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DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
805 KIDDER BREESE SE -- WASHINGTON NAVY YARD
WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060

The Spanish-American War
Historical Overview and Select Bibliography

Michael J. Crawford, Mark L. Hayes and Michael D. Sessions


Special Subjects

Illustration: German warships in Manila Bay caused Rear Admiral Dewey some anxiety. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

Contents:

Blacks in the Navy

416. Bond, Horace M. "The Negro in the Armed Forces of the United States prior to World War I." Journal of Negro Education 12 (Summer 1943): 268-87.

Coverage begins with the Revolutionary War and carries through the Spanish-American War, with only a paragraph on the Navy in the latter war.

417. Gatewood, William B., Jr. Black Americans and the White Man's Burden, 1898-1903. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975. 352 pp.

Includes a chapter on the service of African Americans in the Spanish-American War.

418. Nalty, Bernard C. Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military. New York: Free Press, 1986. 424 pp.

See chapters 5, "To Hell with Spain," and 6, "A Great White Fleet."

Diplomatic Relations

419. Bailey, Thomas A. "America's Emergence as a World Power: The Myth and the Verity." Pacific Historical Review 30 (1961): 1-16.

The United States emerged as a world power in 1776, not 1898. The latter year was not a sharp break with the past.

420. _____. "Dewey and the Germans at Manila Bay." American Historical Review 45 (October 1939): 59-81.

Concludes that friction developed from American misunderstanding of German motives. The German fleet's commander had no intention of interfering with the American blockade, but his insistence on exercising his rights as a neutral "gave a sinister aspect" to his actions.

421. _____. "The United States and Hawaii during the Spanish-American War." American Historical Review 36 (1931), 552-60.

Concludes that despite danger of reprisals from Spain for violations of neutrality, the Hawaiian government, in hopes of annexation, rendered every assistance to the U.S. military. The war hastened annexation, which may have been delayed for years without it.

422. Benton, Elbert Jay. International Law and Diplomacy of the Spanish-American War. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Press, 1908. Reprint. Gloucester, Mass.: P. Smith, 1968. 300 pp.

Provides an American perspective on the relations between the United States and Spain during the Cuban Insurrection and Spanish-American War with an emphasis on international law.

423. Bolton, Grania. "Military Diplomacy and National Liberation: Insurgent-American Relations after the Fall of Manila." Military Affairs 36 (1972): 99-104.

American inexperience with national liberation movements and narrow focus on immediate military requirements, rather than on the long-term political picture, led to deterioration of relations and finally war with the Philippine insurgents.

424. Callicott, Wilfred H. The Caribbean Policy of the United States: 1890-1920. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Press, 1942.

See chapter 2, "Assuming the Burden of Empire: Imperialism through War."

425. Challener, Richard D. Admirals, Generals and American Foreign Policy, 1898-1914. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973. 433 pp.

426. Connor, William P. "Insular Empire: Politics and Strategy in the Pacific Ocean, 1870-1900," Ph.D. diss., Emory University, 1976. 499 pp.

427. Diederichs, Otto von. "A Statement of Events in Manila, May-October, 1898." Journal of the Royal United Service Institution 59 (1914): 421-46.

An account by the commanding officer of the German cruiser squadron on the Far Eastern Station. Includes text of correspondence between Dewey and von Diederichs.

428. Dobson, John M. America's Ascent: The United States Becomes a Great Power, 1880-1914. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1978. 251 pp.

429. _____. Reticent Expansionism: The Foreign Policy of William McKinley. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Duquesne University Press, 1988. 216 pp.

Explores the apparent contradiction between McKinley's personal reticence and the dynamic expansion of U.S. influence overseas during his presidency.

430. Ellicott, John M. "The Cold War between Von Diederichs and Dewey in Manila Bay." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 81 (1955): 1236-39.

Ellicott served as a lieutenant on board USS Baltimore during the campaign for Manila Bay.

431. Ferrara y Marino, Orestes. The Last Spanish War: Revelations in "Diplomacy." Translated by William E. Shea. New York: Paisley Press, 1937. 151 pp.

432. Foner, Philip S. The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism, 1895-1902. 2 vols. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972.

433. Goodrich, W. W. "Questions of International Law Involved in the Spanish War." American Law Review 32 (1898): 481-500.

434. Gottschall, Terrell Dean. "Germany and the Spanish-American War: A Case Study of Navalism and Imperialism, 1898." Ph.D. diss., Washington State University, 1981. 164 pp.

435. Gould, Lewis L. The Spanish-American War and President McKinley. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1982. 164 pp.

Analyzes how McKinley's policy influenced the coming of the war and its conduct, peace negotiations, and acquisition of territory.

436. Grenville, John A. S. "Diplomacy and War Plans in the United States, 1890-1917." Royal Historical Society. Transactions. 5th ser. (1961): 1-21.

437. Grenville, John A. S., and George Berkeley Young. Politics, Strategy, and American Diplomacy: Studies in Foreign Policy, 1873-1917. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966. 352 pp.

