Captain John Barry
1745 - 1803
Portrait of Captain John Barry
John Barry followed the sea from childhood, and at the breaking out of the hostilities between England and the Colonies, offered his services to Congress. His ship the Black Prince was purchased by the Government and named Alfred, in which John Paul Jones, as a Lieutenant, first hoisted the American (Grand Union) Flag.
Captain Barry was given command of Lexington, of 14 guns, on 7 December 1775. The Lexington sailed 31 March 1776. On 7 April 1776, off the Capes of Virginia, he fell in with the Edward, tender to the British man-of-war Liverpool, and after a desperate fight of one hour and twenty minutes captured her and brought her into Philadelphia. Barry continued in command of Lexington until 18 October 1776, and captured several private armed vessels during that time.
His next command was the Effingham, to which Congress had appointed him on 6 June 1776 while she was being built. On this ship he was actively and successfully employed guarding the Delaware Bay and Capes.
10 October 1776. Congress established the relative rank of officers of the Continental Navy and placed the name of John Barry No. 7 on the list of captains.
December 1776. Barry, having recruited a company of volunteers for land service, took part in the Trenton campaign. These volunteers and the marines cooperating with them were commended by General Washington. Barry acted as an aide to General Cadwalader, and was sent on several occasions as a bearer of important dispatches. His next duty was assisting in the defense of Philadelphia and operations in the upper Delaware. When the British took possession of Philadelphia in September 1777, Captain Barry was ordered to take the uncompleted Continental frigate Effingham up the Delaware River to a place of safety. In October, the ship was ordered sunk or burned. She was sunk on 2 November, near Bordentown, New Jersey, to deny her use to the British.
7 March 1778. He captured the armed schooner Alert of 20 guns, and two ships loaded with supplies for the British Army.
Barry next commanded the Raleigh, 32 guns. He sailed from Boston 25 September 1778, and two days later was chased and attacked by three of his Brittanic Majesty's vessels. After a nine hours running fight, he was obliged to run the Raleigh ashore on an island near the mouth of Penobscot Bay, but escaped to the mainland with most of his crew. Though he lost his ship, he was highly commended for the gallantry.
The privateer Delaware of 10 guns was the next ship assigned to Captain Barry.
In November 1780, Barry was ordered to command the Alliance, 32 guns, and took John Laurens, Special Commissioner, to France. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining a crew, this ship did not sail until 11 February 1781. On the passage to France, she captured the Privateer Alert of 12 guns. On the return voyage the Privateer Mars, 26 guns; and Minerva, 10 guns were made prizes.
29 May 1781. After several hours fighting, Barry captured H.B.M.S. Atlanta, 20 guns, and later the Trepassy, 14 guns. During the engagement with the Atlanta, Barry was wounded. He continued in command of the Alliance, capturing numerous prizes in 1782.
March 1783. The last Naval engagement of the Revolutionary War was fought by Barry in the Alliance against the British man-of-war Sybylle of 28 guns. Though the ship surrendered to him he was obliged to abandon it to escape from the rest of the squadron of which she was a part. At the time of the fight with the Sybylle, Barry was convoying the Duc de Lauzane, carrying money and supplies from the West Indies to the United States. His action enabled her to escape and reach port safely.
After the close of Revolutionary War, Captain Barry made several voyages in merchant vessels.
Upon reorganization of the Navy, 5 June 1794, Captain Barry was appointed No. 1 on the list of Captains. His commission was signed by General Washington, dated 22 February 1797. He was ordered to superintend the building of the frigate United States, 44 guns, and to command her when finished. He was actively engaged in the Naval War with France, 1798-1801 and captured a number of French vessels in the West Indies. By the direction of the Navy Department he brought the United States to Washington, where she was laid up. This ended Barry's active service. He was employed in testing cannon for the Government 1801-1802, and was selected to command the Mediterranean Squadron, but was too ill to take the duty. He died at his country residence near Philadelphia (Strawberry Hill).
Source: Adapted from "Naval Service of Captain
John Barry," Navy Office of Information, 1969, located in
John Barry ZB file, box 12, Navy Department Library.
American National Biography. Vol.2. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. [See "Barry, John," pp. 250-252.].
Benz, Francis E. Commodore Barry, Navy Hero. New York: Dodd Mead, 1950.
"A Biographical Sketch of Commodore John Barry." The Port Folio 2, no.1 (Jul. 1813): 1-10.
Clark, William Bell. Gallant John Barry, 1745-1803: The Story of a Naval Hero of Two Wars. New York: Macmillan Company, 1938. [an excellent biography].
Clark, William Bell, William James Morgan, and Michael J. Crawford eds. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. 10 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1964-.
Fink, Leo Gregory. Barry or Jones, "Father of the United States Navy." Philadelphia, PA: Jefferies & Manz, 1962.
Griffin, Martin I.J. The Commodores of the Navy of the United
Colonies: Hopkins, Jones, Barry. Philadelphia, PA: The Library
Pub. Co., 1905.
Gurn, Joseph. Commodore John Barry: Father of the American Navy. New York: P.J. Kennedy & Sons, 1933.
Knox, Dudley W. ed. Naval Documents Related to the Quasi-War Between the United States and France. 7 vols. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1935-1938.
____. Naval Documents Related to the United States Wars with the Barbary Powers. 6 vols. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1939-1944.
McManemin, John A. Captains of the Continental Navy. Ho-Ho-Kus, NJ: Ho-Ho-Kus Pub. Co., 1981. [see pp. 21-64].
Meany, William Barry. Commodore John Barry, the Father of the American Navy: A Survey of Extraordinary Episodes in His Naval Career. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1911.
Reed, May Beth and Dorothy Schneider. The Barry-Hayes Papers: A Descriptive Guide. Philadelphia, PA: Philadelphia Maritime Museum Library, 1991.
Reilly, Richard M. Commodore John Barry: Father of the American Navy. Lancaster, PA: New Era Printing Co., 1906.
Wibberley, Leonard. John Barry, Father of the Navy. New York: Ariel Books, 1957.
Related Document in the Navy Department Library
ALS dated 26 May 1797, Strawberry Hill, N.J. To Doctor John Bullus. Regarding Bullus's unsuccessful efforts to gain a commission as Surgeon's Mate.