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The Spanish-American War
Historical Overview and Select Bibliography

Michael J. Crawford, Mark L. Hayes and Michael D. Sessions



Illustration:USS Olympia engages the Spanish squadron during the Battle of Manila Bay on 1 May 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

Pacific Theater

Philippines and Battle of Manila Bay

240. Baclagon, Uldarico S. Philippine Campaigns. Manila: Graphic House, 1952. 388 pp.

A military history of the Philippines, from the Spanish conquest through World War II, with emphasis on the latter war. Relations between the Philippine insurgents and the U.S. military during the Spanish-American War are treated on pp. 58-83 as a prelude to the Filipino war with the United States.

241. "The Battle of Manila Bay: The Destruction of the Spanish Fleet Described by Eye-Witnesses." Century Illustrated Monthly 56 (1898): 611-27.

Narrative of Colonel George A. Loud," 611-18; "Colonel George B. Loud's Diary, Written during the Battle," 618-20; "Narrative of Dr. Charles P. Kindleberger, Junior Surgeon of the Flag-ship 'Olympia',"620-24; "Narrative of Joel C. Evans, Gunner of the 'Boston,'" 624-27.

242. Beach, Edward L., Sr. "Manila Bay in 1898." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 46 (1920): 587-602.

Beach served as a junior officer on board USS Baltimore. The article is a description of the campaign for Manila Bay from his perspective.

243. Bell, Chuck, and Arthur Weiss. Officers and Men at the Battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898. N.p.: Orders and Medals Society of America, 1972. 66 pp.

Lists the officers and crewmen on board each of the U.S. warships at the battle of Manila Bay.

244. Blount, James H. The American Occupation of the Philippines, 1898-1912. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1913. Reprints. New York: Oriole Editions, 1973. Manila: Solar Publishing, 1986. 664 pp.

Manila edition includes an introductory essay by Renato Constantino entitled "Origin of a Myth."

245. Brumby, Thomas Mason. "The Fall of Manila, August 13, 1898." Editied by Willard E. Wight. United States Naval Institute Proceedings 86 (August 1960): 88-93.

Brumby was the flag lieutenant on board Dewey's flagship, USS Olympia, at Manila. Most of the brief article is the annotated text of a letter from Brumby to his sister written four days after the city's surrender to American forces.

246. Burdett, John C. "The Philippine Expedition: An Episode in the Spanish-American War, 1898." Master's thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1976. 194 pp.

247. Calkins, Carlos Gilman. "Historical and Professional Notes on the Naval Campaign of Manila Bay in 1898." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (1899): 267-321.

Calkins served on board USS Olympia during the campaign for Manila Bay.

248. Concas y Palau, Víctor María. Causa instruida por la destrucción de la escuadra de Filipinas y entrega del arsenal de Cavite: escrito y rectificación oral ante el consejo reunido...en defensa del comandante de la armada. Madrid: Establecimieno Tipografico "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra," 1899. 112 pp.

249. Conroy, Robert. The Battle of Manila Bay: The Spanish-American War in the Philippines. New York: Macmillan, 1968. 88 pp.

An illustrated, popular account.

250. Dewey, George. The War with Spain: Operations of the United States Navy on the Asiatic Station. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1900. 70 pp.

Includes Dewey's reports on the Battle of Manila Bay and the investment and fall of Manila, 1 May to 13 August 1898.

251. Ellicott, John M. "Corregidor in 1898." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 68 (1942): 638-41.

An account of the surrender of Corregidor following the Battle of Manila Bay. Ellicott served as a lieutenant on board USS Baltimore during the campaign for Manila Bay.

252. _____. "The Defenses of Manila Bay." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 26 (1900): 279-85.

Describes, in detail, the shore batteries and mines defending Manila Bay in 1898. The article includes diagrams illustrating the range and arc of fire of each battery position.

253. _____. "The Naval Battle of Manila Bay." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 26 (1900): 489-514.

This account is based on careful inquiry as well as first-hand observation.

254. _____. "Under a Gallant Captain at Manila in '98." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 69 (1943): 33-44.

First person account of the battle and events leading up to it.

255. Elliott, Charles B. The Philippines to the End of the Military Regime. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs Merrill, 1917. 541 pp.

See chapter 12, "The Capture of Manila," and chapter 13, "The Peace Protocol and the Treaty of Paris."

256. Farenholt, A. "Incidents of the Voyage of the USS Charleston to Manila in 1898." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 50 (1924): 753-70.

Farenholt served as a medical officer on board USS Charleston during the war with Spain. The article includes an account of the capture of Guam.

257. Fernández, Leandro Heriberto. The Philippine Republic. New York: Columbia University Press, 1926. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1968. 202 pp.

258. Fiske, Bradley A., "Personal Recollections of the Battle of Manila." United Service, 3d ser., 1 (1902): 24-35.

Fiske was navigator of USS Petrel in the battle.

259. _____. "Personal Recollections of What Happened in Manila Bay after the Battle." United Service, 3d ser., 1 (1902): 202-16, 311-14, 407-20, 536-40, 647-54; 2 (1903): 84-98, 162-86, 225-47.

260. _____. "Why We Won at Manila." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-1899): 127-35.

