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History of United States Naval Operations: Korea

by James A. Field, Jr.

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
805 KIDDER BREESE SE -- WASHINGTON NAVY YARD
WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060

Korean Service battle streamer

Contents
Introduction

Foreword
Preface
List of Maps
List of Tables

Chapters:

  1. To Korea by Sea
  2. Policy and its Instruments
  3. War Begins
  4. Help on the Way
  5. Into the Perimeter
  6. Holding the Line
  7. Back to the Parallel
  8. On to the Border
  9. Retreat to the South
  10. The Second Six Months
  11. Problems of a Policeman
  12. Two More Years

A Note on Source Material

Glossary of Naval Abbreviations

   

A Note on Source Materials

          This account of the Korean War is based largely on official records of the U.S. Navy, supplemented by those of the other armed forces and by published material. The most important sources are discussed below; there then follows a listing by chapter and section of items of particular relevance to any given phase of the campaign.

         By all odds the most important single source for the history of naval operations in Korea is the series of six Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet, "Interim Evaluation Reports," the product of an unprecedented effort in large-scale concurrent evaluation of naval operations. This project was conceived by Rear Admiral Ralph A. Ofstie in August, 1950; recruitment of personnel had commenced by early September, while U.N. forces were still struggling to hold the Pusan perimeter; the evaluation group was officially constituted by an order of 20 September from the Chief of Naval Operations to the Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet; by mid-October the group was at work in the Western Pacific under the direction of Rear Admiral Lucian A. Moebus.

         Admiral Sherman’s letter had directed CincPacFleet to conduct a continuing evaluation of combat techniques, weapons employment, and logistics; to submit conclusions and recommendations for current training and operations or for desirable new developments; and to prepare an analysis and record of naval and Marine combat operations. More specifically, the evaluation group was directed to concern itself with all types of air operations, antisubmarine warfare, blockade and escort work, gunfire support, amphibious operations, joint aspects of ground warfare, and logistic matters.

         This was a large order. Interpreting this directive, Admiral Moebus’ group set itself the task of recording in detail the happenings within the various operational and administrative commands, of identifying the various difficulties and problems as well as the successes which developed, and of undertaking detailed staff studies of functional components of the Navy and of naval weapons systems with a view to recommendations for improvement. The first result of its efforts, "Interim Evaluation Report No. 1," covering the period from 25 June to 15 November 1950, was completed in early 1951, and was described by Admiral Moebus as "awesome in size." So it was, extending to 3,292 pages, with 928 pages of project studies on various forms of naval action supported by more than twice that amount of narrative annexes from both operational and administrative commands. The results were doubly fortunate: without the prodding of the evaluation group it seems certain that much of the record of the early days of crisis would have never been set down; as a result of the wide net cast by the CNO directive, much material was included for which the normal naval reporting system makes no provision. Special note, in this connection, should be taken of the annexes to the first Report which deal with the operations of Commander Air Force Pacific Fleet, Commander Service Force Pacific Fleet, Commander Western Sea Frontier, the various Pacific MSTS offices, and the Marine Corps administrative commands, without which the narrative of the assembly and movement of force, so central to the entire campaign, would be almost impossible to develop.

         The second Evaluation Report, covering the period from 16 November 1950 to 30 April 1951, was also sizable, but the format was considerably changed. Here the chronological narratives of the various commands have disappeared, to be replaced by extensive excerpts from action reports and from various special studies (notably of close air support and interdiction) by sundry groups and boards within the several services. By this expedient the work was reduced to 1,874 pages. By the time of the third Report, routine had been well established, procedures had been institutionalized, and from this time on the product, while still of first importance, becomes less interesting to the historian. But then, of course, so does the war. The end product of the enterprise, six Reports totalling almost 10,000 pages, remains a mine of information, preserving much that would otherwise be lost or inaccessible. As perhaps the only individual to have read the entire work, I owe a personal debt of gratitude to Admiral Moebus and his colleagues.

         It might be thought that so sizable a compendium would prove a sufficent source for the history of the war. But since, except in the appendices to the first Report, the approach is analytical rather than narrative, resort is necessary for the chronology of day-today activity to the Operation Plans, Operation Orders, Command Reports, Action Reports, and War Diaries at all levels from CincFE and Commander Naval Forces Far East down to the single ship or squadron. These items, stored in the custody of the Director of Naval History, total something over 50 file-cabinet drawers.

