aztec sunk by German
submarine off Island of
Ushant, France, resulting 
in death of Boatswain's Mate 
1/c John I. Eopolucci, 
1 Apr. 1917                        1       0        0       0
  
World War I, 6 Apr. 1917 - 
11 Nov. 1918                     431     819    2,461   9,520

USS Monocacy fired on by
Chinese bandits, taking 80
bullet hits, north of Chenglin,
Yangtze River, China. Chief
Yeoman H. L. O'Brien killed
and Seaman W. W. Donnelly
wounded during firefight.
17 Jan. 1918                       1       1        0       0

USS Olympia shore party operated
with British, French, Serbian
and White Russian troops in
skirmishes with Bolshevik forces
along the Dvina River near
Archangel during the Allied 
intervention in northern Russia,
15 Aug. - 6 Sep. 1918              0       3        0       0  

Armed guard detachment from
USS Monocacy defended oil
barge from bandit attack,
north of Ichang, Yangtze
River, China, 17 May 1921          0       1        0       0
        
USS Stewart (DD-224) fired on
by Chinese troops near Wuchang,
Yangtze River, China,
5 Sep. 1926                        0       2        0       0

USS Pigeon (AM-47) fired on
Chinese below Hanyang,
China, 19 Sep 1926                 0       3        0       0

Nicaragua Pacification,
1927 - 1933                        1       2       47      66  

USS Noa landing force
fired on by Chinese 
warlord's troops, Nanking, 
China, 24 Mar. 1927                0       1        0       0

USS Penquin (AM-33) fired on
by Chinese below Kiangyin
forts, China 25 Apr 1927           0       5        0       0  

Armed guard detachment on
SS Chi Ping fired on by
bandits, north of Wanhsien,
Yangtze River, China, 
14 Mar. 1930                       0       1        0       0
 
USS Guam came under fire 
from bandits while 
attempting to rescue 
missionaries near Yochow,
Yangtze River, China,
4 Jul. 1930                        1       0        0       0

USS Palos fired on by 
bandits at Changsha,
Yangtze River, China,
31 Jul. 1930                       0       1        0       0
 
Marine 2d Brigade guarding
International Settlement, 
during fighting between 
Japanese and Chinese forces, 
Shanghai, China,
Aug.-Oct. 1937                     0       1        0       3
     
USS Augusta struck by 
Nationalist Chinese anti-
aircraft shell, Shanghai, 
China, 20 Aug. 1937                1      18        0       0

USS Augusta hit by shrapnel
during fighting in Shanghai, 
China, 14 Oct. 1937                0       1        0       0

USS Panay sunk by Japanese
air attack, near Nanking,
Yangtze River, China, 
12 Dec. 1937                       2      43        0       0  

USS Kearny damaged by German
submarine, Atlantic Ocean,
17 Oct. 1941                      11      22        0       0

USS Salinas damaged by German
submarine, Atlantic Ocean,
30 Oct. 1941                       0       1        0       0
  
USS Reuben James sunk by 
German submarine, Atlantic
Ocean, 31 Oct. 1941              115       8        0       0

World War II, 7 Dec. 1941 - 
31 Dec. 1946                  36,950  37,778   19,733  68,207

1st Marines reconnaissance
patrol fired on by 40-50
Chinese communist guerillas 
northwest of Tientsin, China,
6 Oct. 1945                        0       0        0       3

7th Marines jeep patrol fired
on by Chinese communist snipers
near Tangshan, China
19 Oct 1945                        0       0        0       2

Ambush of 5th Marines jeep patrol
by Chinese communist snipers
outside of Peiping, China
26 Oct 1945                        0       0        0       1

Two marines hunting near 7th
Marines railroad outpost shot by
two Chinese west of Anshan, China,
4 Dec 1945                         0       0        1       1

One marine attacked while on
liberty in Tientsin, China,
9 Dec 1945                         0       0        0       1

Two 7th Marines supply trucks
ambushed by Chinese communist
guerillas near Tangshan, China,
15 Jan 1946                        0       0        0       2

Marine hunting party attacked by
irregular forces in the vicinity
of Lutai, China, 7 Apr 1946        0       0        1       0

5th Marines bridge guards attacked
by Chinese communists firing
mortars, near Tangku, China,
5 May 1946                         0       0        0       1

7th Marines sentry attacked by
guerillas in Lutai, China,
7 May 1946                         0       0        0       1