See especially chapter 9, "The Breakdown of Neutrality: McKinley Goes to War with Spain," and chapter 10, "The Influence of Strategy upon History: The Acquisition of the Philippines."

438. Healy, David F. Drive to Hegemony: The United States in the Caribbean, 1898-1917. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988. 370 pp.

See chapter 3, "War in Cuba and Its Fruits."

439. Laing, E. A. M. "Admiral Dewey and the Foreign Warships at Manila, 1989." Mariner's Mirror 52 (1966): 167-71.

Dewey's relations with foreign naval commanders protecting their nationals and property after the Battle of Manila Bay. Written from the point of view of the senior Royal Navy officer present, Captain Sir Edward Chichester.

440. McCutcheon, John T. "The Battle of Manila Bay." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 66 (1940): 843-45.

McCutcheon was a correspondent for the Chicago Record on board USS Olympia during the campaign for Manila Bay. His article concerns tensions between the Germans and Americans at Manila Bay in the weeks following the battle with the Spanish.

441. Morgan, H. Wayne. America's Road to Empire: The War with Spain and Overseas Expansion. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1965. Reprint. New York: McGraw Hill, 1993. 124 pp.

Discusses the diplomatic and foreign policy goals of the United States during this period. The author argues that U.S. actions were not forced by public opinion but were carefully weighed and motivated by national self-interests.

442. Neale, R. G. Great Britain and United States Expansion. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1966. 230 pp.

443. Offner, John L. "The United States and France: Ending the Spanish-American War." Diplomatic History 7 (1983): 1-21.

McKinley successfully staved off any European pressure to counter American peace terms. Because McKinley's goals were not incompatible with France's objective of limiting U.S. involvement in the Mediterranean and in Europe in general, the two nations were able to act together to end the Spanish-American War.

444. _____. An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba, 1895-1898. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. 306 pp.

445. Ranson, Edward. "British Military and Naval Observers in the Spanish-American War." Journal of American Studies 3 (1969): 33-56.

Based on the reports of British military and naval attachés with Spanish and American forces in the Cuban campaign.

446. Reid, Whitelaw. Making Peace with Spain: The Diary of Whitelaw Reid, September-December, 1898. Edited by H. Wayne Morgan. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1965. 276 pp.

447. Shippee, Lester Burrell. "Germany and the Spanish American War." American Historical Review 30 (1925): 754-77.

Concludes that Germany never had any serious intention of confronting Dewey over the Philippines and that "there was never any real danger of war between the United States and Germany" over the friction between the two fleets at Manila.

448. Spain. Ministerio de Estado. Disposiciónes de España y de los Estados Unidos referentes á la guerra y declaraciónes de neutralidad. Madrid: Tipo-litografía de R. Péant, 1898. 131 pp.

Texts of the regulations regarding the maritime rights of neutrals adopted by Spain and the United States, of documents relating to the adhesion of the belligerents to the additional articles (20 October 1868) of the Geneva Convention (22 August 1864), and of the declarations of neutrality of twenty-four countries in Europe, Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Published by royal order of 26 July 1898.

449. Torre del Río, Rosario de la. Inglaterra y España en 1898. Madrid: Eudema, 1988. 344 pp.

Treats the diplomatic relations between Spain and England in relation to the Spanish-American War, including topics important to the naval campaigns such as British policy on ships of the belligerent nations in Canadian and other British ports, the passage of Camara's squadron through the Suez Canal, commerce in arms and munitions, use of British telegraph cables by the belligerents, and assistance to Dewey's squadron.

450. U.S. Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States with Annual Message of the President: Transmitted to Congress, December 5, 1898. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1901. 1,191 pp.

451. U.S. Department of State. Proclamations and Decrees during the War with Spain. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899. 100 pp.

Primarily proclamations and decrees of neutrality by various nations, but includes proclamations by President McKinley and decrees of Spain.

452. Wildman, Edwin. "What Dewey Feared in Manila Bay as Revealed by His Letters." The Forum 59 (1918): 513-35.

The author, U.S. vice and deputy consul general at Hong Kong in 1898-1899, examines Dewey's concerns about Spanish naval deployments, the activities of Emilio Aguinaldo, and especially the German cruiser squadron. He includes the several letters sent to him by Dewey during the spring and summer of 1898.

Intelligence

453. Dorwart, Jeffery Michael. The Office of Naval Intelligence: The Birth of America's First Intelligence Agency, 1865-1918. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1979. 173 pp.

Institutional history. Includes coverage of ONI's role in prewar planning and intelligence gathering during the war.

454. Green, James Robert. "The First Sixty Years of the Office of Naval Intelligence." Master's thesis, American University, 1963. 138 pp.

455. McGinty, Patrick Eugene. "Intelligence and the Spanish American War." Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1981. Reprint. 2 vols. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International, 1985. 470 pp.

456. Niblack, Albert Parker. The History and Aims of the Office of Naval Intelligence. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1920. 24 pp.

Marines

Illustration: U.S. Marines land at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, 10 June 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

457. Burks, Arthur J. "Recall in Cuba." Leatherneck 30 (December 1947): 58-59.

Reminiscences of Col. Enrique Thomas y Thomas, who commanded the Cuban insurgents who cooperated with U.S. forces in the capture of Guantánamo.

