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DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY -- NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER
805 KIDDER BREESE SE -- WASHINGTON NAVY YARD
WASHINGTON DC 20374-5060

The Spanish-American War
Historical Overview and Select Bibliography

Michael J. Crawford, Mark L. Hayes and Michael D. Sessions


Select Bibliography of Printed Works

This bibliography on the United States Navy in the Spanish-American War represents a compilation of citations of published sources related to naval topics. The wide variety of subjects included reflect the U.S. Navy's all-encompassing role in the war. Because titles on the diplomacy of the period could make up a bibliography by themselves, the section on diplomatic relations is more selective than other sections. Juvenile literature is not included, but otherwise this bibliography does not distinguish between popular and scholarly works. However, most works published in the first few years after the war are celebratory in nature. Annotations are intended to explain the content of works whose titles are not self-explanatory and to assist the researcher in selecting appropriate works for particular areas of study.

Illustration: Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan. Painting by unknown artist. Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C.

General Works

1. Abbot, Willis John. Blue Jackets of '98: A History of the Spanish-American War. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1902. 367 pp.

2. Abrahamson, James L. America Arms for a New Century: The Making of a Great Military Power. New York: Free Press, 1981. 253 pp.

Progressivism in military and naval reform.

3. Alger, Russell Alexander. The Spanish-American War. New York: Harper & Bros., 1901. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971. 465 pp.

Alger was Secretary of the Army during the war. Concentrates on the organization, equipment, and operations of the Army along with the administration of the War Department. Discusses the department's unpreparedness for the war with Spain.

4. Alvarez, José M. The Spanish-American War: An Annotated Bibliography. Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: U.S. Army War College, 1991. Various pagings.

5. Armstrong, LeRoy. Pictorial Atlas Illustrating the Spanish-American War: Comprising a History of the Great Conflict of the United States with Spain. Chicago: C. F. Beezley, 1898. Reprint. New York: George F. Cram, 1900. 190 pp.

6. Aston, George Grey. Letters on Amphibious Wars. London: J. Murray, 1911. 372 pp.

Illustration: American sailors in typical uniform. Pen and ink drawing by John Charles Roach.

7. Axeen, David. "'Heroes of the Engine Room': American Civilization and the War with Spain." American Quarterly 36 (1984): 481-502.

The battleship played a role in contemporary understanding of the Spanish-American War in light of American civilization and values. It represented mechanization and organization, in contrast to individual valor.

8. Barón Fernández, José. La guerra hispano-norteamericana de 1898. Sada, A Coruña: Ediciós do Castro, 1993. 273 pp.

9. Bartlett, John Russell. "Watching for the Enemy in the Spanish-American War." Century Illustrated Monthly 62 (1901): 907-15.

An account of the U.S. Navy's Coast Signal Service, of which the author was in charge.

10. Beard, William E. "Adventures of Old Glory." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 53 (1927): 318-24.

Includes a description of events surrounding the raising of the U.S. flag at the surrenders of Santiago and Manila.

11. Beede, Benjamin R., ed. The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions, 1898-1934: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1994. 751 pp.

12. Blow, Michael. A Ship to Remember: The Maine and the Spanish-American War. New York: Morrow, 1992. 496 pp.

Narrative of the Spanish-American War that includes an extensive discussion of the destruction of Maine and the investigations into its cause.

13. Borchers, Duane D., ed. 1898: Efficiency of the Revenue Cutter Service during the Spanish American War. Annapolis, Md.: Maryland Silver Co., 1994. 80 pp.

This work, Senate Report 1-224, 56th Cong., 1st sess., 1899-1900, includes U.S. Navy and Treasury Department letters written during the war. As a result of the report, revenue cutter officers were placed on an equal footing with officers of the Army and Navy.

14. Borries, Vance von. "The New Empire: America in the Spanish-American War." Strategy & Tactics 108 (July-August 1986): 15-24, 41.

15. Bradford, James C., ed. Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War and Its Aftermath. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1993. 269 pp.

A collection of scholarly essays on naval and joint topics by noted historians.

16. Bradley, Claudia, et al. List of Logbooks of U.S. Navy Ships, Stations and Miscellaneous Units, 1801-1947. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1978. 562 pp.

Lists ships by name and the dates covered in available logbooks.