1st Marines reconnaissance patrol
ambushed by 50-75 armed Chinese
in village 10 miles south of
Tientsin, China, 21 May 1946       0       0        1       1

Marine sentry attacked in Tangku,
China, 2 Jul 1946                  0       0        0       1

Supply convoy, protected by 11th
Marines detachment, ambushed by
Chinese communist forces at Anping,
China, 29 July 1946                0       0        4      11
    
Chinese communist raid on 1st 
Marine Division ammunition supply 
point at Hsin Ho, northwest of
Tangku, China 3 Oct 1946           0       0        0       1

Two Chinese communist companies
about 350 men, attack 1st Marine 
Division ammunition supply point
at Hsin Ho, northwest of Tangku,
China, 4-5 Apr 1947                0       0        5      17
     
Marine hunting party ambushed
by Chinese communists outside
of Tientsin, China,
25 Dec. 1947                       0       0        1       0 

PB4Y2 from VP-26, Det A, 
shot down by Soviet
aircraft, over Baltic Sea
off coast of Latvia,
8 Apr. 1950                       10       0        0       0  
             
Korean War, 25 Jun. 1950 - 
31 Jan. 1955                     503   1,576    4,267  23,744  

P2V-3W from VP-6 shot down 
by Soviet aircraft, over Sea
of Japan off Vladivostok,
Siberia, 6 Nov. 1951              10       0        0       0

PBM-5S2 from VP-731 attacked by
Chinese fighters over the
Yellow Sea, 31 Jul. 1952           2       2        0       0

P2V-5 from VP-22 shot down by
anti-aircraft fire near Swatow,
China, 18 Jan. 1953                9       0        0       0

P2V from VP-19 shot down 
by Soviet aircraft, over Sea
of Japan near Siberian coast,
4 Sep. 1954                        1       0        0       0

P2V from VP-9 shot down 
by Soviet aircraft, St. Lawrence
Island in the Bering Sea,
22 Jun. 1955                       0      10        0       0

P4M-1Q from VQ-1 shot down
by hostile aircraft near
Wenchow, China, 22 Aug. 1956      16       0        0       0

P4M-1Q from VQ-1 attacked by
North Korean fighters near the
Korean Demilitarized Zone,
over Sea of Japan, 16 Jun. 1959    0       1        0       0
    
Vietnam War, 4 Aug. 1964 - 
27 Jan. 1973                   1,631   10,076   13,095    88,594  

Intervention in the 
Dominican Republic,
28 Apr. 1965 - 21 Sep. 1966        1       0        9      25

USS Liberty, attacked by
Israeli forces in the
Eastern Mediterranean,
8 Jun. 1967                       31     168        2       1

LCDR Ernest A. Munro killed and
RMCS Harry L. Greene wounded by
communist terrorists, Guatemala,
16 Jan 1968                        1       1        0       0  

USS Pueblo, captured by 
North Korean forces in the
Sea of Japan, 23 Jan. 1968         1       8        0       1
[All crew members, 79 Navy and 2
Marines, subsequently awarded the
purple heart for the period of
their captivity]

A-1H from VA-25 on a ferry flight
from the Philippines to an aircraft
carrier in the Tonkin Gulf shot
down by MIG interceptor after
accidently violating airspace of
Hainan Island, China
14 Feb. 1968                       1       0        0       0    

P3B from VP-26 on a coastal 
surveillance photo-reconnaissance
mission, shot down, possibly by
a Cambodian naval vessel, crashing
in the Gulf of Thailand,
1 Apr. 1968                       12       0        0       0

Sailors from USS Independence and 
accompanying destroyers injured by
students during anti-American
riots in Istanbul, Turkey,
16-23 Jul. 1968                    0      19        0       0

Sailors from USS Columbus and 
accompanying destroyers injured by
students during anti-American 
riots in Izmir, Turkey,
19-22 Dec. 1968                    0      14        0       0    

EC-121M from VQ-1 shot down 
by North Korean aircraft over
the Sea of Japan, 14 Apr. 1969    30       0        1       0

Two UH-1Bs from HAL-3 Detachment
3 shot down in Svay Rieng
Province, Cambodia, by Cambodian
anti-aircraft fire, 28 Apr. 1969   4       4        0       0   

Seabee wounded and Marine 
Security Guards killed and 
wounded during Terrorist 
attack on US Embassy softball
game,Phnom Penh, Cambodia,
26 Sep. 1971                       0       1        1       3