         This material suffers from two principal weaknesses. Owing to the pressure of operations on the undermanned ships and staffs, the record of the crucial early months is often scanty. Owing to the nature of the Navy’s reporting system, these reports are too frequently arid and uninformative. This reporting system, in Korea as in World War II, called for the submission by all operating commands of a War Diary, a running account of day-today movements, supplemented after battle by an Action Report. But Korea was a War Diary war: there were no important naval engagements, and except for the landings and evacuations of the first six months, no large set-piece operations. In such a situation the instructions for preparation of the War Diary left much to the initiative of the individual commander, and while some rose to the situation, expanding and contracting their Diaries with the varying tempo of action, many did not. And the American tendency toward the depersonalized report (or, alternatively, the overwritten press release) leaves the historian to infer the atmosphere of any given period from a simple record of movements, orders, and ammunition expenditures. The sense of urgency, the rising hopes, the dashed anticipations of war rarely appear.

         In this our British cousins appear to have the advantage of us, especially as regards the reports of commanders of task group level and above. In the Second World War no American reports from commanders of whatever service provide a satisfactory equivalent to those dispatches of British commanders published in the London Gazette. Similarly in Korea, the Reports of Proceedings by the Flag Officer Second in Command Far Eastern Station (Commander Task Group 95.1) are in many respects the most informative command reports of the war. This was noted by Admiral Dyer who, while commanding Task Force 95, forwarded FOSICFES’ "Report of Proceedings" for September 1950—November 1951 with the suggestion that U.S. Navy procedures might be modified to approximate the British. The historian can but reiterate this recommendation.

         The limited coverage of the early months, while wholly understandable, also presents problems. At the level of command reports, nothing was forthcoming from the hard-pressed staff of Commander Naval Forces Far East until nine months of warfare had gone by. Information on the course of events in Tokyo in July and August is limited to a scanty annex to the first CincPacFleet Evaluation Report. By March 1951, however, it proved possible to produce a report covering the previous December; this was followed by reports for the early months of 1951, and from May of that year to the end of the war regular monthly reports are available. But July and August 1950 remain unrecorded, while the report covering the crucial months of September through November 1950 was not prepared until 1954. These ComNavFE "Command and Historical Reports," on the order of 70 to 80 pages each, provide summaries of the month’s air and surface operations digested from Action Reports and War Diaries, together with comments on personnel, logistics, aerology, communications, shore activities, and medical matters. Though rather cut and dried in nature, they are nonetheless useful for chronology and statistical information.

         For Seventh Fleet, the principal command afloat, the story is much the same. Throughout the period of Admiral Struble’s command, the staff was undermanned and overworked, and although by July 1951 Action Reports had been submitted for Inchon, Wonsan, and for the period of the evacuation of northeastern Korea, one could wish for more. For the latter part of the war the reports of Admirals Martin and Clark, which summarize the operations carried out under their command, are generally adequate.

         On the next level down things were not quite so difficult. Since the operations of the Amphibious Force Far East were necessarily intermittent, time was available between events to write the story down. One useful result was the detailed historical narrative of events from 25 June 1950 to 1 January 1951, in ComPhibGru I’s "Report of Operations," included as Appendix AA to CincPacFleet "Interim Evaluation Report No. 1." The War Diary of Task Force 95, the Blockading and Escort Force, although of variable quality, is important for the period from late 1950 through into 1952.

         But the early period is the bad period, for the historian as for those who were on the job. Most fortunately, therefore, the Carrier and Cruiser Division Commanders, whose work was so important in the first weeks, kept reasonably full and complete War Diaries, and in addition two notable documents were produced in widely different and complementary spheres.

         The first of these is Commander Carrier Division I (Rear Admiral E. C. Ewen), "Report of Task Force 77 Operations During the Korean Campaign (25 June 1950 to 19 January 1951)." This report of 616 pages (also available as Appendix R (Vol. 13) of CincPacFleet’s "Interim Evaluation Report No. I") contains a narrative of operations, a detailed analysis of the close air support situation as seen from the sea, a discussion of communications problems, and 303 pages of appendices which reproduce dispatches, bombline maps, orders, memoranda, and reports for the entire period, few of which are easily available elsewhere.

         The second document of particular importance is the War Diary of the Republic of Korea Navy (Task Group 96.7/95.7), which provides a careful and detailed narrative of the campaign as viewed from Pusan and Chinhae. Although primarily important as the single source of information on the ROK Navy and its inshore operations, this War Diary is also a unique repository of information on the organization of naval support of the perimeter, the arrival of ground forces, logistic arrangements, intelligence of enemy movements, and such matters.