17. Braisted, William Reynolds. The United States Navy in the Pacific, 1897-1909. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1958. Reprint. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969. 282 pp.

A study of the U.S. Navy's relationship with American diplomacy in the Far East around the turn of the century, with an examination of the U.S. Navy's interaction with the Germans and insurgents in the Philippines.

18. Bride, Charles. La guerre hispano-amèricaine de 1898. Paris: R. Chapelot, 1899. 275 pp.

19. Brooks, Elbridge S. The Story of Our War with Spain. Boston: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1899. 349 pp.

20. Buel, James William, ed. Behind the Guns with American Heroes. Chicago: International Publishing Co., 1899. 503 pp.

The work consists of chapters by Admiral Dewey and others. Covers both the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection.

21. Buel, James William. Leslie's Official History of the Spanish-American War. Washington, D.C.: Marcus J. Wright, 1899. 614 pp.

Large format, lavishly illustrated.

22. Buel, James William, and Marcus J. Wright. Our Late Wars: Spain and Our New Possessions. Washington, D.C.: American Historical Society, 1900. 474 pp.

23. Bujac, [Jean Léopold] Émile. La guerre hispana-amèricaine. Paris: H. C. Lavauzelle, [1899]. 420 pp. 2d ed. [1908].

Vol. 4 of the author's Précis de quelques campaignes contemporaines.

24. Calvo Poyato, José. El desastre del 98. Barcelona, Spain: Plaza & Janés, 1997. 257 pp.

25. Campbell, Alec. "The Spanish-American War." History Today 8 (April 1958): 239-47.

Sees a short-lived rise of U.S. expansionism as a major cause of the war.

26. Carmody, Terrence F., and Frederick Merrick Peasley. United States War Revenue Law of June 13, 1898: With Annotated References to the Rulings on the Same by the Treasury Department from the Passage of the Act to December 22 [i.e. 27] 1898. Waterbury, Conn.: Dissell Publishing Co., 1899. 613 pp.

27. Cary, R. W. Naval Operations of the Spanish-American War: Staff Presentation. Newport, R.I.: Naval War College, 1939. 51 pp.

28. Casau, J., ed. Homenaje a los héroes de Cavite y de Santiago de Cuba. Cartegena, Spain: J. Casau, 1923. Unpaged.

Commemorative book on the dedication of a monument in Cartegena, Spain, erected to the memory of Spain's soldiers and sailors who lost their lives in the Battles of Manila Bay and Santiago de Cuba.

29. Central Bureau of Engraving, New York. Our Heroes of the Spanish-American War. New York: Central Bureau of Engraving, 1898.

Portraits of fifteen notable U.S. Army and Navy officers.

30. Chadwick, French Ensor. The Relations of the United States and Spain: The Spanish-American War. 2 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1911. Reprint. New York: Russell & Russell, 1968.

Emphasis is placed on naval operations. The work includes extensive quotations from wartime documents as well as appendices listing ships in commission during the war, vessels purchased, and vessels converted. Other appendices list ships that entered Cuban ports and casualties to American forces.

31. Chidsey, Donald Barr. The Spanish-American War: A Behind-the-Scenes Account of the War in Cuba. New York: Crown Publishers, 1971. 191 pp.

Covers the war at Manila and Puerto Rico, as well.

32. Chronology of the War with Spain. Washington, D.C.: N.p., 1899. 4 pp.

Daniel Murray Pamphlet Collection (Library of Congress). Covers period 25 January to 12 August 1898.

33. Clarke, G. S. "Naval Aspects of the Spanish-American War." Chapter 5, pp. 123-74, in The Naval Annual, 1899. Edited by T. A. Brassey. Portsmouth, Great Britain: J. Griffin, 1899.

An analytical account of naval events of the war with an eye toward operational and tactical lessons.

34. Cooling, Benjamin Franklin. Gray Steel and Blue Water Navy: The Formative Years of America's Military-Industrial Complex, 1881-1917. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1979. 286 pp.

Argues that the New Navy's need for steel armor and ordnance forged the military-industrial bonds that mutually benefited U.S. industry and national defense.

35. Cosmas, Graham A. An Army for Empire: The United States Army and the Spanish-American War. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1971. 334 pp. Reprints. Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane, 1994. 349 pp. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1998. 368 pp.