Marine Security Guard Sidney T.
James wounded during an attack
by a radical communist group,
U.S. Embassy, Manila, 
Philippines, 1972                  0       0        0       1
    
LCDR Franklin G. West wounded by
North Korean forces, Panmunjun,
Korea, 3 Mar 1974                  0       1        0       0

CDR Robert M. Ballinger killed 
by dynamite explosion during 
investigation of tunnel built by
North Koreans in the southern 
portion of the demilitarized
zone, Korea, 20 Nov 1974           1       0        0       0    
  
Seabees killed by gunfire during
terrorist ambush of jeep on
northeast edge of US Naval Base
at Subic Bay, Philippines,
3 Feb. 1975                        3       0        0       0

Two Marines from Marine Security
Detachment, Saigon, killed during 
artillery attack while providing
security for Defense Attache
Office, at Tan Son Nhut Airport,
Saigon, Republic of Vietnam,
29 April 1975                      0       0        2       0

"Mayaguez Incident," battle with 
Khmer Rouge forces, Koh Tang
Island, Cambodia, 14 May 1975      2       3       14      41

Sailor wounded during attack by
unidentified gunman against U.S.
Air Force Bus, 14 miles north of
Clark Air Bus, Philippines,
11 Dec. 1976                       0       1        0       0 

LT Robert E. Nelson serving with
UN observers in the Lebanese
village of Maroun Al Ras wounded
during attack by Israeli Defense
Forces, night of 14-15 Mar 1978    0       1        0       0

U.S. Embassy Marine security
guard wounded, Kabul, 
Afghanistan, 7 Aug 1978            0       0        0       1

U.S. Embassy Marine security
guard wounded, Beirut, Lebanon,
6 Oct 1978                         0       0        0       1     

SGT Garry Downey and SGT Kraus
wounded by Iranian guerillas during
attacks on U.S. Embassy, Tehran,
Iran, 11 and 14 Feb. 1979          0       0        0       2

Marine security guards injured
when leftist protesters attempted
to storm U.S. Embassy, San Salvador,
El Salvador, 30 Oct. 1979          0       0        0       2      

Marine Security Guard CPL 
Steven Crowley killed by
sniper fire during attack by
mob on US Embassy, Islamabad,
Pakistan, 21 Nov. 1979             0       0        1       0

Puerto Rican nationalists armed
with automatic weapons ambushed 
a Navy bus driving to Sabana Seca
Naval Communication Center near
San Juan, 3 Dec 1979               2      10        0       0

BMCM Sam Novello killed by
Turkish leftists at his home in
Istanbul, Turkey, 16 April 1980    1       0        0       0

Marines wounded in terrorist 
attack, Costa Rica, 17 Mar 1981    0       0        0       3

Crewmen from USS Pensacola 
(LSD-38) attacked by terrorists
in San Juan, Puerto Rico,
16 May 1982.                       1       3        0       0
   
U.S. Embassy Marine security
guard wounded, Beirut
Lebanon, 7 Jun 1982                0       0        0       1                      
    
Lebanon Peacekeeping,
25 Aug. 1982 - 26 Feb. 1984       19       8      234     151 
 
Terrorist bombing of US 
Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon.
Casualties included IS1 Daniel
J. Pellegrino and eight Marine
Security Guards, 18 Apr. 1983      0       1        1       7

Lieutenant Commander Albert A. 
Schaufelberger killed by
terrorists, San Salvador,
El Salvador, 25 May 1983           1       0        0       0

CPL Guillermo Sanpedro killed 
in terrorist attack, Cyprus,
23 Oct. 1983                       0       0        1       0

Operation Urgent Fury,
invasion of Grenada, West Indies
23 Oct.1983 - 21 Nov. 1983         4       1        3      15 

Capt. George Tsantes shot by
terrorists near Athens, Greece
15 Nov. 1983                       1       0        0       0

Lt. Mark A. Lang killed and LT
Robert O. Goodman wounded when 
A-6 Intruder from VA-85 shot down
while attacking Syrian antiaircraft
batteries at Hammana, east of 
Beirut, Lebanon, 4 Dec. 1983       1       1        0       0

Commander, Carrier Air Wing Six
(CVW-6) CDR Edward K. Andrews
flying an A-7 Corsair II, shot 
down by aircraft fire, near
Beirut, Lebanon, 4 Dec 1983        0       1        0       0                        
 