458. Butler, Smedley Darlington. General Smedley Darlington Butler: The Letters of a Leatherneck, 1898-1931. Edited by Anne Cipriano Venzon. New York: Praeger, 1992. 357 pp.

Butler arrived in Cuba too late in the campaign to see action.

459. Clifford, John D. "My Memories of Cuba." Leatherneck 12 (June 1929): 7, 54-55.

"Personal recollections of a Marine who was with the First Battalion at Guantánamo in 1898."

460. Collum, Richard S. History of the United States Marine Corps. New York: L. R. Hamersly, 1903. 454 pp.

Includes a register of officers, 1798-1903. Also includes letters and reports concerning the Marines in the Spanish-American War.

461. Crane, Stephen. "Marines Signalling under Fire at Guantanamo." McClure's 12 (1898-1899): 332-36.

462. Dieckman, Edward A., Sr. "The Saga of Sgt. Maj. John Quick: All Business." Marine Corps Gazette 47 (June 1963): 20-24.

Quick was awarded the Medal of Honor for combat heroism at the Battle of Cuzco Wells, Cuba.

463. Ellicott, John M. "Marines at Manila Bay." Marine Corps Gazette 39 (May 1953): 54-55.

Recounts service of Marines on board USS Baltimore, of whose forecastle division the author had charge.

464. Hanks, Carlos C. "Marines at Playa del Este." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 67 (1941): 1591-93.

Narrative of the capture of Guantánamo Bay.

465. Holden-Rhodes, J. F. "The Adventures of Henry Clay Cochrane: 'The Marines Would Stay'." Marine Corps Gazette 66 (November 1982): 69-70.

Cochrane was a brigade major at the taking of Guantánamo Bay.

466. _____. "'In Many a Strife...'" United States Naval Institute Proceedings 110 (November 1984): 78-83.

Narrative of the capture of Guantánamo Bay.

467. Hull, R. R. "Signal Encounter at Guantanamo." Naval History 12 (May/June 1998): 18-23.

Describes the important role signaling played in the successful operations of the First Marine Battalion during the war.

468. Keeler, Frank. The Journal of Frank Keeler, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 1898. Edited by Carolyn A. Tyson. Quantico, Va.: Marine Corps Museum, 1968. 50 pp.

Keeler served as an enlisted man in the First Marine Battalion during the war.

469. Kelly, David E. "The Marine Corps Prepares for War with Spain: The Formation of the 1st Marine Battalion." Marine Corps Gazette 82 (March 1998): 64-66.

470. _____. "With Dewey in the Philippines." Marine Corps Gazette 82 (April 1998): 66-71.

471. McClellan, Edwin N. "Pages of Marine Corps History: American Marines in Puerto Rico during the Spanish War." Marines Magazine 5 (February 1920): 11, 32.

The article consists principally of the official report of First Lieutenant Henry C. Haines, USMC, dated on board USS Dixie, Ponce, Puerto Rico, 28 July 1898.

472. Millett, Allan R. Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps. New York: Macmillan, 1980. 782 pp. Rev. and enl. New York: Free Press, 1991, 845 pp.

See chapter 5, "The Marine Corps and the New Navy, 1889-1909."

473. Nalty, Bernard C. The United States Marines in the War with Spain. Washington, D.C.: Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, United States Marine Corps, 1967. 20 pp.

474. Plante, Trevor K. "New Glory to Its Already Gallant Record: The First Marine Battalion in the Spanish-American War." Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives 30 (Spring 1998): 21-31.

475. Reber, John J. "Huntington's Battalion Was the Forerunner of Today's FMF." Marine Corps Gazette 63 (November 1979): 73-78.

Argues that the Marines' role in the capture of Guantánamo foreshadowed the Marine Corps' new mission in the twentieth century of establishing advanced naval bases, which would lead eventually to the Fleet Marine Force.

476. Schmidt, Hans. Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1987. 292 pp.

477. Shulimson, Jack. The Marine Corps' Search for a Mission, 1880-1898. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993. 274 pp.

478. Williams, Dion. "Thirty Years Ago." Marine Corps Gazette 13 (March, June 1928): 3-24, 91-111.

Brigadier General Williams, USMC, served as a Marine first lieutenant on board USS Baltimore during the war.

Medicine

Illustration: The Navy hospital ship USS Solace takes on supplies. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

Farenholt, A. See entry no. 256.

Redondo y Godiño, Juan. See entry no. 279.

479. Robinson, Albert G. The Hospital Ship in the War with Spain. N.p., 1898. 12 pp.

The author was chaplain in the U.S. Army hospital ship Relief, which served in the Cuban and Puerto Rican theaters during the war.

480. Senn, Nicholas. Medico-Surgical Aspects of the Spanish American War. Chicago: American Medical Association Press, 1900. 379 pp.

Senn was a lieutenant colonel and chief surgeon, U.S. Volunteers, and chief of operating staff with the Army in the field. This collection of essays includes discussion of hospital ships.