261. Ford, John D. An American Cruiser in the East. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1899. 536 pp.

Ford was a fleet engineer with Dewey. The book contains photos and maps, and discusses the battles of the Yalu River, Cavite, and Manila.

262. Galt, William Wilson. The Battle of Manila Bay, May First, Eighteen Hundred & Ninety-Eight: An Epic Poem. Norfolk, Va.: William W. Galt, 1900. 131 pp.

An illustrated historical poem that gives an account of the battle. The book includes a list of officers and crewmen on board each of the U.S. warships at the battle. Dewey endorsed the accuracy of the account in a published letter.

263. George, Jesse. Our Army and Navy in the Orient: Giving a Full Account of the Operations of the Army and Navy in the Philippines, together with Accurate Detail of the Organization of the Expeditionary Forces, Their Voyage across the Pacific and a Full Account of Spanish Misrule in the Islands. Manila, Philippines: N.p., 1899. 290 pp.

264. Graves, Ralph. "When a Victory Really Gave Us a New World Order." Smithsonian 22 (March 1992): 88-97.

An account of the Battle of Manila Bay, with a focus on George Dewey.

265. Greene, Francis V. "The Capture of Manila." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-1899): 785-91, 915-35.

Greene was a major general in the U.S. Volunteers.

266. Griffin, Appleton Prentiss Clark. List of Works Relating to American Occupation of the Philippine Islands, 1898-1903. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1905. 100 pp.

267. Halle, Louis J. The United States Acquires the Philippines: Consensus vs. Reality. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1985. 57 pp.

268. Harden, Edward W. "Dewey at Manila: Observations and Personal Impressions Derived from a Service with the American Fleet in the Philippines from April, 1898, to October, 1898." McClure's 12 (1898-1899): 369-84.

269. Kalaw, Maximo M. The Development of Philippine Politics, 1872-1920. Manila, Philippines: Oriental Commercial Co., 1926. Reprinted as The Development of Philippine Politics. Metro Manila, Philippines: Solar Publishing Co., [1986]. 489 pp.

270. Kalaw, Teodoro Manguiat. The Philippine Revolution. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. Kawiliahan: Jorge B. Vargas Filipiniana Foundation, 1969. 335 pp.

A political history of the movement for Filipino independence, with a cursory discussion of the insurgents' relations with U.S. officials during the Spanish-American War. The author takes the position that the United States reneged on assurances made by Dewey to Aquinaldo.

271. Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. New York: Random House, 1989. Reprint. New York: Ballantine Books, 1990. 494 pp.

Includes a discussion of Dewey and his role.

Kelly, David E. See entry no. 470.

272. King, William Nephew. The Battle of Manila: Or, Dewey's Great Victory. [New York: Henry J. Pain], 1898. 36 pp.

273. March, Alden. The History and Conquest of the Philippines and Our Other Island Possessions. Philadelphia: John C. Wilson, 1899. 498 pp. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1970. 485 pp.

274. Merritt, Wesley. "Meeting Dewey in Manila Bay." Outlook. 63 (7 October 1899): 313-15.

Merritt commanded the U.S. Army's Eighth Corps in the Philippines. The article provides insight into Army-Navy cooperation.

275. Millet, F. D. The Expedition to the Philippines. New York: Harper & Bros., 1899. 275 pp.

Millet was a special correspondent with Harper's Weekly and the London Times. He arrived in the Philippines with Wesley Merritt and left on 22 September 1898.

276. Motsch, Ernest. La guerre hispano-américaine aux Philipines, du 21 avril au 16 août 1898. Paris: R. Chapelot, 1904. 381 pp.

277. Neely, Frank Tennyson. Fighting in the Philippines: Authentic Original Photographs. Chicago: F. T. Neely, 1899. 160 pp.

Includes photographs of destroyed Spanish ships and of damage on shore caused by Dewey's bombardment.

278. Nicholson, Grace, comp. The Battle of Manila: Commodore George Dewey's Famous Victory, May 1, 1898. Philadelphia: Cyclorama Co., Burk & McFetridge, 1899. 71 pp.

279. Redondo y Godiño, Juan. Combate naval de Cavite: Impresiónes de un médico. Madrid: R. Velasco, 1904. 33 pp.

Text of a speech given on 24 December 1903 by the principal Spanish naval doctor at the Battle of Manila Bay, with an emphasis on medical care on board the Spanish fleet during and after the battle.

280. Rodríguez González, Agustín Ramón. "El combate de Cavite." Historia y vida 268 (1989-1990): 4-12.

A revisionist account, arguing that the Spanish defeat at Manila Bay was not a foregone conclusion.

281. Sargent, Nathan, ed. Admiral Dewey and the Manila Campaign. Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Foundation, 1947. 128 pp.

Sargent was Dewey's aide after the war, and this narrative was prepared under Dewey's direction. Appendices include the text of original sources used in preparation of the narrative.

282. Sexton, William Thaddeus. Soldiers in the Sun: An Adventure in Imperialism. Harrisburg, Pa.: Military Service Publishing Co., 1939. 297 pp.

Dewey's actions in the Far East and the Philippine Insurrection.

283. Silk, C. A., and J. J. Vanderveer. Spanish-American War, 1898: The U.S.S. Baltimore at the Battle of Manila Bay (Philippine Islands) May 1st, 1898. Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh, 1898. 39 pp.