LCPL Rudolfo Hernandez killed 
in terrorist attack, Germany,
7 Feb. 1984                        0       0        1       0

HN Carl P. Englund wounded,
Beruit, Lebanon, 29 Feb 1984       0       1        0       0
    
PO1 Michael R. Wagner
assigned to Defense Attache 
Office, killed; CEC Harvey L.
Whitaker and BU1 Stephen E. 
Haycock and four Marine security
guards wounded in terrorist bombing
of US Embassy Annex, East Beirut, 
Lebanon, 20 Sep. 1984              1       2        0       4 
  
Seabee Steelworker 2nd Class
Robert Dean Stethem of Underwater
Construction Team ONE was killed
by terrorists in Athens, Greece,
on TWA Flight 847,
14 Jun. 1985                       1       0        0       0

Off-duty Marines assigned to
Marine Security Guard Detachment,
San Salvador, El Salvador, 
killed by terrorists armed with
automatic weapons at a cafe in
the Zona Rosa district of San
Salvador, 19 June 1985             0       0        4       0
 
USS Stark struck by Iraqi 
missiles, Persian Gulf,
17 May 1987                       37       5        0       0

Terrorist grenade attack on
USO club in Barcelona, Spain,
27 Dec. 1987                       1       5        0       0

Col. Rich Higgins, killed by
pro-Iranian terrorists.  
Captured on 17 Feb. 1988 in 
Lebanon and declared dead on 
6 Jul. 1990.                       0       0        1       0

USS Samuel B. Roberts struck
Iranian mine, Persian Gulf,
14 Apr. 1988                       0      10        0       0

Japanese Red Army terrorist
bombing of USO club in Naples,
Italy, 14 Apr. 1988                1       4        0       0

Loss of AH-1T helicopter during
operations against Iranian naval
forces, possibly to hostile
action, Persian Gulf,
18 Apr. 1988                       0       0        2       0

Capt. William E. Nordeen,  
Defense and Naval Attache,
killed by terrorist car bomb
in Kifissia, the suburb of 
Athens, Greece,
28 Jun. 1988                       1       0        0       0

Lt. Robert Paz,USMC shot and 
witnesses, Navy LT and his wife,
beaten by Panamanian forces at
a road block in Panama City,
16 Dec. 1989                       0       1        1       0

Operation Just Cause, Panama,
20 - 24 Dec. 1989                  4       9        1       3 

Persian Gulf War,
2 Aug. 1990 - 3 Mar. 1991          6      12       24      92  

Operation Restore Hope,
Somalia, 9 Dec. 1992 -
4 May 1994                         0       0        2      15
 
Bombing of Federal Building,
Oklahoma City, 19 Apr. 1995        0       0        2       0

Khobar Towers in Dhahran,
Saudi Arabia bombed by 
terrorists, 25 Jun. 1996           0       1        0       0

Terrorist bombing of US Embassy 
in Nairobi, Kenya, 7 August 1998
Marine security guard Sgt. Jesse 
Aliganga killed, one Marine 
guarded wounded                    0       0        1       1 

USS Cole (DDG 67) hit on port     
side near forward stack by 
explosive-laden suicide boat
while refueling, Aden,
Yemen, 12 October 2000.           17      39        0       0

American Flight 77 hijacked by 
terrorists struck the Pentagon.
Casualties include 33 sailors, 
6 Department of the Navy civilians,
and 3 Navy civilian contractors
killed and 4 sailors and 2 
Department of the Navy civilians
wounded. 
Arlington, VA, 11 Sep 2001.       33       4        0       0 

Operation Enduring Freedom, 
Afghanistan,
7 Oct 2001 through 6 Feb 2010.    34       90      109      911                
 
Lance Corporal Antonio Sledd 
killed, and another Marine wounded
by terrorists during Exercise
Eager Mace in Kuwait, 8 Oct 2002.  0       0        1       1

Operation Iraqi Freedom, Iraq,
19 Mar 2003 through 6 Feb 2010.   65      633      851     8,623

Note: Data, particularly prior to World War I, are based upon incomplete and sometimes conflicting sources. Not listed above are the hundreds of deaths and injuries annually resulting from nonhostile accidents, illnesses, homicides and suicides. Casualties in Russia during 1918 are also included with World War I totals. Casualties in Cambodia in 1968 to 1975, as well as those in Vietnam in 1975 are also included with Vietnam War totals. Hostile incidents causing casualties during Operation Enduring Freedom (War on Terrorism) occuring outside of Afghanistan are listed separately though presumably included in the totals.