         Over and above the periodic reports of participating units, some other naval records have proven useful. The Office of Naval History has a considerable body of miscellaneous material from the files of the Chief of Naval Operations and of Commander Naval Forces Far East, which includes occasional material of importance. The personal papers of Admiral Joy and of Admiral Ofstie, deposited in the Office of Naval History, contain some useful items. Various summaries and statistics can be found in the OpNav publication "Combat Activity of Naval Aviation," which appeared monthly from October 1950 to June 1951, and quarterly thereafter. There are some scattered articles of interest in the monthly Review of the Office of Naval Intelligence.

         The principal lacuna in the naval sources, and one which is reflected in the narrative, concerns the control and direction of the naval campaign. For Korea, as for the Second World War, information on such evanescent matters as the availability of intelligence, estimates of the situation, concepts of employment of own forces, and relations with the other services and with allies, must be sought in the dispatch traffic between the flag officers involved. But this remains an unexplored field. Although the availability of all pertinent naval sources was a condition of my undertaking this history, I have been unable to gain access to this material.

         Doubtless it has never been possible to write naval history in isolation; certainly this is the case for the Korean War, where the various arms of the defense establishment were so intimately and continuously associated. Equally, however, the problem of unified history is a difficult one, and the attempt to produce a "Report from the Secretary of Defense to the President of the United States on Operations in Korea during the period 25 June 1950 to 8 July 1951," ultimately bogged down. This effort, nevertheless, did give rise to a "Secretary of Defense Committee Final Draft," a mimeographed document of 265 pages containing a large amount of usefully summarized information on all services. At the level of the U.N. command in Tokyo, I have made intermittent use of the CincFE-CincUNC monthly Command Reports, which have all the usual large-scale virtues and defects of major headquarters compilations. And GHQ Tokyo also produced a useful "History of the North Korean Army."

         At the individual service level the following may be noted. The Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, has published two preliminary narrative volumes, Korea 1950 (Washington, 1952), and Korea 1951–1953 (Washington, 1956) on which I have relied heavily. A number of detailed studies are in progress, of which the first, Roy E. Appleman, South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu (Washington, 1961) was published while this book was going to press. To Stetson Conn and John Miller, Jr., Chief and Deputy Chief Historians of OCMH, I owe thanks for perceptive criticism and helpful suggestion.

         For the Navy, two published works are available. Walter Karig, Malcolm W. Cagle, and Frank A. Manson, Battle Report, The War in Korea (New York, 1952), a continuation of the popularly written series of World War II, takes the story through the evacuation of Hungnam. A follow-up effort by the last two named authors, The Sea War in Korea (Annapolis, 1957), deals with the entire period of the Korean conflict. The files of the United States Naval Institute Proceedings are worth investigation.

         Of a projected five volumes on Korean operations, the Marine Corps has published three. These volumes, The Pusan Perimeter, The Inchon-Seoul Operation, and The Chosin Reservoir Campaign, by Lynn Montross and Nicholas A. Canzona, are detailed and painstaking studies, extremely useful for the period covered; surprisingly, however, in view of Marine organization and doctrine, they devote little attention to the operations of Marine Corps aviation and to its interrelations with the ground forces.

         For the operations of the Air Force in Korea I have relied on the three volumes of U.S. Air Force Operations in Korea (U.S.A.F. Historical Studies 71, 72, and 127), publications of the U.S. Air Force Historical Division, Air University, Maxwell Field. From these basic studies the author, Robert F. Futrell, has distilled an unclassified history of Air Force operations, which I have been privileged to read in manuscript form. And I am under further obligation to Mr. Futrell for courteous and helpful response to requests for information and amplification. Various aspects of the Air Force experience in Korea have been discussed in the Air University Quarterly Review; some of these articles are reprinted in J. T. Stewart (ed.), Airpower--The Decisive Force in Korea (Princeton, 1957).

         For the conduct of foreign relations in the period of the Korean War the two volumes of basic documents published by the State Department, American Foreign Policy 1950–1955 (Washington, 1957) are useful. On military and diplomatic policy, the records of two congressional hearings are crucial. The tensions in the Defense Department, and the nature of military planning in 1949, are considered in the hearings of the House Committee on the Armed Services, 81st Congress, 1st Session, on Unification and Strategy; how it all turned out may be seen in the hearings of the Senate Armed Services and Foreign Relations Committees, 82nd Congress, 1st Session, The Military Situation in the Far East. In connection with the subject here at issue I have profited from the use of two draft studies of the 20th Century Fund Project on Civil-Military Relations: Paul Y. Hammond, "Missions of the Services" (to be published as "Super-Carriers and B-36 Bombers: Appropriations, Strategy, and Politics"), and Martin Lichterman, "To the Yalu and Back," which were most generously made available by Harold Stein, the project director, and by the authors.