284. Spector, Ronald H. "Who Planned the Attack on Manila Bay?" Mid-America 53 (1971): 94-102.

The author concludes that there was no consensus among naval planners on how best to fight a war with Spain.

285. Stokesbury, James L. "Manila Bay: Battle or Execution?" American History Illustrated 14 (August 1979): 4-7, 40-47.

286. Storey, Moorfield, and Marcial P. Lichauco. The Conquest of the Philippines by the United States, 1898-1925. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1926. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971. 274 pp.

Authors include a discussion of the role played by Dewey's squadron.

287. Torre-Vélez, Juan de Madariaga y Suárez, Conde de. Defensa del excmo. Señor Don Enrique Sostoa y ordóñez, ex comandante general del arsenal de Cavite, ante el consejo supremo de guerra y marina constituído en consejo reunido en sala de justicia los días 19 y 20 de Septiembre de 1899 para ver y fallar la causa instruida por destrucción de la escuadra de Filipinas y evacuación del arsenal de Cavite. Madrid: Asilo de Huérfanos de S. C. de Jesus, 1899. 136 pp.

288. U.S. Navy Department. Correspondence between the Navy Department and Admiral Dewey. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898. 31 pp.

289. U.S. War Department. Adjutant General's Office. Military Notes on the Philippines. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898. 314 pp.

A guide to Philippine geography.

290. Vivian, Thomas J., ed. With Dewey at Manila. Being the Plain Story of the Glorious Victory of the U.S. Squadron over the Spanish Fleet, Sunday Morning, 1 May 1898: As Related in Notes and Correspondence of an Officer aboard the Flagship "Olympia." New York: R. F. Fenno, 1898. 106 pp.

291. White, Douglas. On to Manila: A True and Concise History of the Philippine Campaigns, Secured while Afloat with Admiral Dewey's Fleet, and in the Field with the 8th U.S. Army Corps. San Francisco, Calif.: G. Spaulding, 1899. 56 pp.

292. Wisner, J. A., and H. F. Humphrey. A Brief Description of the Battle of Manila Bay, Sunday, May 1st 1898. Cavite, Philippines: [St. Clair & Newman], 1898. 21 pp.

293. _____. Sketches from the Spanish-American War in the Philippine Islands...May to August 1898. [2d ed.] N.p.: Press of U.S.S. Baltimore, [1898]. 21 pp.

294. Wood, E. P. "The Battle of Manila Bay." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-1899): 957-58.

Text of a letter from the commander of USS Petrel to Col. George A. Loud, in response to Loud's article on the Battle of Manila Bay, entry no. 241.

295. Zaide, Gregorio F. The Philippine Revolution. Rev. ed. Manila, Philippines: Modern Book Co., 1968. 395 pp.

Illustration:A landing party from USS Charleston captures the Spanish-held island of Guam on 20 June 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.




The Capture of Guam

296. Beers, Henry P. American Naval Occupation and Government of Guam, 1898-1902. Washington, D.C.: Navy Department, 1944. 76 pp.

297. Cox, Leonard Martin. The Island of Guam. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1917. 95 pp. Rev. ed., 1926, 82 pp.

Appendix contains the text of several official documents relating to the capture of Guam by U.S. naval forces.

298. Farrell, Don A. The Pictorial History of Guam: The Americanization, 1898-1918. 2d ed. Tamuning, Guam: Micronesia Productions, 1986. 193 pp.

299. Hanks, Carlos C. "When a Cruiser Captured an Island." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 58 (1932): 1011-12.

USS Charleston and the capture of Guam.

300. Portusach, Frank [Francisco]. "History of the Capture of Guam by the United States Man-of-War 'Charleston' and Its Transports." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 43 (1917): 707-18.

Portusach was an American merchant on Guam at the time of its capture.

301. Walker, Leslie W. "Guam's Seizure by the United States in 1898." Pacific Historical Review 14 (1945): 1-12.

Atlantic and Caribbean Theater

Illustration: The auxiliary cruiser USS Yosemite engages several Spanish vessels off San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 25 June 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

302. America's War for Humanity Related in Story and Picture, Embracing a Complete History of Cuba's Struggle for Liberty, and the Glorious Heroism of America's Soldiers and Sailors. New York: N. D. Thompson, 1898. 560 pp.

303. Atkins, John Black. The War in Cuba. The Experiences of an Englishman with the United States Army. London: Smith, Elder, & Co., 1899. 291 pp.

Atkins was a British correspondent with the Manchester Guardian. The book includes first person accounts of the transport of the expedition from Tampa to Santiago, as well as transportation of supplies to the expedition at Puerto Rico.

304. Bonsal, Stephen. "How the War Began: With the Blockading Fleet off Cuba." McClure's 11 (1898): 120-28.

Account of the installation of the Cuban blockade, by a journalist on board the U.S. flagship New York.

305. Crosley, W. S. "Some Experiences on a U.S. Naval Tug-Boat." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (1899): 65-80.

Crosley commanded the tug boats Algonquin and Leyden during the war. Based out of Key West, Florida, he operated in Cuban waters and performed a variety of duties.

306. Davis, Richard Harding. The Cuban and Porto Rican Campaigns. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970. 360 pp.