481. _____. War Correspondence (Hispano-American War): Letters from Dr. Nicholas Senn. Chicago: American Medical Association Press, 1899. 278 pp.

Young, James Rankin. See entry no. 151.

Naval Leaders and Enlisted Personnel

Illustration: The Naval War Board advised Secretary of the Navy Long during the war. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

General

482. Bradford, James C., ed. Admirals of the New Steel Navy: Making of the American Naval Tradition, 1880-1930. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1990. 427 pp.

Thirteen chapters on as many naval leaders.

483. Challener, Richard D. Admirals, Generals, and American Foreign Policy, 1898-1914. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973. 433 pp.

484. Connecticut. Adjutant-General's Office. Record of Service of Connecticut Men in the Army, Navy and Marine Corps of the United States in the Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection and China Relief Expedition from April 21, 1898 to July 4, 1904. Hartford, Conn.: Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard, Co., 1919. 222 pp.

485. Karsten, Peter. The Naval Aristocracy: The Golden Age of Annapolis and the Emergence of Modern American Navalism. New York: Free Press, 1972. 462 pp.

A sociological portrait of the Navy's officer corps.

486. A Military Album, Containing over One Thousand Portraits of Commissioned Officers Who Served in the Spanish-American War. New York: L. R. Hamersly, 1902. 262 pp.

Almost every photographic portrait has a short caption providing information on the individual's service during the war.

487. Peterson, Clarence Stewart. Known Military Dead during the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, 1898-1901. St. Augustine, Fla.: Florida Department of Military Affairs, Special Archives Publication Number 146, 1958. 130 pp.

This publication lists the individual's name, unit, rank, and the date and place of death.

488. Riley, Hugh Ridgely. Roster of the Soldiers and Sailors Who Served in Organizations from Maryland during the Spanish-American War. Westminster, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1990. 72 pp.

489. West, Richard Sedgewick, Jr. Admirals of American Empire: The Combined Story of George Dewey, Alfred Thayer Mahan, Winfield Scott Schley, and William Thomas Sampson. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1948. Reprint. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1971. 354 pp.

Parallel biographies of the war's four most famous U.S. naval officers.

Sampson-Schley Controversy

490. Benjamin, Park. "History and Rear-Admiral Schley." The Independent 53 (1901): 1714-16.

Criticism of treatment of Schley in vol. 3 of Edgar Stanton Maclay's History of the United States Navy, entry no. 76.

491. Benjamin, Park. "The Schley Court of Inquiry." Harper's Weekly 45 (10 August 1901): 791-93; same article, The Independent 53 (1901): 2086-91.

492. "Nauticus." The Truth about the Schley Case. Washington, D.C.: Columbus Press, 1902. 79 pp.

Discusses Schley's actions in the pursuit of Cervera's squadron, the blockade, the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, and the subsequent controversy.

493. Parker, James. Rear-Admirals Schley, Sampson and Cervera: A Review of the Naval Campaign of 1898, in Pursuit and Destruction of the Spanish Fleet Commanded by Rear-Admiral Pascual Cervera. New York: Neale Publishing Co., 1910. 333 pp.

The author served as an officer in the U.S. Navy before and during the American Civil War. He was one of the counsels for Rear Admiral Schley during the court of inquiry held in 1903. The book details naval operations around Cuba, particularly those related to the issues examined by the court of inquiry.

494. Rayner, Isidor. Argument of Hon. Isidor Rayner Before the Court of Inquiry on Behalf of Admiral Winfield Scott Schley. New York: N.p., 1901. 52 pp.

"An examination of Schley's conduct as the commander of the ship Brooklyn in the Santiago Campaign of the Spanish-American War."

495. Schley, Winfield Scott. "Admiral Schley's Own Story." Cosmopolitan 52 (1912): 751-60.

496. U.S. Navy Department. Record of Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry in the Case of Rear-Admiral Winfield S. Schley, U.S. Navy. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1902.

Vol. 2 has over 300 pages of supporting documents.

497. _____. Sampson-Schley: Official Communications to the United States Senate. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899. 177 pp.

Includes letters from Secretary of the Navy Winfield S. Schley and Charles Sigsbee regarding the U.S. Senate resolution of 23 January 1899, recommending certain naval officers for advancement. The records used in this debate were important in bringing the Sampson-Schley controversy to public attention.

Brownson, Willard Herbert

498. Brownson, Willard Herbert. From Frigate to Dreadnought. Compiled by Caroline Brownson Hart. Sharon, Conn.: King House, 1973. 294 pp.

Brownson commanded USS Yankee during the war.

Cervera y Topeta, Pascual

499. [Risco, Alberto]. Apuntes biográficos de excmo. Sr. almirante D. Pascual Cervera y Topete. Toledo, Spain: S. Rodríguez, 1920 [1921]. 454 pp., with separately paginated appendices of documents, 75 pp.

Clark, Charles Edgar

500. Clark, Charles Edgar. My Fifty Years in the Navy. Boston: Little, Brown, 1917. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1984. 190 pp.

Clark commanded USS Oregon during the voyage around Cape Horn and during the war.