         So much for sources of a specialized nature. There exists, of course, in the public domain, a large literature on problems of current foreign policy, the cold war, and national defense, much of which is in one way or another germane to this study. Works of a historical nature are necessarily fewer, but some are of particular importance. For the unification of the armed forces, Walter Millis (ed.), The Forrestal Diaries (New York, 1951), is important. Material on the Korean War and on subsequent developments in the Department of Defense appears in Matthew B. Ridgway, Soldier (New York, 1956), James M. Gavin, War and Peace in the Space Age (New York, 1958), Maxwell D. Taylor, The Uncertain Trumpet (New York, 1960), and John B. Medaris, Countdown for Decision (New York, 1960). Naval officers, it appears, do not commit themselves to paper on these matters; the pre-Korean views of the Air Force may be traced through the pages of the Reader’s Digest, December 1948–April 1949. The historical background is well treated in Walter Millis, Arms and Men (New York, 1956); assisted by others, the same author has grappled with the recent scene in Arms and the State (New York, 1958). Robert E. Osgood, Limited War (Chicago, 1957) has some perceptive comments on the Korean experience.

         The position of the Commander in Chief is set forth in the two volumes of Truman’s Memoirs (New York, 1955–56). On General MacArthur one may take one’s choice between Courtney Whitney, MacArthur. His Rendezvous with History (New York, 1956), and Richard H. Rovere and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The General and the President (New York, 1951); a reading of Louis Morton, The Fall of the Philippines (Washington, 1953), will develop historical parallels which offer food for thought. R. M. Poats, Decision in Korea (New York, 1954), is a good contemporary history of the Korean War. On the armistice negotiations, see C. Turner Joy, How Communists Negotiate (New York, 1955) and William H. Vatcher, Jr., Panmunjom (New York, 1958). For those concerned with recent military developments, Brassey’s Annual is extremely useful; for those interested in naval matters, Jane’s Fighting Ships and All the World’s Aircraft are essential.

         On the fighting in Korea, and how it seemed to those involved, six books come to mind: S. L. A. Marshall, The River and the Gauntlet (New York, 1953) and Pork Chop Hill (New York, 1956) are concerned with Army small unit actions; James M. Michener, The Bridges at Toko-ri (New York, 1953), is a saccharine treatment of carrier aviation; Andrew Geer, The New Breed (New York, 1952) takes the Marines from the Pusan perimeter up to the reservoir and down again, as do the photographs in David D. Duncan, This is War! (New York, 1951); Martin Russ, The Last Parallel (New York, 1957) is the personal narrative of a member of the 1st Marine Division.

Chapter 1. To Korea by Sea

         Of the large bibliography concerning American relations with the Orient the following have been most useful:

         Tyler Dennett, Americans in Eastern Asia (New York, 1922); C. O. Paullin, Diplomatic Negotiations of American Naval Officers (Baltimore, 1912); M. F. Nelson, Korea and the Old Orders in Eastern Asia (Baton Rouge, La., 1945); F. H. Harrington, God, Mammon, and the Japanese (Madison, Wis., 1944); G. M. McCune and J. A. Harrison, Korean-American Relations (Berkeley, Cal., 1951); L. M. Goodrich, Korea: A Study of U.S. Policy in the United Nations (New York, 1956). The account of the engagement with the Korean forts is derived from Rodgers’ reports in "Letters of the Commanding Officer of the Asiatic Squadron to the Secretary of the Navy," National Archives.

Chapter 2: Policy and its Instruments

1. Divided Korea

         Goodrich, Korea; Carl L. Friedrich, American Experience in Military Government in World War II (New York, 1948); E. Grant Meade, American Military Government in Korea (New York, 1951); Truman, Memoirs; Secretary of Defense, "Report to the President of the United States on Operations in Korea."

2. Unified Defense

         Millis, The Forrestal Diaries, Arms and Men, Arms and the State; Truman, Memoirs; House Committee on the Armed Services, Hearings on Unification and Strategy; Hammond, "Missions of the Services." S. P. Huntington, "National Policy and the Transoceanic Navy," 80 U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 483–93, has some interesting comments on the theoretical difficulties of the period.

3. The Estimate of the Situation

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 7, Intelligence); Truman, Memoirs; Goodrich, Korea; Montross and Canzona, U.S. Marine Operations in Korea (hereafter USMC Operations), I.

Chapter 3. War Begins

1. The Decision to lntervene

         Secretary of Defense Report; Senate Armed Services and Foreign Relations Committees, Hearings on The Military Situation in the Far East; Lichterman, "To the Yalu and Back"; Truman, Memoirs; Department of State, American Foreign Policy 1950—1955; A. L. Warner, "How the Korea Decision was Made," Harper’s Magazine, June 1951.