Includes accounts of early naval operations around Cuba, as well as transport of land expeditions to Santiago and Puerto Rico. 116 photographs.

307. Dierks, Jack Cameron. A Leap to Arms: The Cuban Campaign of 1898. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1970. 240 pp.

308. Doubleday, Russell. A Gunner Aboard the Yankee: From the Diary of Number Five of the Afterport Gun; The Yarn of the Cruise and Fights of the Naval Reserves in the Spanish-American War. Edited by H. H. Lewis. New York: Doubleday & McClure; New York: Grosset & Dunlap 1898. 312 pp.

309. Feuer, A. B. The Spanish-American War at Sea: Naval Action in the Atlantic. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1995. 225 pp.

A collection of essays on naval operations based primarily on first person accounts. An appendix provides a list of U.S. ships in commission on 1 July 1898.

310. Gómez Núñez, Severo. The Spanish-American War: Blockades and Coast Defense Translated from the Spanish. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899. 120 pp.

Reprinted with seven other essays by the U.S. Navy Department, Office of Naval Intelligence as War Note No. 6 in Information from Abroad (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898-1899). Gómez Núñez was captain of artillery at Havana during the war. The essay discusses strategy, maritime law, coast defenses, and naval operations related to the blockade of Cuba.

311. Goode, William A. M. With Sampson Through the War: Being an Account of the Naval Operations of the North Atlantic Squadron during the Spanish American War of 1898. New York: Doubleday and McClure, 1899. 307 pp.

Goode was a correspondent for the Associated Press on board Sampson's flagship, USS New York. The book contains chapters on specific topics contributed by William T. Sampson, Robley D. Evans, and Chapman C. Todd.

312. Goodrich, Caspar F. "Some Points in Coast-Defence Brought Out by the War with Spain." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 27 (1901): 223-46.

Describes the coastal defenses of the United States in detail. Argues that they were adequate to deter the Spanish from attacking any strategic point along the coast.

313. Hemment, John C. Cannon and Camera: Sea and Land Battles of the Spanish American War in Cuba, Camp Life and the Return of the Soldiers. New York: D. Appleton, 1898. 282 pp.

314. Henderson, Yandell. The Cruise of the Yale. N.p., 1898. 16 pp.

Reprinted from Yale alumni weekly, 29 September 1898.

315. Hernández García, Julio. La invasión frustrada de los EE.UU.: A Canarias en 1898: el "Tributo en sangre" de 1678-1778. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, I. Canarias: Centro de la Cultura Popular Canaria, 1984. 60 pp.

316. Hourihan, William J. "The Fleet That Never Was: Commodore John Crittenden Watson and the Eastern Squadron." American Neptune 41 (April 1981): 93-109.

Argues that although the Eastern Squadron never deployed for Spain, its existence had an appreciable effect on the military and diplomatic conduct of the war.

317. Jackson, R. H. "Seavey's Island Prison and Its Establishment." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (1899): 413-16.

Describes the establishment and conditions of the prisoner of war camp on Seavey's Island at Portsmouth, N.H. Spanish prisoners from Santiago began arriving 18 July 1898 and left 12 September.

318. Jacobsen, Herman. Sketches from the Spanish-American War. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899. Reprint. "Sketches from the Spanish-American War." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (1899): 11-52, 383-412.

Published in German in the Marine-Rundschau, of Berlin, October, November, and December 1898. Reprinted with seven other essays by the U.S. Navy Department, Office of Naval Intelligence as War Notes No. 3 and 4 in Information from Abroad (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898-1899). Commander Jacobsen was the commanding officer of the German protected cruiser Geier, which was permitted to pass in and out of blockaded ports. The article describes Spanish harbor defenses in Cuba and Puerto Rico and lists the ships that ran the American blockade and their cargo. Jacobsen analyzes the damage done to the Spanish ships at the Battle of Santiago.

319. Kennan, George. Campaigning in Cuba. New York: Century Co., 1899; Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1899. Reprint. 1971. 269 pp.

Kennan, a war correspondent, includes observations of the transport and landing of U.S. Army soldiers in Cuba.

320. King, Charles Brady. Dedication of the Bronze Tablet at the Brodhead Naval Armory, Detroit, Commemorating the Service of the Officers and Crew of the U.S.S. Yosemite in the Spanish-American War. [Detroit, Mich.]: N.p., 1948. 15 pp.

321. Log of the U.S.S. Yosemite. Detroit, Mich.: John. F. Eby, 1899. 163 pp.

Includes a list of officers and crew and the official report of the action off San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 28 June.

322. Martínez Arango, Felipe. Cronología crítica de la guerra hispano-cubanoamericana. Havana, Cuba: N.p., 1950; 2d ed. Santiago de Cuba: Universidad de Oriente, Departmento de Extensión y Relatiónes Cultures, [1960]. 203 pp.

A day-by-day calendar, 1 January to 10 December 1898, of the major events of the war, especially in Cuba, emphasizing the role of the Cuban Liberation Army.

323. Miley, John D. In Cuba with Shafter. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899. 228 pp.

Includes chapters on the transport and disembarkation of troops in Cuba and a table of transport assignments for regiments in the V Corps.

324. Montgomery, J. A. "Sailor's Log off Santiago." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 54 (1928): 728-30.

The author served on board USS New Orleans.