Chadwick, French Ensor

501. Coletta, Paolo Enrico. French Ensor Chadwick: Scholarly Warrior. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1980. 256 pp.

Chadwick commanded USS New York and served as Sampson's chief of staff during the war.

502. Maguire, Doris D. French Ensor Chadwick: Selected Letters and Papers. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America 1981. 646 pp.

This book contains four letters Chadwick wrote during the war.

503. Peake, Louis A. "Rear Admiral French Ensor Chadwick: Sailor and Scholar." West Virginia History 42 (1980-1981): 75-87.

Coontz, Robert E.

504. Coontz, Robert E. From the Mississippi to the Sea. Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1930. 483 pp.

Coontz served in the Pacific as an officer on board USS Charleston during the war.

Dewey, George

505. Barrett, John. Admiral George Dewey: A Sketch of the Man. New York: Harper & Bros., 1899. 280 pp.

Barrett, a war correspondent with Dewey during the campaign in the Philippines, takes a thematic approach, discussing Dewey's command relationships, habits, personality, and opinions. Includes a genealogy.

506. Clemons, Will M. Life of Admiral George Dewey. New York: Street & Smith, 1899. 196 pp.

A popular account of Dewey's life.

507. Dewey, Adelbert Milton. The Life and Letters of Admiral Dewey. Akron, Ohio: Werner, 1899. 559 pp.

Popular authorized biography. Heavily illustrated.

508. _____. Life of George Dewey, Rear Admiral, U.S.N., and Dewey Family History. Westfield, Mass: Dewey Publishing Co., 1898. 1,117 pp.

509. Dewey, George. Autobiography of George Dewey: Admiral of the Navy. London: Constable; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913. Reprints. New York: AMS Press, 1969. St. Clair Shores, Mich.: Scholarly Press, 1971. 337 pp. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987. 297 pp.

Appendices include select documents related to the 1898 campaign for Manila Bay.

510. Ellis, Edward S. The Life Story of Admiral Dewey...Together with a Complete History of the Philippines and Our War with Aguinaldo. Philadelphia: N.p., 1899. 448 pp.

511. Halstead, Murat. The Life and Achievements of Admiral Dewey. Chicago: Our Publishing Co., 1899. 452 pp.

Heavily illustrated, popular account.

512. Hamm, Margherita Arlinn. Dewey the Defender: A Life Sketch of America's Great Admiral. New York: F. Tennyson Neely, 1899. 187 pp.

513. Healy, Laurin Hall, and Luis Kutner. The Admiral. Chicago: Ziff-Davis, 1944. 338 pp.

A biography of Admiral George Dewey. Foreword by former Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels. Preface by Captain Leland Lovette and introduction by Admiral Dewey's son, George Goodwin Dewey.

514. Johnson, Rossiter. The Hero of Manila: Dewey on the Mississippi and the Pacific. New York: D. Appleton, 1899. 152 pp.

515. Nicholson, Philip Y. "George Dewey and the Expansionists of 1898." Vermont History 42 (Summer 1978): 214-27.

516. Roosevelt, Theodore. "Admiral Dewey." McClure's 13 (1899): 483-504.

517. Spector, Ronald H. Admiral of the New Empire: The Life and Career of George Dewey. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1974. Reprint. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988. 220 pp.

Critical, scholarly biography that suggests Dewey was more typical of U.S. naval officers in his day than were Mahan, Fiske, or Sims. The author states that Dewey was ill-equipped to handle the political situation in the Philippines after the Battle of Manila Bay.

518. Stickney, Joseph L. Admiral Dewey at Manila. Philadelphia: J. H. Moore, 1899. 415 pp.

Stickney, a journalist who volunteered to serve as an aide to Dewey, illustrates the book with many photos.

519. _____. Life and Glorious Deeds of Admiral Dewey: Including a Thrilling Account of Our Conflicts with the Spaniards and Filipinos in the Orient. Chicago: C. B. Ayer, 1898. 434 pp.

Includes poems on Dewey and the Philippines.

520. Williams, Henry Llewellyn. Taking Manila: Or, In the Philippines with Dewey, Giving the Life and Exploits of Admiral George Dewey, U.S.N. New York: Hurst, 1899. 228 pp.

521. Young, Louis Stanley, and Henry D. Northrup. Life and Heroic Deeds of Admiral Dewey, Including Battles in the Philippines. New York: Western W. Wilson; Philadelphia: World Bible House, 1899. 507 pp.

This popular biography focuses on events in the Philippines and U.S. Army operations against Manila and Filipino insurgents.

Emory, William Hensley

522. Gleaves, Albert. The Life of an American Sailor: Rear Admiral William Hensley Emory, United States Navy. New York: George H. Doran, 1923. 359 pp.

Emory commanded USS Yosemite during the war.

Evans, Robley Dunglison

523. Evans, Robley D. A Sailor's Log: Recollections of Forty Years of Naval Life. New York: D. Appleton, 1901. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1994. 481 pp.

Evans commanded USS Iowa during the war.