View of the U.S. Army in the war against Spain from the perspective of the civilian and uniformed leadership in the War Department. Cosmas argues that the Army's wartime misfortunes had less to do with fundamental mistakes in the War Department than from hurried attempts to implement its policies with a shortage of trained personnel and inadequate supplies. The reprinted editions include an introduction reviewing the historiography of the U.S. Army during the period as well as additional material on the African-American experience and the Battles of San Juan Hill and El Caney. Also included is a discussion of the Army's postwar role in occupying Cuba and the Philippines.

36. Cram, George Franklin. Cram's Big War Atlas: Showing All Fighting Territory. New York: George Cram, [1898]. 22 pp. Also published by Chicago: E. A. Weeks Co., 1898.

37. Cugle, Frances. A Brief History of the Spanish-American War. Harrisburg, Pa.: Kurzenknabe Press, 1898. 91 pp.

Includes text of President McKinley's Cuban message to Congress on 11 April 1898 and a chronology of important events.

38. Davis, George Theron. A Navy Second to None: The Development of Modern American Naval Policy. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1940. Reprint. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1971. 508 pp.

39. Díez Alegría, Manuel. "La esplendida guerrita de los Americanos," Revue Internationale d'Histoire Militaire 56 (1984): 9-47.

40. Dutton, Charles J. "American Prison Camp." Commonweal 33 (3 January 1941): 270-72.

Account of the prisoner of war camp established at Portsmouth Navy Yard in Kittery, Maine, for the Spanish sailors captured with Cervera's fleet.

41. Dyal, Donald H. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996. 378 pp.

42. Evans, Stephen H. The United States Coast Guard, 1790-1915: A Definitive History. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1949. 228 pp.

Chapter 12, "Of War and Peace," focuses on the revenue cutters incorporated into the Navy's fleets at Manila and in Cuban waters.

43. Fernández Almagro, Melchor. Historia política de la España contemporánea. 3 vols. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1968.

Vol. 3, 1898-1902, provides an account of the war from the point of view of Spanish political history.

44. Figuero, Javier. La España del desastre. Barcelona, Spain: Plaza & Janés, 1997. 372 pp.

45. Freidel, Frank. The Splendid Little War. Boston: Little, Brown, 1958. 314 pp.

An illustrated narrative that focuses on the major U.S. Army and Navy actions in the campaigns for Manila, Cuba, and Puerto Rico.

46. Gauvreau, Charles F. Reminiscences of the Spanish-American War in Cuba and the Philippines. St. Albans, Vt.: Messenger Office, Printers, 1912. 141 pp. Reprint. Rouses Point, N.Y.: The Authors Publishing Co., 1915. 160 pp.

Gauvreau was a private in the 21st Infantry Regiment. His account includes descriptions of conditions on board a transport and the landing in Cuba.

47. Giddings, Howard A. Exploits of the Signal Corps in the War with Spain. Kansas City, Mo., 1900. 126 pp.

Includes a discussion of the Signal Corps' role in locating Cervera's squadron, and in directing naval gunfire during the bombardment of Santiago de Cuba.

48. Goldstein, Donald M., et al. The Spanish-American War: The Story and Photographs. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 1998. 192 pp.

49. Gómez Núñez, Severo. La guerra hispano-americana: Puerto-Rico y Filipinas. Madrid: Ipr. Del Cuerpo de Artillería, 1902. 254 pp.

50. Green, Nathan C. The War with Spain and Story of Spain and Cuba. Baltimore, Md.: International News & Book Co., 1898. 532 pp.

This work is mostly a series of articles on subjects related to the Cuban Insurrection and the Spanish-American War. Includes information on the commerce of the Spanish colonies.

51. Hagan, Kenneth J. This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power. New York: Free Press, 1991. 434 pp.

52. Halstead, Murat. Full Official History of the War with Spain. Chicago: C. F. Breezley; Dominion Co.; Philadelphia: J. H. Moore, 1899. 794 pp.

53. Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain. New York: Harper & Bros., 1899. 507 pp.

Also published in two volumes.

54. Harris, Brayton. The Age of the Battleship, 1890-1922. New York: Franklin Watts, 1965. 212 pp.

55. Hart, Kevin R. "Towards A Citizen Sailor: The History of the Naval Militia Movement, 1888-1898." American Neptune 33 (1973): 258-79.