325. Payne, William C. The Cruise of the U.S.S. Dixie: Or, On Board with the Maryland Boys in the Spanish-American War: A Narrative. Washington, D.C.: E. C. Jones, 1899. 80 pp.

326. Placer Cervera, Gustavo. "Importancia de las acciones navales en el teatro Cubano en el desarrollo y desenlace de la guerra del '98." In 1898: Enfoques y perspectivas; simposio internacional de historiadores en torno al 1898, Cuba, España, Estados Unidos, Filipinas y Puerto Rico. Edited by Luis E. González Vales, 143-58. San Juan, P. R.: Academia Puertorriqueña de la Historia, 1997.

Article provides charts of several naval actions in Cuban waters during the war.

327. Roby, Edward. The Unfair Treatment of the Admiral and the Captains Who Destroyed the Naval Power of Spain in 1898. Chicago: Barnard & Miller, 1900. 110 pp.

Reviews the conduct of Rear Admiral Sampson and several commanding officers of the North Atlantic Fleet during the war with Spain to argue that these men (in contrast to Dewey's officers) had not received the recognition they deserved.

328. Rogers, Lincoln A. Sketch of the Activities of the Auxiliary Cruiser Yale, United States Navy, in Cuban Waters during the Spanish-American War. Brunswick, Maine: Record Press, 1927. 13 pp.

329. Sampson, William. T. "The Atlantic Fleet in the Spanish War." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-1899): 886-913.

330. Songs of U.S.S. Yosemite. Detroit, Mich.: Press of John. F. Eby, 1901. 16 pp.

Includes a list of officers and crew and the official report of the action off San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 28 June.

331. Staunton, S. A. "The Naval Campaign of 1898 in the West Indies." Harper's New Monthly 98 (1898-1899): 175-93.

Staunton served in USS New York as assistant chief of staff to Rear Admiral Sampson throughout the war.


Minor Actions: Cable Cutting at Cienfuegos; Action at Cardenas

Ilustration: Cutting of the telegraphic cables at Cienfuegos, 11 May 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

332. Alden, John Douglas. The Cruise of the U.S.S. Badger, June 5 to October 6, 1898, with the Battalion of the East during the War with Spain: Based on the Log of the Badger. Asbury Park, N.J.: John D. Alden, 1941. 60 pp.

333. Allen, Gardner Weld. "Two Cruises in War-Time." Harvard Graduate's Magazine 39 (December 1930): 163-68.

Recounts service of Harvard graduates, including the author, in the Massachusetts Naval Brigade on board USS Prairie.

334. Bernadou, J. B. "The 'Winslow' at Cardenas." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-1899): 698-706.

335. Bonsal, Stephen. "The First Fight on Cuban Soil: The Story of the Landing of the 'First Foot'." McClure's 11 (1898): 234-43.

Describes the landing of the first U.S. troops on Cuban soil, 12 May 1898, at Arbolitos Point, by transport steamer Gussie, with the fire support of escorts USS Manning and USS Wasp.

336. Cherpak, Evelyn M. "Cable Cutting at Cienfuegos." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 113 (February 1987): 119-22.

Account based on published primary sources supplemented by letters and documents in the Naval War College Naval Historical Collection.

337. Coletta, Paolo Enrico. "Bowman H. McCalla at Guantanamo Bay: A Link in the Chain of Navy-Marine Corps Cooperation." Shipmate 41 (June 1978): 25-28.

McCalla commanded USS Marblehead.

338. The Cruise of the U.S.S. Eagle during the Spanish-American War. Philadelphia: Press of Patterson & White, [1898]. 30 pp.

Published under the auspices of the crew. Includes list of officers and crew.

339. Goodrich, Caspar F. "The 'St. Louis' as a Transport." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (1899): 1-9.

St. Louis transported the 3d Illinois Infantry from Hampton Roads to Puerto Rico, 28 July to 2 August 1898. Goodrich was her captain. The article provides the instructions and procedures used in transporting these soldiers efficiently and includes plans showing the placement of berthing spaces.

340. Halsey, William F. "The Last Engagement of the War." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (1899): 53-63.

An account of the American attack at Manzanillo, Cuba, on 12 August 1898.

341. Heinl, Robert D., Jr. "How We Got Guantanamo." American Heritage 13 (February 1962): 18-21, 94-97.

342. Joy, Henry B. The U.S.S. Yosemite, Purisma Concepción Incident, June 16th, 1898. Detroit, Mich.: Privately printed, 1937. 24 pp.

"A defense of Lieutenant Commander Gilbert Wilkes and the crew of the Yosemite, in answer to a statement in Stringham's 'The Story of U.S.S. 'Yosemite' in 1898'."

343. McCawley, Charles L. "The Guantanamo Campaign of 1898." Marine Corps Gazette 1 (September 1916): 221-42.

An analysis of the campaign from tactical and logistic points of view.

344. McNeal, Herbert P. "How the Navy Won Guantanamo Bay." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 79 (1953): 614-19.

This narrative of the campaign argues that the capture of Guantánamo had an effect on the war that far transcended its local consequences.

345. USS Yankee Book Committee. The USS Yankee on the Cuban Blockade, 1898. New York: USS Yankee Book Committee, 1928. 194 pp.