524. Falk, Edwin Albert. Fighting Bob Evans. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1969. Reprint of 1931 edition. 495 pp.

Fiske, Bradley A.

525. Coletta, Paolo Enrico. Admiral Bradley A. Fiske and the American Navy. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1979. 306 pp.

Fiske served as a lieutenant on board the gunboat USS Petrel during the Manila campaign.

526. Fiske, Bradley A. From Midshipman to Rear Admiral. New York: Century Company, 1919. 694 pp.

527. _____. War Time in Manila. Boston: R. G. Badger, 1913. 276 pp.

Includes Fiske's eye-witness account of the Battle of Manila Bay and subsequent events.

Gridley, Charles Vernon

528. Boslooper, Thomas. "Spanish-American War Correspondence of Captain Charles Vernon Gridley and Harriet Vincent Gridley." Journal of Erie Studies 23 (Fall 1994): 5-39.

In addition to letters from Harriet Gridley to her husband Charles, the article includes transcripts of letters from their son John and friend William W. Galt. Biographical sketches of both Charles and Harriet provide context for the letters.

529. Schoenfeld, Maxwell P. Charles Vernon Gridley: A Naval Career. Erie, Pa.: Erie County Historical Society, 1983. 124 pp.

Gridley commanded USS Olympia during the Battle of Manila Bay.

Hobson, Richmond Pearson

530. Pittman, Walter E., Jr. Navalist and Progressive: The Life of Richmond P. Hobson. Manhattan, Kan.: MA/AH Pub., 1981. 235 pp.

Hobson was a lieutenant and naval constructor assigned to USS New York. He led the expedition to sink Merrimac in the channel at Santiago de Cuba.

Jones, Harry W.

531. Jones, Harry W. A Chaplain's Experience Ashore and Afloat: The Texas under Fire. New York: A. G. Sherwood, 1901. 300 pp.

Jones served as the chaplain on board USS Texas during the war. While this autobiographical account covers the author's prewar experiences, it concentrates on events during the Spanish-American War.

Long, John Davis

532. Long, John Davis. America of Yesterday: As Reflected in the Journal of John Davis Long. Edited by L. S. Mayo. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1923. 250 pp.

Selections from Long's journal (1845-1915, twenty-four manuscript volumes), with connecting narrative. Long was Secretary of the Navy, 1897-1902.

533. _____. The Journal of John D. Long. Edited by Margaret Long. Rindge, N.H.: R. Smith, 1956. 363 pp.

Selections from Long's journal are more extensive than Mayo's, entry 532.

534. _____. Papers of John Davis Long, 1897-1904. Edited by Gardner Weld Allen. Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, vol. 78. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1939. 464 pp.

535. Mraz, Scott R. "Recognition Long Overdue." Naval History 12 (May/June 1898): 24-26.

Discusses the working relationship between Secretary Long and Assistant Secretary Theodore Roosevelt, emphasizing the accomplishments of the former.

McCalla, Bowman Hendry

536. Coletta, Paolo Enrico. Bowman Hendry McCalla: A Fighting Sailor. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1979. 210 pp.

McCalla commanded USS Marblehead and led the cable-cutting expedition at Cienfuegos and the landing of U.S. Marines at Guantánamo Bay.

537. McCalla, Bowman Hendry. Memoirs of a Naval Career. 4 vols. Santa Barbara, Calif.: N.p., 1910.

Photocopy of original typescript. Chapters 20-24 in vol. 3 are entitled "The Marblehead in the War with Spain, 1898."

Mahan, Alfred Thayer

538. Mahan, Alfred Thayer. Letters and Papers of Alfred Thayer Mahan. Edited by Robert Seager II and Doris D. Maguire. 3 vols. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1975.

Vol. 2 covers the years 1890-1901. Mahan was a member of the Naval War Board that advised the Secretary of the Navy during the war.

539. Puleston, William D. The Life and Work of Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, U.S.N. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1939. 380 pp.

540. Seager, Robert, II. Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Man and His Letters. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1977. 713 pp.

Mannix, Daniel Pratt, III

541. Mannix, Daniel Pratt, III. The Old Navy. Edited by Daniel P. Mannix IV. New York: Macmillan, 1983. 294 pp.

Mannix served in the navigator's division on board USS Indiana during the war and saw action at the Battle of Santiago.

Montojo, Patricio

542. Pla y Cargol, Joaquin. Ante opinión y ante la historia: El almirante Montojo. Madrid: Libreria de Fernando Fe, 1900. 483 pp.

Philip, John Woodward

543. Maclay, Edgar Stanton. Life and Adventures of "Jack" Philip, Rear Admiral, United States Navy. New York: Baker & Taylor, 1903. 280 pp.

Philip commanded USS Texas during the war.

Remy, George Collier

544. Remy, George C. The Life and Letters of Rear Admiral George Collier Remy, United States Navy 1841-1928. 10 vols. Edited by Charles Mason Remy. Washington, D.C., 1937.

This is a bound collection of typed transcripts of letters, newspaper articles, etc., from the commander of the naval station at Key West during the war.