Suggestions for additions or corrections to the above list are welcomed when accompanied by a photocopy of supporting documentation. Mail suggestions to the Website Committee, Naval Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard, 805 Kidder Breese Street SE, Washington DC 20374-5060.

Sources Consulted:

Brannan, John, ed. Official Letters of the Military and Naval Officers of the United States, During the War with Great Britain in the Years 1812, 13, 14, & 15; With Some Additional Letters and Documents Elucidating the History of that Period. Washington City: Printed by Way & Gideon, for the editor, 1823. [See pp. 362-66 for 27 May 1814 incident.]

Brownson, William H. "The Pirate Ship Forward" in Clayton R. Barow, Jr. America Spreads Her Sails: U.S. Seapower in the 19th Century. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1973. OCLC 0070332. [See pp.138-152 for a first-hand account of the 17 Jun 1870 incident.]

Buker, George E. Swamp Sailors: Riverine Warfare in the Everglades, 1835-1842. Gainseville: University Presses of Florida, 1975.
A Chronology of the United States Marine Corps, 1935-1946. 3 vols. Washington: Historical Branch, US Marine Corps.

Clark, George B. Treading Softly, the U.S. Marines in China, From the 1840's to the 1940's. Pike NH: Brass Hat, 1996.

Cole, Paul M. POW/MIA Issues. 3 vols. Santa Monica CA: RAND, 1994. [See ch.2: "Early Cold War Aircraft Incidents," in v.2 World War II and the Early Cold War.]

Collum, Richard S. History of the United States Marine Corps. New York: L. R. Hamersly, 1903.

Cooney, David M. A Chronology of the U.S. Navy: 1775-1965. New York: Franklin Watts, 1965.

Crenshaw, Martha and John Pimlott eds. Encyclopedia of World Terrorism. v.3. Armonk NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997. OCLC 35110123 [Useful source, though "Chronology of Terrorist Events Since 1945" fails to include some terrorist incidents involving naval personnel.]

Deac, Wilfred P. Road to the Killing Fields: The Cambodian War of 1970-1975. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1997.

Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. 9 vols. Washington: Naval Historical Center, 1959-1991.

Dudley, William S., ed. The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History, Vol. 2. Washington: Naval Historical Center, 1992. [See p. 707 for the 29 Nov. 1813 incident.]

Dunham, George and David A. Quinlan. U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Bitter End, 1973-1975. Washington: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1990.

Ellsworth, Harry Allanson. One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines 1800-1934. Washington: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1974.

Facts On File: Weekly World News Digest With Cumulative Index. New York: Facts On File. [1979, 1983 and 1995]

Frank, Benis M. and Henry I. Shaw. Victory and Occupation: History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Vol. 5. Washington: Historical Branch, U.S. Marine Corps, 1968.

Gerhard, William D. Attack on the Liberty: An Edited Version of SRH-256. Laguna Hills CA: Aegean Park Press, 1981.

Goldich, Robert L. and John C. Schaefer. U.S. Military Operations, 1965-1994 (Not Including Vietnam): Data on Casualties, Decorations, and Personnel Involved. Washington: Congressional Research Service, 1994.

Goodrich, Caspar F. "Our Navy and the West Indian Pirates," United States Naval Institute Proceedings 42, no. 5 (Sep.-Oct.1916): 1468. [Incident on 9 Apr. 1813.]

Jackson, Chester V. "Mission to Murmansk." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 95, no.2 (Feb. 1969): 58-72.

Maclay, Edgar Stanton. A History of the United States Navy From 1775 to 1901. vol.2. New York: D. Appleton, 1901.

Marine Corps Historical Center (US). Archives Section. Marine Security Guard Battalion command chronologies consulted for the period 1971 - 1985.

Marine Corps Historical Center (US). Reference Section. "Marine Corps Casualties 1775-1995." Washington, 1996.

McKanna, Claire V. "The Water Witch Incident." The American Neptune 31, no.1 (Jan.1971): 7-19. [Incident on 1 Feb. 1855]

Millett, Allan R. Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps. New York: Macmillan, 1980.

"Naval and Maritime Events July 1968-December 1969." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 96, no. 5 (May 1970): np.

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22 February 2010