Includes a record of officers and crew with addresses or dates of death.

346. Winslow, Cameron McR. "Cable-Cutting at Cienfuegos." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-99): 708-17.


Search for Cervera's Squadron and Battle and Capture of Santiago

Illustration: Spanish armored cruiser run aground after receiving severe damage from American gunfire during the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, 3 July 1898. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.




347. "Admiral Cervera's Account of the Battle of Santiago." American Monthly Review of Reviews 30 (August 1904): 237-38.

The article concentrates on Admiral Cervera's description of the condition of his fleet before departing for the Caribbean.

348. Archibald, James Francis Jewell. "The Day of the Surrender of Santiago." Scribner's 24 (1898): 412-16.

349. Arderius, Francisco. La escuadra española en Santiago de Cuba: Diario de un testigo. Barcelona, Spain: Maucci, 1903. 207 pp.

An account of the destruction of the Spanish fleet at Santiago de Cuba, written by an aide on board Furor to Fernando Villaamil, who commanded the destroyer flotilla.

350. _____. "The Naval Battle at Santiago." Living Age 319 (1923): 548-51.

351. Azoy, Anastasio C. M. Signal 250: The Sea Fight Off Santiago Bay. New York: David McKay, 1964. 207 pp.

352. Benjamin, Park. "The Measurements of a Sea Fight." Independent 53 (1901): 1833-36.

An analysis of ship movements during the naval Battle of Santiago de Cuba.

353. Bigelow, John, Jr. Reminiscences of the Santiago Campaign. New York: Harper & Bros., 1899. 188 pp.

Bigelow was a captain in the 10th U.S. (Colored) Cavalry Regiment. The book discusses conditions on transports and the landing in Cuba.

354. Blue, Victor. "The Sighting of Cervera's Ships." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (1899): 586-92.

Lieutenant Blue served on board USS Suwanee. He went on shore and reconnoitered Santiago Bay in order to confirm the presence of Cervera's squadron.

355. Buenzle, Fred J. "Collier Merrimac." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 66 (1940): 1447-53.

Buenzle served on board USS New York as a yeoman on Rear Admiral Sampson's staff. His article recounts the preparations made to send Merrimac on its mission to block the channel into Santiago Bay.

356. Capehart, E. E. "The Mine Defenses of Santiago Harbor." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 24 (1898): 585-604.

Includes photographs and drawings of the devices used by the Spanish.

357. Cassard, William Gilbert. The Battleship Indiana and Her Part in the Spanish-American War. New York: Henry C. Taylor, 1899. 146 pp.

Cassard was the chaplain on board Indiana.

358. _____. "Rescuing the Enemy." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 116-18.

359. Cervera y Topete, Pascual. The Spanish American War: A Collection of Documents Relative to the Squadron Operations in the West Indies. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899. 165 pp.

Reprinted with seven other essays by the U.S. Navy Department, Office of Naval Intelligence as War Note No. 7 in Information from Abroad (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898-1899). Cervera commanded the Spanish armored cruiser squadron deployed to the West Indies at the beginning of the war. The documents include internal reports and memos from the squadron as well as telegrams and candid letters to superiors.

360. Chadwick, French Ensor. "The 'New York' at Santiago." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 111-14.

361. Clark, Charles Edgar. "Note on Cervera's Strategy." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 103.

Author's opinion on what Cervera should have done to break out of the blockade of Santiago de Cuba.

362. Colección de documentos referentes a la escuadra de operaciónes de las antillas ordenados por el almirante Cervera. 5th ed. Madrid: Editorial Naval, 1986. 276 pp.

363. Concas y Palau, Victor María. The Squadron of Admiral Cervera. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1900. 117 pp. Translated from the Spanish: La escuadra del almirante Cervera. Madrid: San Martin, 1898. Reprint. Málaga, Spain: Editorial Algazara, 1992.

Reprinted with seven other essays by the U.S. Navy Department, Office of Naval Intelligence as War Note No. 8 in Information from Abroad (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898-1899). Captain Concas was the commanding officer of the armored cruiser Infanta Maria Teresa and chief of staff of the squadron during the naval Battle of Santiago de Cuba. The essay, a narrative of operations of the Spanish armored cruiser squadron from Concas's perspective, provides candid opinions on the conduct of the war and American treatment of prisoners.

364. Cook, Francis A. "The 'Brooklyn' at Santiago." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 95-102.

365. Corzo, Isidoro. El bloqueo de la Habana, cuadros del natural. Havana, Cuba: Rambla y Bouza, 1905. 277 pp.

An account of life in Havana during the fifty days of the American blockade of the city. Includes characterization of reactions to news concerning Cervera's squadron.

366. _____. Cervera y su escuadra: Consideraciónes sobre el desastre de Santiago de Cuba de 3 de julio de 1898. Havana, Cuba: Tipografía "La Union," 1901. 170 pp.

367. Deignan, Osborn W. "The Sinking of the 'Merrimac' and the Capture and Imprisonment of Hobson and His Men at Santiago." Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly 47 (January 1899): 247-71.

The author was helmsman of Merrimac.

368. Dieuaide, T. M. "A Historic Scene on the 'Texas'." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 118.

The author, a war correspondent, describes how Captain Philip assembled the crew on deck immediately after the battle to give thanks.