Rodman, Hugh

545. Rodman, Hugh. Yarns of a Kentucky Admiral. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1927. 320 pp.

Rodman served as an officer on board USS Raleigh during the Manila Bay campaign.

Sampson, William T.

546. Gulliver, Louis J. "Sampson and Shafter at Santiago." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 65 (1939): 799-806.

Schley, Winfield Scott

547. Schley, Winfield Scott. Forty-five Years under the Flag. New York: D. Appleton, 1904. 439 pp.

Schroeder, Seaton

548. Schroeder, Seaton. A Half Century of Naval Service. New York: D. Appleton, 1922. 444 pp.

Schroeder was the executive officer of USS Massachusetts during the war.

Sims, William S.

549. Morison, Elting. Admiral Sims and the Modern American Navy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1942. 548 pp.

As naval attaché in Paris during the war, Sims gathered intelligence on Spanish naval movements.

Sterling, Yates

550. Sterling, Yates. Sea Duty: The Memoirs of a Fighting Admiral. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1939. 309 pp.

Sterling served as an officer on board USS Dolphin during the war.

Villaamil, Fernando

551. Serrano Monteavaro, Miguel Angel. Fernando Villaamil, una vida entre la mar y el dolor: La guerra de Cuba. Madrid: Arnao, 1988. 658 pp.

Villaamil commanded the Spanish destroyer squadron at Santiago de Cuba.

Wainwright, Richard

552. Cummings, Damon E. Admiral Richard Wainwright and the United States Fleet. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1962. 266 pp.

Wainwright commanded USS Gloucester during the war.

Wiley, Henry A.

553. Wiley, Henry A. An Admiral from Texas. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1934. 322 pp.

Wiley was the executive officer on board the armed lighthouse tender Maple on blockade duty off Cuba.

Enlisted Personnel

Illustration: New recruits swear the oath of allegiance. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

554. Buenzle, Fred J. Bluejacket: An Autobiography. W. W. Norton, 1939. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1986. 346 pp.

Buenzle was a yeoman assigned to Rear Admiral Sampson during the war.

Gauvreau, Charles F. See entry no. 46.

Keeler, Frank. See entry no. 468.

555. King, George Glenn. Letters of a Volunteer in the Spanish-American War. Chicago: Hawkins & Loomis, 1929. 133 pp.

A volunteer in the Sixth Regiment, King served in Cuba and Puerto Rico. His letters home include descriptions of his experience being transported on board USS Yale.

Murphy, Ed. See entry no. 383.

The Press: Journalists, Photographers, and Artists

Illustration: Correspondents accompanied the Navy's ships as well as the soldiers on shore. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

556. Allen, Douglas. Frederic Remington and the Spanish-American War. New York: Crown, 1971. 178 pp.

Includes Frederic Remington's special reports, illustrated articles, and pictures.

557. Bartholomew, Charles L. Cartoons of the Spanish-American War. Minneapolis, Minn.: Minneapolis Journal Printing Co., 1899. 160 pp.

558. Bierce, Ambrose. Skepticism and Dissent: Selected Journalism, 1898-1901. Edited by Lawrence I. Berkove. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Delmas, 1980. Reprint. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1986. 295 pp.

559. Bowman, Rowland C. The Tribune Cartoon Book. 2d ed. Minneapolis, Minn.: Minneapolis Tribune, 1898. 92 pp.

560. Brown, Charles Henry. The Correspondent's War: Journalists in the Spanish-American War. New York: Scribner, 1967. 478 pp.

The story of correspondents during the war as revealed in their writings.

561. Cartoons of the War of 1898 with Spain: From Leading Foreign and American Papers. Chicago: Belford, Middlebrook & Co., 1898. 182 pp.

562. The Chicago Record's War Stories: By Staff Correspondents in the Field. Chicago: Chicago Record, 1898. 256 pp.

A collection of journalists' eyewitness reports, illustrated with sketches.

563. Cohen, Stan. Images of the Spanish-American War, April-August 1898. Missoula, Mont.: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 1997. 392 pp.

Provides a wide range of contemporary illustrations and photographs. Also included are photographs of artifacts, monuments, and historic sites.

564. Davis, Richard Harding. Adventures and Letters of Richard Harding Davis. Charles B. Davis, ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. Reprint. New York: Beekman Publishers, 1974. 417 pp.

See chapter 11, "The Spanish American War."

565. Harrington, Peter. A Splendid Little War, 1898: The Artists' Perspective: A Centennial Exhibition. Pennsylvania: Greenhill Books, 1998.

Catalog of an exhibition held at Brown University and four other institutions between 17 April 1998 and 24 October 1999.

566. Hemlandet Company, Chicago. Hemlandets Krigsbilder från Cuba, Porto Rico och Filippinerna: Jämte Historiska och Geografiska Upplysningar samt Meddelanden från Kriget Mellan Förenta Staterna och Spanien 1898...Chicago: Hemlandet, [1898]. 161 pp.

More than a quarter of the 161 numbered photographs of the war published in this book relate to naval aspects, including Spanish and U.S. naval vessels, life on board ship, harbors and navy yards, and ordnance. Letterpress at foot of page; table of contents in Swedish and English.