2. The Far East Command

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USAF Histories; USMC Operations, I; War Diaries of CarDiv 3, CruDiv 5.

3. The First Days of Naval Action

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations; Annex A, ComNavFE Staff History); Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USAF Histories; NavFE Operation Orders 4-50, 5-50, 7-50, 8-50; Seventh Fleet Operation Order 6-50; War Diaries of ROK Navy, CarDiv 3, CruDiv 5, Juneau, DeHaven, Mansfield; Action Reports of Juneau (24 June–6 July), Suisun.

4. Air Strikes, Coastal Bombardment, Flank Patrols

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations; Annex A, ComNavFE Staff History; JJ, ComSubPac Submarine Operations); Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USAF Histories; NavFE Operation Order 6-50; Seventh Fleet Operation Plan 1-50, Operation Orders 6-50, 7-50; War Diaries of CarDiv 3, CruDiv 5, Juneau; ComCarDiv 1, Report of Task Force 77 Operations During the Korean Campaign (hereafter ComCarDiv I Action Report); Action Report of Juneau (24 June–6 July).

Chapter 4. Help on the Way

2. Troops and Supplies

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Annexes FF, ComWestSeaFron Narrative; GG, DepComMSTSPac Report; HH, DepComMSTSWestPac Report); Department of the Army, Korea 1950.

3. Fighting Ships

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Annexes T, U, ComAirPac Reports; EE, ComServPac Evaluation) War Diaries of CruDiv 3, Helena, Badoeng Strait, Sicily.

4. Naval Logistics

         CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 7, Logistics; Annex EE, ComServPac Evaluation), II.

5. The Marine Brigade

         CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Annexes V, ComAdComPhibPac Narrative; Z, FMFPac Report; DD, 1st MarDiv Report); USMC Operations, I; War Diary of Badoeng Strait.

6. Air Transport and Air Reinforcement

         Secretary of Defense Report; USAF Histories; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Annexes T, U, ComAirPac Reports; W, FlogAirWingPac Report; FF, ComWestSeaFron Narrative); Boxer, Overall Report of Activities, 1 July–31 December 1950.

Chapter 5. Into the Perimeter

1. The Korean Theater

         In hydrographic matters, here and throughout the book, I have relied on Sailing Directions for the Southeast Coast of Siberia and Korea (Hydrographic Office Publication 122B, Washington, 1951) and on the relevant H.O. charts; for Korean topography I have used the maps of the Army Map Service, Corps of Engineers, to the scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:250,000. Korean place names have been employed throughout, with but a single exception: up in the high country I have followed the Marines in referring to the Chosin (rather than the Changjin) Reservoir, and in calling the town Hagaru (instead of Changjin). Secretary of Defense Report; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, I.

2. East Coast Bombardment

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations); War Diaries of CruDiv 5, Juneau, Mansfield; Action Report of Juneau (7–23 July).

3. The Pohang Landing

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 5, Amphibious and Ground Operations; Annexes AA, ComPhibGru I Report; HH, DepComMSTSWestPac Report); USAF Histories; NavFE Operation Orders 9-50, 10-50; War Diary of PhibGru I.

4. Seventh Fleet Operations

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 3, Naval Air Operations; Annex B, ComSeventh Fleet Narrative); USAF Histories; NavFE Operation Order 10-50; Seventh Fleet Operation Orders 9-50, 11-50, and Operation Plan 9-50; War Diaries of ROK Navy, CarDiv3, Fleet Air Wing 1; Action Reports of ComCarDiv 1, Carrier Air Group 5 (18–19 July).

5. Patrol Planes and Gunnery Ships

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 3, Naval Air Operations; Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations; Annexes D, ComFairWing 6 Report; H, VP 47 Report; Q-2, ComCruDiv 3 History); NavFE Operation Order 12-50; War Diaries of ROK Navy, CruDiv 3, CruDiv 5, Helena, Juneau; Action Report of Juneau.

6. The Marines Arrive

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Annexes B, ComSeventh Fleet Narrative; 5, ComCarDiv 15 Narrative; CC, 1st MAW Report; DD, 1st MarDiv Report); USMC Operations, I; NavFE Operation Order 14-50; War Diaries of Badoeng Strait, Sicily; Boxer, Overall Report of Activities (1 July–31 December).

Chapter 6. Holding the Line

1. The Perimeter Takes Form

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, I, II; GHQ, FEC, "History of the North Korean Army;" War Diary of ROK Navy.