Discusses the history of the Naval Militia and the country's attempts to develop a naval reserve that could augment the Navy's strength in wartime.

56. Hero Tales of the American Soldier and Sailor As Told by the Heroes Themselves and Their Comrades. Philadelphia: Century Manufacturing Co.; New York: W. W. Wilson, 1899. 503 pp.

Includes firsthand accounts by both enlisted and officers in the U.S. Army and Navy.

57. Herrick, Walter R., Jr. The American Naval Revolution. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966. 274 pp.

This study examines a revolution in doctrine that transformed the U.S. Navy from a coastal defense fleet to a unified battle fleet capable of offensive action.

58. Historical Sketch of the Naval and Military Order of the Spanish-American War. St. Petersburg, Fla.: National Headquarters Office, 1958. 55 pp.

59. Hollis, Ira Nelson. "The Navy in the War with Spain." Atlantic Monthly 82 (1898-1899), 605-16.

60. _____. "The Uncertain Factors in Naval Conflict." Atlantic Monthly 81 (1898), 728-36.

61. Illustrated War News. New York: [F. Tousey], 1898.

Monthly publication. Vol. 1, no. 1-4 (May-August).

62. Johnston, Edgar. The Great American-Spanish War Scenes with Official Photographs by United States Naval Photographer, E. H. Hart. A History of the War in Cuba and the United States Conflict with Spain. Chicago: W. B. Conkey, 1898. 227 pp.

63. Johnston, William A. History Up To Date: A Concise Account of the War of 1898 between the United States and Spain, Its Causes and the Treaty of Paris. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1899. 258 pp.

64. Jornadas de Historia Maritima (6th, 1990: Madrid, Spain). La marina ante el 98. (II): genesis y desarrollo de un conflicto. Madrid: Instituto de Historia y Cultural Naval, 1990. 167 pp.

Four of these nine papers delivered at a cycle of conferences held in November 1990 concern naval aspects: "De Cavite a Santiago," by José Blanco Núñez; "Lo naval en el noventa y ocho," by Eliseo Alvarez Arenas; "La guerra olvidada de Puerto Rico," by José Cervera Pery; and "La armada en el debate político de la postguerra," by Fernando De Bordje.

65. Keenan, Henry F. The Conflict with Spain: A History of the War Based upon Official Reports and Descriptions of Eyewitnesses. Philadelphia: P. W. Ziegler, 1898. 601 pp.

Includes forty-five pages of reports by naval officers. The work is heavily illustrated with sketches and photographs.

66. Keller, Allan. The Spanish-American War: A Compact History. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1969. 258 pp.

No footnotes. Bibliography contains only published sources.

67. King, William Nephew. The Story of the Spanish-American War, and the Revolt in the Philippines. New York: N.p., 1898. Reprint. New York: P. F. Collier, 1900. 272 pp.

Large format, lavishly illustrated.

68. Kiralfy, Imre. Our Naval Victories: An American Naval Spectacle. N.p.: Strauss, 1898. 29 pp.

69. Leech, Margaret. In the Days of McKinley. New York: Harper & Row, 1959. Reprints. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1975. Norwalk, Conn.: Easton Press, 1986. 686 pp.

70. Leuchtenberg, William E. "The Needless War with Spain." American Heritage 8 (1957): 32-41, 95. Also in Times of Trial, edited by Allan Nevins, 177-96. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1958.

71. Lodge, Henry Cabot. The War with Spain. New York: Harper & Bros., 1899. Reprint. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1970. 276 pp.

Contains eighty-three illustrations. The appendices include select diplomatic documents, including the text of the Treaty of Paris.

72. Long, John Davis. The New American Navy. 2 vols. New York: Outlook, 1903. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1979. 555 pp. [in one volume].

Illustrated with drawings by Henry Reuterdahl. Long was Secretary of the Navy under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. Vol. 1 discusses the birth, building, organization, and administration of the New Steel Navy, as well as early naval operations of the Spanish-American War. Vol. 2 discusses the remaining operations of the Spanish-American War as well as subsequent events in the Philippines, Samoa, and China. The appendix includes documents related to the Sampson-Schley controversy.

73. Louisiana State Museum, New Orleans. The Spanish-American War of 1898, Liberty for Cuba and World Power for the United States. Edited by James J. A. Fortier. New Orleans: Louisiana State Museum, 1939.