369. Eberle, Edward W. "The 'Oregon' at Santiago." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 104-11.

370. Eulate Sanjurjo, Carmen. Eulate, la España heróica y la América magnánima: Estampas de la guerra naval de 1898. Madrid: Editorial Naval, 1951. 79 pp.

An account of the Spanish cruiser Viscaya, particularly in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, and of her commander, Antonio Eulate y Fery, written by Eulate's daughter.

371. Evans, Robley D. "The Iowa at Santiago." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 50-62.

372. Feuer, A. B. The Santiago Campaign of 1898: A Soldier's View of the Spanish-American War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1993. 147 pp.

Includes activities of naval vessels and transports noted by a participant, a private in the 71st New York Volunteer Infantry.

373. _____. "Spanish Fleet Sacrificed at Santiago Harbor." Military History (June 1998): 54-60.

A general overview of naval operations in the Caribbean leading up to and including the naval battle on 3 July.

374. _____. "Weaponry." Military History (April 1998): 12, 60

The U.S. blockade of Cuba.

375. Fox, Michael A. "Joint Operations at the Campaign of Santiago." Master's thesis, U.S. Army Command & General Staff College, 1994.

Gannon, Joseph C. See entry no. 219.

376. García del Pino, César. La acción naval de Santiago de Cuba. Havana, Cuba: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1988. 128 pp.

377. Gómez Núñez, Severo. La guerra hispano-americana: Santiago de Cuba. Madrid: Ipr. Del Cuerpo de Artillería, 1901. 242 pp.

378. Goode, William A. M. "The Destruction of Cervera's Fleet. II. As Seen by an Eye-Witness on the 'New York,' Admiral Sampson's Flagship." McClure's 11 (1898): 423-32.

See also entry no. 381.

379. _____. "The Inner History of Admiral Sampson's Campaign." McClure's 12 (1898-1899): 82-95.

Based on official correspondence of Long, Sampson, and Schley.

380. Gosnell, Harpur Allen. "The Squadron of Admiral Cervera: An Account of the Insurmountable Handicaps Imposed upon a Noble Body of Men." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 54 (1928): 651-57.

Describes the materiel problems of the Spanish squadron under Cervera and implies that the Spanish could have done more to increase their chances of survival.

381. Graham, George Edward. "The Destruction of Cervera's Fleet. I. As Seen by an Eye-Witness on the 'Brooklyn,' Commodore Schley's Flagship." McClure's 11 (1898): 403-21.

See also entry no. 378.

382. Müller y Tejeiro, José. Battles and Capitulation of Santiago De Cuba. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898. 108 pp. Reprint "Battles and Capitulation of Santiago de Cuba." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 25 (March 1899): 81-234.

Reprinted with seven other essays by the U.S. Navy Department, Office of Naval Intelligence as War Note No. 1 in Information from Abroad (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898-1899). Müller was second in command of the Spanish naval forces in the Province of Santiago de Cuba. His essay includes a narrative of operations, descriptions and maps of Spanish defenses, and a discussion of logistics.

383. Murphy, Ed. "We Remembered the Maine." Annapolis, Md.: United States Naval Institute Proceedings 70 (1944): 55-61.

Murphy served as an enlisted man on board USS Oregon after the ship arrived at Key West in May 1898. He was a member of the Illinois Naval Reserves and witnessed the Battle of Santiago de Cuba.

384. Norris, Frank. The Surrender of Santiago: An Account of the Historic Surrender of Santiago to General Shafter, July 17, 1899. San Francisco, Calif.: Paul Elder, 1917. 24 pp.

385. Osborn, P. R. "Three Naval Campaigns: A Study in Disaster." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 64 (1938): 874-76.

Compares weaknesses in three navies that led to defeat at Trafalgar (1805), Santiago (1898), and Tsushima (1905).

386. Parker, James. A Review of the Naval Campaign of 1898: In the Pursuit and Destruction of the Spanish Fleet, Commanded by Admiral Cervera. N.p.: 1900. 64 pp.

A pro-Schley narrative of the hunt for Cervera and U.S. naval operations off Santiago. Parker was a former lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy.

387. Pérez, Louis A., Jr. "The Siege of Santiago de Cuba, 1898: A View from Within." Revista interamericana de bibliografía; Inter-American Review of Bibliography 43 (1993): 633-40.

Anonymous diary, presumably of a British citizen, from 21 May to 7 July 1898. The original is in the papers of G. Creighton Webb at the New York Historical Society. Webb was a U.S. Army officer of the 2d Division, V Corps, who collected materials for a projected history of the Santiago campaign.

388. Pérez de Vargas, Luis. La opinión y la marina: combate de Santiago. El Ferrol, Spain: El Correo Gallego, 1898. 27 pp.

389. Philip, John W. "The 'Texas' at Santiago." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 87-94.

390. Quinlan, Michael, ed. The Spanish-American War...New York: Published by editor, 1902. Various pagings.

Incorporates the Squadron Bulletins of the North Atlantic Squadron (see entry no. 394) but greatly augments them. The account starts with the blockade off Santiago de Cuba and continues after the war on board the battleship Kearsarge. It is completed on board the cruiser Olympia.