2. Coastal Bombardment, The Problem of Carrier Air, and the Southern Spoiling Offensive

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPac Fleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 3, Naval Air Operations; Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations; Annexes Q-2, ComCruDiv 3 History; DD, 1st MarDiv Report); USMC Operations, I; USAF Histories; Seventh Fleet Operation Order 13-50; War Diaries of ROK Navy, CarDiv 3, CruDiv 3, CruDiv 5, Badoeng Strait, Sicily, Diachenko; Action Reports of ComCarDiv 1, Diachenko (4–5 August).

3. East Coast Interdiction. Pohang, and First Naktong

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 3, Naval Air Operations; Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations; Annexes JJ, ComSubPac Submarine Operations; Q-2, ComCruDiv 3 History); Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, I; USAF Histories; NavFE Operation Orders 11-50, 13-50; War Diaries of ROK Navy, CarDiv 3, CruDiv 3, CruDiv 5, Badoeng Strait, Sicily, Horace A. Bass; Action Reports of ComCarDiv I, Horace A. Bass (12–16 August).

4. Coastal Operations and Carrier Strikes

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 3, Naval Air Operations; Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations); Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USAF Histories; Seventh Fleet Operation Order 14-50; War Diaries of ROK Navy, CarDiv 3, CruDiv 3, CruDiv 5, Sicily; Action Report of ComCarDiv I.

 

5. The Enemy’s Big Blast

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (as above); Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, I; USAF Histories; War Diaries of CarDiv 3, CruDiv 3, CruDiv5, Badoeng Strait, Sicily; Action Report of ComCarDiv I. For the affair of the Russian bomber, ComCarDiv I (CTF 77) Special Action Report of 6 September 1950, and enclosures; War Diary of Herbert J. Thomas; New York Times, 5–9 September 1950.

Chapter 7. Back to the Parallel

1. Preparing the Counterstroke

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 3, Naval Air Operations; Vol. 5, Amphibious and Ground Operations; Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations, Mine Warfare; Vol. 8, Intelligence; Annexes B, ComSeventhFleet Narrative; AA, ComPhibGru I Report); NavFE Command and Historical Report, September–November 1950; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, II; USAF Histories; Senate Hearings on The Military Situation in the Far East; NavFE Operation Plan 108-50; Seventh Fleet Operation Plan 9-50; Amphibious Group I Operation Order 14-50; War Diaries of Amphibious Group I, Badoeng Strait, Horace A. Bass, McKean; Action Reports of Seventh Fleet (JTF 7), Horace A. Bass (20–25 August).

2. North to Inchon

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 3, Naval Air Operations; Vol. 4, Marine Air Operations; Vol. 5, Amphibious and Ground Operations; Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations; Vol 7, Logistics; Annexes AA, ComPhibGru I Report; DD, 1st Mardiv Report); NavFE Command and Historical Report, Sept.–Nov. 1950; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, II; USAF Histories; Flag Officer Second in Command Far Eastern Station, Report of Proceedings, 1–14 Sept. 1950; War Diaries of ROK Navy, Amphibious Group 1, Transron 1, Fleet Air Wing I, LSR Division 11, Horace A. Bass, Manchester, Sicily, Badoeng Strait; Action Reports of Seventh Fleet (JTF 7), ComCarDiv 1, Advance Attack Group, Naval Beach Group 1, Tacron 1, Minron 3.

3. The Clearance of South Korea

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 6, Surface and Covering Operations, Mine Warfare; Annexes Q-1, ComUN Blockading and Escort Force Evaluation; Q-2, ComCruDiv 3 History; AA, ComPhibGru I Report); NavFE Command and Historical Report, Sept.– Nov. 1950; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations II; USAF Histories; GHQ, FEC, "History of the North Korean Army;" Flag Officer Second in Command Far Eastern Station, Consolidated Report of Proceedings, Sept. 1950–Nov. 1951 (hereafter FOSICFES Report); War Diaries of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, ROK Navy, CruDiv 3, Amphibious Group 1, Horace A. Bass, Missouri, Manchester; Action Report of Seventh Fleet (JTF 7); Perch, Report of Raid.

Chapter 8. On to the Border

1. Planning the Wonsan Landing

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report I (Annexes B, ComSeventh Fleet Narrative; AA, ComPhibGru I Report); NavFE Command and Historical Report, Sept.–Nov. 1950; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, III; USAF Histories; Senate Hearings on The Military Situation in the Far East; Lichterman, "To the Yalu and Back ;" Goodrich, Korea; NavFE Operation Plan 113-50; Seventh Fleet Operation Order 16-50, Operation Plan 1950; Amphibious Group I Operation Order 16-50; Commander D. N. Clay, Trip Report, 18 Oct. 1950; War Diaries of Bass and Wantuck; Action Reports of Seventh Fleet (JTF 7), ComCarDiv 1.