A description of the participation of men and units from Louisiana including the 1st Naval Battalion of Louisiana.

74. Luce, Stephen B. "The Spanish-American War." North American Review 194 (1911): 612-27.

An essay review of French Ensor Chadwick, The Relations of the United States and Spain, entry no. 30.

75. McGarvey, Paul Brian. "The Development of the Modern United States Navy and the War with Spain, 1880-1898." Master's thesis, East Stroudsburg University, 1987. 114 pp.

76. Maclay, Edgar Stanton. A History of the United States Navy From 1775-1901. 3 vols. New York: D. Appleton, 1901.

Vol. 3, pp. 39-433, treats the Spanish-American War. Appendices include a "Roll of Honor in the War with Spain."

77. Marolda, Edward J. ed. Theodore Roosevelt, the U.S. Navy, and the Spanish American War. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

78. [McNally, Bernard, comp.] Soldiers and Sailors of New Jersey in the Spanish-American War: Embracing a Chronological Account of the Army and Navy. Newark, N.J.: B. McNally, 1898. 46 pp.

Includes information on the Naval Reserve of New Jersey, the training ship USS Portsmouth, and U.S. auxiliary cruiser Badger with its rough log and list of officers.

79. Marshall, Samuel L. A. The War to Free Cuba: The Military History of the Spanish-American War. New York: Franklin Watts, 1966. 79 pp.

80. Mason, Gregory. Remember the Maine. New York: Henry Holt, 1939. 312 pp.

A popular narrative of the entire war.

81. Matthews, Franklin. Our Navy in Time of War (1861-1898). New York: D. Appleton, 1899. 275 pp.

Intended for students and includes one chapter each on the Battles of Manila Bay and Santiago de Cuba.

82. Medel, José Antonio. The Spanish-American War and Its Results. Havana, Cuba: P. Fernandez, 1932. 122 pp.

A general history of the war. Medel was a cavalry captain in the Cuban army.

83. Miles, Nelson A. "The War with Spain." North American Review 168 (May, June 1899): 513-29, 749-60; 169 (July 1899): 125-37.

84. Millis, Walter. The Martial Spirit: A Study of Our War with Spain. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; New York: Literary Guild of America, 1931. Reprints. New York: Arno Press, 1979. Chicago: I. R. Dee, 1989. 427 pp.

A general narrative of the war from a satirical perspective.

85. Minton, Telfair Marriott. History of the First Battalion Naval Militia, New York, 1891-1911. New York: Knickerbocker Press (G. P. Putnam's Sons), 1911. 188 pp.

During the Spanish-American War members of the battalion served on board USS Yankee in the Cuban theater and on board USS Nahant in New York Harbor.

86. Mitchell, D. W. History of the Modern American Navy: From 1883 through Pearl Harbor. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946. 475 pp.

Contains three chapters on the Spanish-American War, treating the beginnings, Pacific operations, and Atlantic operations.

87. Morris, Charles. The War with Spain: A Complete History of the War of 1898 between the United States and Spain. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1899. 383 pp.

88. Musicant, Ivan. The Banana Wars: A History of United States Military Intervention in Latin America from the Spanish-American War to the Invasion of Panama. New York: Macmillan, 1990. 470 pp.

89. _____. Empire by Default: The Spanish-American War and the Dawn of the American Century. New York: Henry Holt, 1998. 750 pp.

A military and naval account of the war with significant attention to diplomacy.

90. Musick, John R. Lights and Shadows of Our War with Spain. New York: J. S. Oglivie, 1898. 224 pp.

91. Naval Actions and History, 1799-1898. Boston: Military History Society of Massachusetts, 1902. 398 pp.

Asa Walker, Captain, USN, "The Battle of Manila Bay," pp. 365-86, recounts his experiences as a participant in command of USS Concord.

92. "Naval Militia in Service." Harper's Weekly 42 (30 April 1898): 417-18.

Emergency manning of old monitors with New York Naval Militia.

93. New York (State) Naval Militia. Report of the Captain of the Naval Militia of New York to the Adjutant-General on the War with Spain. New York: Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford, 1898. 72 pp.

The author was Captain J. W. Miller.

94. Nofi, Albert A. The Spanish-American War, 1898. Consho-hocken, Pa.: Combined Books, 1997. 352 pp.

Each chapter contains several sidebars of brief biographies, orders of battle, and discussions of special topics.