567. Méndez Saavedra, Manuel, comp. 1898: La guerra hispanoamericana en caricaturas-the Spanish American War in Cartoons. San Juan, P.R.: Gráfica Metropolitana, 1992. 197 pp.

Text and captions in English and Spanish.

568. Neely, Frank Tennyson. Neely's Photographs: Panoramic Views of Cuba, Porto Rico, Manila and the Philippines. New York: F. T. Neely, 1899. Unpaged.

569. Nelan, Charles. Cartoons of Our War with Spain. 2d ed. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1898. 59 pp.

570. Paine, Ralph Delahaye. Roads of Adventure. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1922. 452 pp.

Breezy, personal narrative of a newspaper correspondent who covered the war in Cuba.

571. Russell, Walter. "An Artist with Admiral Sampson's Fleet." Century Illustrated Monthly 56 (1898): 573-77.

572. _____. "Incidents of the Cuba Blockade." Century Illustrated Monthly 56 (1898): 655-61.

573. Smith, Albert E., with Phil A. Koury. Two Reels and a Crank. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1952. Reprint. New York: Garland Publishing, 1985. 285 pp.

See chapter 5 for an airy account of the filming of the Cuban campaign by members of the Vitagraph motion picture company.

574. Through the War by Camera: A Weekly Artfolio of Current Events, on Land and Sea, in the Spanish-American War of 1898. New York: Pearson Publishing Co., 1898. 300 pp.

575. Wilkerson, Marcus M. Public Opinion and the Spanish-American War: A Study in War Propaganda. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1932. Reprint. New York: Russell & Russell, 1967. 141 pp.

Treats the role of the press in creating a climate of opinion in the United States favorable to war with Spain. The author concludes that "the Maine disaster may be said to have been the immediate cause of the war with Spain."

Poetry and Music

576. Beard, Alexander Burgess. The Sinking of the Maine. Manchester, N.H.: Charles Noll Printer, 1898.

Broadside. Below the title it reads, "Composed and written during the indecision of the U.S. Government."

577. Brownlee, James Henry, compiler. War-Time Echoes: Patriotic Poems, Heroic and Pathetic, Humorous and Dialectic, of the Spanish-American War. Akron, Ohio: Werner, 1898. 209 pp.

578. Bush, Frank A. "Remember the Maine!": The Lost Ship, Waltz, Song and Refrain. Belleville, Kan.: [F. A. Bush], 1898.

Broadside. Words of song in two twelve-line stanzas with four-line refrain beginning, "We'll never forget the sad events of that night."

579. California Club, compiler. War Poems, 1898. San Francisco, Calif.: Murdock Press, 1898. 147 pp.

580. Cass, Emma M. Manila Bay: Souvenir. N.p.: Prescott, 1899. 10 pp.

Poetry.

581. Daniels, Cora Linn. Until We Know. Wrentham, Mass.: N.p., 1898.

Broadside. Poem on the battleship Maine. Note at the end of the poem reads, "Cora Linn Daniels, Sardia Lodge, Wrentham, Mass., March 1, 1898."

582. Floyd, Annie Earle. Souvenir of the Present War. Norfolk, Va.: Norfolk Printing Co. 1898. 14 pp.

Twelve poems on wartime subjects such as the destruction of Maine and the sinking of Merrimac.

Galt, William Wilson. See entry no. 262.

583. Hays, Jenny Ward. The Echo of the Maine. San Francisco, Calif.: Robbins, Old Soldiers' Printing, 1898. 1 sheet.

Music with verses included.

584. Mariner's Museum. The Spanish-American War, 1898: A Semi-Centennial Exhibition-1948. Newport News, Va.: Mariner's Museum, 1948. 32 pp.

This is a descriptive list of art and artifacts exhibited in 1948.

585. Parker, John A. America's Great Victories by Land and Sea. Gardiner, Maine: N.p., 1898.

Broadside. Five poems printed in two columns. In Remembrance of the Maine, The North and South Combined, Destruction of Cervera's Fleet, Dying Soldier in Cuba, and When They Hoist the Starry Banner.

586. Souvenir Song Book, 25 Original Songs and Poems. Manila, Philippines: J. D. Mitchell, 1898. 36 pp.

587. Watson, Moody M. A Poetical Tribute to Our Heroes Who Fought the Battle of Manila, in Luzon Bay, Sunday, May 1st, 1898. N.p.: Morsel, 1900. 8 pp.

588. Welch, H. N. Dewey's Battle in Manila Bay: A Poem. N.p.: Times Print, 1899. 13 pp.

589. Witherbee, Sidney A., ed. Spanish-American War Songs: A Complete Collection of Newspaper Verse during the Recent War with Spain. Detroit, Mich.: Sidney A. Witherbee, 1898. 984 pp.

590. Wolf, Margaret Isabel. Songs of "Cuba Libre": A Remembrance of the Heroes of the Maine. N.p.: Lander, 1898. 16 pp.

Young, James Rankin. See entry no. 151.


Return to Table of Contents, Spanish American War Bibliography

30 November 1998