2. The Opening of Wonsan and Chinnampo.

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 6, Mine Warfare); NavFE Command and Historical Report, Sept.–Nov. 1950; FOSICFES Report; War Diaries of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, ROK Navy, Minron 3, Forrest Royal; Action Report of Seventh Fleet (JTF 7); Pirate and Pledge, Reports of Sinking.

3. Operations in Eastern North Korea

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, I (Vol. 5, Amphibious and Ground Operations; Vol. 6, Mine Warfare; Annexes AA, ComPhibGru I Report; DD, 1st MarDiv Report); NavFE Command and Historical Report, Sept.–Nov. 1950; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, III; USAF Histories; War Diaries of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, ROK Navy, Minron 3; Action Reports of Seventh Fleet (JTF 7), Amphibious Group 3, Tacron 3.

4. New Plans and New Problems

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, I (Annex AA, ComPhibGru I Report), II; NavFE Command and Historical Report, Sept.–Nov. 1950; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, III; USAF Histories; Goodrich, Korea; Truman, Memoirs; Senate Hearings on The Military Situation in the Far East; Lichterman, "To the Yalu and Back ;" FOSICFES Report; War Diaries of ROK Navy, Philippine Sea, Bataan, Badoeng Strait, Sicily; Action Reports of Seventh Fleet (1 Nov.—26 Dec. 1950), ComCarDiv 1, Valley Forge, Philippine Sea; Joy Papers.

Chapter 9. Retreat to the South

1. Defeat in the West

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, I (Annex AA, ComPhibGru I Report), II; NavFE Command and Historical Report, Dec. 1950; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, III; USAF Histories; Senate Hearings on The Military Situation in the Far East; NavFE Operation Plan 116-50; FOSICFES Report; War Diaries of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, ROK Navy, Amphibious Group 3, Transron 1, Forrest Royal; Action Reports of Seventh Fleet (1 Nov.—26 Dec. 1950), ComCardiv I.

2. The Campaign at the Reservoir

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, I (Annex DD, 1st MarDiv Report), II; NavFE Command and Historical Report, Dec. 1950; USMC Operations, III; USAF Histories; War Diary of CarDiv 1; Action Reports of Seventh Fleet (1 Nov.–26 Dec. 1950), ComCarDiv 1, Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron 2 (in Action Report of 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, Wonsan-Hungnam).

3. Concentration in the East

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, I (Annex AA, ComPhibGru I Report), II; NavFE Command and Historical Report, Dec. 1950; Department of the Army, Korea 1950; USMC Operations, III; USAF Histories; Seventh Fleet Operation Order 18-50; War Diaries of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, TransDiv 11, Noble; Action Report of Seventh Fleet (1 Nov.–26 Dec. 1950).

4. The Evacuation of Hungnam

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, I (Annex AA, ComPhibGru I Report), II; NavFE Command and Historical Report, Dec. 1950; USMC Operations, III; USAF Histories; NavFE Operation Plan 116-50; Amphibious Group I Operation Order 20-50; War Diaries of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, ROK Navy, Transron I; Action Reports of Seventh Fleet (1 Nov.–26 Dec. 1950), ComCarDiv 1, Tacron 1.

5. The Second Chinese Offensive

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, II; NavFE Command and Historical Reports, Dec. 1950, Jan. 1951; Department of the Army, Korea 1950, Korea 1951–1953; USAF Histories; Senate Hearings on The Military Situation in the Far East; Lichterman, "To the Yalu and Back ;" Truman, Memoirs; Whitney, MacArthur; Seventh Fleet Operation Orders 19-50, 20-50; FOSICFES Report; War Diaries of Seventh Fleet, U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, Amphibious Group 3, Horace A. Bass; Action Reports of ComCarDiv 1, Amphibious Group 3.

Chapter 10. The Second Six Months

1. Back to the Han

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, II; NavFE Command and Historical Report, Feb. 1951; Department of the Army, Korea 1951–1953; USAF Histories; FOSICFES Report; War Diaries of Seventh Fleet, U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, Amphibious Group 3, CruDiv 1, Horace A. Bass.

2. On to the Parallel

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, II; NavFE Command and Historical Report, March, April, 1951; Department of the Army, Korea 1951–1953; USAF Histories; Truman, Memoirs; Senate Hearings on The Military Situation in the Far East; NavFE Operation Order 3-51; FOSICEES Report; War Diaries of Seventh Fleet, U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, Amphibious Group 3, Missouri; Action Report of Seventh Fleet (28 March 1951–3 March 1952), CTF 74 (Sorye Dong).