391. Ramsden, Frederick W. "Diary of the British Consul at Santiago during Hostilities: From May 18, 1898, the Day before the Arrival of the Spanish Fleet, to July 18, the Day after the Americans Took Possession of the City." McClure's 11 (1898): 580-90; 12 (1898-1899): 62-70.

392. Risco, Alberto. La escuadra del almirante Cervera: Narración del combate naval de Santiago de Cuba. 3d ed. Madrid: Editorial "Razón y fe." 1929. 195 pp.

393. Rodgers, W. L. "A Study of Attacks upon Fortified Harbors: Santiago." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 31 (1905): 103-12.

In a series of articles, one section examines the subject of attacks on fortified harbors. Rodgers concludes that strongly defended ports must be taken by the army.

394. Sampson, William T. Reprint of the Squadron Bulletins of the North Atlantic Squadron. New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1898. 98 pp.

Collection of bulletins sent out from the flagship to the North Atlantic Squadron to keep men informed of what was occurring in the war.

395. Sargent, Herbert H. The Campaign of Santiago de Cuba. 3 vols. Chicago: A. C. McClure, 1907. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970.

Vol. 1 covers the insurrection and early days of the war. Vol. 2 covers major operations. Vol. 3 discusses sieges, capitulations, and the effect the war had on naval and military policy.

396. Shafter, William R. "The Capture of Santiago de Cuba." Century Illustrated Monthly 57 (1898-1899): 612-30.

397. "Situation at Santiago de Cuba." Scientific American 78 (4 June 1898): 360-61.

398. The Society of the Army of Santiago de Cuba. The Santiago Campaign: Reminiscences of the Operations for the Capture of Santiago de Cuba in the Spanish American War, June and July 1898. Richmond, Va.: Williams Printing Co., 1927. 442 pp.

Primarily recollections of army officers; sheds light on activities of transports and naval vessels.

399. Souvenir of U.S. Gunboat Gloucester and the Battle of Santiago, July 3, 1898. N.p., 1898. 23 pp.

400. Spector, Ronald H. "The Battle of Santiago." American History Illustrated 9 (July 1974): 12-24.

401. "The Story of the Captains: Personal Narratives of the Naval Engagement near Santiago de Cuba, July 3, 1898, by Officers of the American Fleet." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 50-118.

Also cited separately under each author. See entry nos. 358, 361, 364, 368, 369, 371, 389, 402, and 405.

402. Taylor, Henry C. "The 'Indiana' at Santiago." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 62-75.

403. Two Historic Days: Snapshots of Spanish Prisoners from Cervera's Ships Landing at Seavey's Island, Portsmouth Harbor, July, 1898. Portsmouth, N.H.: Preston of New Hampshire, 1898. 15 pp.

404. Vivian, Thomas J. The Fall of Santiago. New York: R. F. Fenno, 1898. 246 pp.

405. Wainwright, Richard. "The 'Gloucester' at Santiago." Century Illustrated Monthly 58 (1899): 76-86.

406. "War Time Snap Shots: Photographs that Tell the Story of the Santiago Campaign, with Its Glories and Its Hardships; Some of the Men Who Carried the Stars and Stripes to Victory on Sea and Land." Munsey's 20 (October 1898): 3-32.

Webber, Bert. See entry no. 222.

407. Wheeler, Joseph. The Santiago Campaign, 1898. New York: Lamson, Wolffe, 1898. Reprints. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1971. 369 pp.

Wheeler commanded the cavalry division in the Santiago campaign.

408. Wilson, Herbert Wrigley. "The Inner History of Cervera's Sortie: General Blanco Responsible for the Disaster." Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States 24 (1899): 463-74.


Puerto Rico

Illustration: Lieutenant Commander Wainwright sends a landing party from USS Gloucester to capture Port Guanica at the opening of the Puerto Rican campaign. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

409. Coll y Toste, Cayetano. La invasión americana en Puerto Rico. 2d ed. San Juan, P.R.: Isabel Cuchi Coll, 1985. 82 pp.

410. Davis, Richard Harding. "The Battle of San Juan." Scribner's 24 (October 1898): 387-403.

411. Hernández, Miguel J. "San Juan under Siege." Military History (April 1998): 46-52.

Narrative of Rear Admiral Sampson's attack on 12 May and Major General Miles' campaign to take Puerto Rico in July and August, told mostly from the Spanish perspective.

412. Hernández-Cruz, Juan E. La invasión de Puerto Rico: Consideraciónes histórico-sociológicas. San Germán, P.R.: Editorial Xaguey, 1992. 46 pp.

413. Rivero Méndez, Angel. Crónica de la guerra hispanoamericana en Puerto Rico. Madrid, Spain: Sucesores de Ryzadeneyra, 1922. 688 pp. Reprint. Río Piedras, P.R.: Editorial Edil, 1972. 362 pp.

414. Rosario Natal, Carmelo. El 1898 Puertorriqueño en la historiografía: Ensayo y bibliografía crítica. San Juan, P.R.: Academia Puertorriqueña de la Historia, 1997. 176 pp.

415. _____. Puerto Rico y la crisis de la guerra hispanoamericana (1895-1898). Hato Rey, P.R.: Ramallo Bros. Printing Co., 1975. 362 pp. Reprint. P.R.: Editorial Edil, 1989. 336 pp.

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30 November 1998