Illustration: U.S. Army soldiers board a transport for Cuba. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.
591. Atwater, William F. "United States Army and Navy Development of Joint Landing Operations, 1898-1942." Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 1986. 227 pp.
Chapter 1, "Identifying the Problem, 1898-1919," discusses "the lack of a landing doctrine for the use of large joint Army and Navy landing expeditions."
592. Balfour, Sebastian. The End of the Spanish Empire, 1898-1923. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. 269 pp.
A global account, based on Spanish sources, of the loss of Spain's last old colonies. An important scholarly work that focuses on the disaster for Spain and its domestic repercussions.
593. Birkheimer, William F. "Transportation of Troops by Sea." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States 23 (1898): 438-46.
Lessons drawn from the experience of transportation of soldiers to the Philippines in a ship named Ohio that departed San Francisco on 26 June 1898.
594. Boies, H. M. "The Defense of a Free People, in the Light of the Spanish War." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States 24 (1899): 15-27.
Argues that Americans should prepare to bear responsibilities as a world power, and should strengthen and reform the Army, Navy, and National Guard, in light of the experience of the Spanish-American War.
595. Clarke, G. S. "The War and Its Lessons." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 26 (1900): 127-41.
Primarily a discussion of strategic lessons of the war by a British army officer.
596. Columb, Philip Howard. "The Lessons of the Spanish-American War." Journal of the Royal United Service Institution 43 (1899), 420-51.
597. _____. Naval Warfare: Its Ruling Principles and Practice Historically Treated. London: W. H. Allen, 1899. 471 pp., plus appendix of 51 pp.
Chapter 20 is an appendix on lessons to be learned from the Spanish-American War. Colomb was a British vice admiral and lecturer on naval strategy and tactics at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich.
598. Concas y Palau, Victor María. Sobre las enseñanzas de la guerra hispano-americana. Bilbao, Spain: E. Rodríguez, 1900. 37 pp.
An apology for Spanish naval operations during the war, written in response to criticisms published by foreign pundits, in particular Sr. Bonamico, "Insegnamenti della Guerra Ispano-Americano," in Revista Maritima Italiana (October 1900).
599. Darrieus, Gabriel. War on the Sea, Strategy and Tactics: Basic Principles. Translated by Philip R. Alger. Annapolis, Md.: United States Naval Institute, 1908. 321 pp. Translation of La guerre sur mer, stratégie et tactique: la doctrine. Paris: A. Challeamel, 1907. 465 pp. Also in War on the Sea, and Extracts from The Genius of Naval Warfare, I and II, by Gabriel Darrieus and René Daveluy, translated by Philip R. Alger. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1920. 550 pp.
See chapter 4, "The War between Spain and the United States." Darrieus was professor of naval strategy and tactics at the École supérieure de Guerre de la Marine.
600. Ellicott, John M. Effect of the Gun Fire of the United States Vessels in the Battle of Manila Bay (May 1, 1898). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899. 13 pp. Reprint "Effect of Gunfire in the Battle of Manila Bay." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (1899): 323-34.
Reprinted with seven other essays by the U.S. Navy Department, Office of Naval Intelligence as War Note No. 5 in Information from Abroad (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898-1899). Lieutenant Ellicott served as an intelligence officer on board USS Baltimore during the campaign for Manila Bay. The essay describes the actions of each of the Spanish ships during the battle and details the damage done to each one by American gunnery.
601. Gómez Núñez, Severo. La guerra hispano-americana: Barcos, cañones y fusiles. Madrid: Ipr. Del Cuerpo de Artillería, 1899. 160 pp.
Includes studies of the effectiveness of naval gunfire.
602. Langley, Harold D. "Windfalls of War." Naval History 12 (May/June 1998): 27-31.
Discusses the allocation of bounty and prize money after the war and the effect controversies arising from the practice had on halting monetary awards.
603. Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Lessons of the War with Spain, and Other Articles. Boston: Little, Brown, 1899. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970. 320 pp.
Mahan intended that this popular treatment of the lessons would promote an elementary understanding of naval warfare and provide a rallying point for the establishment of sound public opinion on naval matters. Additional articles include, "The Peace Conference and the Moral Aspect of War," "The Relations of the United States to their New Dependencies," "Distinguishing Qualities of Ships of War," and "Current Fallacies upon Naval Subjects."
604. Ortega, José Varela. "Aftermath of Splendid Disaster: Spanish Politics before and after the Spanish American War of 1898." Journal of Contemporary History 15 (1980): 317-44.
Includes discussion of mutual influence of domestic politics and naval strategy on each other.
605. Paullin, Charles Oscar. "American Navy in the Orient in Recent Years." Annapolis, Md.: United States Naval Institute Proceedings 37 (1911): 1137-76; 38 (1912): 87-116.
See vol. 38, pp. 87-105, "The Spanish-American War in the Philippine Islands, 1898."
606. Roosevelt, Theodore. "Military Preparedness and Unpreparedness." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States 26 (1900): 58-68.
The U.S. Navy won its battles handily because of years of preparation; the U.S. Army had to overcome unpreparedness "by sheer dogged courage and hard fighting."
607. Santala, Russel D. Operational Art in the Spanish-American War: An Analysis of the American Way of War in a Major Regional Contingency. Fort Leavenworth, Kan.: School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1994. 53 pp.
Compares the development of operational art and the relative effectiveness in achieving strategic objectives by the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy.
608. U.S. Congress. Senate. A Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain. 55th Cong., 3d sess., 1899. S. Doc. 62.
Also published as U.S. Congress. Senate. A Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain. Message from the President of the United States, Transmitting a Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain: Signed at the City of Paris, on December 10, 1898. Accompanying Papers. 55th Cong., 3d sess., 1899. [Confidential] Executive B, part 2. 677 pp.
609. U.S. Congress. Senate. Report of the Commission Appointed by the President to Investigate the Conduct of the War Department in the War with Spain. 56th Cong., 1st sess., 1900. S. Doc. 221. 8 vols.
Also published as Report of the Commission Appointed by the President to Investigate the Conduct of the War Department in the War with Spain. 8 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899.
610. Wainwright, Richard. "The Spanish-American War: Some of the Problems Presented and How They Were Solved." United Service, 3d ser., 1 (1902): 1-11.
611. Washburn, H. C. "The War with Spain: A Study of Past Performances." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 43 (1917): 1391-1416.
The lessons of war preparedness.
30 November 1998