3. The Communist Spring Offensive

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, II, III; NavFE Command and Historical Report, April, May, 1951; Department of the Army, Korea 19511953; USAF Histories; FOSICFES Report; War Diaries of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, Amphibious Group 3; Action Report of Seventh Fleet (March 1951–March 1952), Princeton (on Hwachon Dam).

4. North to Kaesong

         Secretary of Defense Report; CincPacFleet Evaluation Report, III; NavFE Command and Historical Reports, June, July, 1951; Department of the Army, Korea 19511953; USAF Histories; FOSICFES Report; War Diary of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force; Action Report of Seventh Fleet (March 1951–March 1952); Walke, Report of Mining.

Chapter 11. Problems of a Policeman

2. Operating Problems

         The functional organization and the systematic arrangement of conclusions and recommendations in the CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports make these the most useful single source; some of these reports have extensive special sections on personnel problems. The NavFE files and the papers of Admirals Joy and Ofstie contain relevant items.

3. Logistic Support

         Logistic sections of CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, I-VI; information from W. H. Marlow, Principal Investigator, Logistics Research Project, The George Washington University.

4. Interservice Coordination and the Air Problem

         The most inclusive sources are the CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, especially I (for close support), II (for interdiction), and VI; the classified and unclassified Air Force Histories; and the Action Report of ComCarDiv1. The NavFE files contain a series of letters and memoranda on the close support question, as do the papers of Admirals Joy and Ofstie. The action reports of Tacron i for Inchon and Hungnam, and of Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron 2 for the Chosin Reservoir campaign are important. The end of the story may be investigated in: "Report on Joint Air-Ground Operations Conference held at Headquarters, Fifth Air Force, Seoul, Korea, 8–22 August 1953," and in Joint Tactical Air Support Board, Fort Bragg, N.C., "Special Report Pertaining to Project No. 2-53 ‘To Establish Joint Doctrine and Procedures Governing Command, Employment, and Control of Tactical Air Forces in Support of Ground Forces.’"

5. The Larger Picture

         On the Formosa patrol: Seventh Fleet Operation Order 15-50; War Diaries of ComCruDiv I, Juneau, Fleet Air Wing 1. For the submarine problem, see the CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports; the NavFE files contain reports of ASW actions and correspondence on this subject. For patrol plane operations see the relevant sections of CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports. On the other side of the world, Annual Reports of CincLantFleet; H. L. Ismay, NATO, the First Five Years, 1949–1954 (Paris? 1954?); CincNELM, Report of Operations, 1 July–1 November 1950. The Office of Naval History has compiled a chronology of Mediterranean naval operations subsequent to World War II.

6. Into the Future

         Almost all this information on ship and aircraft development is available in unclassified sources, notably Jane’s Fighting Ships and All the World’s Aircraft. The Joy and Ofstie papers contain some correspondence on the implications of the Korean experience for new construction.

Chapter 12. Two More Years

         The important general sources for the entire chapter are the 4,612 pages of CincPacFleet Evaluation Reports, III–VI; the ten file-drawer inches of monthly NavFE Command and Historical Reports, July 1951–July 1953; and the Reports of the two Seventh Fleet commanders, Admirals Martin and Clark, covering the periods 28 March 1951–3 March 1952 and May 1952–July 1953. For the other services, Department of the Army, Korea 1951–1953, and the USAF Histories. For the armistice negotiations, Vatcher, Panmunjom.

1. Stabilized Front and Peripheral War

         War Diaries of U.N. Blockading and Escort Force, ROK Navy, Transdiv 13, New Jersey; FOSICFES Report; 41st Independent Commando, Report of Proceedings; Ofstie papers; Joy notes on armistice negotiations. On the Battle of the Buzz Saw, Action Reports of ComDesDiv 132, Blue, Cunningham, O’Brien (17 July 1951).

2. Stalemate

         The NavFE files contain a study of the interdiction question of 28 April 1952, made in response to a CincFE query of 12 March; material on interdiction also exists in the Ofstie papers. On the transfer of the Marine Division, War Diary of Amphibious Group I; on the Kojo demonstration, Action Report of Amphibious Group 3; on the engagement with the MIGs, Action Reports of Oriskany, Kearsarge, and Helena, and an account in the ONI Review, February 1953.

3. Progress, Crisis, Conclusion

         On the last minute redeployments, War Diary of Amphibious Group 1; on the loss of the B-50, War Diary of CruDiv 3, Action Report of ComCarDiv 3 (27 July–1 August 1953), Department of State, American Foreign Policy 19511955.


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6 July 2001