95. Otis, James. The Boys of '98. Boston: Dana Estes, 1898. 386 pp.

This is an operational narrative of the war that sometimes turns into a strict chronology.

96. O'Toole, George J. A. The Spanish War: An American Epic--1898. New York: Norton, 1984. 447 pp.

General popular history of the war. The author emphasizes America's transition to empire.

97. Our War with Spain: The Army and Navy, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines. Chicago: N.p., 1898.

Large-format book of photographs.

98. Parkerson, A. C. How Uncle Sam Fights: Or, Modern Warfare, How Conducted. Baltimore, Md.: R. H. Woodward, 1898. 464 pp.

99. Paullin, Charles Oscar. Paullin's History of Naval Administration, 1775-1911. Annapolis, Md.: U.S. Naval Institute, 1968. 485 pp.

A collection of articles from the United States Naval Institute Proceedings.

100. Payne, Stanley G. Politics and the Military in Modern Spain. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1967. 574 pp.

Treats the years 1808 to 1966. See particularly chapters 5 and 6, "The Colonial Disaster" and "The Aftermath."

101. Pearson Publishing Company. Photographic History of the Spanish-American War: A Pictorial and Descriptive Record of Events on Land and Sea with Portraits and Biographies of Leaders on Both Sides. New York: Pearson Publishing Co., 1898. 136 pp.

Also published as Pearson's Official War History: A Complete Pictorial History of the Spanish-American Struggle of 1898.

102. Peuser, Richard W. "Documenting United States Naval Activities During the Spanish-American War." Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives 30 (1998): 33-45.

Describes the holdings at the National Archives that document U.S. naval activities during the period.

103. Photographic History of the War with Spain. Baltimore, Md.: R. H. Woodward, 1898. 88 pp.

Also covers the U.S. Navy, Spain, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines.

104. Pictorial Souvenir of the Spanish-American War, Army and Navy. New York: United Publishers of America, 1899. 16 pp.

105. Plüddemann, Max. Comments of Rear-Admiral Plüddemann, German Navy, on Main Features of the Spanish-American War (Translated from the German). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898. 18 pp. Reprint. "Main Features of the Spanish-American War." Journal of the Royal United Service Institution 43 (1899): 654-66.

Reprinted with seven other essays by the U.S. Navy Department, Office of Naval Intelligence as War Note No. 2 in Information from Abroad (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898-1899). The essay includes technical comments on battles, naval gunnery, coaling, and the operations of naval auxiliaries.

106. Potter, E. B., et al. eds. Sea Power: A Naval History. 2d ed. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1981. 419 pp.

See chapter 17, "The Spanish-American War." Intended "for general reading, as a reference work and as a textbook."

107. Rice, Wallace. Heroic Deeds in Our War with Spain: An Episodic History of the Fighting of 1898 on Sea and Shore. Chicago: George M. Hill, [1898]. 447 pp.

108. Richards, Julian W. A Handbook of the Spanish-American War of 1898 and the Insurrection in the Philippines. N.p.: Republican Printing Co., 1899. 36 pp.

Includes a chronological record of battles, messages of President McKinley, and operations of the Army and Navy.

109. Rodríguez González, Agustín Ramón. La guerra del 98:Las campañas de Cuba, Puerto Rico y Filipinas. Madrid, Spain: Agualarga Editores, S. L., 1998. 165 pp.

A lavishly illustrated, popular narrative of the war.

110. Russell, Henry B. An Illustrated History of Our War with Spain: Its Causes, Incidents and Results. Hartford, Conn.: A. D. Worthington, 1898. 796 pp.

Two thirds of this book is devoted to prewar events such as the Ten-Years War, political trouble in Spain, and diplomacy.

111. Saginaw: Her Soldiers and Sailors in the Spanish-American War, 1898. [Saginaw, Mich.]: Goodbody & Stilwell, [1899]. Unpaged.

112. Shewey, Arista C. Shewey's Atlas of the Spanish-American War. Chicago: N.p., 1898. 23 pp.

113. Sigsbee, Charles D., et al. The United States Navy in the Spanish-American War of 1898: Narratives of the Chief Events. 2 vols. N.p., 1899.

