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The Reestablishment of the Navy, 1787-1801
Historical Overview and Select Bibliography


Relations with Barbary Powers


United States Office of Naval Records and Library. Naval Documents Related to the United States Wars with the Barbary Powers: Naval Operations Including Diplomatic Background from 1785 through 1807. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1939-44. 6 vols.

Secondary Literature

Allen, Gardner W. Our Navy and the Barbary Corsairs. 1905. Reprint. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1965. 354 pp.

Anderson, R. C. "Tripoli and Tunis: The Americans in the Mediterranean, 1795-1805." In Naval Wars in the Levant, 1559-1853, 393-426. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

Barnby, H. G. The Prisoners of Algiers: An Account of the Forgotten American-Algerian War, 1785-1797. London: Oxford University Press, 1966. 343 pp.

Bartlett, Harley H. "American Captivities in Barbary." Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review 61 (Spring 1955): 238- 54.

Relates the captures of Americans by the Barbary powers and diplomatic efforts to end them.

Carr, James A. "John Adams and the Barbary Problem: The Myth and the Record." American Neptune 26 (October 1966): 231-57.

Chidsey, Donald B. The Wars in Barbary: Arab Piracy and the Birth of the United States Navy. New York: Crown, 1971. 165 pp.

Dudley, William S. "Origins of the U.S. Navy's Mediterranean Squadron, 1783-1816." In Français et Anglais en Méditerranée de la Révolution français … l'independance de la Grèce (1789- 1830). Journées franco-britanniques d'histoire de la Marine (3rd, 1990, Toulon, France). 251-60. [Vincennes, France]: Service historique de la Marine, 1992.

Field, James A., Jr. America and the Mediterranean World, 1776-1882. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. 485 pp.

Folayan, Kola. Tripoli during the Reign of Yþsuf Pþshþ Qaramþnlþ. Ile-Ife, Nigeria: University of Ife Press, 1979. 203 pp.

Gibbons, Patrick J. "Corsairs, Privateers, and Pirates: A Reconsideration of the Barbary Wars, c. 1780-1805." Master's thesis, University of Virginia, 1993. 101 pp.

Hunt, Livingston. "Bainbridge under the Turkish Flag." United States Naval Institute Proceedings 52 (June 1926): 1147-62.

Bainbridge's humiliating treatment at the hands of the Barbary powers.

Irwin, Ray W. The Diplomatic Relations of the United States with the Barbary Powers, 1776-1816. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1931. 225 pp.

Kitzen, Michael L. S. Tripoli and the United States at War: A History of American Relations with the Barbary States, 1785- 1805. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1993. 203 pp.

Kortepeter, Carl M. "The United States Encounters the Middle East: The North African Emirates and the U.S. Navy (1783- 1830)." Revue d'Histoire Maghrebine (Tunisia) 10 (December 1983): 301-13.

Traces the extensive official and private contacts, financial holdings, and private interests of the United States in the Middle East.

Tucker, Glenn. Dawn Like Thunder: The Barbary Wars and the Birth of the U.S. Navy. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963. 487 pp.

United States Office of Naval Records and Library. Register of Officer Personnel, United States Navy and Marine Corps and Ships' Data, 1801-1807. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1945. 86 pp.

Van Alstyne, Richard W. "The Mediterranean Trade and the Barbary Powers." In American Diplomacy in Action: A Series of Case Studies. 2d ed. Stanford Books in World Politics. 497-503. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1947.

Whipple, A. B. C. To the Shores of Tripoli: The Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines. New York: William Morrow, 1991. 357 pp.

Wilson, Gary E. "The First American Hostages in Moslem Nations, 1784-1789." American Neptune 41 (July 1981): 208-23.