This work is a collection of magazine articles published together. Vol. 1 contains narratives of U.S. naval officers, and vol. 2 contains narratives of other naval officers.

114. Smith, Joseph. The Spanish-American War: Conflict in the Caribbean and the Pacific, 1895-1902. London: Longman, 1994. 262 pp.

115. Spain. Ministerio de Marina. Correspondencia oficial, referente á las operationes navales durante la guerra con los Estados Unidos. Madrid: Imprenta del Ministerio de Marina, 1899. 310 pp.

116. The Spanish-American War, the Events of the War Described by Eye Witnesses. New York: Herbert S. Stone, 1899. 228 pp.

Accounts of events by newspaper correspondents.

117. The Spanish War Journal. Washington, D.C.: [L. C. Dyer, 1901-07].

The official organ of the Spanish war veterans.

118. Spears, John Randolph. The History of Our Navy: From Its Origins to the End of the War with Spain, 1775-1898. 5 vols. N.Y.: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897-1899. Vol. 5, Our Navy in the War with Spain. 406 pp.

Another edition of vol. 5, published in 1899, is 554 pp. and contains a fuller discussion of the U.S. Navy between the American Civil War and the war with Spain.

119. Spector, Ronald H. Professors of War: The Naval War College and the Development of the Naval Profession. Newport, R.I.: Naval War College Press, 1977. 185 pp.

Studies the role of the Naval War College in the professionalization of the U.S. Navy from 1884 to 1917. Chapter 7 includes a summary of the war plans against Spain developed by the War College, the Office of Naval Intelligence, and special boards convened by the Secretary of the Navy.

120. _____. "The Triumph of Professional Ideology: The U.S. Navy in the 1890s." In In Peace and War: Interpretations of American Naval History, 1775-1984, 2d ed., edited by Kenneth J. Hagan, 174-85. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1984. 395 pp. 1st edition, 1978.

How sea control and the ideas of Mahan came to dominate American naval policy.

121. Sprout, Harold, and Margaret Sprout. The Rise of American Naval Power, 1776-1918. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1946. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1990. 448 pp.

122. Strait, Newton Allen. Alphabetical List of Battles, 1754-1900. Washington, D.C.: N.p., 1905. Reprint. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1968. 252 pp.

Includes a "Summary of Events of the Spanish-American War."

123. Street, Arthur Irwin. A Chronicle of the War: Including Historical Documents, Army and Navy Movements, Roster of State Troops, etc. N.p., 1898. 160 pp.

124. Sweetman, Jack. American Naval History: An Illustrated Chronology of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, 1775-Present. 2d ed. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1991. 376 pp.

125. Tanham, George J. "Service Relations Sixty Years Ago." Military Affairs 23 (1959): 139-48.

126. Tavares, Raul. De Cavite a Santiago de Cuba (guerra hispano-americana). Genova: Stab. tip. P. Pellas, 1902. 148 pp.

An account of the war, in Portuguese, from the point of view of a Brazilian navy lieutenant.

127. Titherington, Richard Hanfield. A History of the Spanish-American War of 1898. New York: D. Appleton, 1900. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971. 415 pp.

128. Trask, David F. The War with Spain in 1898. New York: Macmillan, 1981. Reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996. 654 pp.

The standard scholarly study of the Spanish-American War that includes extensive coverage of naval issues and activity.

129. Traverso, Edmund. The Spanish-American War: A Study in Policy Change. Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1968. 140 pp.

130. Uncle Sam's Navy. Philadelphia: Historical Pub. Co., 1898. A single volume in twelve separate parts.

Large-format book of photographs.

131. U.S. Congress. House Committee on Pensions. Spanish-American War Pensions. Hearings before the Committee on Pensions on H.R.2. 66th Cong. 1st sess., 1919. 22 pp.

132. U.S. Congress. House. Spanish-American War Pension Act of May 1, 1926. 69th Cong. 1st sess., 1926. H. Doc. 376. 2 pp.

133. U.S. Navy Department. Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1898. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898. 930 pp.

This publication contains a wealth of administrative and financial information on the Navy Department in the reports of the eight bureaus and the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The report from the Bureau of Steam Engineering contains twenty-two diagrams of engineering plants in U.S. Navy warships.

134. _____. Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, 1898. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1898. 740 pp.

This publication is a collection of documents related to U.S. naval operations during the war with Spain. It includes photographs and diagrams of battle damage to Spanish vessels as well as charts of areas of operations.

135. U.S. Treasury Department. Revenue Cutter Service. The United States Revenue Cutter Service in the War with Spain, 1898. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899. 49 pp.

136. U.S. War Department. Adjutant General's Office. Correspon-dence Relating to the War with Spain and Conditions Growing Out of the Same: Including the Insurrection in the Philippine Islands and the China Relief Expedition, April 15, 1898 to July 30, 1902. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1902. Reprint. Washington, D.C.: Center for Military History, 1993. 1489 pp.

Vol. 2 includes a 130-page index. Documents include a wealth of material on joint operations.

137. U.S. Navy Album. N.p.: Koerner & Hayes, 1898. 16 pp.

138. Venzon, Anne Cipriano. The Spanish-American War: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1990. 255 pp.

A selective bibliography that includes the majority of scholarly works written in English between 1898 and 1986. The 1,180 entries include topics such as music and fiction as well as books and articles on the Philippine-American War, 1899-1902.

139. Watterson, Henry. History of the Spanish-American War: Embracing a Complete Review of Our Relations with Spain. New York: Werner, 1898. 474 pp.

140. Webb, William Joe. "The Spanish-American War and United States Army Shipping." American Neptune 40 (July 1980): 167-91.

Problems and solutions of the Army's Quartermaster Department in its efforts to ship U.S. Army personnel to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.

141. Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. New York: Macmillan, 1973. Reprint. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977. 584 pp.

See in particular 9, "A Strategy of Sea Power and Empire: Stephen B. Luce and Alfred Thayer Mahan."

142. Werstein, Irving. 1898: The Spanish-American War Told with Pictures. New York: Cooper Square, 1966. 128 pp.

143. _____. Turning Point for America: The Story of the Spanish-American War. New York: Julian Messner, 1964. 191 pp.

144. White, Trumbull. Our War with Spain for Cuba's Freedom: Including a Description and History of Cuba, Spain, Philippine Island: Or, Army and Navy, Fighting Strength, Coast Defenses, and Our Relations with Other Nations, etc. Chicago: Monarch Book Co., 1898. 416 pp.

145. _____. Pictorial History of Our War with Spain for Cuba's Free-dom...Chicago: Freedom Publishing Co., 1898. Also published under the title Our War with Spain for Cuba's Freedom. 578 pp.

Includes a chapter of short personal reminiscences of participants and journalists.

146. Wilcox, Marrion, ed. A Short History of the War with Spain. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1898. 350 pp.

147. Wilkie, John E., ed. The American-Spanish War: A History by the War Leaders. Norwich, Conn.: Charles C. Haskell & Son, 1899. 607 pp.

Chapters cover a wide range of topics written by the war's participants. In addition to operational accounts, topics include women's work in the war, the Secret Service, war legislation, and financial administration.

148. Wilson, Herbert Wrigley. Battleships in Action. 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1926. Reprints. Grosse Point, Mich.: Scholarly Press, 1969. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1995.

Vol. 1, chapters 7 and 8 cover the Spanish-American War.

149. _____. The Downfall of Spain: Naval History of the Spanish-American War. London: Low, Marston & Co., 1900. Reprint. New York: B. Franklin, 1971. 451 pp.

An account of the destruction of USS Maine and naval operations during the war. The book includes more technical details of the fighting vessels than usually appear in an operational study.

150. With Our Soldiers and Sailors, Afloat and Ashore. New York: Riley Bros., 1898. 39 pp.

151. Wright, Marcus J. Official History of the Spanish-American War...Washington, D.C.: N.p., [1900]. 617 pp.

An illustrated narrative of the war that provides information on the climate, production, history, and people of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Hawaii.

152. Young, James Rankin. Reminiscences and Thrilling Stories by Returned Heroes. Washington, D.C.: R. A. Dinsmore, 1898. Reprint. Chicago: Monroe Book Co., 1899. 664 pp.

Includes chapters on hospital work, nurses, and poetry of the war.

153. Ziel, Ron. Birth of the American Century: Centennial History of the Spanish-American War. Edited by Jedidiah Clauss. Mattituck, N.Y.: Amereon House, 1997. 304 pp.

A heavily illustrated history of the war.


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3 December 2001